Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Transformasi Laplace

X(s) = [x(t)]
x(t) =
-1
[X(s)]
e o
t
o
o
j s
ds e s X
j
t x
dt e t x s X
j
j
st
st
+ =
=
=
}
}
+

). (
2
1
) (
). ( ) (
0
Transformasi Laplace
x(t) X(s) ROC
(t) 1 Semua s
u(t) Re(s)>0
t
n
u(t)
Re(s)>0

e
-at
u(t) Re(s)+Re(a)>0
u(t) Cos
0
t
Re(s)>0

u(t) Sin
0
t
Re(s)>0

s
1
1
!
+ n
s
n
a s +
1
2
0
2
e + s
s
2
0
2
0
e
e
+ s
Sifat-sifat Transformasi Laplace
Sifat x(t) X(s)
Kelinearan a x(t) + b y(t) a X(s) + b Y(s)
Penskalaan x(at)
Geseran waktu x(t-a) e
-sa
X(s)
Geseran frekuensi e
-at
x(t) X(s+a)
Konvolusi waktu x(t) * y(t) X(s) Y(s)
|
.
|

\
|
a
s
X
a
1
Sifat-sifat Transformasi Laplace
Sifat x(t) X(s)
Konvolusi frekuensi
(modulasi)
x(t) y(t)
Diferensiasi
frekuensi
(-t)
n
x(t)
Diferensiasi waktu

Untuk TL dua sisi
) ( * ) (
2
1
s Y s X
j t
) (s X
ds
d
n
n
) (t x
dt
d
n
n

1
0
) (
) 0 (
1
) (
n
k
k k n n
x s s X s
) (s X s
n
Sifat-sifat Transformasi Laplace
Sifat x(t) X(s)
Integrasi waktu
Teorema nilai awal
Teorema nilai
akhir
}
t
0
) ( dt t x
s
s X ) (
}

t
dt t x ) (
}

+
0
) (
1 ) (
dt t x
s s
s X
) ( lim
0
t x
t
+

) ( lim s sX
s
) ( lim
0
s sX
s
) ( lim t x
t
Pecahan Parsial X(s)
Derajat P(s) < derajat Q(s)

) (
) (
) (
s Q
s P
s X =
Jika X(s) berbentuk pecahan parsial yang pembilang dan
penyebutnya berbentuk polinomial

Pecahan Parsial X(s)
Akar-akar Q(s) berbeda, tidak ada yang sama
n k
s X p s A
p s
A
p s
A
p s
A
s X
p s p s p s
s P
s X
k
p s
k
n
n
n
k
,... 2 , 1
) ( ). ( lim
) (
...
) ( ) (
) (
) )...( )( (
) (
) (
2
2
1
1
2 1
=
+ =
+ +
+
+
=
+ + +
=

t p
n
t p t p
n
e A e A e A t x

+ + + = ... ) (
2 1
2 1
x(t) menjadi :
Pecahan Parsial X(s)
Jika p
i
= p
k
*
, maka penyelesaian dapat diselesaikan secara
khusus yang menghasilkan x(t) merupakan fungsi
Cosinus dan Sinus
Pecahan Parsial X(s)
Q(s) mempunyai akar rangkap
k
k
k
p s
r
k
p s
l r
l r
kl
k
p s
k
n
n
r
r
n
r
s X p s
ds
d
l r
A
s X p s A
p s
A
p s
A
p s
A
p s
A
p s
A
s X
p s p s p s
s P
s X
=

=
+ =
+
+ +
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+
=
+ + +
=
) ( . ) ( lim
)! (
1
) ( ). ( lim
) (
...
) (
) (
...
) ( ) (
) (
) )...( ( ) (
) (
) (
2
2
1
1
2
1
12
1
11
2 1
Sistem LTI dengan penyelesaian Pers
Diferensial koefisien konstan
Sistem mempunyai hubungan
Sistem
LTI
x(t)
y(t)
j
j
m
j
j
n
i
i
i
i
m
m
m
m
m
m
n
n
n
n
n
n
dt
x d
b
dt
y d
a
atau
b
dt
dx
b
dt
x d
b
dt
x d
b
a
dt
dy
a
dt
y d
a
dt
y d
a

= =

=
+ + + +
= + + + +
0 0
0 1
1
1
1
0 1
1
1
1
...
...
Sistem LTI dengan Pers Diferensial
Supaya dapat diselesaikan, sistem harus diketahui
1. x(t) untuk t>0
2. y(0
-
),y(0
-
),...,y
(n-1)
(0
-
)
3. x(0
-
),x(0
-
),...,x
(m-1)
(0
-
)
Secara fisis butir 3 sulit dipenuhi, oleh karena itu hanya
dipakai keadaan awal x(0),x(0)... Walaupun ini juga
beresiko menyebabkan hasil tidak tepat 100%.


Transformasi Laplace
Contoh soal

0
2 ) (
3 2
2
1
) (
2
1
3 ) 2 )( 1 (
4
2
2 ) 3 )( 1 (
4
2
3
1 ) 3 )( 2 (
4
3 2 1
) (
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
4
) (
3
2
1
2
2
3
2
1
2
3
3
2
1
3 2 1
>
+ =
+
+
+

+
=
=
= + +
+
=
=
= + +
+
=
=
= + +
+
=
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + +
+
=

t
e e e t x
s s s
s X
s s s
s
A
s s s
s
A
s s s
s
A
s
A
s
A
s
A
s X
s s s
s
s X
t t t
Transformasi Laplace
Contoh soal

1
2
1
2
1
) 2 2 (
2 ) 2 ( ) (
) (
) 2 2 (
) ( ) 2 2 (
) (
2 2
) (
) 2 2 (
1
) (
3
2
1
2
1 3 1
2
2 1
2
3 2
2
1
2
3 2 1
2
=
=
=
+ +
+ + + +
=
+ +
+ + + +
=
+ +
+
+ =
+ +
=
A
A
A
s s s
A s A A s A A
s X
s s s
A s A s s s A
s X
s s
A s A
s
A
s X
s s s
s X
Transformasi Laplace
0
) ( ) ( ) (
1 ) 1 (
1
2
1
1 ) 1 (
1
2
1
) (
1 ) 1 (
2
2
1
) (
2 2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
>
=
+ +

+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=

t
t Sin e t Cos e t x
s s
s
s
s X
s
s
s
s X
s s
s
s
s X
t t
Transformasi Laplace
0
2 ) (
) 2 (
2
2
1
1
1
) (
2
2 1 )! 2 2 (
1
1
2 ) 1 (
1
2 1 )! 1 2 (
1
1
1 ) 2 (
) 2 ( 2 1
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
) (
2 2
2
12
2
11
2
1
2
12 11 1
2
>
+ + =
+
+
+
+
+

=
=
= +
=
=
= +
=
= +
=
=
= +
=
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ +
=

t
te e e t x
s s s
s X
s s
s
A
s s s s
s
ds
d
A
s s
s
A
s
A
s
A
s
A
s X
s s
s
s X
t t t
Transformasi Laplace
2
1
) 0 (
1 ) 0 (
0 , ) (
3 10 7
=
=
> =
+ = + +

- - - -
y
y
t e t x
dengan
x x y y y
t
| |
| | | |
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
t t t t t
s
s
e e e e e t y
s s s s s
s Y
s s
s
s s s
s
s Y
s s
s
s s s
s
s Y
s s
s
s Y
s
s s s Y s s
s X s s s Y s s
s X s sX s Y s sY s s Y s
masukan ada belum karena x e x walaupun
s X x s sX s Y y s sY y sy s Y s

+
+
+

+ + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+

+
+
=
+ +
+
+
+ + +
+
=
+ +
+
+
+ + +
+
=
+ +
+ +
=
+
+ = + +
+ = + +
+ = + +
= = =
+ = + +
(


2
5
2
11
6
1
3
1
2
1
2
5
2
11
6
1
3
1
2
1
2
15
2
2
15
2
2
2
15
) 1 (
) 3 (
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
0
.
2
) (
) 5 ( ) 2 ( ) 5 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
) (
) 5 )( 2 ( ) 5 )( 2 )( 1 (
) 3 (
) (
) 10 7 ( ) 10 7 )( 1 (
) 3 (
) (
10 7
) (
1
1
3 7 ) ( 10 7
) ( 3 7 ) ( 10 7
) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 10 1 ) ( 7 ) (
0 ) 0 ( , 1 ) 0 (
) ( 3 ) 0 ( ) ( ) ( 10 ) 0 ( ) ( 7 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) (