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Stress ()

Stress () = F/A dimana A=luas permukaan



Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-1 BS/03/02

Unit stress yang umum adalah pascal (KPa, MPa, GPa), bar atau dalam skala luas seperti psi (pound per square inch) dan kg/cm2 Stress untuk batuan didalam bumi: = gh (lithostatic stress) Stress pada suatu titik dapat dibagi menjadi normal (n) dan shear (s) stress komponen Stress dapat bersifat compressive (+) dan tensile (-) Shear stress dalam system kopel akan positive bila searah jarum jam dan negative bila berlawanan arah jarum jam Stress 2D disuatu titik digambarkan sebagai stress ellipse Stress 3D disuatu titik digambarkan sebagai stress ellipsoid Principles stress : 1> 2> 3 Koordinat sumbu utama stress (x1,x2,x3) adalah sejajar dengan stress utama
Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-2 BS/03/02

Stress

Strain

STRESS vs. STRAIN

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-3 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-4 BS/03/02

Relationship Between Stress and Strain


Evaluate Using Experiment of Rock Deformation Rheology of The Rocks Using Triaxial Deformation Apparatus Measuring Shortening Measuring Strain Rate Strength and Ductility

Limitation of The Concept of Stress in Structural Geology

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-5 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-6 BS/03/02

TECTONICS AND STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY


Study of rock Deformation as Response to Forces and Stresses Involving Motion of Rigid Body Deformation = Translation + Rotation + Dilation + Distortion FACTOR CONTROLING DEFORMATION
SCALE FACTOR RHEOLOGY TIME FACTOR

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS KINEMATIC ANALYSIS DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-7 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-8 BS/03/02

TECTONICS AND STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY


NEW CONCEPTS IN TECTONIC AND STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY LINKED FAULT AND FOLD SYSTEMS 1. Geometric 2. Kinematic 3. Dynamic PROGRESSIVE DEFORMATION

SCALE INDEPENDENCE IN BRITTLE DEFORMATION STRUCTURAL INHERITANCE

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-9 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Twiss and Moores, 1992 Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-10 BS/03/02

SCALE FACTOR

Km-Scale Fold

Geologic Cross-Section and Seismic Section

5 Km

Plates Aerial Photograph

m-Scale Fold

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY DATA FOLLOW FRACTAL RELATIONSHIP


10Km

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-11 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-12 BS/03/02

Deformation of rock in various scale

EVOLUTION OF STRUCTURE
Force history Movement history
Single Particle Particles

(Modified from Means, 1976) Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-13 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-14 BS/03/02

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
THREE TYPES OF STRUCTURES

RHEOLOGY
BRITTLE DUCTILE

CONTACTS

PRIMARY STRUCTURES

SECONDARY STRUCTURES

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-15 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-16 BS/03/02

BASIC CONCEPTS
FORCES AND VECTORS Force is any action which alters, or tends to alter Newton II law of motion : F=Ma Unit force : kgm/s2 = newton (N) or dyne = gram cm/s2; N = 105 dynes
(a). Force: vector quantity with magnitude and direction (b). Resolving by the parallelogram of forces

Force Equilibrium

(A) Balance (B) Torque (C) Static Equilibrium (D) Dynamic Equilibrium

Two Types of Force Body Forces (i.e. gravitational force) Contact Forces (i.e. loading)

Modified Price and Cosgrove (1990) Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-17 BS/03/02

(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)


Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-18 BS/03/02

STRESS
Stress defined as force per unit area:

= F/A
A = area, Stress units = Psi, Newton (N), Pascal (Pa) or bar (105 Pa)
V R

V W

(Twiss and Moores, 1992)

(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-19 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-20 BS/03/02

Normal stress (N)

Sh ear S

tre ss (

s)

(+) Compressive

(-) Tensile

Shear stress (S)

(+)

(-)

Stress ()

Stress at a point in 2D Types of stress

No rm al S tre ss (

STRESS

STRESS on PLANE

n)

Coordinate System
Stress-21 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-22 BS/03/02

Stress Ellipsoid

The State of Two-Dimensional Stress at Point

1 x

A. Stress elipse 3 1 X3
X1

a) Triaxial stress b) Principal planes of the ellipsoid

Principal Stress:

1 > 3

B. Principal stress components (top) zz (top) zx (lft) xx (lft) x (bot) z (lft) xz


dz dx

Principal coordinate axes and planes

(top) z (rt) x (rt) xz (bot) zx (rt) xx


Z

x, z = Surface Stress
X

(bot) zz

Arbitrary coordinate axes and planes

(Modified from Means, 1976)


Stress-23 BS/03/02

C. General stress components

(Twiss and Moores, 1992) Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-24 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

The State of 3-Dimensional Stress at Point


A. Stress elipsoid z
1 3
x3

Principal Stress: 1 > 2 > 3


Stress Tensor Notation

x1

Principal coordinate planes z

y
x2

y x Arbitrary coordinate planes z

11 12 13 = 21 22 23 31 32 33

x B. Principal stress components z


zz zy xy xx zx yx yz yy

12 = 21, 13 = 31, 23 = 32 Geologic Sign Convention of Stress Tensor


(Twiss and Moores, 1992) (Twiss and Moores, 1992)
Stress-26 BS/03/02

xz

y x x C. General stress components

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-25 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Mohr Diagram 2-D


A. Physical Diagram
x n 1 s(p) n(p) s
(p) (p) ((p) n , s )

Mohr Diagram 2-D


A. Physical Diagram B. Mohr Diagram
s

A. Mohr Diagram
s

n n'
2 (p) n 1 n

x1

x3

1 3 sin 2 2

p' p x3

(p') ((p') n , s )

r 3 n

2 2

(p) ((p) ) n , s

Plane P 1 +3 2 1 3 2 1 3
2

(Twiss and Moores, 1992)

cos 2
(Twiss and Moores, 1992)
Stress-27 BS/03/02 Stress-28 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Mohr Diagram 2-D


A. Physical Diagram
x1 x
( + 90 )

Mohr Diagram 2-D


Planes of maximum shear stress A. Physical Diagram
s

B. Mohr Diagram
s

B. Mohr Diagram
x1 s

xx xz 1 3
z z zx

z
2 ( + 90) 2

(xx' xz)
2

x1
= +45

x3

2xz

Planes of maximum shear stress

' = +45

max

1 s 3 x3

1 s 3

Counter clockwise

x3

2 = +90 2' = 90

(zz' zx)

( xx z z )

(xx + zz ) 2
(Twiss and Moores, 1992)

Counterclockwise shear stress

Clockwise shear stress

max

Clockwise

(Twiss and Moores, 1992) Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-29 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-30 BS/03/02

Mohr Diagram 3-D


Geometry of a three-dimensional Stress on a Mohr diagram

Mohr Diagram 3-D


Maximum Shear Stress

(Twiss and Moores, 1992)

(Twiss and Moores, 1992)


Stress-32 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-31 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

FUNDAMENTAL STRESS EQUATIONS

Principal Stress: 1 > 2 > 3


All stress axes are mutually perpendicular Shear stress are zero in the direction of principal stress

N =

1 + 3 - 1 3 cos 2 2 2
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)

s = Stress Ellipsoid
Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

1 3 Sin 2 2

Mohr diagram is a graphical representative of state of stress Mean stress is hydrostatic component which tends to produce dilation Deviatoric stress is non hydrostatic which tends to produce distortion Differential stress, if greater is potential for distortion
Stress-33 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-34 BS/03/02

Image of Stress
s s s
s

Image of Stress
s
Deviatoric

n
Applied

1 = 2 = 3 p
p 0 0 p 0

2 = 3

1 = 2

3 n

0 0 p

a 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 -a

a 0

0 0 0

0 0 -a

A. Hydros tatic stress

B. Uniaxial compression

C. Uniaxial tension

G. Pure shear stress

H. Deviatoric stress (two-dimensional)

1 n
0

3 n

s
Effective Applied

2 3

1
a 0 0 0 b 0

n
0 0 b

1 2
a 0 0 0 a 0

n
0 0 b

1 3

2 1

a 0 0

0 b 0

0
D

pf

0 c

= 1 3 J. Effective stress

1 0

D. Axial or confined compression

E. Axial extension or extensional stress

F. Triaxial stress

I. Differential stress (Three examples)


Stress-35 BS/03/02

0 1 p f 0 0 0 0 2 p f 0 E 2 0 = 0 0 E 3 0 0 3 p f

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-36 BS/03/02

STRESS
Body force works from distance and depends on the amount of materials affected (i.e. gravitational force). Surface force are classes as compressive or tensile according to the distortion they produce. Stress is defined as force per unit area. Stress at the point can be divided as normal and shear component depending they direction relative to the plane. Structural geology assumed that force at point are isotropic and homogenous Stress vector around a point in 3-D as stress ellipsoid which have three orthogonal principal directions of stress and three principal planes. Principal stress 1>2>3 The inequant shape of the ellipsoid has to do with forces in rock and has nothing directly to do with distortions. Mohr diagram is a graphical representative of state of stress of rock
Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung
Stress-37 BS/03/02

Program Studi Teknik Geologi Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung

Stress-38 BS/03/02

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