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PREFACE, Much has been learned about the art and science of managing energy during the past decade. Today, energy management is a seriously applied discipline within the management process ‘of most successful companies. Initially, in the early 1970's, energy conservation programs were established to alleviate threatened shortages and Canada’s dependency on off-shore oil supplies. However, drama- tic price increases quickly added a new meaning to the term “energy conservation"” — reduce energy costs! Many industrial, commercial and institutional organizations met the challenge and reduced energy costs by up to 50%. Improved energy use efficiency was achieved by such steps as employee awareness programs, improved maintenance procedures, by simply eliminating waste, as well as by undertaking projects to upgrade or improve facilities and equipment. In order to obtain additional energy savings at this juncture, a greater knowledge and under- standing of technical theory and its application is required in addition to energy efficiency ‘equipment itself, ‘At the request of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, the Commercial and Institutional Task Force Program and related trade associations, the Industrial Energy Division of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada has prepared a series of energy management and technical manuals. ‘The purpose of these manuals is to help managers and operating personnel recognize energy ‘management opportunities within their organizations. They provide the practitioner with ‘mathematical equations, general information on proven techniques and technology, together with examples of how to save energy. For further information concerning the manuals listed below or material used at seminars/ workshops including actual case studies, please write to: Business & Government Energy Management Division Energy Conservation Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 580 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0E4 Energy Management/Employee 9 Heating and Cooling Equipment Participation (Steam and Water) Conducting an Energy Audit 10 Heating Ventilating and Air Financial Analysi Conditioning Energy Accounting 11 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps Waste Heat Recovery 12 Water and Compressed Air Systems 1 Process Insulation 13 Fans and Pumps 2 Lighting 14 Compressors and Turbines 3 Electrical 15 Measuring, Metering and Monitoring 4 Eneray Efficient Electric Motors 16 Automatic Controls 5 Combustion 17 Materials Handling and On-Site 6 Boiler Plant Systems ‘Transportation Equipment 7 Process Furnaces, Dryers and 18 Architectural Considerations Kilns 19 Thermal Storage 8 Steam and Condensate Systems 20 Planning and Managing Guide TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Purpose Contents Energy Audit Methods SECTION 1 — COMPRESSORS FUNDAMENTALS: Compressor Types Compressor Operation GasLaws Compressor Performance Measurement Inlet Conditions Compressor Performance Compressor Performance Characteristics Compressor Fficeney Compressor Power Capacity Control Methods Operation Cots And Savings Energy Available for Recovery Energy Analysis ofa Compressor Summary EQUIPMENT/SYSTEMS Positive Displacement Compressors Dynamic Compressors ‘Centrifugal Compressors: ‘Adal Compressors Air Receivers Compressor Control Compressor Unloading Stems Intercoolers and Aftercoolers Related System Components ow ees 25 25