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PRESENT IMPERF FUTURE

ACTIVE o/m, s, t, mus, tis, nt ba+ b+/am+


b, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt am, s, et, mus, tis, ent

bor, beris, bitur, bimur, bimin, buntur ar, ris, tur, mur, min, entur

PASSIVE r, ris, tur, mur, min, ntur ba+ bo+/ar+ ppp + sum ppp + eram ppp + er
gen pl dat pl acc pl abl pl

PERFECT , ist, it, imus, istis, runt PLUPERF eram, ers, erat, ermus, ertis, erant FUT PERF er, eris, erimus, eritis, erint
nom sing 1st f 2nd m 2nd n 3rd mf 3rd n 4th m 4th n 5th f gen sing dat sing acc sing abl sing nom pl

-a -us/-er -um (var) (var) us s

-ae - - -is -is s s e

-ae - - - - u e

-am -um -um -em (nom) um em

- - - -e/-(adj) -e/-

-ae - -a

-rum -rum -rum

-s -s -s

-s -s -a -s -a/-ia s ua s

-s -s -s -ibus -ibus ibus ibus bus

-s -um/-ium -ibus -a/-ia -um/-ium -ibus s ua s uum uum rum ibus ibus bus

Personal pronouns
singular plural singular plural sing/plur nominative ego I ns we t you vs you genitive me of me nostr of us tu of you vestr of you su dative mihi to/for me nbs to/for us tibi to/for you vbs to/for you sibi
to/for him/her/themselves

of him/her/themselves

him/her/themselves

accusative m me ns us t you vs you s

by him/her/themselves

ablative m by me nbs by us t by you vbs by you s

is he, ea she, id it; that. Endings prefixed by e. Bold varies from standard endings. sing. male sing. female sing. neuter plur. male plur. female nom is ea id e eae gen eius eius eius erum erum dat e e e es es acc eum eam id es es abl e e e es es

Demonstrative pronouns
plur. neuter ea erum es ea es

Modern English uses the same forms - you - for singular and plural; Latin has separate forms. s has the same forms for singular and plural. s has no nominative since it is only used to refer back to the subject of the verb (see below). ego, t, ns, vs are used in the nominative only for emphasis, e.g. ego labr, t ldis I am working, you are playing. ns festnmus, vs lent ambultis We are hurrying, you are going slowly. Personal pronouns can he used reflexively, i.e. referring back to the subject of the verb, e.g. ego m lav I wash myself je me lave t t lavs you wash yourself tu te laves ille s lavat he washes himself il se lave ns ns lavmus we wash ourselves nous nous lavons vs vs lavtis you wash yourselves vous vous lavez ill s lavant they wash themselves ils se lavent Note that although Latin says m lav (I wash myself), in English we can say simply I wash. So also Scintilla s parat (Scintilla prepares herself), but we usually say prepares, gets ready. And pater s vertit (father turns himself), where we usually say turns. In Latin such transitive verbs (i.e. verbs requiring an object) usually have the reflexive pronoun as the object where English can use the verb intransitively (i.e. without any object).

ille he, illa she, illud it; that. Endings prefixed by ill. Bold varies from standard endings. sing. male sing. female sing. neuter plur. male plur. female plur. neuter nom ille illa illud ill illae illa gen illus illus illus illrum illrum illrum dat ill ill ill ills ills ills acc illum illam illud ills ills illa abl ill ill ill ills ills ills hic, haec, hoc this (here). Endings prefixed by h. Bold varies from standard endings. sing. male sing. female sing. neuter plur. male plur. female plur. neuter nom hic haec hoc h hae haec gen huus huus huus hrum hrum hrum dat huic huic huic hs hs hs acc hunc hanc hoc hs hs haec abl hc hc hc hs hs hs ipse, ipsa, ipsum self (emphasizing, e.g. Flaccus ipse Flaccus himself; Hortia ipsa Horatia herself; e ips tempore at that very time). Endings prefixed by ips. Bold varies from standard endings. sing. male sing. female sing. neuter plur. male plur. female plur. neuter nom ipse ipsa ipsum ips ipsae ipsa gen ipsus ipsus ipsus ipsrum ipsrum ipsrum dat ips ips ips ipss ipss ipss acc ipsum ipsam ipsum ipss ipss ipsa abl ips ips ips ipss ipss ipss