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D

b
d
x
s

Strain Stress
n
f
s
A
S
c
f
s
f
s s s
f A T .
x b
f
C
c
c
. .
2

3
x
)
3
( .
x
d d j
X-section
M
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
CHAPTER 2
DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR FLEXURE USING WORKING STRESS DESIGN (WSD)
METHODS
2.1 Basic Assumption:
1. A section which is plane before bending remains plane after bending. This implies strains across section are
linearly varying. This is true for most section of flexural member except deep beam where shear deformation is
significant.
2. Beam section behaves elastically when subjected to service load moment. This implies stress in the concrete
varies linearly from zero at neutral axis to a maximum at the extreme fiber.
3. Tensile strength of concrete is ignored. The reinforcement assumed to takes all the tension due to flexure.
4. Perfect bond exist between steel bars and concrete such that no slip occurs. This is possible if adequate
development length of bars and concrete cover are provided.
5. The modular ratio,
c s
E E n
, may be taken as the nearest whole number (but not less than 6 or more than
15). In doubly reinforced sections, to consider creep of concrete in compression zone an effective modular ratio
of
c s
E E 2
shall be used to transform compression reinforcement for stress computation.
2.2 Design Equations for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section
Consider a singly reinforced rectangular section subjected to a service load moment,
M
as shown below.


c

BY: SILENAT D. 1
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
a) From the strain diagram, similarity of triangles gives
x d
x
s
c

(1)
In elastic range, applying Hookes law, the maximum strain in concrete & strain in steel,
c
c
c
E
f

&
s
s
s
E
f

And, the ratio of these strains
c s
s c
s
c
E f
E f
.
.

(2)
By definition,
c s
E E
is the modular-ratio, n
Equating Eq(1) and Eq(2), and substituting
c s
E E n

k
f n f
f n
d
x
c s
c

.
.
(3)

d k x .
, thus k is an indicator of the neutral axis position.
b) Considering equilibrium of a section
i) For horizontal equilibrium
[ ]

0
H
F

s c
T C Substituting
c
C
and
s
T
,

s s
c
f A x b
f
. . .
2
(4)
Let
d b
A
s
.

--is known as geometric steel ratio
Then,
d b A
s
. .

Substituting it into Eq.(4 )

s
c
f d b x b
f
. . . . .
2

With,
d k x .
,
s
c
f d b d k b
f
. . . . . .
2

BY: SILENAT D. 2
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
simplifying,
c
s
f
f
k
. 2

or
s
c
f
f k
2
.

(5)
From Eq.(3 ),
c s
c
f n f
f n
k
.
.
+

Ratio of stresses in steel to concrete, rearranging the above equation



k
k n
f
f
c
s
) 1 ( .

(6)
but,
2
k
f
f
c
s

from Eq.(5), and equating with Eq.(6),

k
k n k ) 1 ( .
2

Rearranging the following second degree equation in terms of k is obtained.


0 ) . 2 ( . ) . 2 (
2
+ n k n k
Solving for k,
) . 2 ( ) . ( ) . (
2
n n n k + + (7)
ii) The internal couple resulting from internal forces
c
C
and
s
T
must equal to the external applied service load
moment. The convenient moment center is taken usually the line of action of the internal forces.
--Taking moment of internal forces about line of action of
s
T
,
)
3
( .
x
d C M
c

Substituting x b
f
C
c
c
. .
2
&
d k x .
, and simplifying then equation of service load moment resistance of
section is obtained as,
)
3
1 ( . . . .
2
2
k
d b k
f
M
c
(8a)
Letting )
3
1 (
k
j be lever-arm ratio for internal forces of section of beam, then service load moment resistance
of section may be written as,

2
. . . .
2
d b j k
f
M
c
(8b)
BY: SILENAT D. 3
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Letting j k
f
R
c
. .
2
be relative bending moment of section of beam, then service load moment resistance of
section may be written as,

2
. . d b R M (8c)
Rearranging Eq.(8c), the effective depth of section required by singly reinforced beam obtained as,
b R
M
d
.

--In similar manner, taking moment of internal forces about line of action of
c
C
,
)
3
( .
x
d T M
s

Substituting
s s s
f A T .
&
d k x .
, simplifying equation of service load moment resistance of section is
obtained as,
)
3
1 ( . . .
k
d f A M
s s
(9a)
Letting )
3
1 (
k
j be lever arm ratio for internal forces of section of beam, then service load moment resistance
of section may be written as,
d j f A M
s s
. . .
(9b)
Rearranging Eq.(9b), the area of tension steel required by beam section is obtained as,
d j f
M
A
s
s
. .

2.3 Type of Singly Reinforced Beam Sections-Based on Modes of Stresses


Depending on the amount of steel used by section, singly reinforced sections are divided into three: Balanced section,
Over-reinforced section and Under-reinforced section.
a) Balanced Section: The most economical section in terms of material usage. In this section, the maximum
stresses in both the reinforcement and the concrete reach simultaneously the respective permissible value.
i.e allow s s
f f
,

allow c c
f f
,

From Eq.(3), neutral axis depth ratio of singly reinforced section,


BY: SILENAT D. 4
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
c
s
s c
c
f
f
n
n
f f n
f n
k
+

.
.
For balanced section, ratio of allowable stresses of steel to concrete is denoted by r as,
allow c
allow s
f
f
r
,
,

Substituting r into above equation, the balanced neutral axis depth ratio is obtained as
r n
n
k
b
+

(10)
From Eq.(5), steel ratio of singly reinforced section,
c s s
c
f f
k
f
f k
2 2
.

Substituting r, the balanced steel ratio is obtained as
r
k
b
b
2

(11a)
where ris ratio of allowable stresses of steel to concrete
Substituting equation of
b
k
from Eq.(10) in to Eq.(11a), the balanced steel ratio is rewritten as
) ( . 2 r n r
n
b
+

(11b)
This equation would gives the balanced steel ratio of singly reinforced section in such away that the maximum stresses
developed in steel and concrete when section subjected to service load moment will reach simultaneously the respective
allowable stresses. The corresponding lever-arm ratio and relative bending moment of balanced singly reinforced section
are obtained by
)
3
1 (
b
b
k
j
b b
allow c
b
j k
f
R . .
2
,

BY: SILENAT D. 5
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
b) Over-reinforced Section if >
b
: Over-reinforced sections are those that contain more reinforcement
than the balanced one. Hence, as the applied moment is increased, the maximum stress in concrete reaches its permissible
value first; and by the time the stress in reinforcement reaches its permissible stress, the concrete is over stressed.
Therefore, the stresses in concrete and steel for such section are as follow:
allow s s
f f
,
<
--determined from stress diagram using similarity of triangles
allow c c
f f
,


The maximum moment of resistance of over-reinforced section is obtained by the following equations in terms of
allowable stress of concrete as,
)
3
1 ( . . . .
2
2 ,
k
d b k
f
M
allow c
--used to determine neutral axis depth ratio
or
d j f A M
s s
. . .
--used to determine area of tension steel
where
allow s allow c s
f f
k
k n
f
, ,
.
) 1 ( .
<

Here, an increase of load produces over stress in concrete earlier than the reinforcement; as a result the concrete crushes
in compression. Such failure is sudden and occurs without warning. For this reasons, over-reinforced section is not
recommended in design.
c) Under-reinforced Section if <
b
: Under reinforced sections are those that contain less reinforcement
than the balanced one. In such sections, the tensile reinforcement is insufficient to develop the full strength of the
concrete in compression, so that when the reinforcement is fully stressed, the concrete is under-stressed. Therefore, the
stresses in concrete and steel for such section are as follow:
allow s s
f f
,


allow c c
f f
,
<
--determined from stress diagram using similarity of triangles
The maximum moment of resistance of under-reinforced section is obtained by the following equations in terms of
allowable stress of steel as,
)
3
1 ( . . . .
2
2
k
d b k
f
M
c
--used to determine neutral axis depth ratio
or
d j f A M
allow s s
. . .
,

--used to determine area of tension steel


where allow c allow s c
f
k n
k
f f
, ,
) 1 ( .
. <

Here, failure is more gradual than over-reinforced section. As when steel is over-stressed, the steel yields but is still able
to support the yield stress since steel is a ductile material. Therefore, from both safety and economic point of view, it is
recommended to design section of flexural member as under-reinforced section.
BY: SILENAT D. 6
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
2.4 Control of Deflection
The deflection of structure or part of structure shall not adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of structure or
finishes or partitions. For beams and slabs, the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied
provided that the minimum depth required by deflection specified by code is maintained.
ACI code provide minimum depth required by beams and one-way slabs in terms of span length as given in table below
can be used as a crude estimate of initial depth to control deflection.
Table: ACI-code minimum depth of beams and one-way slab to control deflection

Note: For other grades of steel, the value given for
MPa S 400
is modified by multiplying factor
of )
690
4 . 0 (
y
f
+ .
EBCS-2 provide minimum effective depth, d to be used to control deflection is given as,
a
e
y
l
f
d

. )
400
6 . 0 4 . 0 ( +

where y
f
--characteristic yield strength of steel in MPa
e
l
--effective span length; and for two-way slabs, the shorter span length
BY: SILENAT D. 7
Types of Member
Simply
supported
End
spans
Interior
Spans
Cantilever
spans
-Beams or oneway
ribbed slab
S-400MPa
S-300MPa
16 l
20 l
5 . 18 l
23 l
21 l
26 l
8 l
10 l
-One-way solid
slab
S-400MPa
S-300MPa
20 l
25 l
24 l
30 l
28 l
35 l
10 l
5 . 12 l
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
a

--constant as given in table below; and for slabs carrying partition walls likely to crack, shall be taken as
0
150 l
a

0
l
--distance in meter between points of zero moment (for continuous beam, may be taken approximately as 0.7
times length of span), and, for a cantilever span, twice the length to the face of the support
Table: Values of a

Member
Simply
supported
End
spans
Interior
spans
Cantilever
Spans
-Beams 20 24 28 10
-Slabs
a) span ratio,
2
s l
l l
(includes one-way
slabs)
b) span ratio,
1
s l
l l
25
35
30
40
35
45
12
10
Note: For slabs with intermediate span ratio interpolate linearly.
2.5 Doubly-Reinforced Rectangular Beam Section
If the section of RC beam is limited in dimension (usually depth), it can not develop the compressive force required to
resist the applied bending moment as singly reinforced section. That is, the applied moment is greater than the balanced
moment capacity of singly reinforced section. For small increase of moment over the balanced one, over-reinforced
section can be used, which is not recommended in design.
A more economical and safe way of designing section in such case is to provide reinforcement in compression zone of
RC section. This section termed as doubly reinforced. Doubly reinforced section can also be used if the required depth of
section of beam as singly reinforced is unacceptable. The purpose of reinforcement in compression zone of RC section is
to assist the concrete in resisting compressive force and to keep the neutral axis at the ideal position ensuring balanced
type failure.
In doubly reinforced beam section, concrete and steel act together to take compression. If both steel and concrete behave
elastically, the stress in compression steel is
c s
E E n
(modular ratio) times the concrete stress at the same level.
BY: SILENAT D. 8
b
d
d k x
b b
.
s

Strain
n
f
allow s,
A
S
c

allow c
f
,
a) Doubly reinforced
section
M
1
s
A
1
d
1
C
allow s s
f A T
, 1 1
.
1 c
f
1 s
A

2 s
A
+
1
s
A
1
s
f
allow s
f
,
allow s s
f A
T
, 2
2
.

1 1
2
.
s s
f A
C
b) Balanced singly
reinforced section
c) Comp. steel plus
Excess tens. steel
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
However, concrete under sustained compressive stress deforms continuously with time due to creep effect and concrete is
also subjected to shrinkage over a period of time. Whereas these time dependent effects do not occur in steel. As RC
beam deforms, even at low loading, there is a continuous transfer of stress from concrete to compression steel. Therefore,
the actual stress in compression steel is larger than that computed on the basis of elastic behavior of materials. i.e
1
1
.
c s
f n f > where
1 c
f
is concrete stress at the level of compression steel.
To approximate the effect of creep of concrete, ESCP-2/83 code species that an effective modular ratio of
c s
E E n 2 2
is to be used to transform compression reinforcement for stress computation with the stress in
compression reinforcement not to exceed the allowable stress of steel, allow s
f
, .
2.6 Design Equation for Doubly-Reinforced Rectangular Section
Consider a doubly reinforced rectangular section subjected to a service load moment,
M
as shown below.
Two couples method is used to determine the required areas of tension and compression reinforcement by treating
doubly reinforced section into two parts. The total resisting moment is equal to the sum of two resisting couples: one of
which is provided by given cross-section of beam without compression reinforcement with a partial tension steel area,
1 s
A
that balance concrete in compression; and the other by compression steel,
1
s
A and the remainder of tension steel
area,
2 s
A
. Thus, the section with compression steel is designed as balanced reinforced section in such away that
compression steel and extra tension steel are proportioned by maintaining the balanced neutral axis depth.
Let
1
M --balanced moment capacity of a section if singly reinforced
2
M --excess moment produced by compression steel plus excess tension steel
BY: SILENAT D. 9
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Then, total moment capacity of doubly reinforced section is,
2 1
M M M +
Balanced moment capacity of a section if singly reinforced and the corresponding area of tension steel balancing the
section are obtained by
2
1
. . d b R M M
b b

&
d j f
M
A
b allow s
s
. .
,
1
1


Excess moment resisted by compression steel plus excess tension steel from couple produced by internal forces
developed in the section,
) ( . ) ( . ) (
1
2
1
2 1 2
d d T d d C M M M
Rearranging the above equation, internal forces developed in compression steel and excess tension steel are obtained as
) (
1
2
2 2
d d
M
T C


Then, area of excess tension steel is obtained as,
) ( .
1
,
2
,
2
2
d d f
M
f
T
A
allow s allow s
s


Therefore, total area of tension steel required by doubly reinforced section is obtained as,
2 1 s s s
A A A +

From similarity of triangles shown in fig.(b) above, the stress in the concrete at the level of compression reinforcement,
1 c
f
,
d k
d d k
f f
b
b
allow c c
.
) . (
.
1
, 1


Therefore, the stress in compression reinforcement,
allow s c s
f f n f
, 1
1
) . 2 (
Due to the presence of reinforcement in compression zone, there is a loss of concrete area of magnitude,
1
s
A . And, this
will cause a corresponding loss in compression force of ) . (
1
1
c s
f A .
Therefore, if
allow s c s
f f n f
, 1
1
) . 2 ( <
BY: SILENAT D. 10
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
2
. ) 1 2 (
) 1 2 ( . .
. . . 2 . .
c
s
c s
s c s c s c s s
f n
C
A
n f A C
A f A f n A f A f C




If
allow s c s
f f n f
, 1
1
) . 2 (
, then allow s
f
,
) (
) ( . . .
1 ,
2 1
1 ,
1 1
1
1
, 2
c allow s
s
c allow s s s c s allow s
f f
C
A
f f A A f A f C



2.7 Flanged Section (T- or L-section) under Flexure
In construction of building structures, the slab is usually supported by a system of beams. If the connection between the
beam and the slab adequately transmit longitudinal shear force, then the beam and slab together may act as a
homogeneous section of T- or L-forms. For loaded beam-slab if subjected to a moment which produces compression at
the top surface, the slab therefore becomes parts of the compression flange of the beam, resulting in a greater zone of
compression and giving a more economical section. For a reinforced concrete beam-slab section, adequate connection
between the beam and the slab is easily provided by casting the section as monolithic, and by extending beam-stirrups
and bent bars up into the slab.
It is known that the compressive stress caused by flexure in the upper flange decreases as the distance from the web
increases. This is because the shear deformation of flange relieves some of compressive stresses as the element becomes
more remote to the web. Therefore, this makes exact analysis of flanged section of infinite wide-flange complex. In order
to simplify the design of flanged section of infinite wide-flange, it is usual to assume a uniform stress over a reduced
width of flange. This reduced width is known as effective width. Effective width of flange is determined equating forces
on compressive flange due to actual compressive stress on infinite wide-flange with equivalent uniform compressive
stress on reduced width of flange.
The effective width has been found to depend primarily on the type loading, span length, spacing of beams, width of the
web, and the relative thickness of the slab with respect to the total beam depth. For practical design of flanged section,
effective width of flange recommended by codes may be used.

BY: SILENAT D. 11
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
-ACI code prescribes a limit on the effective flange width, f
b
as follows.
a) For interior T-section, effective flange width shall be the smallest of:

'

beams the of spacing center to center b


t b b
l b
e
w e
e
16
4

Where
l
--is span length of the beam.
w
b
--is width of the web
t
--is thickness of the slab
b) For exterior T-section (L-forms), effective flange width shall be the smallest of:

'

+
+
+
) tan (
2
1
6
12
beam next the to ce dis clear b b
t b b
l b b
w e
w e
w e
c) For isolated T-sections, effective flange width shall be
w e
b b 4
and, also ACI code requires that
2
w
b t
-EBCS-2/95 also specifies the effective flange width, f
b
as follows.
a) For symmetrical T-beam, effective flange width shall not exceed the lesser of:

'


+
beams the of spacing center to center b
l b b
e
w e
5
b) For edge beams (L-section), effective flange width shall not exceed the lesser of:
BY: SILENAT D. 12
w
b
s
A
t
d k.
d
c

d k
t d k
f
c
.
) . (
.

z
s s s
f A T .
c
C
Section beam T Strain Stress
M
A N.
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I

'

+
+
) tan (
2
1
10
beam next the to ce dis clear b b
l b b
w e
w e
2.8 Design of Flanged beams for Flexure
Design of flanged beams are made depending on the sign of design moment develop in the section producing either
tension or compression on flange side of beam. If the design moment developed in section produces tension on flange
side, the section is to be designed as if it were rectangular beam of width equal to the width of the web of the section. For
such section, no advantage is gained in using slab as flange of section.
On other hand, if the design moment developed in section produces compression on flange side, the section is to be
designed depending on the position the neutral axis. The position of the neutral axis depends up of the proportions of the
cross-section, the amount of tension steel, and the strength of the materials. If the neutral axis lies in the flange, the
section is to be designed as if it were a rectangular beam of width equal to the effective flange width. When the neutral
axis lies in the web, the section is to be designed as T-beam section.

2.9 Design Equations of T-beam Section -Working Stress (Elastic) Method
Consider a flanged section subjected to a service load moment,
M
as shown below. Assume the neutral axis lies in the
web so that the section is designed as T-beam section.
e
b


c


c
f
From geometry of strain diagram and assuming perfect elasticity of both materials, expression for neutral axis depth
ratio,
k
is obtained as:
BY: SILENAT D. 13
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
c
s
f
f
n
n
k
+

(*)
Since the compression area provided by the slab is so large (large
e
b
), the actual maximum compressive stress in
concrete,
c
f
will be some unknown fraction of its allowable stress value. Hence, neutral axis depth ratio,
k
has to be
given in terms of the maximum compressive stress in concrete,
c
f
that does not related to the allowable stress value,
allow c
f
, .
To simplify the derivation of design equations, the compressive stress in the web above the neutral axis is ignored.
Therefore, total compressive force in the flange is equal to:
t b
d k
t d k
f t b
d k t d k f f
C
e c e
c c
c
. .
. 2
) . 2 (
. . .
2
. ) . ( .

and, resultant tensile force in steel,


s s s
f A T .
For horizontal equilibrium,
c s
C T
t b
d k
t d k
f f d b f A
e c s e s s
. .
. 2
) . 2 (
. . . . .


(**)
From Eq.(*) s c
f
k n
k
f .
) 1 ( .

Substituting this expression of


c
f
into Eq.(**) to eliminate unit stresses and then gives expression of the neutral axis
depth ratio of T-beam section as:
) ( .
) (
2
1
.
2
d t n
d t n
k
+
+

The distance to the center of compression (centriod of the trapezoidal area of compressive stress) from the upper face of
the beam is:
3
.
) . 2 (
) 2 . 3 ( t
t d k
t d k
z

Then, the lever-arm of the couple formed by the internal tensile and compressive force is:
) ( . z d d j

Substituting
z
and
k
, and solving for
j
, the following expression lever-arm ratio of T-beam section is obtained,
) ( 3 6
)
. 2
1
( . ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 6 6
3 2
d t
n
d t d t d t
j

+ +


BY: SILENAT D. 14
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
The resisting moments of T-beam section are equal to the product of the lever-arm,
d j .
of the internal force couple
and the total tension or compression. Hence,
d j f A M
s s
. . .
--in terms of steel stress
or
d j t b
d k
t
f M
e c
. . . . )
. 2
1 ( .
--in terms of concrete stress
Approximate equation for resisting moments can be obtained using the limiting values for lever-arm between internal
forces, ) 2 ( ) . ( t d d j > and average compressive stress in the flange,
2 ) . 2 1 ( .
c c c
f d k t f C >
as,
) 2 ( . . t d f A M
s s

--used to determine trail area of tension steel
) 2 ( . . .
2
t d t b
f
M
e
c
--used to check maximum stress in concrete
BY: SILENAT D. 15
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
BY: SILENAT D. 16
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
BY: SILENAT D. 17
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BY: SILENAT D. 18
0035 . 0
cu

002 . 0
0

d
x
c cu cd
f f 67 . 0
c cu cd
f f 67 . 0
y= 0.8x
yd s
f f
yd s
f f
Strain
Parabola-rectangle
stress
Equivalent-rectangle
stress
yd s

x-section
A N.
s
A
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CHAPTER-3
LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR FLEXURE AND SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
3.1. Basic Assumptions:
Assumption made for determining ultimate resistance of a member for flexure and axial force according to EBCS-2/95
are,
1. A section which is plane before bending remains plane after bending. This implies strains across section are
linearly varying. This is true for most section of flexural member except deep beam where shear deformation is
significant.
2. The reinforcement is subjected to the same variations in the strain as the adjacent concrete. This implies there is no
slip between steel bars and the adjacent concrete. This is possible if adequate development length of bars and
concrete cover are provided.
3. Tensile strength of concrete is ignored. The reinforcement assumed to takes all the tension due to flexure.
4. The maximum compressive stain in concrete when a section complete plastic deformation is taken to be
0035 . 0
cu

in bending (simple or compound)


002 . 0
cu

in axial compression
5. The maximum tensile strain in the reinforcement is taken to 0.01. This limit assumed to limit crack-width with in
tension zone of section to the acceptable limit.
6. Either idealized parabola-rectangle stress distribution or equivalent rectangle stress distribution for concrete in
compression zone given by code as shown below shall be used in derivation of design equation.
The ultimate resistance of section may be determined using equilibrium of both internal and external forces based on the
stress block obtained from the basic assumption.
BY: SILENAT D. 19
D
b
d
x
s
yd
yd s
E
f

Strain
AS
0035 . 0
cu

X-section
u
M
cd
f cd
f
c
C
x b f C
cd c
. . 8 . 0
yd s s
f A T .
u
M
s
T
x y 8 . 0
Parabola-rectangle
Stress block
Equivalent rectangle
Stress block
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3.2. Design Equations for Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section:
Consider a singly reinforced rectangular section subjected to a factored load moment,
u
M
as shown below.
-Equilibrium of both internal and external forces,
i)
[ ]
s c H
T C F

0
yd s cd
f A x b f . . . 8 . 0
Let
d b
A
s
.

--steel ratio of section
yd cd
f d b x b f . . . . . 8 . 0
Simplifying, depth of neutral axis obtained as,
d
f
f
x
cd
yd
.
8 . 0
.

,
_


(1)
ii)
[ ] z T z C M M
s c u
. . 0

Where ( ) x d z 4 . 0 --lever arm


-taking moment about
s
T
:
z C M
c u
.
( ) ( ) x d x b f M
cd u
4 . 0 . . . 8 . 0
Substituting
x
from Eq.(1),

,
_

,
_

d
f
f
d d
f
f
b f M
cd
yd
cd
yd
cd u
.
8 . 0
. 4 . 0
. .
8 . 0
.
. . 8 . 0

Simplifying, ultimate moment of resistance of section is obtained as,
BY: SILENAT D. 20
( ) x d z 4 . 0
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,
_


cd
yd
yd u
f
f
d b f M
2
.
1 . . . .
2

(2)
The same equation of ultimate moment of resistance of section can be obtained if moment center is taken at
c
C
.
-Defining the ultimate moment and relative steel-area using the following dimension-less parameters:
2
. . d b f
M
cd
u

--relative ultimate moment
And
cd
yd
f
f
.
--mechanical reinforcement ratio
Then, neutral-axis depth obtained in Eq.(1) can be written as,
8 . 0
. d
x

(1a)
Therefore, depth of equivalent stress-block is obtained as,
d x y . 8 . 0

Writing equation of moment of resistance of section in the form as shown below by rearranging Eq.(2),

,
_


cd
yd
cd
yd
cd
u
f
f
f
f
d b f
M
2
.
1 .
.
. .
2

Writing the above equation in terms of dimension less parameters,
2 2
1 .
2


,
_

(2a)
Rearranging Eq.(2a), 0 2 2
2
+
Solving for

,
2 1 1
(3)
Therefore, area of tension steel required to resist the ultimate moment,
u
M
is obtained by taking moment about
c
C
as,
z T M
s u
.

z f A M
yd s u
. .
Where ( ) x d z 4 . 0 substituting
x
from Eq.(1a) and

from Eq.(3)
( )

2 1 1 .
2
.
2
1 +
,
_


d
d z
Rearranging, the required area of tension steel is obtained by,
z f
M
A
yd
u
s
.

(4)
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3.2.1. Balanced Singly Reinforced Section
In balanced section, yielding of tension steel and crushing of concrete takes place at same time when the section
complete plastic deformation. That is, the maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches the ultimate strain,
0035 . 0
cu c

and the strain in tension steel is just yielded, s yd yd s
E f
.
From strain distribution, using similarity of triangles,
s cu
cu
d
x

Substituting
b
x x
& s yd yd s
E f
, the balanced neutral-axis depth is obtained as,
( )
d
E f
x
s yd cu
cu
b
.
+

(5)
Where
0035 . 0
cu

--ultimate compressive strain of concrete


Equating
b
x
with equation of neutral-axis depth obtained in Eq.(1) and Eq.(1a), the balanced reinforcement ratio and
the balanced mechanical reinforcement ratio are obtained as,
( )
yd
cd
s yd cu
cu
b
f
f
E f
.
8 . 0
+

(6)
And
( )
s yd cu
cu
b
E f +

8 . 0
(7)
If
b
<
, the steel yields first at the load near collapse (a case of under-reinforced section and ductile-type failure).
If
b
>
, crushing of concrete takes place first prior to yielding of tension steel at the load near collapse (a case of
over-reinforced section and brittle-type failure).
To ensure ductility, in practice the maximum amount of tension steel is fairly below the amount corresponding to the
balanced-one.
ACI:318 code recommend: maximum reinforcement ratio ensuring ductility as b
75 . 0
max

. For seismic load
resisting member, the same code recommends,
b
5 . 0
max

.
BY: SILENAT D. 22
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Based on ACI recommendation (
b
75 . 0
max

), maximum design constants of singly reinforced section are
obtained as shown in table below.
Table: Maximum design constants of singly reinforced section (ACI-code)
EBCS:2/95 recommend: the maximum amount of tension steel used to ensure ductility is based on limiting the neutral-
axis depth at,
d x 448 . 0
max

--for no redistribution of elastic moments
d x 368 . 0
max

--for 10% redistribution of elastic moments
d x 288 . 0
max

--for 20% redistribution of elastic moments
d x 208 . 0
max

--for 30% redistribution of elastic moments
Based on EBCS-2/95 recommendation, maximum design constants of singly reinforced section are obtained as shown in
table below.
Table: Maximum design constants of singly reinforced section (EBCS-2/95 code)
BY: SILENAT D. 23
Steel Grade
max

max

S-300 MPa
S-400 MPa
S-460 MPa
0.437
0.401
0.382
0.341
0.320
0.309
% Redistribution of
elastic moments
max

max

0%
10%
20%
30%
0.3584
0.2944
0.2304
0.1664
0.294
0.251
0.204
0.152
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Better approach as follows:
In accordance with LSD method, at ULS of collapse:-

c
approaches
cu
= 0.0035
The reinforcing steel shall yield first (
s
yd
d
y
E
f

)
Ductility is ensured by means of under reinforcement.
At balanced failure simultaneous failure of the two materials (Concrete & Steel) occurs.
Let x
b
be the depth to the NA at balanced failure. From the strain relation,

yd
b
cu
b
x d x


yd cu
cu
b
d
x

*


If x < x
b
Steel yields first
If x > x
b
Crushing of concrete takes place first.
F
H
= 0 T
s
= C
C
A
s
f
yd
= 0.8 x
b
b f
cd
Substituting for x
b
and simplifying,
yd
cd
yd cu
cu
b
f
f
*
* 8 . 0

(a steel ratio for balanced case)


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However, for ductility purpose the steel ratio may range b/n 0.75
b
to 0.9
b
, and in
some cases as low as 0.5
b
in ACI code, but in EBCS-2 ductility is ensured by keeping
k
x max
= 0.448 for 0% redistribution or even less for redistribution > 0%

.
Rewriting the force equilibrium
byf
cd
= A
s
f
yd
b * 0.8x f
cd
= bd f
yd

,
* 8 . 0
*
m
f
f
d
x
k
cd
yd
x


Where
cd
yd
f
f
m
* 8 . 0

M
c
= 0 M
d
= A
s
f
yd
(d - 0.4x)
Substituting the value of x and simplifying
M
d
= 0.8 bd
2
f
cd
k
x
(1-0.4 k
x
)
When the above equation is solved for k
x
,
max
2
2
2
1 1
4
5 . 0
x
d
x
k
c bd
M
c c k

'



Where c
1
= 2.5/m, c
2
= 0.32m
2
f
cd
, m=f
yd
/(0.8f
cd
)

k
x max
= 0.448 for 0% redistribution.
The section capacity for single reinforcement case may be computed from M
t
= 0, when k
x
< k
x max
M
u
= 0.8bx f
cd
(d-0.4x) x = k
x max
d
= 0.8bd
2
f
cd
k
x max
(1 -0.4 k
x max
)
According to EBCS-2/95, elastic moments of continuous beams and frames are redistributed using the following
reduction coefficient,
1) For continuous beams and rigid jointed braced frames with span/effective depth ratio not greater than 20,

,
_

+
d
x
25 . 1 44 . 0
Where xis calculated at ultimate limit state
Based on the above equation, the limiting maximum neutral axis depth ratio used for proportioning of sections of
continuous beams and rigid jointed braced frames are obtained as follow:
For 30% redistribution of elastic moment,
208 . 0 d x

For 20% redistribution of elastic moment,
288 . 0 d x

For 10% redistribution of elastic moment,
368 . 0 d x

For no reduction of elastic moment,
448 . 0 d x

2) For other continuous beams and rigid braced frames
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75 . 0
3) For sway frames with slenderness ratio l of columns less than 25
90 . 0
Examples on Design of Singly Reinforced Beams using Limit State Design Method
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Exercise-1
BY: SILENAT D. 46
b
d
yd

A
S
cu

1
s
A
1
d
max
x x x
b

1
s

+
cd
f
cd
f
u
M 1
M
2
M
max max
x y
) (
1
d d
s
C
c
C
c
C
yd s s
f A T . yd s
f A T .
1 1

yd s
f A T .
2 2

a) x-section b) Strain
c) stresses, doubly
reinforced section,
u
M
d) Stresses, balanced
section,
1
M
e) stresses, excess tension-
steel plus comp. steel,
2
M
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3.3. Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Section
Consider a doubly reinforced rectangular section subjected to an ultimate moment,
u
M
as shown below. Design
equations are derived by dividing the section into two parts: Balanced singly reinforced section and excess tension steel
plus compression steel. It is assumed that both tension and compression steels are yielded. The excess tension steel and
compression steel are proportioned in such a way that the neutral axis is maintained at balanced position.

yd s s
f A C .
1





Let
1
M --moment capacity of balanced singly reinforced section
2
M --moment resistance provided by excess tension steel plus compression steel
Thus, the total ultimate moment of resistance of doubly reinforced section is the sum of the two parts: moment capacity
of balanced singly reinforced section,
1
M and ultimate moment resisted by excess tension steel plus compressive steel,
2
M .
i.e
( )
2 1
M M M
u
+
Moment capacity of balanced singly reinforced section,
2
max 1
. . . d b f M
cd

And, the corresponding area of tension steel balancing
1
M is,
min
1
1
. z f
M
A
yd
s

Where ( )
,
_


2
1 . 4 . 0
max
max min

d x d z
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Excess moment to be resisted by excess tension steel plus compression steel is,
( )
1 2
M M M
u

Equating excess moment with the couple made by internal forces in excess tension steel and compression steel as shown
in Fig.(e), area of excess tension steel and compression steel are obtained as (if compression steel yielding)
( )
1
2
2
. d d f
M
A
yd
s

And,
( )
1
2
1
. d d f
M
A
yd
s

Therefore, the total area of tension steel required by doubly reinforced section,
2 1 s s s
A A A +
To check yielding of compression steel, referring to stain diagram in Fig.(b), the strain in compression steel is
determined and compared with the yield strain of a given steel as obtained below.
( )
1 1
max
s cu
cu
d
x

( )
max
1
max
1
.
x
d x
cu s


Where
0035 . 0
cu

( ) 8 . 0 . 8 . 0
max max max
d y x
If compression steel is yielding,
s
yd
yd s
E
f

1
&
yd s
f f
1
(as assumed)
Or, if compression steel is not yielding,

s
yd
yd s
E
f
<
1
&
yd s s s
f E f <
1 1
.
Then, area of compression steel is re-determined using,
( ) ( )
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
. . . d d E
M
d d f
M
A
s s s
s

BY: SILENAT D. 48
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Another Similar approach:
Assume that A
s
& A
s1
are stressed to f
yd
.
M
u
= M
uc
+ M
usc
Where M
uc
is the BM carried by the concrete and partial area of tensile steal.
M
uc
= 0.8bd
2
f
cd
k
1
(1-0.4 k
1
)
In which k
1
= k
x max
, the maximum steel ratio corresponding to single reinforcement section in case of design
and

max
1
1 x
s s
k
bd
A A
k

for the case of analysis.


M
usc
is the BM carried by compressive steel and the corresponding tensile steel.
M
usc
= A
s1
f
yd
(d-d
c
)
The yielding of the compressive steel may be checked from the strain relation as

yd cu
c
sc
x
d x

*
'
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Examples on Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams using Limit State Design Method
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3.4. Flanged Section (T- or L-section) under Flexure
The general discussion with respect to flanged section, effective width of flange in working stress method holds for
strength limit state method as well. In treating flanged section using strength limit state method, it is convenient to adopt
the same equivalent rectangle stress-block that is used for rectangular cross section.
i) If depth of equivalent rectangle stress-block,
' ' y
is equal to or less than the flanged thickness,
' '
f
h
(i.e
f
h y
), a flanged section may be treated as a rectangular section of width equal to an effective width of flange,
' '
e
b
provided the flange of section is on compression side when the section subjected a moment.
For trial purpose initially, it can be assumed the stress block is with-in the flange (or assume flanged section
rectangular with width equal to effective width of flange).
-calculate relative ultimate moment and relative mechanical steel ratio of assumed rectangular section using,
2
. . d b f
M
e cd
u


And 2 1 1
-then, compute depth of equivalent rectangle stress-block for assumed section and compare with thickness of the flange
of the section,
d y .

-If f
h y
, the section is designed as rectangular section with width equal to effective width of flange,
' '
e
b
.
Therefore, area of tension steel required by the section for such case is given by
z f
M
A
yd
u
s
.


Where ( ) 2 1 1
2
+
d
z
ii) If the depth of equivalent rectangle stress-block of assumed rectangular section is greater than thickness of the flange
of the section (i.e f
h y >
), a flanged section is treated as T-beam section provided the flange of section is on
compression side when the section subjected a moment. To derive design equation of T-beam, it is convenient to
divide the compression area of T-beam section into two parts as shown below:
a) the over-hanging portion of the compressive flange
b) the web portion extending into the compressive flange
BY: SILENAT D. 65
cd
f
cu

yd s

e
b
w
b
f
h
d
x
s
A
sf
A
sw
A
y
+ f
z
c
C
s
T
x-section Strain Stresses
Over-hanging
portion
Web portion
extending into flange
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Let sf
A
--area of tension steel balancing over-hanging portion of the flange
sw
A
--area of tension steel balancing web portion extending into the flange
The total ultimate moment of resistance of T-beam section is obtained by taking moment of the internal compressive
forces about the center of tension steel; and it is given as the sum of moments produced by over-hanging portion of the
flange and the web portion extending into the flange. i.e uw uf u
M M M +
-The moment produced by over-hanging portion of the flange is obtained as
f cd f w e uf
z f h b b M . . . ) (
Where
( ) 2
f f
h d z
Then, the corresponding area of tension steel balancing the over-hanging portion of the flange is obtained as
yd f
uf
sf
f z
M
A
.

-The moment produced by the web portion extending into the flange is obtained by subtracting moment of over-hanging
portion from the total ultimate moment of T-beam.
i.e
) (
uf u uw
M M M
To determine the corresponding area of tension steel balancing web potion extending into the flange, the web portion is
treated as rectangular section with width equal to the width of the web,
w
b
. Therefore, calculate the relative ultimate
moment the web portion using
2
. . d b f
M
w cd
uw
w

Then, the required area of tension steel balancing web potion is obtained as
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w yd
uw
sw
z f
M
A
.


Where ( )
w w
d
z 2 1 1 .
2
+
Therefore, the total area of tension steel is obtained as
sw sf s
A A A +
Check flanged section for single reinforcement using
max

w
. If the flanged section requires compression
reinforcement (
max
>
w
), area of compressive steel and excess tension steel required by web portion is obtained
using (if compression steel is yielding)
( )
( )
1
1
2
1
. d d f
M M
A A
yd
uw
s s



and, area of tension steel balancing web portion is re-determined using
min
. z f
M
A
yd
uw
sw

Where
2
max 1
. . . d b f M
w cd
& ( )
,
_


2
1 . 4 . 0
max
max min

d x d z
iii) If the flange of the section is on the tension side when subjected to a moment, flanged section is designed as if it
were a rectangular section with width equal to the width of the web,
w
b
.
Another similar approach:
Reinforced concrete floors or roofs are monolithic and hence, a part of the slab will act with the upper part of
the beam to resist longitudinal compression. The resulting beam cross-section is, then, T-shaped (inverted L),
rather than rectangular with the slab forming the beam flange where as part of the beam projecting below the
slab forms the web or stem.
BY: SILENAT D. 67
b
D
h
f
be
Fig. 3.3.1
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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The T-sections provide a large concrete cross-sectional area of the flange to resist the compressive force.
Hence, T-sections are very advantageous in simply supported spans to resist large positive bending moment,
where as the inverted T-sections have the added advantage in cantilever beam to resist negative moment.
As the longitudinal compressive stress varies across the flange width of same level, it is convenient in design to
make use of an effective flange width (may be smaller than the actual width) which is considered to be
uniformly stressed.
Effective flange width (according to EBCS 2, 1995)
For interior beams T-sections

'

spacing beam C C
l
b
b
e
w
e
/
5

For edge beams inverted L- sections

'

+
+

beam adjacent to ce dis clear the half b


l
b
b
w
e
w
e
tan
10
Where l
e
is the effective span length & b
w
is the width of the web.
There are three distribution type of flexural behavior of T-sections.
When the T-section is subjected to BM, and tension is produced on the flange portion, it is treated as a
rectangular section with b = b
w
.
When the T-section is subjected to +ve bending moment and the equivalent compressive stress block lies
within the flange as shown below (y < h
f
), the section can be analysed as rectangular with effective width
b
e
.
BY: SILENAT D. 68
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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This case is a case of under reinforced condition or large flange thickness, which can be confirmed first
by computing (with b = b
e
, = A
s
/(b
e
d)) using relation established for rectangular beams and evaluate
the NA depth, x = md. Compare y = 0.8x with h
f
.
When y > h
f
, the section acts as T-beam and hence analysis accounting the T-geometry becomes essential
which is shown in the figure below.
BY: SILENAT D. 69
b
w
y
b
w
x
h
f
d
d
'
b
e c
s
Cc
Ts
0.8x
fcd
Cross section Strain Stress
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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Cross-section Design and Analysis
Design
- Assuming b = b
e
compute

'


2
2
1 1
4
5 . 0
c d b
M
c c k
e
d
x
and x = k
x
d
i) If y = 0.8x < h
f
, section is rectangular as assumed.
A
s
= d b
m
k
e
x
ii) If y > h
f
T beam analysis is required.
A
s
= A
Sf
+ A
sw
=
yd f
uf
f Z
M
*
+
w
b
w
d in which,
M
uf =
(b
e
-b
w
) hf

f
cd
z
f

2
f
f
h
d Z

'


2
2
1 1
4 5 . 0
c d b
M
c c
m m
k
w
uw w
w

M
uw
= M
u
- M
uf
iii) When the flange is on the tension side, then the cross- section is designed as if it were rectangular with b
= b
w
Analysis:

d b
A
e
s
*

, X = md
i) If y = 0.8X<= h
f
the section is analyzed as rectangular with b = b
e.
Mu = 0.8b
e
d
2
f
cd
m (1-0.4 m)
ii) If y = 0.8X< h
f
the section is analyzed as T-beam.
BY: SILENAT D. 70
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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M
uf =
(b
e
-b
w
) hf

f
cd
z
f ,
A
Sf =

yd f
uf
f Z
M
*
,
A
sw
= A
s
- A
Sf

w
=
d b
A
w
sw
*
M
uw
= 0.8b
w
d
2
f
cd

w
m(1-0.4
w
m)
M
u
= M
uf
+M
uw
Examples on Design of T-Section Beams using Limit State Design Method
BY: SILENAT D. 71
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BY: SILENAT D. 72
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BY: SILENAT D. 73
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BY: SILENAT D. 74
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BY: SILENAT D. 75
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BY: SILENAT D. 76
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BY: SILENAT D. 77
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BY: SILENAT D. 78
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BY: SILENAT D. 79
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BY: SILENAT D. 80
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BY: SILENAT D. 81
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Alternative method using design tables (singly reinforced Sections)
1-USING DESIGN TABLES
Derivation
M
d
= 0.8bd
2
f
cd

m
(1-0.4
m
)
) 4 . 0 1 ( 8 . 0
2
m m f
bd
M
cd
d

Let ) 4 . 0 1 ( 8 . 0
2
m m f
bd
M
k
cd
d
m

M
c
= 0
) 4 . 0 1 (
1
*
) 4 . 0 (
d
x
f
d
M
x d f
M
A
yd
d
yd
d
s


Let d
M k
A
d
x
f
k
d s
s
yd
s
*
) 4 . 0 1 (
1

BY: SILENAT D. 82
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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From table 1a there are different K
m
values and the max. Value of K
m
for different moment redistribution
is given and represented by Km*.
If K
m
K
m
*, the section is singly reinforced.
If K
m
>K
m
*, it is doubly reinforced.
STEPS:
a) For Singly Reinforced Sections
1. Evaluate
d
b
M
k
d
m

2. Enter the general design Table No.1a using k
m
and concrete grade.
3. Read k
s
from the same Table corresponding to steel grade and k
m
.
4. Evaluate
d
M k
A
d s
s
*

b) For Doubly Reinforced Sections
1. This is so, when Km>Km*(is the value of Km shown shaded in general design table 1a ,
corresponding to the concrete grade)
2. compute Km/Km*
3. Read Ks & Ks* corresponding to Km/Km* & the steel grade from general design table 1a
4. Assume dc, (d2) & read (correction factor) from the same table corresponding to Km/Km* & dc/d.
5. Read corresponding to dc/d ,then
As = KsMd /d A
s
= KsMd /d
Note: - In all cases
- M
d
is in KN-m
- b m
- d m
2- USING DESIGN CHARTS
BY: SILENAT D. 83
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
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Compute
2
,
,
bd f
s Mu
cd
s u

& Kx, max = 0.8(-0.44), where =1, 0.9, 0.8 & 0.7 for 0%, 10%, 20%
& 30% moment redistribution.
Compare s u,

or Kx with the corresponding values of *


,s u
Kx,max
Where: *
,s u
= 0.143, 0.205, 0.252 & 0.295 for 30%, 20%, 10%, and 0% respectively.
If s u,

*
,s u
then the section is singly reinforced and As1:
As1 =
fyd
Nsd
zf
s Msd
yd
+
,
If s u,

> *
,s u
,then the section is doubly reinforced and As1 ,As2:
As2 =
2 2
) (
* , ,
s
d d
s Mu s Msd

- area of compression reinforcement,


Where: Mu, s* = *
,s u
fcd bd
2
& *
,s u
is the value given above.
2 s

- is actual compressive stress on compression steel & is Es*sc


As1 =
yd
sd
s yd
f
N
d d
s Mu s Msd
Zf
s Mu
+

+
2 2
) (
* , , * ,

-area of tensile reinforcement


Using s u,

read Z/d, X/d etc & compute A


s1
and A
s2
.
BY: SILENAT D. 84
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BY: SILENAT D. 85
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BY: SILENAT D. 86
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Cover to Reinforcements
The concrete cover is the distance between the outermost surface of reinforcement (usually stirrups) and
the nearest concrete surface.
The thickness of cover required depends both upon the exposure conditions and on the concrete quality.
To transmit bond forces safely, and to ensure adequate compaction, the concrete cover should never be
less than:
(a) or
n
( 40mm), or
(b) ( + 5mm) or (
n
+ 5mm) if d
g
> 32mm
Where = the diameter of the bar.

n
= the equivalent diameter for a bundle.
d
g
= the largest nominal aggregate size.
Minimum cover
Type of exposure Mild Moderate Sever
Min. cover (mm) 15 25 50
Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate cover to
reinforcement. Nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the building with dry
environment and mild condition is 15 mm, example slab; humid environment with moderate exposure is 25
mm, example beam; severe environment is 50 mm, example footing.
Spacing of Reinforcements
The clear horizontal and vertical distance between bars shall be at least equal to the largest of the
following values.
(a) 20 mm
(b) The diameter of the largest bar or effective diameter of the bundle
(c) The maximum size of the aggregate d
g
plus 5mm.
BY: SILENAT D. 87
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Where bars are positioned in separate horizontal layers, the bars in each layer should be located
vertically above each other and the space between the resulting columns of the bars should permit the
passage of an internal vibrator.
Effective Span Length
The effective span of a simply supported member shall be taken as the lower of the following two
values:
(a) The distance between the center lines of supports.
(b) The clear distance between the faces of supports plus the effective depth.
The effective span of a continuous element shall normally be taken as the distance between the center
lines of the supports.
For a cantilever, the effective span is taken to be its length, measured from.
(a) The face of the supports, for an isolated, fixed ended cantilever.
(b) The center line of the support for a cantilever which forms the end of a continuous beam.
Deflection limits are assumed to be satisfied when the minimum effective depth for a particular member
is

a
e
L yk
f
d

,
_

+
400
* 6 . 0
4 . 0
where f
yk
is equal to character strength of reinforcement, L
e
is the effective span (the shorter span in case
of two way slab), is constant, a function of restraints given below).
Table values of a

Member Simple End span Interior span cantilever


Beams 20 24 28 10
Slabs:
Span ratio 2:1 25 30 35 12
Span ratio 1:1 35 40 45 10
* For intermediate values interpolation.
Preliminary Sizing of Beam Sections
BY: SILENAT D. 88
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Ideal values of span effective depth ratios, recommended in the ISE manual for the preliminary sizing of
reinforced concrete beams are given in table below.
Support conditions Cantilever Simple Support Continuous End spans
ISE manual 6 12 15 13.5

3.6. One-way RC Slabs
A reinforced concrete slab is a broad, flat plate, usually horizontal, with top and bottom surfaces parallel or
nearly so. It is used to provide flat surfaces mainly for roofs and floors of buildings, parking lots, air fields,
roadways etc. It may be supported by reinforced concrete beams (and is poured monolithically with such
beams), by masonry or reinforced concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns, or
continuously by the ground.
Classification: - Beam supported slabs may be classified as:-
1. One-way slabs main reinforcement in each element runs in one direction only. (Ly/Lx >2). There are two
types- one way solid slabs and one way ribbed slabs.
2. Two way
slabs main
reinforcement
runs in both direction where ratio of long to short span is less than two. (Ly/Lx < 2)
Others include flat slabs, flat plates, two way ribbed or grid slabs etc.
BY: SILENAT D. 89
Solid slab
Ribbed slab
Beams
Joists
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3.6.1. Analysis of one-way solid slabs
They are considered as rectangular beams of comparatively large ratio of width to depth and ratio of longer
span to width (short span) is greater than two.
When L
l
/ L
s
> 2, about 90% or more of the total load is carried by the short span, i.e., bending takes place in
the direction of the shorter span.
The analysis is than carried out by assuming a beam of unit width with a depth equal to the thickness of the
slab and span equal to the distance between supports (in the short direction). The strip may be analyzed in the
same way as singly reinforced rectangular sections.
Load per unit area on the slab would be the load per unit length on this imaginary beam of unit width.
As the loads being transmitted to the supporting beams, all reinforcement shall be placed at right angles to
these beams. However some additional bars may be placed in the other direction to carry temperature and
shrinkage stresses.
Generally the design consists of selecting a slab thickness for deflection requirement and flexural design is
carried out by considering the slab as series of rectangular beams side by side
Remark:-
BY: SILENAT D. 90
1m width
L
l
L
s
Supporting beams / walls
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The ratio of steel in a slab can be determined by dividing the sectional area of one bar by the area of concrete
between two successive bars, the latter area being the product of the depth to the center of the bars and the
distance between them, center to center.
Unless condition warrant some change, cover to reinforcement is 15 mm.
The following minimum slab thicknesses shall be adopted in design:
a) 60mm for slabs not exposed to concentrated loads (eg. Inaccessible roofs).
b) 80mm for slabs exposed mainly to distributed loads.
c) 100mm for slabs exposed to light moving concentrated loads (eg. slabs accessible to light moving
vehicles).
d) 120mm for slabs exposed to heavy dynamic moving loads (eg. slabs accessible to heavy vehicles).
e) 150mm for slabs on point supports (eg. flat slabs).
Flexural reinforcements should fulfill the following minimum criteria:
a) The ratio of the secondary reinforcement to the main reinforcement shall be at least equal to 0.2.
b) The geometrical ratio of main reinforcement in a slab shall not be less than:
MPa in f where
f
yk
yk
5 . 0
min


c) The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350mm.
d) The spacing between secondary bars (in a direction to the main bars) shall not exceed 400mm.
3.6.2. Analysis and Design of one way Ribbed Slab
In one way ribbed slab, the supporting beams called joists or ribs are closely spaced. The ribbed floor is
formed using temporary or permanent shuttering (formwork) while the hollow block floor is generally
constructed with blocks made of clay tile or with concrete containing a light weight aggregate. This type of
floor is economical for buildings where there are long spans and light or moderate live loads such as in
hospitals and apartment buildings.
General Requirements:
Minimum slab thickness
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To ensure adequate stiffness against bending and torsion and to allow ribbed slabs to be treated as solid slabs
for the purpose of analysis, EBCS-2 recommends that the following restrictions on size are satisfied:
Ribs shall not be less than 70mm in width; and shall have a depth, excluding any topping of not more than 4
times the minimum width of the rib. The rib spacing shall not exceed 1.0m
Thickness of topping shall not be less than 50mm, nor less than
10 1
the clear distance between ribs. In the
case of ribbed slabs incorporating permanent blocks, the lower limit of 50mm may be reduced to 40mm.
Minimum Reinforcement
The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each direction a cross-sectional area
not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.
The breadth of ribs may be governed by shear strength requirements. The method proposed in the ISE
manual for the estimation of rib breadths limits the shear stress in the rib to 0.6 N/mm
2
for concretes with
characteristic cylinder strength of 25 N/mm
2
or more. The required breadth is given by:
b =
d
V
6 . 0

[ ] mm
Where V is the maximum shear force in Newtons on the rib considered as simply supported and d is the
effective depth in millimeters. For characteristic cylinder strengths less than 25 MPa, the breadth should be
increased in proportion.
If the rib spacing exceeds 1.0m, the topping shall be designed as a slab resting on ribs, considering load
concentrations, if any.
The function of the flanges with the web shall be checked for longitudinal shear.
BY: SILENAT D. 92
b
c
d
w
d
f
b
w
Rib Spacing
Clear
distance
Fig. Ribbed slab
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The ultimate limit state in longitudinal shear is governed either by the effect of inclined flange compression
(acting parallel to its middle plane) or by tension in the transverse reinforcement.
The longitudinal shear per unit length v
sd
, which may be obtained as a function of the applied transverse shear
V
sd
:
(a) For flange in compression :
v
sd
=
z
V
b
b b
sd
e
w e

,
_


2

(b) For flange in tension.
v
sd
=
z
V
A
A A
sd
s
sw s

,
_


2

Where: V
sd
applied transverse shear.
Vsd - longitudinal shear per unit length
b
e
effective width of a T-section.
z - Internal lever arm.
A
s
area of the longitudinal steel in the effective flanges outside the projection of
Web into the slab.
A
sw
area of the longitudinal steel inside the slab within the projection of the
web into the slab.
Resistance to longitudinal shear.
(a) Resistance to inclined compression per unit length v
Rd1
v
Rd1
= 0.25 f
cd
h
f
Where : h
f
= total thickness of the flange.
(b) Resistance to diagonal tension per unit length v
Rd2
v
Rd2
= 0.50 f
ctd
h
f
+
f
yd sf
s
f A
Where : A
sf
= area of transverse reinforcement per unit length , perpendicular to
the web-flange interface.
BY: SILENAT D. 93
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If, at the section with M = M
max
, the flange is subjected to a tensile force, the concrete contribution 0.50 f
ctd
h
f
( in the above equation) should be neglected.
Because joists are closely spaced, thickness of slab (topping),

'

joists between ce dis clear


mm
D
tan
10
1
40

Unless calculation requires for rib spacing larger than 1m, toppings or slabs are provided with mesh
reinforcement of 0.001 bD in both directions for temperature and shrinkage problem.
Unless calculation requires, min reinforcement to be provided for joists includes two bars, where one is bent
near the support and the other straight.
Rib with b
w
> 70mm, and overall depth D
j
< 4 b
w,

joist
+ t
slab
BY: SILENAT D. 94
F
d,max
s
f
h
f
A
sf
M = M
max
F
d,max
a
v
(shear span)
M = 0
Figure Forces on ribbed slab
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Rib spacing is generally less than 1m.
In case of ribbed spacing larger than 1m, the topping (slab) need to be design as if supported on ribs. (i.e.
As one way solid slab between the ribs).
If the span of the ribs exceeds 6m, transverse ribs may be provided, as the thickness of the topping will be
larger.
The girder supporting the joist may be rectangular or T-beam with the flange thickness equal to the floor
thickness.
Procedure of Design of a floor system of ribbed Slab
1. Thickness of toppings and ribs assumed based on min requirement.
2. Loads may be computed on the basis of center line of the spacing of joists.
3. The joists are analyzed as regular continuous T-beams supported by girders.
4. Shear reinforcement shall not be provided in the narrow web of joist thus a check for the section capacity
against shear is carried out. The shear capacity may be approximated as: 1.1 V
c
of regular rectangular
sections.
5. Determine flexural reinforcement and consider min provision in the final solution.
6. Provide the topping or slab with reinforcement as per temp and shrinkage requirement.
7. Design the girder as a beam.
BY: SILENAT D. 95
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Examples on Design of One Way slabs and Continuous Beams using Limit State Design Method
BY: SILENAT D. 96
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BY: SILENAT D. 97
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BY: SILENAT D. 98
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BY: SILENAT D. 99
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BY: SILENAT D. 100
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BY: SILENAT D. 101
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BY: SILENAT D. 102
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BY: SILENAT D. 103
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BY: SILENAT D. 104
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BY: SILENAT D. 105
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BY: SILENAT D. 106
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BY: SILENAT D. 107
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BY: SILENAT D. 108
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BY: SILENAT D. 109
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BY: SILENAT D. 110
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BY: SILENAT D. 111
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BY: SILENAT D. 112
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BY: SILENAT D. 113
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BY: SILENAT D. 114
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BY: SILENAT D. 115
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BY: SILENAT D. 116
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3.7. Serviceability limits states of deflection and crack width
It is important that member performance in normal service be satisfactory, when loads are those actually
expected to act i.e. when load factors are 1.0. This is not guaranteed simply by providing adequate strengths.
Service load deflections under full load may be excessively large or long-term deflections due to sustained
loads may cause damage .Tension cracks in beams may be wide enough to be visually disturbing or may even
permit serious corrosion of reinforcing bars. These and other questions such as vibration or fatigue, require
consideration
Serviceability studies are carried out based on elastic theory, with stresses in both concrete and steel assumed
to be proportional to strain. The concrete on the tension side of the neutral axis may be assumed uncracked,
partially cracked, or fully cracked depending on the loads and material strengths.
Reinforced concrete members carrying lateral loads respond to these loads by bending. The moment curvature
relationship for a segment of the simply supported reinforced concrete member of fig.3.7.1 (a) is illustrated in
fig.3.7.1 (c). It can be seen that the segment remains uncracked and has a large stiffness EIu, , until the moment
reaches the cracking moment, Mcr, (Point A) .When this happens, the member cracks and the stiffness at the
cracked section reduces to EIc.
As the load (and hence the moment) is increased further, more cracks occur and existing cracks increase in
size .Eventually ,the reinforcement yields at the point of maximum moment corresponding to point C on the
diagram. Above this point the member displays large increases in deflection for small increases in moment
.The service load range is between the origin and point C on the diagram and it is in this range that deflections
are checked and stresses calculated.
Consider a point B within the service load range. This curvature represents the instantaneous (short term)
curvature under an applied moment, M. If the moment is sustained, however, the curvature increases with time
to point D owing to the creep of the concrete. The curvature at this point is known as the long term or
sustained curvature. As deflection results, from curvature, there are both instantaneous and sustained
deflections which must be considered in the design of members with bending.
BY: SILENAT D. 117
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c) Moment/ curvature plot for segment of part (b)
Fig.3.7.1 Moment / Curvature relationship for beam
segment
3.7.1. Deflections
The deflections which result from bending must be limited such that they do not adversely affect the function
and appearance of the member or the entire structure.
a) Limits on Deflections
The final deflection (including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage) of all horizontal members shall
not, in general, exceed the value.

200
Le

Where: Le effective span
For roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements (e.g. partitions and finishes)
likely to be damaged by large deflections, that part of the deflection which occurs after the attachment of the
non-structural elements shall not exceed the value .

mm
Le
20
350

BY: SILENAT D. 118
P
part(b)
a) deflected shape
M
M
M
R
b) Curvature of segment of beam
Curvature (K)=1/R
N.A
Mcr
B
C
slope EIc
D
Instantaneous Sustained
Curvature(K)
slope EIu
A
M
o
m
e
n
t(M
)
Yield point of reinforcement
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b) Calculation of Deflections
Effect of creep and shrinkage strains on the curvature, and there by on the deflection shall be considered.
Immediate deflections shall be computed by the usual elastic methods as the sum of the two parts i

and ii


given by Eqs. 1 and 2, but not more than max

given by eqs. 3

c cm
cr
i
I E
M
L
2

------ (1)

) ( 75 . 0
2
X d Z A E
M M
L
s s
cr k
ii


--------------- (2)
) (
2
max
X d Z A E
M
L
s s
k


---------------------- (3)

S f M
ctk cr
70 . 1
------------------------------------ (4)
i

= deflection due to the theoretical cracking moment (Mcr) acting on the uncracked transformed section
ii

=deflection due to the balance of the applied moment over and above the cracking value and
acting on a section with an equivalent stiffness of 75% of the cracked value. max

= deflection of
fully cracked section
A
s
= area of the tension reinforcement
Ecm = short term elastic modulus (secant modulus) of the concrete
E
cm
= 9.5 3
1
) 8 ( +
ck
f
fck-mpa, Ecm-Gpa
Grade of
concrete
C15 C20 C25 C30 C40 C50 C60
Ecm 26 27 29 32 35 37 39
Es-modulus of elasticity of steel, Iu-moment of inertia of the uncraked transformed section
M
k
-Maximum applied, moment at mid span due to sustained characteristic loads; for cantilevers it is the
moment at the face of the support
BY: SILENAT D. 119
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S- Section modulus, d-effective depth of the section,
X-neutral axis depth at the section of max. moment,
Z-internal lever arm at the section of max moment.

-deflection coefficient depending on the loading and support conditions.


(e.g

=5/48 for simply supported span subjected to uniformly distributed load)


Note: The value of X & Z may be determined for the service load condition using a modular ratio of 10, or
for the ultimate load condition.
Long term deflection of flexural members shall be obtained by multiplying the immediate deflection caused by
the sustained load considered, by the factor,
(2-1.2As/As) 0.6--------------- (5)
Where: As-area of compression reinforcement, As-area of tension reinforcement.
3.7.2. Limits on cracking
Flexural cracks are inevitably formed in reinforced concrete members. For structures in aggressive
environments, corrosion is a problem and stringent limits are imposed on the width of cracks that are allowed
to develop. Environment in the interior of the building is usually non-sever, corrosion does not generally pose
a problem and limits on crack widths will be governed by their appearance.
a) Crack Formation
The max. tensile stresses in the concrete are calculated under the action of design loads appropriate to
a serviceability limit state and on the basis of the geometrical properties of the transformed uncracked
concrete X-section.
The calculated stresses shall not exceed the following values:
a) Flexure, ( ctk ct
f 70 . 1
) b) direct(axial) tension ( ctk ct
f
)
Minimum flexural reinforcement in beams for the control of cracking is given by:

yk
f
6 . 0
min

BY: SILENAT D. 120
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b) Crack widths
Crack widths are calculated using the quasi permanent service load combination. Specifically crack widths can
be assumed not to exceed the limiting values if the limits on the bar spacing or bar diameter (Table 1) are
satisfied, and if min. areas of reinforcement, also specified are provided.
Table 1 Maximum size and spacing of high bond bars for control of cracking.
Steel stress* Max. bar spacing (mm) Max. bar diameter(mm)
160
200
240
280
320
360
400
450
300
250
200
150
100
50
-
-
32
25
20
16
12
10
8
6
*steel stresses are determined using quasi permanent loads.
Table 2 Characteristic crack widths for concrete Members
Type of
exposure
Dry environment:
Interior of buildings
of normal
habitation or office
Humid environment:
Interior
components(e.g.
laundries), exterior
components;
components in non-
aggressive soil and
/or water
Sea water and/or
aggressive chemicals
environments completely
or partially submergeed in
seawater ,components in
saturated salt air
,aggressive industrial
atmospheres
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(mild) (Moderate)
(sever)
Characteristic
crack
width,wk(mm)
0.4 0.2 0.1
In specific cases where a crack width Calculation is considered necessary
Wk= sm rm
s
Where: wk=characteristic crack width, rm
s
=average final crack width
sm

=mean strain in the tension steel allowing for tension stiffening and time dependent effects

=coefficient relating the average crack width to the design value


7 . 1
for sections in bending under applied loads.
The mean strain is simply the strain in the steel adjusted by the distribution factor,

s
s
sm
E
f

, Where: fs-stress in the tension reinforcement, Es-elastic modulus of steel
) ( 1
2 1
s
sr
f
f


1
=coefficient which accounts for the bond properties of the reinforcement
1
=1.0 for high bond bars (normally used or deformed) and 0.5 for plain bars
2
= coefficient which accounts for the duration of loading or of repeated loading
2
=1.0 for single short term loading & 0.5 for sustained loading or repeated loading
f
s
= stress in tension steel assuming a cracked section
f
sr
= stress in tension steel assuming a cracked section due to loading which causes initial cracking
The average final crack spacing in (mm) is calculated using the equation
S
rm
= 50 + 0.25
r
K K

2 1 122
Where:
1
k = coefficient which accounts for the bond properties of the reinforcement: k
1
=0.8 for
high bond bars:k
1
=1.6 for plain bars.
K
2
= coefficient which takes account of the form of strain distribution for bending it is 0.5


bar diameter,
r
= effective reinforcement ratio As/A
c,eff.
Where: A
c,eff
= effective tension area of he concrete , as illustrated below
BY: SILENAT D. 122
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BY: SILENAT D. 123
X
2
.5
(h
-d
)
d
h
effective tension area
a) beams
X
h
lesser of 2.5(C+/ 2)
C
b) slabs
Effective tension
area
Fig.3.7.2. Effective tension area of concrete
and (h-x)/3
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Exercise-2
BY: SILENAT D. 124
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BY: SILENAT D. 125
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BY: SILENAT D. 126
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BY: SILENAT D. 127
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BY: SILENAT D. 128
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BY: SILENAT D. 129
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BY: SILENAT D. 130
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BY: SILENAT D. 131
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CHAPTER 4
THE ULS OF SHEAR AND BOND, ANCHORAGE AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
4.1 The ULS Design of Beams for Shear
Beams are designed for flexure and then the influences of other actions on its capacity are assumed.
The ULS of shear is characterized by either diagonal compression failure of concrete or failure of the web
reinforcement due to diagonal tension.
When a beam is subjected to flexure and shear, the shear resistance in the absence of shear reinforcement is
contributed by concrete compression zone, mechanical interlock of aggregate at the crack and dowel action
of the longitudinal reinforcement. The contributions of the later two are difficult to quantify.
Hence, the resistance to a diagonal tension is obtained as the sum of the resistance of the web reinforcement
and the concrete section.
In checking this resistance, the critical section for shear is assessed a distance d from the face of support.
4.2 Design Criteria
(i) Only nominal web reinforcement
When the shear force in a section does not exceed the shear strength of the concrete v
c
, only nominal web
reinforcement is provided.
V
c
= 0.25 f
ctd
K
1
K
2
b
w
d
BY: SILENAT D. 132
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Where: k
1
= 1+50 2.0
k
2
= 1.6 d 1.0, d is effective depth in m. For members where more than 50%
of the bottom reinforcement is curtailed, k
2
= 1.0.
=
d b
A
w
s
*
0.02 (b
w
= the minimum width of the web)
A
s
= the area of the tensile reinforcement anchored beyond the intersection of
the steel and the line of possible 45
0
crack starting from the edge of the section.
When V
sd
< V
c
, the section is adequate and provide nominal web reinforcement specified by longitudinal
spacing as:
(a) All beams except joists of ribbed slabs, shall be provided with at least the minimum web reinforcement
given by:
w
yk v
w
v
yk
b
f A
s
s b
A
f 4 . 0
4 . 0
max
max
min


Where: f
yk
is in MPa
A
v
= Pair area of stirrups
s = Spacing in mm
b
w
= width of web
(b) The maximum spacing s
max
between stirrups, in the longitudinal direction, shall be as given below.
s
max
= 0.5d 300mm if V
sd

RD
V
3
2
s
max
= 0.3d 200mm if V
sd
>
RD
V
3
2
(c) The transverse spacing of legs of stirrups shall not exceed d, or 800mm, which ever is the smaller.
BY: SILENAT D. 133
d
d
lb,net lb,net
Vsd Vsd
As
As
Section considered
lb,net
Vsd
45
0
45
0
45
0
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(ii) Limiting value of ultimate shear stress

In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete the shear resistance (V
Rd
) of a section shall
not be less than the applied shear force at d distance from face of support (V
sd
).
Where, V
Rd
= 0.25f
cd
b
w
d
When V
sd
> V
Rd
, the section size must be increased.
(iii) Shear reinforcement
When V
C
<VD <VRd, shear reinforcement need be provided.
s
df A
V V V
yd v
c d s
; Av = pair area of reinforcement
When inclined bars are used,
( )
s
Sin df A
V
yd v
s
cos +

Where: = the angle of inclination from the horizontal.


BY: SILENAT D. 134
As
Av
nAvf yd
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4.3. Bond, Anchorage and Development Length
4.3.1. Bond
In order for reinforced concrete to behave as intended, it is essential that bond forces be developed on the
interface between concrete and steel, such as to prevent significant slip from occurring at that interface. If the
bar is smooth enough to slip, the assumption that the strain in an embedded reinforcing bar is the same as that
in the surrounding concrete, would not be valid. Consequently, the beam would be very little stronger than if it
were built of plain concrete, without reinforcement.
Formerly
plain bars were used with provision of end anchorage in the form of hooks. Such beam forms a broken bond
over the entire length between anchorages and acts as a tied arch (Fig. 4.3.2).
BY: SILENAT D. 135
Figure 4.3.1 Bond stresses due to flexure (a) beam before loading; (b) unrestrained slip between
concrete and steel; (c) bond forces acting on concrete; (d) bond forces acting on steel.
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Figure 4.3.2 Tied arch action in a beam with little or no bond
To avoid development of wide cracks and dispense with special anchorage devices, deformed bars are now
universally used. With such bars, the shoulders of the projecting ribs bear on the surrounding concrete and
result in greatly increased bond strength.
4.3.2. Bond Stress
Figure 6.2.1 shows forces in an isolated piece of a beam of length dx. The moment at one end will generally
differ from that at the other end by a small amount dM.
Assuming that concrete does not resist any tension stresses, the change in bar force becomes,
Z
dM
x d
dM
dT

4 . 0
(Z Moment arm)
As shown in figure 4.3.1b, this force is resisted by the bond at the contact surface between bar and concrete.
Summing horizontal forces,
dT p udx

Where: u = local average bond stress per unit of bar surface area.
BY: SILENAT D. 136
Figure 4.3.2 Tied arch action in a beam with little or no bond
Figure 4.3.3 Forces and stresses acting on elemental length of beam: (a) Free body sketch of
reinforced concrete element; (b) Free body sketch of steel element.
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p
= sum of perimeters of all the bars.


p Z
V
p Z
dx dM
p dxZ
dM
p dx
dT
u
Hence, the unit bond stress is proportional to the shear at a particular section, i.e., to the rate of change of
bending moment. The above equation applies to the tension bars in a concrete zone that is assumed to be fully
cracked. It does not apply to compression reinforcement, for which it can be shown that the flexural bond
stresses are very low.
Actual distribution of flexural bond stress:
BY: SILENAT D. 137
Figure 4.3.4 variation of steel force and
bond stress in reinforced concrete member
subjected to pure bending: (a) cracked
concrete segment; (b) bond stresses acting on
reinforcing bar; (c) variation of tensile force
in steel; (d) variation of bond stress along
steel.
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BY: SILENAT D. 138
Figure 4.3.5 Effect of flexural cracks on
bond stresses in beam (a) beam with flexural
cracks; (c) variation of tensile force T in
steel along span; (d) variation of bond stress
u along span.
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4.3.3 Development Length
Ultimate bond failures for bars in tension are of two types: the first is direct pullout of the bar, which occurs
when ample confinement is provided by the surrounding concrete. The second type of failure is splitting of the
concrete along the bar when cover, confinement or bar spacing is insufficient to resist the lateral concrete
tension resulting from the wedging effect of the bar deformations. The latter if more common than the former
The development length is defined as that length of embedment necessary to develop the full tensile strength of
the bar, controlled by either pullout or splitting. Referring to figure 4.3.7, the moment, and hence the tensile
stress, is evidentially maximum at point a and zero at supports. The total tension force A
b
f
s
must be transferred
from the bar to the concrete in the distance l by bond stress on the surface.
BY: SILENAT D. 139
Figure 4.3.6 Splitting of concrete along reinforcement
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The safety against bond failure is that the length of the bar, from any point of given steel stress (f
s
or at most f
y
)
to its nearby free end must be at least equal to its development length.
The basic anchorage length, l
b
, is the straight length of bar required to anchor the force A
s
f
yd
. For a bar of
diameter-, this force must equal the shear force developed between the bar surface and the surrounding
concrete:

( )
bd
yd
b
bd b yd
s
bd b yd s
f
f
l
f l f
A But
f l f A
4
4
4
2
2

Where, f
yd
= design bond strength.
The required anchorage length l
b,net
depends on the type of anchorage and on the stress in the reinforcement and
can be calculated as:
min ,
,
,
, b
ef s
cal s
b net b
l
A
A
al l
Where, A
s,cal
= theoretical area of reinforcement required by the design.
A
s,ef
= area of reinforcement actually provided.
a
= 1.0 for straight bar anchorage in tension or compression.
0.7 for anchorage in tension with standard hooks.
For bars in tension, l
b,min
= 0.3l
b
10 or 200mm
For bars in compression, l
b,min
= 0.6l
b
10 or 200mm
BY: SILENAT D. 140
Figure 4.3.7 Development length
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Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is no longer required to resist tension for a length
given by:
(a) l
b
(b) l
b,net
d provided that in this case, the continuing bars are capable of resisting twice the applied moment
at the section.
BY: SILENAT D. 141
Figure 4.3.8 Standard Hooks
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4.3.4 Bar Cut off and Bend points
It is a common practice either to cut off bars where they are no longer required to resist stress or in case of
continuous beams, to bend up bottom steel so that it provides tensile reinforcement at the top of the beam over
the support. To determine bend points, or bar cutting points, the moment diagram resulting from loading for
maximum span moment and maximum support moment is shown below.
Recognizing the various uncertainties, for bars with no special end anchorage the full development length l
b,net
[d or 12] whichever is larger, must be provided beyond the peak stress location. The critical section may be
the point of max moment or a point where adjacent terminated reinforcement is no longer needed to resist
bending.
BY: SILENAT D. 142
Figure 4.3.9 Tensile force diagram
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In the absence of explicit calculation, the sketch shown may serve this purpose.
BY: SILENAT D. 143
Figure 4.3.10 Curtailment of reinforcement simply supported
end
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4.3.5 Bar splices
Reinforcing bars are as by fabrication limited in length, say 12 m. Thus it is normal to splice bars in the field.
To do this, one has to notice the following regarding splicing.
Splicing of bars must be avoided at points of max-moment.
Bars which are spliced should be staggered.
Splices are made simply by lapping the bars a sufficient distance to transfer stress
by bond from one bar to the other.
The required length of lap for tension is approximately 1.3l
b
and that for compression is l
b
.
BY: SILENAT D. 144
Figure 4.3.11 Simplified curtailment rules for beams
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Examples on Design of Beams for Shear using Limit State Design Method
BY: SILENAT D. 145
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BY: SILENAT D. 146
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BY: SILENAT D. 147
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BY: SILENAT D. 148
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BY: SILENAT D. 149
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BY: SILENAT D. 150
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BY: SILENAT D. 151
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BY: SILENAT D. 152
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BY: SILENAT D. 153
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BY: SILENAT D. 154
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Assignment-4
Question No. 3
Question No. 4
BY: SILENAT D. 155
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Design of Typical Beam
Design of Continuous Beam on typical floor of a certain building
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5 S6
S13 S14
500 400 400 500
4
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
S7
S8
S9 S10 S11 S12
Depth determination
Section of the Beam
D=450mm b=250mm
f
cd
=11.33Mpa
f
yd
=260.87Mpa
BY: SILENAT D. 156
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Concrete Cover=25mm Reinf. Bar = 14mm
Stirrup=8mm
Exterior Span,
d= (0.4+0.6
a
e
yk
L
f

)
400

= 0.85
mm
L
a
e
78 . 151
28
5000
85 . 0

assume, 155mm
Overall depth, D = 155+25+7+8 = 195mm < D
used
= 450mm
Interior Span,
d= (0.4+0.6
a
e
yk
L
f

)
400

d = 0.85
667 . 141
24
4000
85 . 0
a
e
L

assume, 145mm
Overall depth, D = 145+25+7+8 = 185mm < D
used
= 450mm
Design for Flexural Reinforcement
Calculate minimum reinforcement for beam according to EBCS 2, 1995, it is:-

min
=
002 . 0
300
6 . 0 6 . 0

yk
f
[EBCS 2,1995 Part 2 Section 7.2.1.1]
A
smin
= bd = 0.002*250*410 = 205mm
2
Design of Member T-10 left support
Moment = 119.97 KN-m
Critical moment at the face of Column = 0.9*119.97 = 107.97KN-m

us
=
01416 . 0
41 . 0 * 25 . 0 * 10 * 33 . 11
1000 * 97 . 107
* *
2 6 2

d b f
M
cd
sd
0.01416 < 0.2952 , It is singly reinforced beam.
From chart, K
z
= 0.98 Z = K
z
* d = 0.98*0.41 = 0.4018
BY: SILENAT D. 157
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As =
2
6
122 . 1030
10 * 87 . 260 * 4018 . 0
1000 * 9749 . 107
*
mm
f Z
M
yd
sd

No. of bars 69 . 6
938 . 153
122 . 1030
assume 7 bars
Use 714 A
s,provided
= 1077.568mm
2
.

Member F-66 L,
y' = m 71 . 56
7
) 79 * 3 ( ) 40 * 4 (

+
d = 450-56.71 = 393.28mm.

us
= 2464 . 0
3932 . * 25 . 0 * 10 * 333 . 11
1000 * 974 . 107
2 6

k
z
= 0.85 , Z =0.3342 , A
s
= 1238.15mm
2
, use 814 A
s provided
=1238.15mm
2
BY: SILENAT D. 158
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Member Support Moment
(KN-m)

us
k
z
Z A
s
(mm
2
)
No. of
bars
A
s provided
(mm
2
)
T-10 Left 107.974 0.01416 0.85 0.3342 1238.15

814 1231.49
Right 89.734 0.1884 0.87 0.3419 1066.05 7 14 1077.568
T-11 Left 41.458 0.0870 0.95 0.3895 408.01 3 14 461.814
Right 52.613 0.1104 0.93 0.3813 528.934 4 14 615.752
T-12 Left 51.017 0.1071 0.94 0.3854 507.44 4 14 615.752
Right 42.985 0.0902 0.94 0.3854 427.549 3 14 461.814
T-13 Left 86.143 0.1964 0.89 0.3649 904.952 6 14 923.628
Right 111.488 0.2547 0.85 0.3342 1238.15 8 14 1231.49
Design of positive moment on each Beam
Member T-10
Span moment 59.2017 KN-m
Check for T-beam
a) be = bw +
5
e
L
b) be = C/C spacing between beams
= 250 +
5
5000
=5000mm
= 1250mm
Therefore, be = 1250mm governs.
M =
77 . 28
10 * 333 . 11 * 8 . 0
10 * 87 . 260
8 . 0
6
6

cd
yd
f
f
C1 = 08688 . 0
77 . 28
5 . 2 5 . 2

m
C2 = 0.32* m
2
*f
cd
= 0.32*28.77*11.333*10
6
= 3002
BY: SILENAT D. 159
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Moment = 59.2017KN-m
=
)
* *
4
(
2
1
2
2
2
1 1
C d b
M
C C
e

=
3002 * 410 * 1050
) 10 * 2017 . 59 ( 4
007549 . 0 08688 . 0 (
2
1
2
6
)
= 0.0013
<
min
0.0013<0.002, therefore, 0.002 governs.
X = *m*d = 0.002*28.77*410 = 23.5914mm
Y = 0.8X = 0.8*23.5914 = 18.873mm < h
f
=150mm. The beam is
rectangular.
A
s
= *be*d = 0.002 (1250)(410)
= 1025mm
2
No. of bar = bars
mm
mm
7 65 . 6
938 . 153
1025
2
2

Use 714 A
s provided
= 7(153.938) = 1077.567mm
2
y' = mm 85 . 67
7
) 118 * 1 ( ) 79 * 3 ( ) 40 * 3 (

+ +
d = D-y'= 450-67.85 = 382.14mm.
Re-calculate A
s
and check the new effective depth will change the reinforcement.
As = *be*d = (0.002)*(1250)*(382.14) = 955.35mm
2
.
BY: SILENAT D. 160
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
No.of bars Re-calculate = assume
mm
mm
, 2 . 6
938 . 153
35 . 955
2
2
7 bars.
Use 714 A
s provided
=1077.567mm
2
.

Membe
r
Moment
(KN-m)

min
A
s
(mm
2
)
No. of
bars
A
s provided
(mm
2
)
T-10 59.2017 0.002 955.35 714 1077.567
T-11 24.5233 0.002 820.00 6 14 923.628
T-12 24.5617 0.002 820.00 6 14 923.628
T-13 59.1943 0.002 955.35 7 14 1077.567
Design for Shear
The minimum web reinforcement

min
=
001333 . 0
300
4 . 0 4 . 0

yk
f
[EBCS 2, 1995 Sec.7.2.12]
The maximum spacing between stirrups
S
max
= 0.5d < 300mm , if V
sd
<2/3V
rd
(EBCS 2,1995 Sec.3.5.4.1b)
S
max
= 0.3d < 200mm , if V
sd
>2/3 V
rd
Where :- V
sd
= acting shear along critical section
V
rd
= shear resistance of section.
V
rd
= 0.25 f
cd
*b
w
*d (EBCS 2, 1995 Sec.4.5.2.1)
The minimum shear resistance of concrete in beams
V
c
= 0.25*f
ctd
*k
1
*k
2
*b
w
*d (EBCS 2, 1995 Sec 4.5.3.1.1)
Where :- k
1
= (1+50) <2.0
k
2
= 1.6-d >1.0 (d in meters). For members where more than 50% of
the bottom

Reinforcement is contained, k
2
=1.
BY: SILENAT D. 161
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
= As/bd
Design of Shear Reinforcement
For longitudinal axis,
V
s
=
S
f d A
yd v
* *
(EBCS 2, 1995 Sec 4.5.4.4)
Where: - A
v
= is the area of shear resistance within the distance S.
Design for Shear Reinforcement
Span T-10
= 0125 . 0
17 . 393 * 250
938 . 153 * 8

bd
A
s
k
1
= (1+50) <2.0
= (1+50*0.0125) <2.0
= 1.626 <2.0

k
2
= (1.6-d) > 1.0
= (1.6-0.41) >1.0
= 1.19 >1.0
V
c
= 0.25*f
ctd
*k
1
*k
2
*b
w
*d
= 0.25*(1.03*106)*1.626*1.19*0.25*0.41
= 47.918 KN.
V
rd
= 0.25 * f
cd
* b
w
* d
= 0.25 * (11.33*10
6
) *0.25 * 0.41
= 290.408 KN.
BY: SILENAT D. 162
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
V
sd
right = KN 959 . 100 1787 . 131 *
57493 . 2
) 20 . 0 39317 . 0 ( 57493 . 2

+

V
sd
left = KN 215 . 105 2857 . 139 *
425 . 2
) 20 . 0 39317 . 0 ( 425 . 2

+
V
sd
< 2/3V
rd
, 105.215KN < 193.605KN , No diagonal compression failure.
Hence, V
sd
> V
c
, apply reinforcement to the web. Therefore,
Smax = 0.5*410 = 205mm ,
Use Smax = 200mm.
V
s
= KN
S
f d A
yd v
881 . 26
200
87 . 260 * 410 * 265 . 50
* *

V
tot
= V
s
+V
c
= 26.881 + 47.918 = 74.799KN
S =
, 00 . 49
215 . 105
87 . 260 * 17 . 393 * 265 . 50
mm
V
df A
s
yd v

consider 50mm.
Hence, provide 8 c/c 200mm stirrup for the whole span.
Member Support K1 Vc
(KN)
Vrd
(KN)
Vsd
(KN)
Smax
(mm)
Vs
(KN)
Vtot
(KN)
T-10 Left 0.0105 1.525 47.88 290.41 104.2 8c/c50mm 26.88 74.76
Right 0.0105 1.525 47.88 290.41 100.1 8c/c50mm 26.88 74.76
T-11 Left 0.0045 1.225 38.48 290.41 50.26 8c/c100mm 26.88 65.36
Right 0.006 1.300 40.83 290.41 56.46 8c/c90mm 26.88 67.71
T-12 Left 0.006 1.300 40.83 290.41 55.59 8c/c90mm 26.88 67.71
Right 0.0045 1.225 38.48 290.41 51.34 8c/c100mm 26.88 65.36
T-13 Left 0.0090 1.451 45.558 290.41 96.57 8c/c50mm 26.88 72.44
Right 0.012 1.600 50.253 290.41 107.8 8c/c50mm 26.88 77.13
For mid span of each beam, we use minimum shear spacing of
Use
T-10 8c/c 50mm , T-11 8c/c 90mm, T-12 8c/c 90mm, T-138c/c 50mm
BY: SILENAT D. 163
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Development Length
Every reinforcement at each end must be anchored in order to avoid any bond failure.
Basic anchorage length,
Type of reinforced bar deformed rough bar.
L
bnet
=
mm L
A
A aL
b
eff s
scal b
200 3 . 0
*
.
.
> >

= mm 225 . 443
10 * 03 . 1 * 2 * 4
87 . 260 * 14
6

f
ctk
= 1.547Mpas .... for C-25
f
ctd
= 1.03 Mpas
f
bd
= 2*f
ctd
= 2*1.038 = 2.06Mpas.
Support T-10 Left
A
scal
= 1238.15mm
2
.
A
s.eff
. = 1231.15mm
2
.
L
bnet
= mm 225 . 443
49 . 1231
15 . 1238 * 225 . 443 * 1

Therefore, use L
bnet
= 443.225mm
Member Suppor
t
A
s.cal
(mm
2
)
A
s.eff.
(mm
2
)
L
b
.
(mm)
L
b.net
(mm)
T-10 Left 1238 1231.49 443.225 443.225
Right 942.66 1077.568 443.225 387.734
T-11 Left 408.01 461.814 443.225 391.586
Right 528.934 615.752 443.225 380.732
T-12 Left 507.44 615.752 443.225 365.261
Right 427.549 461.814 443.225 410.339
T-13 Left 904.952 923.625 443.225 434.264
Right 1085.00 1231.49 443.225 390.501
BY: SILENAT D. 164
ARBAMINCH UNIVERSITY
CE-451
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
RC-I
Curtailment of Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcement
Longitudinal Flexural Reinforcement should extend up to or above the zero moment.
Length of bar
Support T-10 Left = 1.09+.44+0.2 = 1.74m.
Support T-11 Left = 0.94+0.79+(2*.39) = 2.51m.
Support T-11 Right & T-12 Left = 0.95+0.93+(2*.38) = 2.6m.
Support T-12 Right & T-13 Left = 0.81+0.91+(2*0.43) = 2.59m.
Support T-13 Right = 1.12+0.39+0.2 = 1.71mts.
BY: SILENAT D. 165