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SOLUTIONS

PERCENT, MOLAR, NORMAL, SATURATED


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Percent

Molar

Normal

Solutions from Solutions and Titrations

Concentrated Solutions (making solutions from concentrated solutions)

Saturated

We use reagents primarily in solution form. They are made up as percent solutions or molar or
normal solutions. Rarely do you ever see molar solutions. All of these terms are just a means of
naming the concentration of solutions.

PERCENT SOLUTIONS
There are three types of percent solutions. All are parts of solute per 100 total parts of solution.

Based on the following definitions you may calculate the concentration of a solution or calculate
how to make up a specific concentration.

1. % W/W -

Percent of weight of solute in the total weight of the solution. Percent here is the number of
grams of solute in 100 grams of solution.

Example:

A 100% (W/W) NaCl solution is made by weighing 100 g NaCL and dissolving in 100 g of
solution.

2. % W/V -
Percent of weight of solution in the total volume of solution. Percent here is the number of grams
of solute in 100 mL of solution. This is probably the least significant way of naming a solution,
but the most common way of doing it. In fact, any percent solution not stipulated as W/W, W/V,
or V/V is assumed to be % W/V.

Example:

A 4% (W/V) NaCl solution is 4 g of NaCl in 100 mL of solution.

3. % V/V -

Percent of volume of solute in the total volume of solution %V/V. Percent here is the number of
milliliters of solute in 100 mL of solution.

Example:

A 10% (V/V) ethanol solution is 10 mL of ethanol in 100 mL of solution; unless otherwise


stated, water is the solvent.

So now, here are some applications

1. What is the percent concentration of a solution that you made by taking 5.85 g of NaCl and
diluting to 100 mL with H20?

5.85 g/100 mL = 5.85% W/V solution of NaCl

2. What is the percent concentration of a solution that you made by taking 40 g of CaCl2 and
diluting to 500 mL with H20?

You set up a proportion problem.

40 g /500 mL = Xg /100 mL

X = 8g

8g/100 mL = 8% (W/V) solution

OR another way to look at this is, 40 grams solute is what percent of the 500 mL solution? The
100 is used to convert to percent.

3. How would you make 250 mL of a 8.5% NaCl solution?

This works backwards from the others --


8.5%= 8.5 g /100 mL

Again, set up a proportion

8.5 g /100 mL= X / 250 mL

21.3 g = X

OR an alternative method is to say what is 8.5% of 250 mL?

250 x 0.085 = 21.3

Therefore you would need to weigh out 21.3 g NaCl and dilute to 250 mL with H20.

4. How much (volume) 0.85% NaCl may be made from 2.55 g NaCl?

An 0.85% NaCl solution = 0.85 g/100 mL

Setting up a proportion again,

0.85 g /100 mL = 2.55 g/X

X = 300 mL

Therefore, 300 mL of 0.85% NaCl may be made from 2.55 g NaCl.

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MOLAR SOLUTIONS (M)


The definition of molar solution is a solution that contains 1 mole of solute in each liter of
solution. A mole is the number of gram molecular weights (gmw). Therefore, we can also say a
1M = 1 gMW solute/liter solution.

1M NaCl solution would be

Na = MW of 23

Cl = MW of 35.5
NaCl = MW of 58.5

1M = 58.5 g of NaCl in 1 liter of solution.

It may be made by weighing out 58.5 g of NaCl and qs to 1 liter with water. The qs stands for
quality sufficient and is a term used to designate that the total volume must be 1 liter (or
whatever is stated).

58.5 g NaCl qs 1 liter with H20

Examples of other solutions would be

1 M H2S04 = 98 g/L

1 M H3P04 = 98 g/L

PROBLEMS

Let's look at some problems as examples.

1. How would you make a liter of 4M CaCl2?

First find molecular weights.

Ca = 40

Cl2 = 35.5 x 2 = 71

CaCl2 = 111 (MW)

Then,

1M = 111 g/L

4M = 4 (111 g/L)

= 444 g/L

Weigh out 444g CaCl2 qs 1 liter with H20

2. How would you make 300 mL of a 0.5M NaOH solution?

First find molecular weights.


Na = 23

0 = 16

H=1

NaOH = 40 (MW)

Then,

1M = 40 g/L

0.5M = 0.5 (40 g/L)

= 20 g/L

But you only want 300 mL so . . .

20 /1000 mL = x /300 mL

6g=x

Weigh out 6 g NaOH pellets qs. 300 mL with H20

3. You weighed out 58.5 g of NaCl and diluted it to 250 mL. What is the molarity of the
solution?

Set up a proportion to find the equivalent in a liter.

58.5 g /250 mL = x / 1000 mL

x = 234 g /1000 mL = 234 g / 1L

Since 1M = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 g/L

Set up another proportion.

x /234 g/L = 1 M /58.5 g/L

4M=x

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NORMAL SOLUTIONS:
The definition of a normal solution is a solution that contains 1 gram equivalent weight (gEW)
per liter solution. An equivalent weight is equal to the molecular weight divided by the valence
(replaceable H ions).

1N NaCl = 58.5 g/L

1N HCl = 36.5 g/L

1N H2S04 = 49 g/L

Problems involving normality are worked the same as those involving molarity but the valence
must be considered:

1N HCL the MW= 36.5 the EW = 36.5 and 1N would be 36.5 g/L

1N H2SO4 the MW = 98 the EW = 49 and 1N would be 49 g/L

1N H3PO4 the MW = 98 the EW = 32.7 and 1N would be 32.7 g/L

PROBLEMS:

1. You weigh out 80 g of NaOH pellets and dilute to 1 liter. What is the normality?

MW of NaOH = 40

EW = 40

1N = 40 g/L

80 g/L /40 g/L = 2N

What is the molarity?

MW = 40

1M = 40 g/L

80 g/L /40 g/L = 2M


2. You weighed out 222g of CaCl2 and diluted to 1 liter. What is the normality?

EW = 111 /2 = 5.55

1N = 55.5 g/L

222 g/L /55.5 g/L = 4N

What is the molarity?

1M = 111 g/L

222 g/L /111 g/L = 2M

Then the molarity times the valence equals the normality.

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SOLUTIONS FROM SOLUTIONS AND TITRATIONS:


Many times the solutions we make are made from more concentrated solutions rather than dry
chemicals. For figuring these out it can just be easier to remember a formula than figuring them
out.

That formula is:

V1C1 = V2C2

where V = volume

C = concentration (%, M, N)

1 = the more concentrated solution

2 = the new (dilute) solution

or in other words the volume of a concentrated solution times its concentration will contain the
proper amount of chemical to give the volume of a weaker solution times its concentration.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:
1. How much 12 N HCl do you need to make 400 mL of 2N solution?

V1C1 = V2C2

V1 (12N) = (400 mL) (2N)

V1 = 400 x 2 mL / 12

V1 = 66.67 mL or 66.7 mL

2. You took 100 mL of a concentrated acid and made 2 liters of 0.5 N solution. What was the
normality of the original solution?

V1C1 = V2C2

(100 mL) C1 = (2L) (0.5N)

Units on both sides of the formula must agree. Since the units for volume are not the same, 2L
should be converted to 2,000 mL (or 100 mL converted to 0.1 L)

(100 mL) C1 = (2,000 mL) (0.5N)

C1 = (2000 mL x 0.5 N) / 100 mL

C1 = 10.0N

3. How much 7M H2S04 will you need to make 100 mL of 7N H2S04?

This formula only works when concentrations are expressed in the same units. Therefore the

7M H2S04 should be converted to normality first. Another way this formula may be used is to
solve for how much diluted solution may be prepared.

7M H2S04 = 14N H2S04

V1C1 = V2C2

V1(14N) = (100 mL) (7N)

V1 = (100 x 7N) mL / 14N

V1 = 50 mL
4. How much 0.2N H2S04 may be made from 80 mL of 12N H2S04?

V1C1 = V2C2

(80 mL) (12N) = V2 (0.2N)

[(80 mL) (12N)] / (0.2N) = V2

4800 mL = V2

This formula (V1C1 = V2C2) may also be used to calculate concentration when one solution of
known concentration is titrated to neutrality against a second (unknown concentration) solution.

Example: You used 10 mL of HCl to titrate to neutrality with 15 mL of 1N NaOH. What is the
concentration of HCl?

V1C1 = V2C2

(10 mL) (C) = (15 mL) (1N)

C = 1.5N

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Now, you may want to practice a few problems.

5-1. How much NaCl will you need to make 100 mL of 0.85% (W/V) NaCl?

5-2. How much CaCl2 will you need to make 100 mL of 4% (W/V) CaCl2?

5-3. How much isopropanol will you need to make 100 mL of 75% (V/V) isopropanol?

5-4. How much NaCl do you need to make 2 liters of 0.85% (W/V) NaCl?

5-5. How much CaCl2 will you need to make 25 mL of 4% (W/V) CaCl2?

5-6. How much NaOH do you need to make 1 liter of 1M NaOH?


5-7. How much NaOH do you need to make 1 liter of 3M NaOH?

5-8. How much CaCl2 do you need to make 500 mL of 4M CaCl2?

5-9. How much BaS04 do you need to weigh to make 1 liter of 1N BaSO4?

5-10. How much BaSO4 do you need to weigh to make 1 liter of 5N BaSO4?

5-11. How much CaCl2 do you need to weigh to make 1500 mL of 3N CaCl2?

5-12. If you weighed 10g of NaOH and diluted to 100 mL with water, what is the concentration
of % W/V?

5-13. If you measured 15 mL of ethanol and diluted to 50 mL, what is the concentration of the
solution in % V/V?

5-14. If you weighed 40g of NaOH and diluted it to 1 liter with water what is the molarity of the
solution?

5-15. If you weighed 160g of NaOH and diluted it to 1 liter with water what is the molarity of
the solution?

5-16. If you weighed 320 g of NaOH and diluted it to 2 liters with water what is the molarity of
the solution?

5-17. If you weighed 25g of CaCl2 and diluted to 1 liter with water, what is the normality of the
solution?

5-18. If you weighed 160g of NaCl and diluted to 500 mL, what is the molarity of the solution?

5-19. If you weighed 320g of NaOH and qs to 2,500 mL with water, what is the N?

5-20. If you weighed 555g of CaCl2 and qs to 500 mL with water, what is the N? and M?

5-21. How will you make 3L of 4N NaOH from 12N NaOH?

5-22. How much 2N H2S04 can be made from 12 mL of 36M H2S04?

5-23. What is the N of HCl when 3 mL of 10N is diluted to 500 mL?

5-24. What is the normality of a NaOH solution when 12.5 mL of it was used to titrate 5.0 mL of
2N HCl to neutrality?
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CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS:
Concentrated acids and bases and other stock reagents exist as liquids and usually do not have
their concentrations listed as %, M or N. They usually have specific gravity or density of the
solution. The concentration may be calculated from this. Then how to make the weaker solution
from this concentration solution is determined. So when the only information about the
concentration of a concentrated solution is specific gravity and percent assay, we must first
calculate concentration.

Specific Gravity for all purposes is the number of grams per milliliter.

For example:

HCl sp. gr. = 1.080 would mean that there is 1.080 g of HCl in every mL of solution.

Since N is in gEW per liter we need to convert to liter.

1.080 g/mL = 1080 g/L

If 1 N = 36.5 g/L

then 1080 g/L / 36.5 g/L = 29.6N

One problem with most purchased solutions, even the best, is that they are not pure. Some of that
weight is due to other substances. But the bottle will state the percent assay or what percent is
really there.

e.g., 95% HCl would mean that 95% of 1.080 is HCl.

In that case

(1080) (0.95) = 1026 g/L

Now that we know the amount of solute per volume of solution, we may calculate concentration.

If we want to know concentration in % (W/V), we say (as in previous problems)


1026g / 1L is the same as 1026g /1000 mL

1026g /1000 mL = X / 100 mL

X = 102.6 g

If we have 102.6 g/100 mL that is 102.6%.

If we had wanted to know concentration as molarity we would proceed as with other molarity
problems:

1 M HCl = 36.5 g/L

1M / 36.5 g/L = X / 1026 g/L

28.1 M = X

Of course, your problem may be more than just determining concentration. You may need to
make up 5 liters of 0.02N H2S04 from concentrated H2S04 on the shelf. The bottle states:

sp. gr. = 1.64

% assay = 80%

You don't give up and leave, you remember what you did in your lab math program -- which
was:

First calculate the concentration of the H2S04 in the bottle.

Sp. gr. = 1.64

= 1.64 g/mL

= 1640 g/L

% assay = 80%

Therefore, 1640 x 0.80 = 1312 g/L of H2S04

MW H2S04 = 98

E.W. = 49
1N H2S04 = 49 g/L

1312 g/L / 49 g/L= 26.8N

Second, once you know the concentration, plug it into the formula.

V1C1 = V2C2

V1 (26.8N) = (5,000 mL) (0.02N)

V1 = (5000 mL x 0.02 N) / 26.8 N

V1 = 3.7 mL

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Saturated Solutions:
Often a procedure requires a saturated solution and does not stipulate an exact quantity that you
need to weigh. The laboratory will have a Handbook of Physics and Chemistry or Chemistry
Handbook which, among other information, lists the saturation index of compounds in water
(and other solutions may be listed). Often this is listed as the number of grams of the chemical
(solute) per 100 mL of solvent. For example, the solubility of KCl in cold water is 34.7. To make
100 mL of saturated KCl you would weigh >34.7g of KCl and qs to 100 mL.

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MORE PROBLEMS TO TRY:

5-25. How many milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid, specific gravity 1.84, 98 percent H2S04
by weight, are required to prepare 3 liters of 0.2N solution?

5-26. You have the following concentrated commercial reagents on hand:

Make 1 liter of 6N reagent from each of them. What is the normality of each concentrated
reagent?
HCl sp. gr. = 1.18 and 37% assay

HNO3 sp. gr. = 1.42 and 70% assay

H2S04 sp. gr. = 1.84 and 98% assay

NH4OH sp. gr. = 0.90 and 58% assay

H (CH3 C00) sp. gr. = 1.05 and 99% assay

5-27. How would you make 500 mL of saturated (N02)3C6H20H? The solubility is 1.4 g/100 mL.

5-28. If the solubility of NaOH is 42 in g/100 mL of cold water, what is the normality of a
saturated NaOH solution?

5-29. You have a solution of HCl that has a specific gravity of 1.100 and 89% assay. What is the
normality?

5-30. How would you make 500 mL of 0.2N CaCl2 solution from a stock solution with a sp. gr.
of 1.32 and 75% assay?

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More Review questions to work

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Here is another site at the University of Tennessee - Memphis that also has a tutorial on solution
preparation

Go to Anahydrous/Hydrated Solutions