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MODALITY

COMMANDS, ORDERS, REQUESTS, PROHIBITIONS, INVITATIONS, SUGGESTIONS

YOU MAY > annoyance, impatience WONT YOU > imperative + invitations SHALL> commands (official/biblical) CANNOT> not permitted to WOULD YOU> hesitation in request COULD/CAN> informal requests MAY/MIGHT> questions (more formal) MUST NOT> prohibition WISH + THAT + S + WOULD> personal request/informal
PROMISES, THREATS, REFUSALS

SHALL/WILL> strong WILL /WOULD> colloquial I WILL> strong promise/threat SHOULD> in THAT clauses + PROMISE
INTENTIONS, PLANS, ARRANGEMENTS

TO BE TO> arrangement (voluntary or involuntary) TO BE GOING TO> intention taken in present for future/// for external intentions use SHALL/WILL
OBLIGATION, NECESSITY

MUST> immediate or future obligation INTERNAL NEED NOT> absence of obligation or necessity HAVE TO> present obligation external HAVE NOT TO> absence of obligation TO BE TO> obligation OUGHT TO> desirability, moral obligation, duties SHOULD> advice, recommendation, obligation
PERMISSION

MAY>asking & giving permission MAY NOT> denying permission MUST NOT> prohibition CAN, COULD> colloquial MIGHT> more polite/hesitative
PROBABILITY

MUST> strong OUGHT/SHOULD> because of the condition, known facts GOING TO> feeling or considering likely WILL/WOULD> going to DARE SAY

POSSIBILITY

MAY> normal + no uncertainty due to natural arranged facts MIGHT> a future possibility + more uncertain than MAY CANNOT>impossibility + a belief in smth. being impossible MAY NOT> possibility + uncertainty CAN> questions on possibility
(NON)ABILITY & (NON)ACHIEVEMENT

CAN/COULD> normal COULD> past of CAN + future reference CAN> physical, mental ability BE ABLE TO> at a certain moment in the past MUST + PERFECT INFINITIVE >SUPPOSITIONS >CERTAINTY The Grand Canyon must have fascinated him WOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE >PROBABILITY IN THE PAST Would he have tried the second time! SHOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE >THE BELIEF THAT AN EVENT OR SITUATION WAS RIGHT OR DESIRABLE John should have studied harder! COULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE > POSSIBILITY IN THE PAST He could have become a good swimmer! MIGHT + PERFECT INFINITIVE > A SITUATION OR EVENT ADMITTED AS POSSIBLE They might have had a chance.