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HS CODE : 33074100

Group No-15
Case Study -16

Yusuf Shaikh 92 Avinash Patil 73 Shyam Yadar 110 Vijay Dhadwal-17 Akshay Polekar 79 Hitesh Patel - 72

Agarbatti Industry Overview

Hand crafted by cottage industries and NGOs in India Due to high demand in export market, Industry is orienting towards

export Agarbathi is a fast-moving (FMCG) product with a good shelf life

Market Size- INR 4648 Cr. ( $ 774.8 million), 60% is Unorganised

Agarbatti (INR 4084 Cr.) + Dhoop (INR 564 Cr.)

Growth: 12% p.a, although export growth turn 22.46% in FY12-13,

Where as growth in consumer durable is stagnant.

Exports (Yr 2012-13)-INR 526.5 Cr. ( $ 87.75 million)
Domestic Agarbatti Market - INR 4122.3 Cr. ( $ 687.05 million)

Note : assumption ,1 $ = INR 60

Agarbatti Industry domestic overview

Domestic Agarbatti Market - INR 4122.3 Cr. ( $ 687.05 million) 61% of total consumption is in rural area. 2/3rd of the production is consumed by lower income group. 3% of the production is consume by Higher income group

Rs. 50 3% Rs. 15 18%

Price Points
Others Rs. 2 6% 10%
East 17%

Rs. 5 18%

South 35%

North 18%

Rs. 10 45%

West 30%

Agarbatti Industry export overview 153 Countries

Agarbatti Industry export overview

Exports (Yr 2012-13)-INR 526.5 Cr. ( $ 87.75 million) There are 400 exporters in India Biggest export market is US, UK , followed by Latin America eg. Peru,

Argentina & Brazil, also countries like Egypt, UAE, Nigeria & Srilanka Pie chart for Export more than 10 Cr INR ($ 1.66 Million)



Country-wise export statistics:

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Country USA NIGERIA U ARAB EMTS SRI LANKA DSR MALAYSIA UK EGYPT A RP CHILE NEPAL BRAZIL VENEZUELA SOUTH AFRICA AUSTRALIA ETHIOPIA PANAMA REPUBLIC MAURITIUS SUDAN NETHERLAND SAUDI ARAB CHINA P RP SPAIN Total 2006-2007 34.03 13.02 18.30 11.81 10.65 10.62 10.24 8.57 4.14 14.65 6.17 7.66 6.92 5.85 1.01 5.30 3.40 5.38 5.69 0.42 5.96 290.09 20072008 29.25 12.70 18.16 12.38 12.06 8.47 8.22 6.73 4.95 11.78 6.84 7.37 6.17 7.83 1.19 4.75 2.42 4.63 4.48 0.74 4.87 266.57 20082009 33.55 21.12 21.68 20.41 14.91 9.77 11.33 9.30 6.13 11.71 6.85 8.15 7.72 8.48 1.35 8.49 5.71 6.25 6.52 1.49 5.90 339.66 20092010 38.19 17.18 21.50 25.53 16.87 11.95 11.47 10.10 6.66 10.17 6.22 10.00 6.95 7.15 2.24 8.43 6.03 5.35 5.42 3.69 8.30 350.03

INR in Cr.
20102011 48.56 21.58 20.75 29.36 12.79 8.97 15.09 12.18 5.24 8.59 7.18 9.80 7.70 7.92 2.39 7.28 5.30 4.83 4.45 4.20 8.35 383.09 20112012 51.91 25.45 17.11 23.98 15.42 14.84 15.01 12.56 11.04 14.27 12.47 10.46 10.44 9.41 2.35 8.11 7.66 6.01 7.00 8.45 9.70 429.97 20122013 61.91 33.44 28.76 21.32 20.11 18.21 17.88 16.13 14.57 13.82 13.77 13.68 10.91 10.90 10.67 10.07 9.87 9.49 9.11 8.84 8.80 526.52 % Growth over last 7 Years 81.96 156.86 57.21 80.49 88.88 71.47 74.62 88.24 251.73 -5.69 123.08 78.63 57.63 86.21 954.41 89.98 190.49 76.25 60.12 1993.63 47.59 81.51

HS CODE : 33074100

Export trend (Country-wise)







INR (Cr.)






HS CODE : 33074100

Industry Export Trend:




INR (Cr.)




2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013

HS CODE : 33074100

Usage in Diff. Country

Incense sticks are not only a part of Hindu rituals or customs; they have been used since centuries in Chinese, Egyptian, Tibetan and Japanese cultures. They use it not only as a part of their religious ceremonies but also for personal things like aromatherapy. India: Prayer, religious reasons. Its root can be traced out from VEDAs dating back at least 3500 years. Egypt: to counteract unpleasant odors & to drive away demons and please the Gods. Rome: used in every occasion by Romans and their wealth was measured by amount of incense present in one's home. Africa: mosquito-repellent incense sticks have a popular market. China: Aroma therapy, spiritual reasons Overseas: Ambience creation & Aroma therapy US, UK : Ambience creation & Aroma therapy

Agarbatti Manufacturing Scenario..

800 registered and 3000 unregistered units, only 10% are engaged in

exports, most of them are in Karnataka Small units numbering 10,000 operates in different parts of country. Providing employment to over 12 Lakh people 60% are Unorganized Many agarbatti manufactures are local players with limited resources. They cannot counter big companies. Eg. MNC like ITC & Cycle


Major Players Pie Chart






Export quality brands with Export quality Fragrances

Sr.No. 1 2 3 Brands Hari Darshan Parampara, touted aspremium dhoop Medini ,Dharti Company name Remarks RemarksHari Darshan Sevashrampvt. Ltd,Delhi Export quality 10 per cent of turnover NRR Group from exports . NRR Group Export quality

4 5

Ratnamala, Decent, Empress, Cherish , Super Sandal, Relax, Fascinating India, Surprise, Paramhans, Success, Amber Flora Abyssinia Impex Flora Herbal segment segmentEucalyptus, Balmmint, Patchouli,Lemongrass, Pine,Citronella, Juniper Mangaldeep , Spriha & many export brands Abyssinia Impex

Export quality Export quality

6 7

Abyssinia Impex ITC Ltd (AgarbattiDivision)

Export quality Export quality



Sr. No. Particulars
1 2 3 4 5 6 Raw Bamboo Sticks Non-perfumed (nonmasala) agarbathi Perfumes Packaging Material Marketing Miscallenious Total

% cost of the % Labour Total required

2% 8% 30% 30% 20% 10% 100% 80% 20%


Perfumes cost involved 30%, as 66% it is imported.


Agarbatti From Batti to Brand

Highly labour intensive process

Raw Batti predominantly imported from Vietnam. ITC is one of the first to begin indigenization by providing necessary tools and training. ITC has direct arrangements with International Fragrance houses for its perfume requirements
Packaging materials supplied by ITC and external sources


Manufacturing Process
Basic raw material: Bamboo, wood charcoal, processed perfumes, Jiggat powder
Buy raw material Mix in proportion Roll & perfume



Raw material Bamboo Wood charcoal Processed perfume Agarbatti requires Stick Adhesive paste known as Jiggat is made from powdered barks of Machilus macrantha (commonly know as Golum) Charcoal Powder Series of natural products in various combinations to provide fragrance Bamboo Sandal wood powder Perfumes Diluents like DEP


Bamboo Scenario
A 40% increase in demand for Bamboo & 25% in charcoal is also

predicted. Supply issues with respect to these are also not addressed. Industry already source splints bamboo far away from north east India. The diversion of upland areas from bamboo to Tea plantation. The main reasons for conversion of bamboo areas into tea include:
1. Transportation of bamboo is difficult due to its length 2. Lack of awareness among the local people about the potentiality of bamboo and

they do not see any bright prospects in the future. 3. As the tea factories are coming up locally and ready infrastructure is available in the region, They feel that there is more security in taking up tea plantation. 4. No knowledge of government support available for bamboo plantation 5. Producers of bamboo do not know whom to sale their produce. 6. Backward and forward linkages are not clear to the people.

The present study revealed that home-based workers producing

bamboo sticks receive a little over 2% of the final retail value.


Agarbatti makers facing shortage of Bamboo Economics Times 17 Aug13


Governments role:
Bamboo Development Agency (BDA) Mizoram
ROUND AGARBATTI STICK PRODUCTION UNITS: With the increasing demand for round agarbatti stick in the country, BDA has come up with the idea of setting up round agarbatti stick unit in the state for which Lunglei, Haulawng and Saiha was chosen and fund from BAFFACOS (Bamboo Flowering Famine and Combat Scheme) was utilized for the purpose. At present all the above units are doing fairly well and the finish product of Haulawng and Lunglei unit are being sold to ITC Chennai through CBTC. Tripura Bamboo Mission (TBM) The State Government has launched the Tripura Bamboo Mission (TBM) in the year 2007, under PPP framework, for integrated development of the Sector. The catalytic role played by TBM has resulted in the turnover of Bamboo Sector in the State increasing three-fold in 3 years. Value addition is taking place in Agarbatti sector, new handicraft products have been designed and launched, marketing of products has been organised. 60% of the requirement of the entire country for bamboo sticks for Agarbatti-making is met from the State. Incense sticks / Agarbattis - An Handicraft Industry Recognizing the unique nature of the units engaged in the manufacture of this product and acknowledging that incense sticks / agarbathis is a specialty product, the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, accorded the status of "Handicraft Industry - Hand made typically Indian" to this industry in 1983.


JIGGAT ( Adhesive ) Scenario

Jiggat powder is essential raw material. Demand for jiggat is increasing.

A 50% increase in the demand for Jiggat powder is expected. However, Jigat is obtained from the bark of a tree, Maclilus makaranthacommonly known as Chang peechala , Mandaiawaal, jeelseem and Basra bukhui. These trees are found in the North-eastern region. Absence of targeted programs to augment Maclilus makarantha has jeopardized future of this cottage industry. While some jigat is produced within India, a considerable amount were imported, mostly from South East Asia, predominantly from Indonesia and Thailand.


JIGGAT ( Adhesive ) Innovation

AS A SUBSTITUTE for JIGGAT : The substitute developed is an agro-based biopolymer (93-95%). Laboratory trials with the substitute indicate that the new binder is better than Jiggat. Substitute for 'Jigat which is not at all related with any forest product, but otherwise also economically competitive and abundantly available and were sent to leading agarbatti manufacturers for their assessment trials and overwhelming reports are pouring in that it is very much suitable for agarbatti making. The technology for the manufacture of the substitute is simple and can easily be translated to industrial production. It is hoped that in the near future after the transfer of technology, impending threat for the survival of Machilus macrantha / Litsea Chinensis and pressure on natural forests shall be overcome. - Source: National Research Development Corporation

Perfume Scenario
Perfumes cost involved 30%, as 66% it is imported. NR group which is well known with its brand Cycle agarbatti

is innovating for new fragrances along with foreign brands to fulfill requirement of Overseas customers. So that the margins can be extended. Also other exporting brands are innovating for a new fragrances like Ratnamala, Decent, Empress, Cherish , SuperSandal, Relax, Fascinating India, Surprise, Paramhans, Success, Amber Flora by Abyssinia Impex LTD.


Conditions of workers:
Home base workers engaged in agarbatti making in Bangalore live and

work near factories. Agarbattis are rolled on the pavements and lanes around home in urban slums. The task is extremely arduous and repetitive. Karnataka is only state under purview of Factories Act and which consequently has to pay wages in line with minimum wages for home workers and has to provide factory based workers with social security.


Wages and Earning

Women worker constitute 90% of the work force of the industry Contractors give the raw materials directly to the workers to produce the agarbatti at their homes The trader gives the raw materials to the contractor who in turn gives it to the workers to be rolled at home

Sr. No. State 1 Karnatka 2 Gujarat Andhra 3 Pradesh 4 Bihar 5 Tamil Nadu

Wages with Wages for Family of productivity of avg. 2 Family Wages Per 4000 Sticks & 9-10 wages/person/month Members working 1000 Sticks hrs a day (28 working days) Fulltime 45 34 39 35 38 180 136 156 140 152 5040 3808 4368 3920 4256 10080 7616 8736 7840 8512

Overall Raw Material, taxation & Labour Migration Impact

Shortage of raw material could jeopardize economic growth & viability of industry, leaving thousand employed or displaced by substitutes. Industry is taxed at multiple levels. Raw material taxes on bamboo, charcoal, jiggat & aroma range in between 25% to 90%. In addition to which sales tax on finished produce are levied. Different rates of taxation and differing labour law across states create an anomalous situation. Traditional labourers are gradually shifting to the more lucrative garment industries. Workers are also increasingly coming from the adjoining states to replace the traditional labour from TamilNadu and Karnataka. Thus it may hamper quality as regular work force is being replaced with new unskilled workforce .


Competition from China in Global Market

The Chinese, for instance, have brought in innovations such as prayer kits and aroma incense boxes that come with accessories. These sets, comprising two bags of incense sticks, four bags of incense cones, a candle and incense holders appeal to the Western consumer. Compared to this, the Indian pouch looked outdated. As Chinese and Thai products are more attuned to international designs, we cannot afford to ignore the trends, he says. NR Group has thus launched Iris, an incense stick brand to suit the needs of the international customer. For instance, the incense stick sets come with African prints or the British checks or pastels, in keeping with the design trends of the year. Bangalore-based Moksh Agarbattis too has brought in better packaging and modern designs for the export market.' Mr K.K. Rao, General Manager, Moksh Agarbattis, says that it's only of late that the Chinese incense sticks are seen in the international market. They are still the leaders in the raw stick market (sticks without incense), but we see some of them now offering fragrant sticks, he says. Although the US and Europe have traditionally been large markets for agarbatti exports, of late, the South American market has taken to incense sticks in a big way, points out Mr Arjun Actually, it's hip to light incense sticks in Brazil and Argentina now, he says.

SWOT Analysis for Agarbatti Indutries

Agarbathi is a fast-moving (FMCG) product with a good shelf life Non polluting industry (green labelld industry ) Hand rolled bathis are having a competitive edge over machine made

Agarbathis Art of perfuming is well accustomed Large labour base, Has a huge potential to generate employment, specially women employment & hence will help for women empowerment through a women employmnet Reputed supporting institutions present. No electric power requirement



Less Promotion as compared to other Items Least automation ( Automation is in bamboo cutting only ) Finance is not liberal since industry involves large working capital. Sluggish progress in R&D No level playing among the states in respect of raw material supply, implementation of various laws, acts etc. Unethical practices prevailing which may hamper export market Child labour in the industry could impact on their health and educational status which may hamper export market Export procedures tedious. Other than 100% Export Oriented Units, Exports is loss-making activity. Addition of unskilled & untrained labour due to migration impacting quality of Hand roll agarbatties.

Lack of mutual trust between labour & brands

Customer awareness is very low amongst low-end producers. People at lower strata of the industry are less educated or illiterate Poor living condition at bottom of the network


Large export market potential. Scope for innovations and R&D Domestic market expanding

Free trade regime can provide better raw materials for better price

Global competition from China, Vietnam , Taiwan Unethical practices at local level. Forest based raw material supply becoming scarce Increase in unemployment. Mechanisation Import of Machinary from China


P 4 Approach
P-1: People mean the rural community in an identified cluster. The

demand should come from the community themselves for setting up the agarbatti enterprises. Packages of capacity building plan will help to facilitate the community. program by providing logistic, financial and infrastructural aid to the entrepreneurs in order to maintain of rules and regulations in turn creating a stable environment. may also be partner in the sector. These agencies will facilitate marketing and capacity building. They can also provide services to the community enterprise of the sector. the partners finally end up in a common platform for the development of the agarbatti sector, each partners provide their support in their area of specialization.

P-2: Public, the government agency will play an active role in the

P-3: Private Entrepreneurs or any similar agency like CBOs or NGOs

P-4: Partnership may be directly or indirectly under the approach. All


P-4 Model


Department Of Commerce ITC portal Wikipedia DGCI&S

Google V.G.Jenner I.F.S. & Md. Selim Reza

Economics Times 17 Aug13


1) 2)

3) 4)


How the investment in R&D by private players like ITC & NR group, will help to tackle unsustainable growth of the industry? Would industry be able to maintain balance between Automation & Cottage Industry ( Hand Made Product) to avoid unemployment in Industry? Would industry dynamics help in Empowering rural women employee with reasonable return for their work? How government will help to tackle, disparity in wages, which is resulting shifting of labour force? Would industry with recent automation & innovation in RM (specially in perfume & packaging) be able to earn reasonable FOREX for India?


Questions by Yusuf
1) Why Agarbatti manufacturing should remain as

cottage industry?
2) How can this industry be use to empower

destitute women. Can issues like child labour be taken care.

3) What decision Govt. should take to tackle issues

like unsustainable growth of the industry? 4) What measure can be taken by MNCs to develop new aromas.