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A DICTIONARY OF

JAPANESE PARTICLES
Sue A. Kawashima

KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL
Tokyo New York London

To my students

PREFACE

Although there are many difficult grammatical points that a student must master in learning the Japanese language, particles belong in a class by themselves. Appearing in nearly every sentence, they are absolutely crucial to a proper understanding of the intended meaning. A student may possess a large vocabulary and a good grasp of verb conjugation, but without a firm command of particles he or she cannot hope to construct consistently cor rect sentences. In choice and placement, particles can completely transform the meaning of two sentences that are otherwise exactly the same. Throughout my teaching career I have felt that particles were the key to learning Japanese. Though not a linguist, I have many years of teaching expe rience, and in this book I hope to have made good use of that experience by helping students come to a better understanding of particle usage. If the stu dent benefits in any substantial way, I will feel my efforts have been rewarded. I wish to thank my students at Hunter College, who, by posing many thought-provoking questions, have contributed to the making of this book. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Tetsuo Kuramochi of Kodansha International, who helped to bring about this incarnation of the original edition, Particles Plus. Lastly, I am indebted for much of the translation herein to my daughter, a professor of Japanese literature, who has edited all of my work.

Sue A. Kawashima Spring, 1999

Previously published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Japan as Particles Plus. Distributed in the United States by Kodansha America, Inc., 575 Lexington Avenue, New York N.Y. 10022, and in the United Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha Europe Ltd., 95 Aldwych, London WC2B 4JF. Published by Kodansha International Ltd., 17-14 Otowa 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8652, and Kodansha America, Inc. Copyright 1999 by Sue Kawashima All rights reserved. Printed in Japan First edition, 1999 99 0001 0 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 4-7700-2352-9

CONTENTS

PREFACE INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................

(C.P. = Combination Particles)

....................................................................................................1 B A K A R I ..................................................................................... 5 DAKE ............................................................................................ 10 DAKE-NI ( C P . ) ......................................................................13 DANO ............................................................................................ 14 D A T T E .....................................................................................15 DE ....................................................................................................17 DEMO ............................................................................................ 26 D O K O R O ................................................................................. 29 D O K O R O K A ......................................................................... 29 DOMO ........................................................................................ 30 E ....................................................................................................... 30 GA ....................................................................................................34 G A - N A (G A - N A A ) - ( CP.) ........................................ G A T E R A ................................................................................. 42 HODO ............................................................................................ 43 HOKA ............................................................................................ 45 I ....................................................................................................... 45 KA ....................................................................................................46 KA-I (CP_) ................................................................................. K A -N A (K A -N A A ) (- C_P.) ........................................ KARA 6 ............................................................................................ KARA-SHITE -(C.P.) ........................................................... KASHIRA ................................................................................. 66 KE ....................................................................................................69
BA

42

51 52 53 65

KEREDOMO (KEREDO KEDO KEDOMO)

.............................................................. 70 ................................................................................................73 KOSO ............................................................................................ 75 KOTO ............................................................................................ 77 KURAI(GURAI) ................................................... 79 KUSE-NI -(CP.) ...................................................................... 81 MADE ............................................................................................ 83 MADE-MO - (CP.) .................................................................. 88 MADE-NI - CP.) ...................................................................... 89 MO ....................................................................................................91 MONO ........................................................................................ 98 M O N O -D E (M O N -D E ) -( - CP.) ............................. 99 M O N O K A (M O N K A ) ( ............................................100 MONONARA (M O N - N A R A ) - ......................... 101 MONONO ................................................................................. 102 M0N0-0 - ................................................................................. 103 N A ( N A A ) ( ......................................................................... 105 N A D O (N A N K A ) ( .......................................................108 NAGARA ................................................................................. 110 NAGARA-MO -( C P . ) ...........................................................111 N A N T E .....................................................................................112 NARI ............................................................................................ 113 N-DE - ( C P . ) ............................................................................. 115 N E ( N E E ) ( ......................................................................... 116 Nl I ....................................................................................................... 118 NI-MO - ( C . P . ) ............................................................................. 136 ISH-MO-KAKAWARA-ZU -- ( C P . ) ......................... 137 NI-OI-TE -- C . P _ ) .............................................................. 138 NI-SHITE -( C .P .) ......................................................................140 NI-SHITE-MO --( C . P . ) .......................................................140 NI-SHITE-WA --( C P _ ) .......................................................141 NITE ............................................................................................ 142 N O ( N ) ( ................................................................................. 143
KIRI

NO-DA ( N - D A ) - - C P . ) ............................................... 158 N O - D A R O O (N - D A R O O ) - - C . P . ) ................. 159 NODE ( N - D E ) ( - .............................................................. 160

- ( C .P . ) ............................................................................. 162 -( C . P . ) ...........................................................163 N O-DESHOO(N -D ESH OO ) - - C . P . ) 164 N O -D E SU (N -D ESU ) -( ) ( C P . ) ................................ 164 NOMI ............................................................................................ 166 NONI ............................................................................................ 167 NO-NI - C . P . ) ............................................................................. 169 O(W O ) ............................................................................................ 170
NO-DE NO-DEARU SA tr ....................................................................................................177 SAE ................................................................................................ 179

....................................................................................................180 ............................................................................................ 182 SHIMO .........................................................................................183 SURA ............................................................................................ 185 TARA ............................................................................................ 186 TARI ............................................................................................ 188 T A T T E .....................................................................................189 TE ....................................................................................................190 TEBA ............................................................................................ 195 T E M O (D E M O ) .................................................................. 196 TE-NE ( C . P . ) ............................................................................. 198 TE-WA -(C .P .) ............................................................................. 198 TO ....................................................................................................200 TO-IE-BA --(CP_) .............................................................. 210 TO-II -(CP.) ............................................................................. 210 TO-ITTA -(C.P.) .................................................................. 211 TO-ITTE -(C . ) .................................................................. 211 TO-IWA-ZU - (CP.) ........................................................... 212 TOKA ............................................................................................ 213 TOKORO ................................................................................. 215 T O K O R O D E ..........................................................................215
SHI SHIKA

TOKORO-E TOKORO-O

- (C_P.) .............................................................. 216

T O K O R O G A ......................................................................... 216

......................................................................... 217 ............................................................................................ 218 TO-MO - C.P.) ......................................................................... 220 TO-MO-ARE -(CP.) ........................................................... 220 TO-SHI-TE - -(CP.) .............................................................. 222 TO-SHITE-MO --(CP.) ....................................................... 223 TO-SHITE-WA --(C.P.) ....................................................... 224 TO-WA -(C.P.) ......................................................................... 225 TO-WA-IE --(CP.) .............................................................. 226 TO-YUU -(CP.) ...................................................................... 227 TO-YUU-KOTO-WA ---(C.P.) .................................... 229 TO -YU U -N O -W A(M O) --( C.P.) ......................... 230 TO-YUU-TO --(C.P.) ........................................................... 231
TOMO TTE WA WA YA

................................................................................................232

It .................................................................................................... 235

....................................................................................................239 ....................................................................................................241 YAI ................................................................................................246 YA-INA-YA -- (C.P.) ........................................................... 247 YARA ............................................................................................ 248 YO ....................................................................................................251 YORI ............................................................................................ 253 ZE ....................................................................................................257 ZO ....................................................................................................258 ZUTSU ........................................................................................ 259

M ASTERING PARTICLES PATTERNS

EXERCISES..............................................................................

261

ANSW ER KEYS ......................................................................................................................... 319 .................................................................................................................................. 324

GLOSSARY (English-Japanese) ................................................................. 329 GLOSSARY (Japanese-English) ................................................................. 339

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION OF PARTICLES
1 ) A particle ( joshi) in the Japanese language follows a word to: A) show its relationship to other words in a sentence, and/or B) give that word a particular meaning or nuance. 2) Unlike verbs, adjectives and adverbs, particles are not inflected, and therefore stay in the same form regardless of where they appear in a sentence. 3) Generally, particles are considered to be equivalent to prepositions, conjunctions and interjections of the English language; of these three, the majority of particles belong to the first category. 4) A particle should always be placed after the word it modifies, which means that in translating them into English, the word order should be changed. Example: English phrase: top of the desk Japanese phrase: tsukue no ue = (the) desk of top

WHEN TO USE PARTICLES


Consider the following sentence: My mother and my father had dinner

at a restaurant in Tokyo with a friend.

This example contains three prepositions (at, in, with) and one conjunc tion (and). However, the same sentence translated into Japanese is: Watashi no haha to chichi wa tomodachi to issho ni tookyoo no resutoran de yuushoku o tabe-mashita. There are eight particles in the above example. Note, then, two points: 1 ) You cannot simply replace English prepositions, conjunctions and inter jections with particles; there are particles that cannot be translated into English but still have vital functions in a Japanese sentence. 2) Nouns are usually followed by particles. When you are just starting to learn Japanese, get into the habit of looking for the appropriate particle every time you see a noun. course, there are exceptions to this rule: A) Particles are normally not placed directly before a copula (desu, da, deshita, datta, etc.). Example: This is an apple. = kore wa ringo desu. Note the absence of any particles before desu even though ringo (apple is a noun. B) Words that express quantity, extent, or numbers are not usually followed by particles, even though they are considered nouns. Example: Please give me three of those. = sore o mit-tsu kudasai. Note that mit-tsu (three is not followed by a particle, though it is considered a noun. Of

Particles also follow verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, though less fre quently than nouns. Learning when to use particles after verbs, adjectives,

and adverbs is really a matter of memorization.

FUNCTIONS OF PARTICLES
As stated above, particles are vital in Japanese. Consider the case of pronouns in English: I my and me are separate words that indepen dently signify their functions in a sentence. However, in Japanese, there is one word watashi that serves as the basic stem for the singular firstperson pronoun, and the subjective, possessive, and objective cases are constructed in the following ways, through the use of particles: I = watashi |wa|/watashi |ga| my = watashi [no] me = watashi I ni |/watashi o (wo) |(i |/I ! ^ ] / i

Its clear, then, that only through the use of particles can the precise function of the stem watashi be identified. Lets look at another set of examples. The meaning of the English

sentence I eat fish is straightforward: the subject is I the verb eat is a transitive verb that requires an object, which is fish in this case. However, if we translate it into Japanese without particles, it would look like this: watashi sakana taberu.

As it stands, this group of words has no apparent meaning. If we were to insert some possible particles after the two nouns, we can create sentences with vastly different meanings (particles are enclosed in squares):

11 1

/(Suiq^uios)

i pun qsij 3i{ -naaqB bS buboes o; il[SB bav

.qsij B3 00; TiaaqB o buboes oui il[sb;bav

(30U3 U 3S qsiiSug ibuiSuo 3ip JO SUIUB3UI 3ip) ^qsij J rU3qE} O BUBOES BM I L[SB B A V

watashi wa sakana mo taberu. things).

I eat fish also (as well as other

watashi mo

fish.

There are other possibilities as well, but you can see from these rather humorous examples that you could be communicating completely different messages depending on the particles you choose, even though your nouns, verbs, and other parts of speech in a sentence remain the same! It is

therefore essential for you to grasp the usage of particles in order to master the Japanese language.

FEATURES OF THIS BOOK


This book is designed for use by students of Japanese at almost all levels. For the beginners, the most fundamental particles are shown in bold face, explained in detail, and accompanied by illustrations where appropri

ate. Since this book contains most particles in the Japanese language with their usages and examples, even intermediate- and advanced-level students can use it as a reference tool. ( 1 ) Only particles used in Modern Japanese are included. Some archaic or very rarely-used particles have been omitted. Certain combination particles (C.P.) called rengo (which frequently occur are also explained in this book. The combination particle (C.P.) combines particles and other words such as adverbs, copulas, etc. (2) Particles have squares around them every time they appear in an example sentence (such as [noi), and parts of speech of the words, or phrases/clauses that they modify are underlined: n for verbs, a d j. copulas, C | . for adjectives, a d v for nouns, v . for

for adverbs, c .

for clauses, p h

for phrases, etc. However, certain

patterns and phrases are not underlined, since they are considered one unit, including the particle enclosed in the square. Their usages are listed in

outline form, together with the closest approximate English equivalents where applicable. Sample sentences using the particles follow their defini tions. (3) Particles are listed in alphabetical order in dictionary form, and there is a glossary at the back that lists the approximate English meanings and the corresponding particles. Also, for quick reference, see the chart on the endpapers. (4) Although the Japanese sentences contain mostly Joo-yoo-Kanji (most commonly used standard Kanji), there are a few exceptions where other Kanji appear.

(5) Some sample sentences contain some compounds that are slightly advanced, but most of the sample sentences rely on basic vocabulary so that they are easy to understand, even for beginning-level students. (6) All Kanji (Chinese characters) are accompanied by furigana (phonetic readings in hiragana) over them so that the student can immediately recog nize their pronunciation. (7) Grammar is explained in a way that English-speaking students can understand clearly; consequently, the method differs from the way grammar is taught to native Japanese speakers. (8) Question marks appear much less frequently in a Japanese question than in English. However, in order to clearly indicate interrogative sen tences, they are followed by question marks. (9) There are exercises at the back of the book that are designed to familiarize the beginning-level student with the most fundamental particles. An answer key is also provided. (10) The Romanization system of this book basically follows the Hepburn system as shown in the chart below. a ka sa ta na ha i k i shi chi ni U1 ku SU tsu nu fu mu yu e ke se te ne he me 0 ko so to no ho(5

h i mi

m a ya

m o yo

ra wa n ga^'

r i

ru

re

ro

o(wo)

g i z i pi

gu ZU ZU bu

ge ze de be

go ZO do bo po

za da ba pa

pu

pe

kya sha

kyu shu chu

kyo sho cho nyo hyo

cha nya hya

nyu 1 hyu

my a rya ja

myu ryu ju byu pyu

myo 3 ryo jo byo pyo

bya pya

(a) Long vowels are indicated by two vowels placed one after the other. Example: T okyo.......Tookyoo The second vowel will remind the beginning-level student that there should be a hiragana character there that stands in for the long vowel sound. Example: To o kvo o (Tokyo) ; e e ga (movie)
viii

(b) Two identical vowels that are placed right next to each other are separated by hyphens, in order to avoid confusion with the long vowel sound. Example: kinoo (yesterday) mono-o (particle mono + another particle o (c) Some words are divided by hyphens to indicate the separate syllables, or the separate units, that compose the word, so that it is easier to identify these elements visually. Examples:......... ari-masen (there is/are not) .............benkyoo-suru (to study) .............iki-jibiki (a walking dictionary) .............omoi-dasu (to remenber) ....................... on-na (a woman) .............shite-iru (be doing) .............tabe-tai (to want to eat) .............yoma-nai (do not read) (d) The honorific prefixes o and go are considered as being part of the word, and therefore are not set off by a hyphen. Example: oree (appreciation) gohan (meal) omatsuri (festival) gochisoo (delicacies)

List of Abbreviations
adj. = adjective adv. = adverb c. = copula (da/desu, datta/deshita, daroo/deshoo, etc.) c l . = clause conj. = conjunction c.p. = combination particle g. = gerund (te/de form) interj. = interjection m. = mimesis n. = noun (including pronouns), and nominal o. = onomatopoeia p. = particle ph. = phrase

B A
1 . Presents a condition that would result in the clause that follows. English approximation: if... A ) ba maniai-masu yo. If you leave now, youll make it in time. B ) Kon-na pen demo a d i yokere [ba] doozo. If this sort of pen is okay with you, go ahead (and use it), (implica tion: the pen is not so great.) C ) Ame sae v fure [bai hoosaku wa machigai-nai noda ga. If only it would rain, theres sure to be a bountiful harvest. 2. Shows a cause-and-effect relationship between the topic it presents and

the clause or phrase that follows. English approximation: when (something happens)... (instead of if above) A ) S Koorogi ga v naki-dase [bai aki mo ma-jikai. When crickets start to chirp, autumn is just around the corner. B ) | | Yuuyake ni v nare Ibaj yokujitsu wa tenki ni naru. When theres a vivid sunset, the next day will be clear. 3. In set patterns such as to ie ba and hara ba

, indicates the topic which is to be discussed in the phrase or clause that follows. English approximation: the nuance is similar to speaking of (to p ic)... in terms of (topic)" or according to (topic) . . . A ) ^ ! Osushi c nara [ba] ano mise ga oishii desu yo. In terms of sushi, that restaurant is a good one. B ) A 15 Uwasa ni v yore [bai, kanojo wa koibito to wakareta rashii. According to rumors, she broke up with her boyfriend. C ) [ ^ ] Misuterii eega to v ie lba|, yappari Hicchikokku no ga ichiban da ne. Speaking of mystery movies, Hitchcocks are the best after all, dont you think? 4. Similar to the meanings of the patterns suru to and

shita tokoro g a . English approximation: considering (something, it is evident that ) a ) i i Mae no shigoto o v omoe ba , ima no shigoto wa rakuna mono desu. Considering my former job, my current job is pretty easy. B) ;' A & Yoron-choosa kara v mire ba , sono seejika no ninki wa kanari ochita yoo da.
2

In looking at the public opinion polls, it seems that the politicians popularity has fallen quite a bit. 5. In a mo ...ba , pattern, serves to list events, categories and

things. English approximation: (something) and (something) also, or neither ... nor ". A ) F On-na mo v ire Ibai otoko mo iru. There are women, and there are also men. B ) i Taberu mono mo v nakere ba sumu tokoro mo nai. There isnt anything to eat, or anywhere to live. (i.e. Theres neither food nor shelter.) C ) []7]A Kanojo wa piano mo v hike [ba] e mo kaku tasai na hito desu. bhe s a multi-talented person who can play the piano and paint as well. 6. In the patterns ne ba nara-nai and nakere ba nara-nai/

nari-masen/ to indicate that something has to be done or that a standard must be observed. English approximation: must do (something). a) r r r nar-

Tookyoo ni wa maitsuki shucchoo de p h ikanakere ba imasen. (I) have to go to Tokyo every month on business trips.

B ) i Yosan-nai de keekaku o D htatene |ba| naranai. (I) must devise plans within the budget. C ) Hito to no yakusoku wa p h mamoranakere ba naranai. One has to keep promises one makes to others. 7. In set patterns such as iwa ba and tatoe ba .

English approximation: let us say ... or so to speak. A ) [ ii] Harowiin wa, p h tatoe [ba] nihon no obon no yoo na mono desu. Halloween is, let us say, similar to the Obon festival in Japan. B ) Kare wa, D h iwa Ibai ild-jibiki no yoo na mono da. He is, so to speak, like a living dictionary. 8. In the set pattern naze nara ba .

English approximation: the reason being... or because." A) .A 4 # Jikan ga are ba, kisha de iku beki da. p h Naze nara [ba] sono hoo ga keshiki o juubun tanoshimeru kara. If (you) have the time, (you) should go by train, because (you) will be able to fully enjoy the scenery that way. B ) [ ii] Hito ni ijiwaru o sh nai hoo ga ii. p h Naze nara [ba] itsuka jibun
4

ni modotte-kuru kara da. One shouldnt do mean things to others, because some day, (your deeds) might be returned to you.

B A K A R I
1 . Indicates a limit. 1 ) Shows that something is always limited to a particular action, place, or thing. Similar to dake or nomi . English approximation: always just doing (som ething), or doing only one thing all the time []i Sono koinu wa itsumo a nemutte bakari_ i-masu. That puppy is always just sleeping. B) | Itsu made mo g asonde [bakari | i-nai de hayaku shoku demo mitsuke nasai yo. Why dont you stop playing around all the time and look for a job or something? C ) I Uchi p ni I bakari] i-nai de, tama ni wa gaishutsu-shiyoo. Instead of just being at home all the time, lets go out once in a while. 2) English approximation: could only do (something)
5

A ) A S || Sono nyuusu o knte, kare wa tada v oro-oro-suru [bakari I deshita. Hearing that news, he could only panic. B ) Totsuzen no teeden ni hito-bito wa v uoo-saoo-suru [bakari | datta. In the sudden blackout, all people could do was wander in confu sion. 3) In the pattern bakari ni .

English approximation: the nuance is solely due to (one cause), matters took a turn for the worse. A) Ano densha ni v notta bakari ni, jiko ni atta. It was only because I got on that train that I was involved in an accident. B) Hanzai no ba ni tama-tama v i-awaseta maki-komarete shimatta. It was only because (I) just happened to be at the scene of the crime that (I) got dragged into the case. 2. Indicates a degree of things. bakari ni, jiken ni

1 ) Similar to hodo and kurai/gurai / . Usually preceded by a number or quantity.


6

English approximation: approximately A ) [| A V Kare wa n ni-meetoru [bakarii mo aru oo-otoko desu. He is a big man, at about two meters tall. B) M t |1 Ryokoo no hiyoo wa zenbu de n gojuu-man en [bakari |kakatta. The total cost of the trip came to about five hundred thousand yen. C) ] ] Watashi wa n to o k a bakari | rusu ni sh masu. I will be away for about ten days. 2) Following a verb, shows that the action is/was about to be carried out.

English approximation: just about to do (something) A) I 5 bhokuji o tsukun-owatte, moo v taberu Ibakari no tokoro m, denwa ga kakatte ki-mashita. I had finished cooking the meal and was about to eat it when there was a phone call. 5 |1 M l B) Ame ga furi-dasan bakari no sora moyoo da. The sky looks like its about to rain. 3) In the pattern ...ta bakari to indicate that an action has/ had just been completed. English approximation: have/has just done (something) A )
7

Watashi wa v naratta [bakari i no nihon-go o tsukatte mimashita. I tried using Japanese that I had just learned. B) Sakki v. tabeta [baKariJ na nom, mata sugu onaka ga suite shimatta. Although I haa just eaten a little while ago, I was hungry again right away. 3. In the pattern bakari ka . (also see p . 12 4.)

English approximation: not only (something), but also (something)". A)

n Atama [bakari I ka nodo mo itai. Not only my head but my throat hurts, too.

B)

| _ [ j Ano seeto wa kyooju m v. goma-o-suru bakari ka, kanningu made shite ii ten o toroo to suru soo da. I hear that student not only butters up professors, but even cheats to get good grades.

4.

In the patterns bakari de (wa) naku ... mo <

bakari ja naku ... mo . (also see p . 12) English approximation: not only ... (a noun, an adjective, a verb) but also ... (a noun, an adjective, a verb) A ) Otoko no ko I bakari i ja naku, on-na no ko mo oozee ita yo.
8

There were not only boys but also many girls. B)

Watashi wa, n Nihon-go bakari de naku, Chuugoku-go mo benkyoo-shitai. I would like to study not only Japanese but also Chinese. C) ' Kono tesage wa, dezain ga a d i I bakari I de naku, nedan mo tegoro da. As for this bag, not only is its design nice, but the price is reason able as well. D ) Nodo ga v. kawaita IbakariJ de naku, onaka mo suita. Not only am I thirsty, but I m also hungry. 5. In the pattern bakashi a variant of "bakari used

casually. 1 ) Indicates an approximate amount, often with the implication that it is not very much. English approximation: (only) about...

A )

! --------------------

Watashi no saifu no naka ni wa n qo-hyaku en bakashi shika nai. There is only about five hundred yen in my wallet B) : M Kore bakashi no chokin de wa, ryokoo ni mo ike-nai. With only about this much savings, (I) cant even go on a trip.
9

2)

Indicates a limit.

English approximation: only A ) A | l

Ano hito wa, ichi-nichi-juu n osake bakashi nonde-iru. That person is drinking only liquor all day. B ) Son-na ni n p h amai mono bakashi tabete-iru to, mushiba ni naru yo. If (you) keep eating only sweets like that, (you) ll get cavities. 3) Shows that it has only been a short while after an action has been completed. English approximation: just A ) ] Nihon-go no tesuto ga v atta furansu-go no tesuto da. Weve just had a Japanese test, but we have a French test next. B ) ] j ] 5 Ima v iketa bakashi no hana yo. Kiree deshoo. These are the flowers that I just finished arranging. Arent they beautiful? bakashi na noni, tsugi wa

D A K E
1 . Indicates a limit imposed upon something.
10

English approximation: only or just A ) : | g Akai n rinqo Idake | mittsu kudasai Please give me three of the red apples only. B) ^ / 1 Watashi wa n hitori Idake] tori-nokosareta. I was left all alone. (Only I was left.) C ) [^17] Hito wa n gaiken [dake] de wa wakara-nai. You cant tell a person just by his/her looks. D) : ( # s r Koko ni aru no wa furui n shinbun IdakeJ desu. Whats available here is only some old newspapers.
------------- 1

E)

j dake no hanashi desu ga, watashi wa nankyoku-

Koko

tanken o keekaku-shite-iru-n desu. This is just between you and me, but I m planning an antarctic expedition. 2. Placed after the potential form of verbs ru reru

and rareru refers to a degree of something, with the implica tion that that degree cannot be surpassed. English approximation: as much as ". A ) Watashi wa arukeru dake aru ki-mashita. I walked as much as I could.
11

B ) | v Dekiru Idake |tasukete age-mashoo. I ll try to help you as much as I can. C ) ] v. Yareru [dakei yatte miyoo yo. Lets try to do as much as (we) can. 3. In the pattern ba ... dake .

English approximation: the more (something), the ... A) Yasukere ba adj.yasui idake] ii desu. The cheaper the better. B ) [ Hayaku sure ba v suru Idake] yuuri da. The faster you do it, the more advantageous it is. 4. In the pattern dake de (ja) naku ... mo < .

English approximation: not only ... but (also) A ) [ | n. Keeki Idake | de naku, aisukuriimu mo tabe-mashoo yo. Lets eat not only a cake, but also ice cream. B ) [] Kono heya wa a d j hiroi [dake I de naku, totemo akarui ne. This room is not only spacious, but also very sunny. C ) ^ _

Kono inu wa, joozu ni v oyoqu dake de naku gee mo umai. This dog not only swims well, but also does tricks well.
12

D A K E - N I - Combination particle
A combination of the particles dake and ni . Often takes the form dake a t t e . 1 . Expresses an opinion that a situation is appropriate and fulfills its expectations. English approximation: since/because (as expected) A ) r-|I I Yoku v benkyoo-shita dake ni , ii seeseki de gookaku-shita. Since I studied hard, (as expected) I passed with good grades. b ) 4 [^ ! ^

Koko wa yuumee na n kankoo-chi dake ni , mainichi takusan no hito ga otozureru. Since its a famous tourist spot, (as expected) many people visit it every day. C ) [ Koko wa sekidoo ni adjchikai [dake mi, sugoku atsui ne. Since this place is close to the equator, its terribly hot, isnt it? 2. Indicates that something did not proceed as expected, with the implica

tion that it was an unexpected surprise. English approximation: since (... was not expected) ... A ) I [ I Kare ni wa moo ae-nai daroo to v akiramete-ita dake ni ,

denwa ga kakatte-kita toki ni wa, totemo ureshikatta.


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Since I had thought that Id never be able to see him again, I was very happy when he called (unexpectedly). B ) I Harikeen no higai ga a d j ookikatta dake ni , sono machi no

fukkoo-buri ni wa me o miharu mono ga atta. Since the damages caused by the hurricane were extensive, that towns rate of rebuilding was quite something to behold.

D A N O
Used to list things successively, usually in a dano ... dano pattern. English approximation: similar in feeling to things like (something) and (something). A ) | | I n Kamikuzu dano n akikan dano , michi ni chirakatte-iru

Things like scraps of paper and empty cans are scattered on the street. B) Hitori aruki wa n kiken dano chikatetsu wa a d j kowai dano

Nyuuyooku ni hikkosu to kimattara tomodachi kara odokasareta. When it was decided that I was to move to New York, my friends
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scared me, saying things like its dangerous to walk alone and subways are frightening.

D A T T E
1 . Takes a special case and shows that it is really the same as other cases. English approximation: in the sense of even (something) is/does ... A ) n Kodomo datte sore kurai wakari-masu. Lven children can understand something like that. B ) I ] n Shinvuu-dooshi datte kenka-suru koto mo aru. Even best friends quarrel sometimes. C ) I _

n Natsu datte hada-zamui hi mo aru. Even in the summer, there are chilly days. 2. in a Lists things in order to show that each thing is the same as the other, datte ... datte or, variation: "... tatte ... tatte

pattern. Note that for this usage, datte can also take the form tatte . English approximation: whether its (something) or (something) ... A ) [] n Ashita datte , n asatte datte , kamai-masen yo. Its fine with me, whether its tomorrow or the day after. B ) |M || H I
15

Oosaka de v. kat [tattel, Tookyoo de v. kat tatte , nedan wa onaji da yo. Its the same price, whether you buy it in Osaka or Tokyo. 3. Follows an interrogative pronoun.

1 ) To qualify anything in its category as valid in the clause that follows. English approximation: anyone anytime anywhere etc. A ) @ | n Itsu datte mirare-masu yo. You can see it anytime. B ) [I Son-na mono wa p h doko ni datte aru sa. That sort of thing can be found anywhere. C ) ^ | n Dare datte sore kurai wakaru hazu desu. Anyone should be able to understand something like that. 2) In a negative sentence, to show that nothing in the group specified by the interrogative pronoun wants to be something or does something. English approximation: no one nothing etc. A ) [] n Dare datte binboo wa iya da. No one likes being poor, poor.) B ) !^| Don-na n tokoro l datte] ild-taku-nai. No matter where it may be, (I) dont want to go.
16

(literally: Everyone doesnt like being

C ) I Son-na koto wa, n itsu datte shitaku-nai. I never want to do something like that. 4. Placed at the end of a sentence, expresses surprise (and sometimes

disapproval) after quoting something someone else has said. English approximation: he/she said that A ) I d Boku wa okane nanka karite i-masen vo datte . Wasureta no kashira. He said to me, I havent borrowed any money. I wonder if he forgot? B ) [] A c l Konya mo kare to deeto na no datte . Yoku aki-nai wa ne, ano futari. She said, Ive got a date with him again tonight. Theyre not bored with each other, those two (i.e. its a wonder that theyre not).

D E
FUNDAMENTALS OF DE 1 Placed after a noun of location, indicates it is where an action takes/

took place. It is static. Note that the particles ni or e indicate the direction of the action. Compare the following:

17

a)

G a kkoo[de] benkyoo-suru. (I) study at school.

B ) ^ ^ Gakkoo[m liku. (I) go to school.

C)

p?] Ofiisu[deldenwa o kakeru. (I) make a call at the office.

D ) |7T| Ofiisu[rir|denwa o kakeru. (I) telephone the office.

English approximation: at in A ) Watashi wa n umi Idei oyogi I swam in the ocean. B) Ano ki no n shita [de] obento o o Lets have lunch under that tre
18

ihit

lashoo

C ) Watashi wa n daigaku de nihon-go o benkyoo-shite-i-masu. I m studying Japanese at college. D ) [ ^ ] A n Depaato Idei shokuji o shite kara, n hon-ya [de] jisho o kai-mashita. After eating at the department store, I bought a dictionary at the bookstore. 2. Indicates the superlative.

< I--------

English approximation: in among A)

Miyata-san wa n kurasu-iuu de ichiban hayaku hashiri-masu. Ms. Miyata is the fastest runner in our class. B ) Kono n naka de dare ga neko no kubi ni suzu o tsuke ni iku-n dai? Among us, whos going to go hang a bell on the cats neck? 3. In the pattern "... de mo ... de m o , lists locations.

English approximation: in/at (location) and in/at (location) ... A ) n Koko [del mo, n asoko [de] mo, kodomo-tachi ga asonde-iru. Here and over there children are playing.
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B ) ! _ I ! _ I Kotoshi no natsu wa n umi de mo n yama lde| mo jiko ga zokuhatsu-shita. This summer, accidents occurred one after another both at the ocean and in the mountains. 4. Indicates the time when an action or process happened or happens.

!-------- 1

-------- 1

1 ) Shows the time period when something occurred/occurs, often found in de wa and de mo patterns, English approximation: in at A)

[de] wa, kon-na uta ga

n, Sen-kyuuhyaku-yonjuu-nen-dai hayatta soo da.

In the 1940 s this sort of song was supposedly popular. B) 0 #

n Ima [del mo, sono shuukan wa nao okonawarete-iru. Even now (at present), that custom is still carried out. 2) Indicates the age of a person.

English approximation: at A ) | | Kare wa n rokujus-sai [de] taishoku-shita. He retired at age sixty. B ) i X p ! Haha wa n nijuu-go-sai de kekkon-shita. My mother got married at age twenty-five. 3)
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Imposes a time limit on an action or occurrence.

English approximation: in (amount of time) A ) i

Kono shigoto wa n nijup-pun de deki-masu ka? Can you do this job in twenty minutes? B ) Moo n ni-shuukan lde| natsu-yasumi ni nari-masu. Summer vacation is coming in two weeks, o m g

Hikari wa n ichi-byookan Ide] chikyuu o nana-mawari-han suru. Light travels around the earth seven and a half times in one second.

5.

Indicates what method or tool is/was employed for an action.

English approximation: do (something) by using (something) A ) Watashi wa gakkoo e n jitensha de kayotte-i-masu. I commute to school by bicycle.
HHfi iim iim i i h i

a
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Watashi wa n hikooki supein ni ild-mashita.

de

rondon ni itte kara, n fune

de

I went to London by plane, then went to Spain by boat. C ) X Watashi wa chichi to n denwa de hanashi-mashita. I talked with my father on (liter ally: by using) the phone. D ) ] n Enpitsu ide] kaite kudasai. Please write with a pencil. E)

n Sekken de yoku te o arai-nasai yo. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap. F ) I I Kare wa itsumo n yuumoa ide] min-na o warawase-masu. He always makes everyone laugh with his sense of humor. G ) n Nihon-qo Idej hanashite kudasai. Please speak in Japanese. H )

n Garasu ide] yubi o sukoshi kitte shimai -mashita. I cut my finger a little on glass.
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6.

Gives the price of something.

English approximation: at for A ) Sono hon o n ni-sen en de kai-mashita. I bought the book for two thousand yen. B ) Hawai e wa n ikura ide] ike-masu ka? How much would it cost for a trip to Hawaii? 7. Indicates time or quantity that makes a unit.

English approximation: by for A ) Boku wa n jikan [de] arubaito o shite-iru. Im working part time by the hour. B ) Sono ringo wa n futatsu Idei go-hyaku en desu. Those apples are two for five hundred yen. C ) Watashi-tachi no chiimu wa n it-ten-sa [del katta. Our team won the game by only one point. 8. Indicates the composition of an object.

English approximation: from of A ) Kore wa n purasuchikku de dekita hako desu. This is a box made out of plastic. b ) IT

Sore wa n nendo [de] tsukutta utsuwa desu. Its a vessel made of clay. C ) |~^1 Bataa wa n miruku [de] tsukuri-masu. Butter is made from milk. 9. Indicates the manner of an action, or the condition/intention at the time

of occurrence/action. English approximation: (in this manner) ... (with intention to) ... A ) Watashi wa v. isoi [de] dekake-mashita. I left in a rush.

B ) Kare wa n muchuu Idej hashitta. He ran frantically.

C ) Boku wa shikaru n.tsumori Idei itta no de wa nai. I didnt say it with the intention to scold (you). 10. Indicates a reason or motive for an action or occurrence. English approximation: due to ... owing to ... A ) :1 0 4 Kare wa n fuchuui [de] kaidan kara ochita . He fell down the stairs due to carelessness. B) I V
24

?f

Boku wa kyoo n kaze de gakkoo o yasunda Today, I was absent from school due to a cold.

C ) n Samusa [de] te ga kogoe soo da. My hands are almost frozen from the cold.

D ) g

! ---------1

Kono dezain no n rvuukoo [de] mise wa dai-hanjoo da. Due to the popularity of this design, the store is doing very well. 1 1 .Indicates the source of information, basis of a condition. English approximation: by from on according to A ) !1 0 Shinbun no n tenki-yohoo Idei miru to, kyoo wa kumori da soo da. According to the weather forecast in the paper, it will be cloudy today. B ) b I I I R ] Anata no n tokee [de] wa ima nan-ji desu ka? What time is it now according to your watch? C ) Kare ga hidoku nayande-iru no wa, n kao-iro de wakaru. I can tell from his face that he is very troubled. 12. Indicates the basis of evaluation. English approximation: depending on according to
25

A ) i l l A ] Mikan no nedan wa n ookisa [de] chigai-masu. The price of oranges varies depending on their size. B) i 4 Tochi no nedan wa n hirosa to benrisa de kawari-masu.

The price of land changes according to the size and location. 13. Shows which party is/was responsible for an action. English approximation: in the sense of (something) is/was done by (something). A ) Sore wa n kazoku lde| kimeta koto desu. It was a decision made by (my) family. B ) #

Sono shinbun wa n gakkoo [de] hakkoo-sareta. That newspaper was published by the school.

D E M O
1 . Presents an extreme example to make the point that since something applies to such a case, it therefore certainly applies to more normal cases. English approximation: even A) | n Sensee [demo] wakara-nai deshoo. Even the teacher probably wont be able to understand it. B ) j
26

n, Chotto [demo] mi-otoshi ga atte wa taihen da. If (we) miss even one thing, therell be grave consequences. 2. In the pattern don-na ... demo .

English approximation: no matter what/how (something) ... or ^regard less of the fact that...

A ) Ano sensee wa don-na muzukashii n mondai Idemo |tokeru. That teacher can solve any problem, no matter how difficult it may be. B) | _ j Watashi wa don-na n tabemono demo ichido wa tabete mi-tai to omoi-masu. Regardless of the type of food, Id like to try eating it once. 3. After an interrogative pronoun, indicates an all-inclusiveness.

English approximation: whatever whenever etc. A ) Doko demo kara suwatte kudasai.

Please sit wherever you like, (more literally: Please sit; anywhere is fine.) B) n Nan [demo suki na mono o chuumon-shite ii yo. You can order whatever you like. 4. Used in casually mentioning something as a suggestion.

English approximation: in the sense of something like B ) 1


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Kaeri ni n koohii demo nomi ni ika-nai? Why dont we go have coffee or something on the way home? B ) | | n Koko demo yoke re ba ohanash shi-masu ga. If its all right to talk somewhere like here, I will. 5. To express wishful thinking; sometimes in a semete ... demo ...

pattern. English approximation: if only there were (something) even just a little bit of it ... A ) [] Semete sukoshi n dake [demoi chokin ga attara naa. If only I had even just a little bit of savings ... B ) I Koshi o orosu n tokoro [demoi attara ii no ni naa. If only there were some place I could sit down ... 6. Often in a manzara ... demo pattern and/or a double

negative, to indicate that there are other attributes to something, besides the obvious. English approximation: examples are not all bad and not unthinkable. A ) ] Ano hito no yuu koto wa, manzara n uso [demoi nai. What that person says isnt all untrue. B ) ! ^ M Kono keekaku wa, jitsugen fukanoo na n wake demo nai. This plan isnt impossible to carry out.
28

D O K O R O
Takes an extreme case of a certain situation and emphatically negates its possibility. English approximation: not possible to do, (for example) A )

4 I

Koo hito ga ooku te wa, yukkuri e o v kanshoo-suru dokoro de wa nai. With this many people, its out of the question to, say, enjoy looking at the paintings. A ) y n < | Ima totemo isogashiku te, n. kyuuka dokoro no sawagi de wa nai. Im so busy now that its not even plausible to, for example, take a vacation.

D O K O R O K A
Serves to negate the clause it modifies, in order to emphasize the point made by the clause that follows. English approximation: the nuance is never mind (something)". A ) ^ 1 I | ^ ^ Ano ko wa v. benkyoo-suru dokoroka ichi-nichi-juu asonde bakari iru. Never mind studying, all that child does is play all day.
29

B) i l l ]I n Ovu dokoroka mizu sae de-nai. Never mind hot water, theres not even cold water.

D O M O
Placed after a verb. English approximation: (even) though A ) () #

Shinyuu to v ie Idomol (shinyuu to itte mo), kanojo no hontoo no kimochi wa wakara-nai. Though we are best friends, I dont know how she really feels. B ) [] Q } v Ike domo v ike domo dai-sabaku datta. Though we went on and on, we saw nothing but the sana in the vast desert. (itte mo itte mo), suna bakari no

FUNDAMENTALS OF E First, note that the character used as a particle, is read e even though it is normally read he. Placed after a noun, it indicates that the noun is the destination, direction or the goal of the action. Some frequently used verbs that follow e are:
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ageru to lift) aruku < (to walk) dekakeru to go out) denwa o kakeru to telephone) denwa o suru to telephone) deru to exit) hairu to enter)

ireru to put in ) iku to go) kaeru to return) kaku (to write) kuru (to come) modoru (to come back) mukau to head for) oku (to place) okuru to present) okuru (to send) ryokoo-suru (to travel) shuppatsu-suru (to depart) taoreru to fall down) tegami o kaku < (to write a letter) tenkin-suru (to be transferred)

tsuku (to arrive) It is interchangeable with the particle ni in most cases. Note, however, that this rule does not apply when the particle e is followed
31

by the particle no e then cannot be replaced by ni . Examples: A ) M Watashi wa haha i e ] purezento o okuri-mashita. I sent my mother a present. Watashi wa haha i ni] purezento o okuri-mashita. I sent my mother a present. B ) Kore wa haha e no purezento desu.

This is a present for my mother. Wrong:

X
no purezento desu.

Kore wa haha

1 . Shows the direction where an action is headed. English approximation: to toward A ) Watashi wa P oosaka Im going to Osaka. B) M e iki-masu.

Kare wa eki no n hoo I e ] aruite ild-mashita. He walked toward the station. C) K n *'3 Kitano-san wa n yooroopa
32

e shucchoo-chuu desu.

Mr. Kitano is currently on a business trip to Europe. D ) Jishin de go-kai-date no tatemono ga n ushiro e katamuita.

Because of the earthquake, the five-storied building leaned toward the back. 2. Shows the ending point or destination of an action.

English approximation: at A ) [ Watashi wa ima n kuukoo e tsuki-mashita.

I arrived at the airport just now. B ) |1 Itsu n nihon | ~ e ~ | okaeri ni nari-mashita ka? When did you come back to Japan?

C ) = g
kaicji-joo e tadori-tsuita.

Boku wa michi ni mayotta ageku, sanjup-pun mo okurete n

After getting lost, I arrived at the meeting place thirty minutes late. 3. Indicates the person or thing to which an action is directed.

English approximation: to for A ) Kore wa P anata e no purezento desu.

This is a present for you. B ) Kore wa r sensee e no otegami dakara owatash shite ne.
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This is a letter to the teacher, so please hand it to (him/her). 4. In the pattern "... tokoro e describes a situation that

exists when an action takes place. English approximation: (this was the situation) when (something else happened) . A ) i Shukudai ga owatta n tokoro i e |tomodachi ga asobi ni kita. I had just finished my homework when my friend came over. b ) 4 g e , ame ga futte-kita.

Kasa o motazu ni dekaketa n tokoro

I had just left without bringing an umbrella when it started to rain.

G A
FUNDAMENTALS OF GA A major function of the particle ga is to emphasize the subject by following directly after it. However, other particles such as wa in particular (see p. 235) also serve the same purpose. Deciding when to use which may be one of the most difficult factors in constructing Japanese sentences; in fact, even native speakers sometimes have to stop and think about the choices. The following are some basic guidelines to help you with this task.

I . When to use ga . after the subject or topic: 1 . Ga appears in sentences that indicate the existence of something,
34

in the sense of there is/are/was/were " . Note that in Japanese, you must differentiate between living things and non-living things by using separate is for the former group, verbs that both mean to be in a place. Iru and aru is for the latter.
( ) A) | |

B ) @

n Hito |ga] iru (i-masu). There is a person.

n Hon [gai aru (ari-masu). There is a book.

Even in talking about the same thing, you must use different verbs depending on whether or not it is animate:
c)

n. Sakana |ga| iru (i-masu). There is a fish. (animate)

) @

n Sakana [ga] aru (ari-masu). There is a fish (inanimate)

A ) Watashi wa n aisukuriimu ga tabe-tai


35

I want to eat ice cream. B ) Watashi wa n eego [ga] hanase-masu. I can speak English. C )

Kanojo wa n onqaku ga suki desu. She likes music. Ga follows an interrogative pronoun or noun phrase. A ) n Dare [gai ld-mashita ka? Who came?

B )
Anata wa n ph. don-na tabemono ga suki desu ka? What kind of food do you like? C ) ^ ] n Nan-ii |gai ii desu ka? What time is good (for you)? Ga often follows a noun that is modified by an adjective. A ) ! n. Nami [gai takai. The waves are high. B ) Watashi wa n kibun [ga] ii desu. I feel good. C)
36

n Heya [gaj atsui. The room is hot. 5. In describing one of the five senses, ga often accompanies the

noun. A ) Ii n.nioi |ga| suru. (It) smells good.


B )

Amai n.aji |ga| suru. (It) tastes sweet. 6. Sentences with intransitive verbs usually have subjects that are

followed by ga . A ) @ n To [ga] shimaru. The door closes. B ) ^ ] n Denki [gai kieta. The lights went off. C ) n Tsuki [gai deta. The moon has come out.

II. Other uses of ga include the following: 1 . Functions like a conjunction after sore ga (n e ) and tokoro ga (n e ) w ith a feeling of unexpected surprise.
37

A ) M Sore ga , nanto monosugoku konde ita-n da. But actually, it was really crowded. B ) Boku wa moo akiramete ita. Tokoro [gai ne, mitsukatta-n da yo, nan to. I had already given up. But, it was actually found! 2. After a verb, in the patterns ga gotoku and ga mama ni

. English approximation: with gotoku = as if with mama ni = exactly as (something)


A) ^ J Sensoo-kinenhi wa, ningen no arasou saga o v kanashimu ga gotoku tatte ita. The war memorial stood, as if grieving over the nature of human kind to fight against each other. B) Kare wa, haha no v susumeru igai mama ni, gishi ni natta. Following his mothers advice exactly, he became an engineer. 3. Makes an introductory clause before the main point.

English approximation: as in the patterns as fo r." as youve already heard " etc. A ) Sono ten c desu ga motto kuwashiku setsumee-shite

kudasai.
38

As for that point, please explain it in more detail. B ) Sude ni v mooshi-acje-mashita [ga], kono keekaku no seekoo wa machigai-nai mono to omoi-masu. As I ve said before, I think that this plan will undoubtedly succeed. 4. Functions like a conjunction.

English approximation: but in the sense of despite doing (something) or although. A) M Boku wa besuto o v tsukushita |ga dame datta. I did the best I could, but I failed. B) ^ J Kinoo v odenwa-shi-mashita [ga], orusu deshita. I called yesterday, but (you/he/she) was/were not home. C)

0 4
ga , mee-an wa ukaba-

Boku wa hitoban-juu v. kangaeta nakatta.

I pondered all night, but couldnt come up with any great ideas. 5. In the patterns u ga and mai ga * .

English approximation: no matter (something) or whether (you) do (something) or not, it doesnt matter... A ) M Boku ga doko e v ikoo ga , zutto tomodachi de iyoo No matter where I go, lets stay friends.
39

B ) A

v Hashiroo ga v hashiru-mai |ga|, mani-awa-nai daroo. (You) wont be on time whether (you) run or not. 6. Indicates wishful thinking in presenting an imaginary, desirable situa

tion that is the opposite of the current, actual situation. Similar to noni . (See p.167) English approximation: (if ...), can/would do..., (but ) A ) Yuki ga fure ba a d J ii [ga] naa. It would be good if it were to snow (i.e. I wish it would snow). B ) r ^ i Takarakuji ga atattara ad ureshii ga naa. I d be happy if I were to win the lottery (i.e. I wish I could win the lottery). 7. At the end of the sentence, serves to soften a request or opinion. Takes

a straightforward statement that would sound too direct and transforms it into a more indirect approach. English approximation: somewhat akin to the English phrase I m wonder ing if I could... or (this is what I think), but... A ) I I Shachoo-san ni v omeni-kakari-tai-n desu ga . I d like to meet the president ... (compare: shachoo-san ni omeni-kakari-tai-n desu by itself tends to sound too forward and impolite.) B ) ^ | M .
40

Moo ichi-nichi kyuuka o v tori-tai-n desu ga . I d like to take one more day of vacation ...
C ) M

Watashi wa, kono-mama de ii to v omou-n desu ga . I think it would be fine to leave it the way it is ... 8. Placed at the end of a sentence; exclamatory. Modifies nouns, and is

said scornfully and disapprovingly. Mens language. Not translatable. A )! Kono n usotsuki-me |ga|! You liar! B ) ! ^ 1! Kono n.gaki-me [gai! You little brat! (Gaki is slang for little boy but it often has negative implications.) 9. Expresses uncertainty or puzzlement.

English approximation: the nuance is I d thought (I) d done (something) but... A ) A [^] Tashika ni koko ni oite-oita-n c desu ga . I had definitely put it here, but ... (i.e. I thought I had put it here B ) [ ^] Denwa ga kakatte kuru hazu na-n c da |ga|. Dooshita-n daroo. I m supposed to get a phone call (i.e. he/she is supposed to call me) . . . . I wonder what happened.
41

G A - N A ( G A - N A A ) - ( - Combination particle
A combination of the particles ga and n a (a ) . Expresses wishful thinking, which is rather unlikely to happen in reality. English approximation: I hope ." though A ) I Ame ga furi-dashita.
adj.il

Ashita no pikunikku wa ii otenki da to

iga na(ga n a a ) .

It has started to rain. I hope its going to be a nice day for the picnic tomorrow, though. B ) Kinoo mo kanojo wa denwa o kakete konakatta. kakete kuru to v omou ga na(ga n a a ) . She didnt call again yesterday. I think she will call today, though. Kyoo wa

G A T E R A
Indicates that while one action is being carried out, another related action is also carried out; much like killing two birds with one stone. English approximation: while doing on the way, do ... A ) | $ Kodomo o gakkoo ni v okuri [gatera | , kaimono ni itte-koyoo. While I m out taking the kids to school, I ll go shopping (on the
42

way).

B ) # # I X
Otera ni v omairi-shi igaterai, ojisan no uchi ni yotte-kita. While I was out worshiping at the temple, I went to visit my uncle (on the way).

H O D O
1 . After a quantity, indicates that the amount is an approximation. Interchangeable with the particle kurai(gurai) < (See p.79) English approximation: about approximately A ) 1 |

Kono shigoto wa ato n is-shuukan Ihodoi are ba dekiagarimasu. This job will be done in about a week. B)

b ^j n |7F^11
Ato n ik-ka-qetsu hodo de natsu-yasumi ni naru. Itll be summer vacation in about a month.

2.

Takes a specific situation and evaluates its extent.

English approximation: to the extent that ... A ) I* Kare wa, kanojo ni furarete, mite-iru no ga a rii kinodoku na I hodo] shogete-iru. She broke up with him, and hes depressed to the extent that just seeing him makes you feel bad (for him).
43

B ) ! ] ^ ]

Watashi wa konkuuru ni yuushoo-shite, namida ga v deru hodo ureshikatta. Winning the competition, I was so happy I cried. 3. Followed by a negation, establishes a standard for comparison.

English approximation: (not) as much/little as ... A) + !]5 ] Kotoshi no tsuyu wa, n itsu mo [hodo] ame ga ooku-nai. During this years rainy season, there hasnt been as much rain as usual. B ) n Natsu-vasumi Ihodo machi-dooshii mono wa nai. Theres nothing that (I) look forward to more than summer vaca tion. 4. Often in the patterns suru hodo and ba ... hodo

shows that as one thing increases, the other increases as well. English approximation: the more

." the

more

A ) ] Na-n demo, renshuu sure ba v suru hodo joozu ni naru. With everything, the more (you) practice, the better (you) will get. B) |4 I Kottoohin wa, furukere ba a d jfurui hodo kachi ga aru. As for antiques, the older it is, the more value it has.

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HO K A
Followed by a negative, it serves to exclude all possibilities other than the one mentioned. English approximation: The implication is nothing except for " the meaning is similar to only. Interchangeable with shika (See p.182)
a ) i

Ano hito-tachi wa, moo soko made itte-shimatte ite wa, v . rikon-suru hoka shikata ga nai. For those people, since theyve already gone that far, theres nothing left to do but to get a divorce.
B ) [ ]

Kon-na-ni hidoi ame de wa, kyoo no shiai wa v . chuushi-suru [hoka I nai ne. Since its raining so heavily, we can do nothing but cancel todays match.

Used mostly in mens language. Not translatable.

1 . At the end of a sentence, serves to emphasize it.


A ) 0

Sono omocha, boku no c. I i .


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That toy is mine!

B )
Washi mo toshi o totta D . wa i . (Oh,) Ive grown old (sigh)!
C ) = ?

Ika wa tabeta p. kal i ]? Did you eat the squid? 2. Reinforces the interrogative.
A ) ?

Konban maajan yara-nai p.ka[^i ]? Why dont we play mahjong tonight?

B ) ! ?
Ima sugu korare-nai p. ka|~i~|? Cant you come right now?

K A
1 . Expresses uncertainty of the topic it marks. English approximation: if whether A ) Nihon ni iku no wa, itsu ni v naru ka mattaku wakara-nai. I have no idea when Ill be going to Japan, (literally: As for going to Japan, when it will be, I have no idea.) B )
A
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Kono kawa wa, mita dake de wa, umi nan c da [ka] kawa nan c. da Ika] wakara-nai kurai ookii ne. This river is so big, you cant tell if its an ocean or a river just by looking (at it), (literally: As for this river, just by looking (at it), whether its an ocean or a river, one cant tell~thats the extent of its size, isnt it?) 2. Expresses a conjecture with an implied sense of doubt.

English approximation: perhaps because of ...


A )

Moo kon-na jikan ka. nakatta.

Soto ga akarui n see [ka] ki ga tsuka-

Its so late already. Maybe its because its light outside, I hadnt noticed. B ) |^] Yuube wa nomi-sugita n, no [kai, kesa wa atama ga itai. Perhaps I had too much to drink last night; this morning I have a headache. 3. In the pattern "... ka ... ka lists a number of choices. or ... 4

English approximation: a ) H ! 0

Migi n no Ika I hidari n no [kai, hayaku kimete yo. The one on the right or the one on the left? Make up your mind quickly! B ) ^ ] Iku p no [kai ika-nai p no [kai, docchi na no?
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Are you going or not going, which is it? 4. In the pattern ka . . . gives an approximate number.

English approximation: (number) or (number) A) A + n Nido Ika|sando kimi no uchi ni denwa-shita kedo, rusu datta. I called you at home two or three times, but no one answered. B ) =

Watashi-tachi wa n mikka lka| yokka ryokoo ni dekake-masu. Were going on a trip for three or four days.
C )

Sono kyandee, n hitotsu Ikaj futatsu watashi ni mo choodai. uive me one or two of those candies, too. 5. Placed at the end of a sentence.

1 ) Makes the sentence into an interrogative or a rhetorical question. Not translatable. A ) !"^] ? Kinoo wa dooshite konakatta no c desu Ika]? Why didnt you come yesterday? B ) [^ ] ? Sensoo o sakeru no wa fukanoo na no c daroo ka ? Is it impossible to avoid war? C ) 1? Dochira-sama de v. irasshai-masu ka ? May I ask who this is? 2)
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Indicates a confirmation. Not translatable.

A ) [ ^ ] o v Wa katta [ka]. Moo nido to suru-n ja nai yo. Do you understand? Dont ever do this again. B ) ^1? Hontoo ni ashita v. kite-kure-masu ka ? Are you really going to come (on my behalf) tomorrow? 3) Rhetorical question. Not translatable.
A ) [^ ]

Dooshite son-na koto ga shinji-rareru c daroo ka . How can (I) believe something like that? B ) Kon-na koto ni naru to wa, dare ga soozoo-shita c daroo ka . Who would have imagined that this would happen? (literally: As for this happening, who would have imagined?)

C ) |^ ]p
Kon-na yonaka ni hito ga tazunete kuru koto ga v aroo ka . Is it possible that someone has come to visit at such a late hour? 4) Expresses a rebuttal or objection to a previous sentence. Not translata ble. A ) |^1 Son-na koto-tte aru-n c deshoo [ka]. Can something like that really happen? b) r m

Hontoo ni daijoobu c deshoo ka . Is it really going to be all right?


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5)

Adds a critical, scolding tone. Not translatable. A ) !"^] Kon-na jikan made asonde-kuru hito ga v ari-masu lka|. Youre out playing so late! (literally: Is there anyone who d stay out playing until this hour?
B ) ! " ^ ]

An-na ni tanonda no ni, kono tegami dasu no o wasureta n nolkaj. I asked you so many times, and still you forgot to mail this letter! 6) Often in the pattern de wa/ja nai k a / asks a rhetorical question for emphasis. English approximation: wasnt it so that

A ) ^]
Akarui uchi ni kaette oide to itta de wa v nai [ka]. Didnt I tell you to come home while it was still light outside? B ) Sakadachi, kinoo wa dekita ja v nai [ka]. Werent you able to do a handstand yesterday? 7) Makes a casual suggestion.

English approximation: why dont we do you want to ... lets ... A ) I I ^] Kaeri ni ippai v yaroo ka . Do you want to have a drink on our way home? B ) |"^]0 Moo ichido tashikamete miyoo ja v. nai [ka]. Why dont we make sure one more time?
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8)

Often in a

tara doo ka pattern, makes a roundabout,

softened command. English approximation: why dont you do ... A ) ^ ] Son-na ni iki-tai no nara, itte-mitara ad v doo ka If you want to go that badly, why dont you go?
B ) [ ^ ]

Hitori de shinpai-shite-iru yori, iron-na hito ni kiite-mitara a d v doo [ka]. Instead of worrying all by yourself, why dont you ask lots of people (for advice)? 9) As a sort of self-utterance, often with a reminiscent or some emotional overtone. Not translatable. A ) [^] [ ^] adv.Soo [ka]. Tootoo v gookaku-shita Ikai. Yoku yatta na. Really, (you) finally passed (the test). (You) did well. B ) I 0 O S S

Naan da, n kage [ka]. Yuuree ka to omotta. Oh, its only a shadow. I thought it was a ghost.

K A - I - Combination particle
A combination of the particles ka and i i Placed at the end of a sentence to indicate that it is an interrogative, or to express that it opposes the statement that was just previously made by another party.
51

Emphatic. Not translatable. A ) Sorya, uso ja v. nai ka i ? Isnt that a lie? B ) Kon-na ii tenki ni, ame nan ka furu n mon [ka n. When its this nice out, theres no way its going to rain. C ) ] Kaidan? Son-na mon v shinjim [ka i]. Ghost stories? Id never believe in something like that!

K A - N A ( K A - N A A ) - ( - Combination particle
A combination of the particles ka and na or na(naa) ). 1 . Casually expresses doubt, with a very light exclamatory tone. English approximation: (I) wonder ? A) Daigaku ( ) j nyuushi, kotoshi koso wa v. umaku-iku

ka na(ka n a a ) . I wonder if maybe college entrance examinations will finally go well this year?
B ) S ! ^ ]

Dooshite hitori de dekaketa p no ka na(ka n a a ) . I wonder why (he/she) went out alone?
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2.

Used in making a suggestion to oneself.

English approximation: (I) think/(I) will do ... A ) Koohii demo v irevoo ka na(ka n a a ) . I think Fm going to make some coffee ... B ) 1 )[] Soro-soro v kaeroo [ka naj. I think Fm going to go home soon. 3. In the pattern nai kana indicates wishful thinking.

English approximation: I wish (it) would ... A ) & 1 Hayaku haru ni v nara-nai ka na(ka n a a ) . I wish spring would come soon.
B ) ]

O toosan

hayaku

sh u cch oo

kara

kaette

v ko-nai

ka na(ka n a a ) . I wish Dad would come home soon from his business trip.

K A R A
FUNDAMENTALS OF KARA In general, you can understand the function of kara by identirying the part of speech of the word immediately preceding it. When kara is placed after a noun or a nominal it usually means from, whereas after an adjective or a verb and a copula, kara usually indicates reason or
53

cause.

1 . Placed after a noun or a nominal. 1 ) After a pronoun, interrogative pronoun, a persons name or social position, indicates that an action or a deed is directed from that person. English approximation: from

A ) _ | Watashi wa sono hanashi o n sensee kara kiki-mashita. I heard that story from my teacher.

B)

Boku wa n kanojo kara raouretaa o moratta. received a love letter from her.

C)

Sono hon o n dare [kara I kari-mashita ka? From whom did you borrow the book?

D)

1 | Watashi wa n sensee [kara] homerarete ureshikatta. I was happy that my teacher gave me a compliment.

E ) Anata kara doozo ohanashi kudasai.


54

Please, if you could start talking first, (literally: (Starting) with you, please tell us your story.) F ) | Watashi mo hayaku n oya I kara I dokuritsu sh ta n desu. I too, would like to become independent from my parents soon. 2) Placed after a noun, showing a place/space, indicates that something starts/started at that place. English approximation: from through out of in
A ) [}

Kare wa n Doketto kara kuruma no kagi o tori-dashita. He took his car keys out of his pocket.

B)

fe Doroboo wa n mado Ikara] ha itta rashii. It looks like the robber got into the house through the window.

C ) ] n. Ki kara I ringga ochite kita. An apple fell from the tree.

D )

Taiyoo wa n hiqashi I kara I nobori-masu. The sun rises in the east.


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E ) Hoteru no n okuioo I kara I Fujisan ga mie-mashita I saw Mt. Fuji from the roof top of the hotel.

F )

Sutendogurasu karal yuuhi ga sashi-konde-iru The rays of the setting sun are shining through the stained glass.

G)

] Watashi wa sono chishiki o n hon [kara] e-mashita. I obtained that knowledge from a book.

3)

After a time word, indicates that something begins/began at that moment.

English approximation: from at since A ) M f l W M l Nihon-go no jugyoo wa, asa n ku-ji [kara] hajimari-masu. The Japanese language class begins at nine oclock in the morning. i=

56

B ) M S n Raishuu I kara I chikatetsu ga ne-age ni naru. From next week, the subway fare will go up.

C ) ] A

Watashi wa, isogashikute, n h kinoo no yoru I kara I zutto nete i-masen. I ve been so busy that I havent slept at all since last night. D) ^ 7 [^~| S 7 Tanabata wa n mukashi [kara] nihon ni tsutawatte-iru gyooji desu. The Tanabata festival is a traditional event observed since olden times in Japan. E ) [ I Watashi wa, nihon ni g kite [kara] moo ni-nen ni nari-masu. Two years have already passed since I came to Japan. F ) 1 Sofu ga g nakunatte Ikara | go-nen tach mashita. Its been five years since my grandfather passed away. 4) In the pattern kara ... made shows a range/span of space or time. English approximation: from/to between A ) ^ \ | Kono yoochien ni wa, n n sai I kara I yon-sai made no kodomotachi ga i-masu.
57

There are children between the ages of two and four at this kindergarten. B) i f n San-ji [karaI yo-ji made no aida ni kite kudasai. Please come over between three and four oclock. C ) Watashi wa, sono kiji o p sumi I kara I sumi made yom mashita. Ive read the article from the beginning to the end. (literally: from one corner to the other) D ) Resutoran to itte mo, n Din [karaj Kiri made ari-masu. When it comes to restaurants, theres a wide range of them, (literally: from the first to the last) E) ^ ] 4 K Yuushoku o tabete [kara] neru made ni yo-jikan aru. After dinner, I ll have four hours before I go to bed. 5) In the pattern kara ... e the particle kara is

placed between repeated words, to indicate that the same action occurs one after another in succession. English approximation: one after another
< ^

A ) !^ I Hanabi ga, n ts u g i karal tsugi e to uch ' 1 - 1 ' agerareta. Fireworks were shot up into the sky one after another, (literally: from next to the next)
58

x l

' l ' 'M M l u

.. . . . v : r

. ^ i
_

B)

Oo-nami ga n. tsuqi kara tsugi e to oshi-yosete kita. One after another, great waves came rolling in.

C ) Watashi-tachi wa hikooki de n shima [kara I shima e to tonda. We flew by plane from one island to another.

particle de ' English approximation: from of out of A )

Hamono wa n kootetsu I kara I tsukurare-masu. Cutlery is made of steel.

B ) J

Pan wa n komugi-ko kara tsukuri-masu. (We) make bread out of flour.

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Hon wa n kami kara dekite i-masu. Books are made of paper.

D ) Nihon wa yottsu no ookii n shima Ikara natte i-masu. Japan consists of four big islands.

E)

Kono kuni no keezai wa, booeki ni yoru n shuunyuu I kara | nari-tatte-iru. The economy of this country is based on its trade income. 7) Placed after a noun, indicates an approximate amount/number.

English approximation: as many as as much as no less than A )


Hyaku-dai kara no oogata torakku ga narande-iru. More than one hundred big trucks are lined up.

B)

Sen-nin kara no kankoo-kyaku ga, mainichi koko o otozureru. As many as one thousand tourists visit this place every day. 2. Placed after an abstract noun, an adjective or a verb.

1 ) Indicates a cause or a reason for an action/attitude that is described in the predicate clause.
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This inverted structure makes the sentence

emphatic. English approximation: as so since due to for because considering seeing A) | | : ! Osakana ga ad vasukatta I kara I taKusan kai-mashita. Because I found the fish inexpensive, I bought lots of them. B) Kyoo wa 1 1 otenki c da Ikara I, saKura wa mankai ni naru daroo. bince the weather is very nice today, cherry blossoms will probably be in full bloom.

C)

Watashi wa burokkori wa kirai c. da I kara I, zettai ni tabe-nai. Because I dont like broccoli, I never eat it. D) t : b Nihon-go ga joozu ni

nari-tai kara isshoo-kenmee

benkyoo-shi-masu. Since I want to be good at Japanese, Fll work hard. E )

Kimi ni tomodachi ga deKi-nai no wa, uchi ni bakari v im kara da yo. The reason why you cant make friends is that you stay home most of the time.
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F ) Boku ga nori-sugoshita no wa, kimi ga v oshiete-kure-nakatta [kara] da zo. The reason why I missed my stop was that you didnt tell me (where to get off). G ) 95 Kare wa tsuma to no n fuwa [kara], bekkyo-shita. Due to the fact that he didnt get along with his wife, they separat ed. H) S ?I I I ^ ] H shoogakukin o morau

Kare wa, kookoo no n seeseki [kara], koto ni natta.

Because of his (excellent) grades in high school, he is to be granted a scholarship. 2) Placed after an abstract noun, indicates ones judgment/ viewpoint.

English approximation: from a viewpoint of judging from by according to A ) 4 ![ ] Anata no n. me I kara] mire ba, kono shigoto wa kantan deshoo. From your viewpoint, this task may seem to be easy. B ) | A 4 ^

Kono tegami no n naiyoo [kara] handan-suru to, kare wa kachoo ni shooshin suru rashii. Judging from the contents of this letter, it seems that he will be promoted to manager, (literally: section chief)
62

^ ] ^ ^ *&
Igaku-teki n kenchi [kara] sure ba, kare no kenkyuu wa

nooberu-shoo ni mo atai suru. From a medical point of view, his research is worth the Nobel Prize. 3) Placed after an abstract noun of emotion, indicates that such an emotion results in the action/state described in the predicate clause. English approximation: from out of due to A ) j I Watashi wa n ureshisa Ikara I tobi-agatta. I jumped for joy. B) [ _ j Boku wa, kudoo-kun to chotto shita n ii-ai kara I kenka-shite shimatta. I ended up having a fight with Kudo over something that arose out of a minor argument.

C)

Kare wa n sekinin-kan kara jishoku-shita.

He resigned from his office out of a sense of responsibility. 3. In the pattern kara to itte , introduces a restriction

or a warning. English approximation: even though A ) I I Okozukai o v moratta kara to itte, tsukai-sugiru to, sugu
63

nakunaru yo. Even though youve received an allowance, if you spend it too fast, it will soon be gone. B) | | : a d j Yasui [karaj to itte, takusan katte wa ike-masen. Even though they may be a bargain, dont buy too many at a time.
C ) [ j

Nareta tokoro c da Ikara I to itte, hitori de aruku no wa kiken desu. Even though you are familiar with the area, it is dangerous to walk around alone. 4. In the pattern kara ni wa expresses a determination

or a resolution. English approximation: since now that A) : | Kore dake v benkyoo shita Ikara I ni wa, kitto gookaku-shite miseru zo. Now that Ive studied this hard, I will pass the entrance exam without fail! B)

Gaikoku e v iku Ikara I ni wa, soko no bunka o yoku shiranakere-ba-nara-nai. Now that you are going to a foreign country, you must got to know its culture very well.

C)

Kono kaisha m v nyuusha-shita Ikara I ni wa, isshoo-kenmee


64

ganbaroo. Now that Ive been accepted by this company, I will do my best. 5. In the pattern kara ni .

English approximation: just by doing A) A Kanojo wa v miru Ikara I ni yasashi-soo na hito desu ne. Just by looking at her, you can tell that shes probably a very kind person. B ) i i < I U ? I Sore wa v. kiku [kara] ni kowai hanashi da. Just by listening to it, the story sends a chill up my spine.

K A R A - S H IT E - Combination particle
A combination of the particles kara and shite . 1 . Cites one characteristic of something/someone in order to make an emphatic statement about the whole thing/person. English approximation: starting with A ) ^ A M I | Ano otoko no hito wa n kaotsuki kara shite chotto hen da. Starting with his face, he is a little strange.
B) S # [

Kanojo wa P mochimono kara shite zeetaku da. Starting with her possessions, she is extravagant. 2. A more emphatic form of kara used in the sense of because/
65

since similar to node . English approximation: consequently A ) 4 [ ^ T T I Kotoshi no shuushi wa akaji c. de-aru nantoka kuroji ni shiyoo. Our balance sheet is in the red this year; consequently, lets try to somehow come out on top next year.
B ) I j

kara shite , rainen wa

Soo-yuu uwasa

c da

kara shite , ano futari wa chikajika

kekkon-suru daroo. Since that sort of rumor is going around, consequently, its likely that those two will get married soon.

K A S H I R A
Found in womens language. 1 . Following an interrogative pronoun, poses a question. English approximation: (I) wonder ...
A ) I I

n Dare kashira , imagoro to o tataku no wa. I wonder who is knocking on my door at this hour.
B ) [ I

Tashika ni koko ni oita hazu da kedo, nai wa. n Doko kashira . I thought I had definitely put it here, but its not here. I wonder where it could be?
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C ) | Ookina tsutsumi ne. n Nani kashira Thats a Dig package. I wonder what it is?

2.

Casually softens a question or a sense of doubt addressed to oneself or

another party. Not translatable. A ) Kono hon o katta no, itsu . aatta kashira When was it that I bought this book? B ) ^

Watashi, son-na koto v itta kashira

Oboete-i-nai kedo.

Did I say something like that? I dont remember it. 3. Softens an interrogative sentence. Not translatable. A ) Kondo wa itsu v irassha masu kashira When will (you) be coming by again? B ) Kyoo mise wa v aite-iru kashira I wonder, is the store open today? 4. Makes a casual suggestion to oneself or another party.

English approximation: should (I/we) do A )


?

Konban eega ni v ikoo kashira Should I go to the movies tonight?

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b ) i T4 Keeki o katte v kaeroo kashira Should I buy a cake on the way home?

5.

Following a negation:

1 ) Indicates wishful thinking or softens a statement asking someone for a favor. English approximation: I wish ... could (you) do ... A ) Hayaku gookaku-tsuuchi ga v. ko-nai kashira I wish the acceptance letter would arrive soon. B) Ima suau v. kite Kure-nai kashira Could you come right away? 2) Expresses concern over an uncertain or potentially negative situation.

English approximation: I wonder A) A X A | ^ Ima dekake te mo, juu-ji no kisha ni v mani-au kashira Even if you were to leave now, I wonder if you could make it in time to catch the ten oclock train. B) Sono suutsu-keesu, v omo-sugi-nai kashira I wonder if that suitcase isnt too heavy.

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K E
Colloquial. Usually placed at the end of the sentence after the copula da , which is the informal form of desu , to form patterns such as d a k k e and dattakk e . 1. Used in reminiscing about a past event.

English approximation: ((I) remember) A ) - Chiisai toki, yoku ki-nobori o shita mono (mo-n) c. da-k[ke|. When (I) was little, (I) used to climb trees all the time, (I remember). B ) [T7| Soo ie ba, son-na tokoro e v. itta-k[ke| nee. Thats right, we did go somewhere like that, (I remember) (didnt we). 2. sed. English approximation: when is/was it ? what is/was it ? etc. A ) [^] Itsu no koto c datta-k[ke|, kimi to ongak-kai ni itta no wa. When was it now, that I went with you to the concert? B ) Ano hito no tokoro no denwa-bangoo, nan-ban r, da-klkej. That persons phone number, what is it now?

In an interrogative, actively solicits an answer from the party addres

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K E R E D O M O (K ER E D O , K E D O , K E D O M O ) (
Colloquial forms: keredo , kedo and kedomo . 1 . A conjunctive particle. 1 ) After one statement, functions as an adversative conjunction leading into the next clause/phrase. English approximation: even though but A ) Kono ryoori wa ad ; oishii kakaru. Even though this dish is delicious, its a hassle to make. B) 4 tsukuru no ni tema ga

keredomo

Chotto jimi c da [keredomo | , kon-ya no paatii ni wa kore o kite ikoo. Even though its a bit subdued, Ill wear this to the party tonight. 2) Following an apologetic remark, connects it to the main point that follows. English approximation: though but A ) Kore, hon no sukoshi c desu keredomo , meshi-agatte

kudasai. Though theres only a little bit here, please have it (to eat). B ) Totsuzen
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c desu

keredomo , kaisha o yamesasete itada-

kimasu. I know its sudden, but I wish to quit the company. 3) Simply connects two unrelated statements.

English approximation: (like a comma) A ) Inu ga v hoete-iru keredomo , dare ka soto ni iru-n ja nai? The dogs barking, isnt there someone out there?
B ) A | | ; .

Kono chihoo wa samui to v kiita keredomo , hontoo ni mainichi hie-komu ne. I had heard that it was cold in this region, and its truly quite chilly every day. 2. At the end of a sentence or clause.

1 ) Expresses wishful thinking; a hope that the situation at hand will be reversed. English approximation: (if ") but... A) > | Moo sukoshi keredomo . It would be better if I could understand Japanese a little more, but .... B ) [ Moo sukoshi okane ga are ba, ano sutereo ga kaeru no c. da keredomo . If I had a bit more money, Id be able to buy that stereo, but ....
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Nihon-go ga yoku wakaru

to

ii no

c. da

2)

Often in the pattern doose ... keredomo gives the sentence an overtone of hopelessness, cynicism, or scorn. Not translata ble. A ) A [I Hashitta-tte doose v man awa-nai keredomo . Even if (I) were to run, theres no way (I) would make it on time. B ) Kon-na yasumono, katte mo doose sugu kowareru c daroo keredomo . This is so cheap, even if I were to buy it, it would surely break right away.

3)

Used in making an indirect suggestion or statement.

English approximation: (excuse me, but)

A) U ]
Juu-ji no kisha deshita ne. Soro-soro dekakeru jikan c desu keredomo . Your train is at ten, right? (Excuse me, but) I think its about time to leave. B ) 1 Botsu-botsu koogi ga v hajimari-masu keredomo . (Excuse me, but) the lecture should be starting pretty soon. 3. A conjunction whicn is different from the usage of the above particle

keredomo . Placed after a complete sentence: 1 ) Introduces another statement that conflicts with it

English approximation: however


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A)i | | * ^

Nihon - go

wa

muzukashii.

Keredomo,

isshoo-kenmee

benkyoo-sure ba, kanarazu wakaru yoo ni naru. Japanese is difficult. However, if you study hard, you will definitely be able to understand it. B) ] Neko wa, tashika ni kawairashii doobutsu desu. watashi wa arerugii desu kara, kae-masen. Cats are cute animals, to be sure. However, Im allergic, so I cant keep one. 2) Expresses agreement with the first sentence, then offers another related alternative. English approximation: however yet A ) I Natsu-yasumi ni wa, yama ni iku no mo ii. Keredomo umi mo mata ii ne. Its nice to go to the mountains during summer break. However, it would be nice to go to the beach, too. Keredomo ,

K IR I
1 . Establishes a limit for a topic. 1 ) In referring to quantity:
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English approximation: only just


A ) || n Futari Ikirn de dokoka e itte-shimai-tai. I want to go away somewhere, just the two of us. B ) | Watashi wa yooroppa ni wa, ichido v itta [kiri] desu. I have been to Europe only once (so far). 2) In referring to a state or condition, shows that it has been unchanged.

English approximation: continuously only doing


A ) I Toshi oita chichi wa, v neta ni natta.

My aged father became bed-ridden, (literally: My aged father has become confined to continuously lying down.) B ) [| v Suwari-k[kiri| de shigoto o tsuzuketa node, kata ga kotta. Since I have been working sitting down continuously, my shoulders have gotten tense. 3) Often followed later in the sentence by a negative, shows that there is a limit that has not yet been surpassed.

English approximation: after doing


A )

(not once done ...) yukue aa wakari-

Kare wa ichi-do denwa o kakete v kita masen.

He called just once, and after that, (I) dont know where he went. B) S S ||
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Kanojo to wa, kyonen v atta kiri , tegami mo dashite i-nai. As for her, after I saw her last year, I havent even sent her (a single) letter. 2. In the pattern marukkiri followed by a negative or

negative situation. English approximation: at all A ) [| Boku wa, osake wa maruklkirn dame da. I cant drink at all. B ) [ ] Watashi wa, maruk[kiri| oyoge nai-n desu. I cant swim at all.

K O SO
1 . Emphasizes what is preceded. English approximation: (indeed) A ) 4 V ? I 2

Ano n yama [koso | , takusan no tozan-sha ga inochi o otoshita yama da. That mountain is (indeed) one on which many mountain climbers have lost their lives. B) | n, Rainen [koso I nihon e itte mi yoo. Next year, (finally, indeed), lets go to Japan.
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2.

Often in the kara koso or

ba koso pat-

tern, emphasizes a reason for an action. English approximation: (precisely) because

A)

Koo naru koto ga wa katte ita p kara [koso] watashi wa sansee shinakatta no desu. Its precisely because I knew things were going to work out this way that I didnt agree (before). B ) 1 Anata no koto o kangaere p ba [koso i, ketsudan o omoitodomatta no yo. Its precisely because I thought about you that I stopped short of making a decision. 3. In the pattern koso sure shows that the statement that

precedes it is true or acceptable, but another opinion or additional com ments are to follow.

English approximation: do (something), but


A ) [I Ano hito wa, hito o home Ikoso] sure, kenashita koto wa nai. That person does make encouraging remarks about others, but has never made pejorative ones. 4. In the pattern sore koso emphatic.

English approximation: that (would A ) |


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Tesuto no mae ni infuruenza ni demo ka katta ra, sore I koso i taihen da yo. If you were to catch the flu or something before your exam, that would be disastrous. B ) # Son-na koto o kanojo ni ioo mono nara, sore Ikoso] tada de wa suma-nai yo. If you were to say something like that to her, that would get you into trouble.

K O TO
Womens language (except No. 6). 1 . Serves to soften the impact of an opinion that is expressed. translatable.
A )

Not

Son-na ni itsu made mo shogete-iru nante, anata a H j rashiku-nai koto yo. Its not like you to be so down for so long.

B) i
[kotoj yo.

! _ j

Kore dake itte mo mada wakara-nai no nara, moo v shira-nai

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If you still dont understand after all I ve said, then I just give up. 2. Expresses a mild surprise or a positive impression. Not translatable. A ) K Oya, mezurashii tori ga v iru koto Look, theres a rare bird! B ) 4 Maa, suteki na e c da Ikoto I nee. My goodness, what a wonderful painting! 3. Placed at the end of a sentence, accompanies a casual question. Not

translatable. A ) Kore kara ojama-shite mo adj.ii koto Would it be all right to come over now? B ) [I ? Kaze wa moo sukkari v yoku natta Ikotoj? Are you completely over your cold? 4. Makes a rhetorical question that is exclamatory.

English approximation: isnt it A ) bhinkon-ryokoo wa yooroppa desu-tte? Suteki da [kotoj. I ve heard that (your) honeymoon will be in Europe. wonderful! B) s 4 m Isnt that

Kanojo no kaisha, nenkyuu go-shuukan desu-tte. ad_urayamashn koto


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Her company has five weeks vacation per year, I hear. Isnt it enviable! 5. Expresses a casual suggestion for action, following a negative form of

a verb. English approximation: how about ...? why dont we A ) [ ]? Kore kara eega ni demo v iki-masen [koto i? How about going to a movie now?

B) ]?
Osoku natta kara, takushii demo v hirowa-nai I koto I? Its gotten late, how about catching a taxi? 6. Transforms a statement into a strict command. Not translatable. A ) 0 ITtlT|T 7 ] Kijitsu ni okurezu repooto o v teeshutsu-suru Hand in the report without missing the deadline. B) A ^ V

Karita kane wa kanarazu v kaesu Ikoto I. Make sure (you) pay back the money (you) borrow.

K U R A I (G U R A I)

<

1 . Indicates that a given quantity is approximate. English approximation: about approximately


A ) V 4

Moo n is-shuukan [kurai] de hana ga saku deshoo.


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The flowers will probably bloom in about a week. B ) [ j Mizu o gurasu ni n hanbun iguraii kudasai. Please give me about half a glass of water. 2. Belittles something, in showing that it is simple or elementary.

English approximation: (something like)


A) < | 5 Kantan na n. ryoori [kurail watashi datte dekiru wa. Even I can cook (something like) a simple meal.
B) MM| < |l

n. Sentaku Ikurai] jibun de shinasai. Do (something like) your laundry yourself. 3. In citing one situation, indicates its extent.

English approximation: to the extent that ... A ) || Sora ichimen makka ni v naru deshita. The sunset was splendid, to the extent that the whole sky turned crimson. kurai no, migotona yuuyake

B )

1 _

i ;

Shujin wa kon-na ni osoku made v hataraite-iru [kurail dakara, yohodo shigoto ga isogashii rashii. since its to the extent that my husband is working this late, he must be quite busy at work.
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4.

Following a noun, a nominal, or a pronoun, establishes it as a basis for

comparison. Not translatable. A ) I < n Jishin I kurai i kowai mono wa nai. Theres nothing more scary than an earthquake. B ) 2 I < n Otoosan [kuraii se ga taka-kattara ii no ni naa. I wish I were as tall as my father. 5. Indicates that what precedes it is something undesirable or unlikable.

English approximation: rather than doing

A) [

Son-na mazui mono o v taberu [kurai] nara, nani mo tabe-nai hoo ga mashi da. Rather than eating something that gross, I prefer not to eat any thing at all.

B) []
Kijitsu ni v okureru kurai nara, tetsuya o shite kansee-saseta hoo ga mashi da. Rather than being late for the deadline, (I) prefer to finish it by staying up all night.

K U SE -N I

Combination particle

A combination of the noun kuse < habit) and the particle ni .


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1 . As a conjunctive particle, indicating that the actual situation is the reverse of the norm that is given in the preceding clause. Implies a criticism of that norm. English approximation: even though but A)

<

Kare wa daigakusee p no kuse ni , mada hahaoya ni sentaku shite-moratte-iru-n datte. Even though hes a college student, he still has his mother do his laundry. B) | & Itsumo ne. (You) usually get up late, but you got up so early today, 2. At the end of a sentence or phrase, expresses a slight resentment, neboo-suru kuse ni kyoo wa zuibun hayaku okita

English approximation: Not readily translatable, the implication is (you) did ." remember? said in a slightly resentful tone of voice. A) I Miruku mata nokoshita no. c datta kuse ni You didnt finish your milk again? You liked it so much when you were a child. B) ^ ! Yamenasai, son-na m takusan taberu no wa. Kono aida mo
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Kodomo no toki wa an-na ni suki

onaka o v kowashita kuse ni Stop eating so much. You got an upset stomach the other day.

M A D E
FUNDAMENTALS OF MADE Generally, this particle establishes a temporal or spatial limit. Its most common meaning is until, or up to a certain point. Make sure you distinguish between this particle and the particle made ni , which means by. 1 . Indicates a limit or destination. Often in the pattern kara ... made . 1 ) Temporal limits. English approximation: to till until v J

Watashi wa ku-ji kara n go-ji imadei shigoto o shi-masu. I work from nine to five. B ) Kanojo wa asa kara n ban imadei sukeeto no renshuu o shita. She practiced skating from morning till night.
! ---------------1

-------------- 1

D ) I Chichi wa n, hyaku-sai [made ikita. My father lived to be a hundred years old.

E ) H

Boku wa n kyuu-sai made rooma de sodatta. I was raised in Rome until I was nine years old. F ) S Sutoraiki ga v kaiketsu-suru imadei densha wa ugoka-nai. There will be no train service until the strike is over. G ) ] n Ima [made nani o shite ita no? What have you been doing until now? 2) Spatial limits.

English approximation: to as far as A ) ! _ Watashi wa, uchi kara n qakkoo imadei jitensha de kayotte i-masu. I commute from my house to school by bicycle.
I-------------- 1 _

B ) I j Kono kisha wa, n aomori [made] iki-masu, This train will go to Aomori.
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0 | -------------- 1

C)

i ft A
Chuukan-tesuto no han-i wa ik-ka kara n yon-ka l made I desu. The mid term exam will cover lessons one to four.

D ) ^] n. Doko [made] irasshaimasu ka? Where are you going? (literally: To which place are you going?)

E ) ||
n. Nara [madei no kippu o ni-mai kudasai. Two tickets to Nara, please.

3)

Limits of quantity, range, or scope.

English approximation: up to within a) n Kekkon-shiki no hiyoo wa n hyaku-man en [made] ni shiteokoo. Lets keep the budget for our wedding within one million yen. B ) # ^ ] Misu sakura kontesuto no sanka-sha o boshuu sh masu. Nenree wa n nijuu-qo sai Imade] desu. We are looking for contestants for the Miss Sakura pageant. You must be under twenty-five years old. (literally: As for the age (limit), its up to twenty-five.) C ) I I
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1 ^ 1

Hon no kashi-dashi wa ik-kai n san-satsu [made] desu. You may borrow up to three books at a time. 2. Shows the extent to which a situation or action can/has already

reach(ed). English approximation: until to as far as to the extent of A) || Koozui de mizu ga phyuka no ue imade] kita. The water from the flood reached (as far as) above floor level. B) H i ?

Gohan wa p h saiqo no hito-tsubu i made] tabenasai. Eat even the last grain of rice in your bowl.
C)

, l ci Shoogakukin ga moraeru yoo ni naru Imade| ganbaroo. Ill work hard until I qualify for a scholarship.

D)

< [ Mokuteki-chi ga mitsukara-nakute, watashi wa c ashi qa boo no yoo ni naru [made] sagashite aruita. Unable to find my destination, I walked in search of it until I felt as if my legs were about to fall off.

3.

Indicates that a situation has reached the extent that even an extreme

example is now applicable. English approximation: even A ) [| Tomodachi p ni imadei mihana-sareru yoo ja, oshimai da.
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If even your friends desert you, thats the end. B ) | (Proverb) Boozu nikukerya n kesa imadei nikui. When (you) hate the monk, (you) even hate his surplice. 4. Indicates that an action is/was done by chance.

English approximation: just merely

A ) I
Kesa hayaoki shita no wa, tamatama kotori no nakigoe de me ga v sameta made da yo. I got up early this morning merely because I happened to have been woken up by the singing of birds.
B )

Watashi ga kaisha de shusse dekita no wa, un ga a d j yokatta [made] no koto desu. It is just luck that I was able to climb up the corporate ladder. C) ] _ Kondo wa itsu irashite kudasaru ka to omotte _ v, odenwa-shita [madei yo. Chotto

I was wondering when youd be coming over again ... I just called
(for that), thats all. D )

tz []
Son-na ni osshara-nai de kudasai. Watashi wa tada atarimae no
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koto o v shita imadei desu. Please dont thank me so much. I just did what I should have done.

M A D E -M O

Combination particle

A combination of the particles made and mo

1 . Followed by a negation later in the sentence or clause, indicates that a


situation or action preceding it is not necessary, and that it is the obvious or norm. English approximation: its not necessary to

a ) i

mm

Imasara v mooshi-acjeru

made mo ari-masen ga, watakushi

wa raigetsu teenen-taishoku itashi-masu. (I know that) its not necessary to say it at this point (i.e. because everyone knows about it by now), but I will be retiring next month.
b ) i |

Tegami ni v kaku [made mo otsutae itashi-masu.

nai koto desu kara, denwa de

Since its not necessary to write a letter, Ill (just) tell you over the phone. 2. As a conjunction, shows that although an extreme situation may not be

true or possible, a lesser one is desirable or necessary. English approximation: even though (its not to the extent that) ... A ) ! !
88

Hakkiri to v. oboete-i-nai I made mo|, sukoshi wa omoi-daseru deshoo? Even though you might not remember it very clearly, cant you remember just a little bit of it? B ) ^ || v Nyuuin-shi-nai made mo , juubun na kyuuyoo ga hitsuyoo desu. Even though its not necessary for (you) to be hospitalized, (you) need plenty of rest.

M A D E - N I - Combination particle
A combination of the particles made and ni . 1 . Indicates that a situation or action is not to be taken as more than it is; has a belittling function, often in a gesture of humbling oneself. English approximation: just for/to ... A ) ] Watashi-tachi, kyoo otaku no tonari ni koshite mairi-mashita node, n goaisatsu made ni oukagai-shi-mashita.

Since we have moved in next door to you today, were here just to introduce ourselves. B ) [] Gokekkon omedetoo gozaimasu. Hon no oiwai no P shirushi
89

made ni sasayaka na shina o ookuri-shi-mashita.

Congratulations on your marriage. We have sent you th is sm all token to express our congratulations. 2. Shows to what extent something has reached.

English approximation: (up to) A )

Konki no rieki wa n hyaku-oku en made ni tasshita.

The profits th is term reached (up to ) ten billion yen. B) S


;I If ^

Kanojo no namae wa, sekai no n sumi-zumi imade m| shirewatatta.

Her name became known throughout the world, (i.e . Her fame reached (up to ) the point where her name was known throughout the world.) 3. Sets a tim e lim it.

English approximation: before A ) ! | M Hikooki ga v deru imade ni wa, mada ichi-jikan gurai aru.

Theres s t ill about an hour before the plane leaves. B ) |] 5 S


Kono e o v. kaki-ageru imade ni hitsuyoo desu. wa, ato ikka-getsu wa

I need at least a month before I can finish th is painting.

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MO

=b

FUNDAMENTALS OF MO When th is particle follows a noun, a nominal, or a particle, it usually indicates a sim ilar quality between two things, which come before and after it . When mo is preceded by an adjective or a verb, it indicates that more than one action occurs. Note that mo is usually not used after the particles wa and ga or before the particle o , since i t replaces these particles. For example:
Kore bara desu. i k i r h 0 Are _

0 1 bara desu.

This is a rose

That is a rose, too.

ki-mashita.

S a s a k i- s a n mashita. ki-

Ms. Mizuno has come.

Ms. Sasaki also came. S


0 g | | Kanojo wa mikan imoi|^C|

Kanojo wa ringo [o] tabe mashita.

tabe-mashita.

She ate an apple.

She also ate an orange.

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Furthermore, below are the differences in usage of particles with similar functions, to and ya , and mo . A) Simple listing of nouns. _

ringo [to] mikan to banana apples, oranges and bananas. B) Simple listing of nouns. p

ringo [yai mikan ya banana apples, oranges, bananas and the like. C) Additive, also on top of |] ringo mikan mo banana mo|

also apples, oranges and bananas.

1 . Indicates that two subjects are the same or the same kind. English approximation: also too (not)r..., either

A ) 0
Anata wa gakusee desu.

n Watashi imoi gakusee desu.

You are a student. Im a student, too. B ) |T1 Kore wa suika de, n.are ^ to| suika desu. This is a watermelon, and that is a watermelon, too.

(ft)
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C )
Watashi wa niku o tabe-mashita. tabe-mashita. Watashi wa n sakana [no

!---------1

D ) I : Watashi wa koohii o nomi-masen. nomi-masen. Watashi wa n koora mo

I dont drink coffee. I dont drink soda, either.


E ) Boku wa pikunikku ni iki-masen deshita. n. Kanojo ^ric^ pikunikku ni iki-masen deshita. I didnt go on the picnic. She didnt go on the picnic, either. 2. In the pattern mo ... mo lists additively two or more

things in a sim ilar category.


English approximation: too also both as well as either ... or

A ) 0

n, Anata ^ to| n. watashi mo onaji gakkoo no gakusee desu. Both you and I are students at the same school. B ) 0

Watashi wa n wain m a n biiru | m o | nomi-masu.

I drink both wine and beer. C ) IT 1


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Sono shiroi n no | m o | aoi n no | m o | hitotsu zutsu kudasai.

I want to have one each of that white one and that blue one.
D ) |T|n n Ano ko wa otoosan p n[ okaasan p ni shinareta.

That child has lo st his father as well as his mother. E) S * &0


# 0

Boku wa benkyoo-suru n no | m o | hataraku n. no m a kirai da.

I dont like to study or to work. F ) i [^ ] 0

Kanojo wa a d i utsukushiku fnoi arushi a d j yasashiku mo aru.

bhe is beautiful as well as kind.


3. In the pattern mo ... mo often in the forms de mo

or te mo indicates that (1 )there is barely any differ ence between the things/actions, and that (2) another action is done regard less of the given two conditions/actions. English approximation: doesnt make much difference doesnt matter

regardless of
A ) 0 0 ! ni-hyaku en p de mo kekkoo

Kenkin wa hyaku en p de desu.

Any amount of contribution would be appreciated; i t doesnt m atter if it s one hundred or two hundred yen.
B ) # 0 0 1 4 kamai-masen.

Nihon-go de v kaite | m o | eego de v kaite

It doesnt m atter whether you write in Japanese or in English.


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4.

Indicates an addition to something already present.

English approximation: in addition as well as


A ) X 0 i

Otoosan, n boku fno| eega ni tsurete-itte yo.

Dad, could you take me to the movie, to o ?


B ) [T ]I Okaasan, kono n keeki | m o | tabete ii? Mom, can I eat this cake, too? 5. Emphasizes quantity, distance or frequency.

English approximation: as many/much as no fewer/less than as long

a tim e as as far (a distance) as


a ) 1

Watashi wa moo n. juu-nen ^ria nihon ni kaette i-masen.

I havent gone back to Japan for (as long a tim e as) ten years.
B ) Kare wa n hachi-nin mo| kyoodai ga aru.

He has eight brothers!


C ) U 0

Ano inu wa kimi no setake n,hodo ^nol aru.

That dog is as ta ll as you.


D ) Kono tsu bo wa n [uu-man en suru-n datte.

They say that th is vase costs as much as one hundred thousand yen.
6. Indicates that a quantity/number is approximate.

English approximation: around about


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A ) IT ] Kono shigoto wa moo n mik-ka mo are ba dekiru deshoo. This work should be done in about three more days. B) * n. San-byaku-man en mo are ba ii kuruma ga kae-masu yo. If you have around three million yen, you can buy a nice car. 7. Used in a negative sentence, emphasizes the lack of something. If it

follows an interrogative pronoun, or nouns such as once, one day, etc., it indicates total negation of its existence. English approximation: not any no " nothing A ) n. Dare moi i-masen ka? Is there no one (there)? B ) |T] Kyoo wa mise wa n doko a shimatte-iru. No stores are open today, (literally! Today, stores everywhere are closed.) D ) Watashi wa n ichi-do mo sukii o shita koto ga ari-masen. I ve never skied, (literally: I have never skied even once.) E ) I Taishita n gochisoo ^noi gozaimasen ga, doozo meshi-agatte kudasai. Even though theres nothing special, please go ahead and eat. 8.
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Gives an additional, unexpected situation or condition.

English approximation: even A ) Kare wa tenisu no n senshu mo shite ita rashii. I ve heard that he was even a competitive tennis player once, (implying that he has other impressive qualities.) B ) 4 Netsu ga takai noni, imooto wa kurushii p to mo| iwa-nai de, jitto nete i-mashita. Though she had a high fever, my sister was patiently lying in bed without even complaining. 9. Colloquial expression. In the forms koo mo soo mo

aa mo (meaning kon-na ni son-na ni anna ni ) . Indicates the extent of a state/action. English approximation: this/that many this/that much
a ) i

ad Soo

nakarete wa, watashi mo komaru yo.

You cry that much, then I m at a loss B) |T] Gaikoku ni iru to, adv.aa ^noi nihon-shoku ga koishiku naru mono daroo ka. When one is in a foreign country, does one crave for Japanese food that much, I wonder.

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M O N O
1 . Placed at the end of a sentence: 1 ) Gives a reason, which precedes it. Often followed by ne or na which adds a slight exclamatory sense. English approximation: because A ) ! [ Ojoosan no piano no ojoozu na koto! de v irasshai-masu mono ne. How well your daughter plays the piano! Its because your wife is also a pianist. B ) 4 [ ] Kono hamabe natsukashii ne. tokoro c da mono ne. This beach brings back memories, doesnt it? Its bepause we came here on our honeymoon. 2) Following a certain given reason, expresses dissatisfaction, or desire. Colloquial, casual usage. English approximation: because A ) Shinkon-ryokoo no toki ni kita Okusama mo pianisuto

Nee, okaasan, ano omocha katte yo. Boku dooshitemo hoshiin c da mono . Mommy, could you buy me that toy... because I really really want it.
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B )

Konban kite kudasa masen kar Watashi dooshitemo oai-shitai-n c desu Could you come over tonight? Because I really want to see you. 2. As a conjunctive particle, follows a clause to transform it into a reason

for something. English approximation: since so or merely a comma.

A )

Watashi seejin ni natta-n c da I mono I, sukoshi gurai osake nonde mo ii deshoo? I ve now of age, its all right for me to have a little something to drink, isnt it? _ B) ! Musuko wa eego ga mada yoku v wakar masen de kaimono ni iku no wa muri desu wa. Since my son doesnt understand English very well yet, its not possible for him to go shopping by himself. hitori

M O N O - D E ( M O N - D E ) - ( - Combination particle
A combination of the noun mono and the copula de . Indi cates that the preceding clause is the reason for the action in the following
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clause. In colloquial usage, it often takes the form mon de . English approximation: because or simply comma. A ) [ ] Anmari a d j ureshikatta mon de , hoka no koto zenbu wasurechatta. I was so happy, I just forgot about everything else!
B )

Sono nyuusu o ima v kiita mono de , bikkuri-shite odenwa o okake-shite-iru tokoro desu. Because I just heard the news, I was stunned and Im calling you now.

M O N O K A ( M O N K A ) (
Placed at the end of a sentence, makes an exclamatory, emphatic nega tion. Often takes the pattern of mono desu ka . In colloquial usage, it takes the forms monka or mon desu ka . Not translatable. A ) Boku no kimochi ga kimi ni wa katte v tamaru monoka . How could you ever know how I m feeling! B ) I ] Kare no hoo ga warui-n desu mono. Watashi zettai ni v ayamaru mon desu ka .
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He s the one whos at fault. I ll never apologize (to him)!

M O N O N A R A (M O N -N A R A ) -
Mon-nara in colloquial expression. 1 . Following a clause stating a conjecture or a will, indicates that the result of such actions may be undesirable. English approximation: should there be " A ) I Tabako no suigara o sutete wa ike-nai yo. Kaji ni demo v naroo mononara taihen da kara. Dont throw your cigarette butts around. Should there be a fire, it would be disastrous. B) I [ 1 < Hayaku nenasai yo. Ashita no asa, neboo v shiyoo

mononara

ensoku ni ike-naku naru yo. Should you oversleep tomorrow morning, you

Go to bed early.

wont be able to go on your school trip. 2. Proposes a hypothetical situation, with an implication that the speaker

does not care even if such a situation arise. Has a critical, resentful tone. English approximation: if ... then A ) "I"i Anata ga don-na ni binboo ni natte mo adj.n mononara , nani

1 0 1

mo ii-masen yo. If its all right with you no matter how poor you become, then I wont say anything. B ) Son-na no de a d j ii mononara , doko ni demo utte i-masu yo. If something like that is all right, then they should have it in any store. 3. After a possibility, dares the party addressed to perform it. A rather

antagonistic tone (though possibly playfully so).

English approximation: if (you think) you can ...


A ) [j Kono unagi, v tsukameru mononara , tsukande goran. If (you think) you can grab this eel, go right ahead and try grabbing (it). B ) v Toberu mononara tonde goran yo. If (you think; you can fly, go ahead and try flying.

M O N O N O
Establishes a situation, then shows that another situation has arisen that conflicts with it. English approximation: even though although A ) <
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Itsumo yori hayaku uchi o v deta monono , basu ga naka-naka ko-naku te, chikoku-shite shimatta. Although I had left my house earlier than usual, the bus didnt come for quite a while, and I was late. B ) Kuruma wa v katta hashire-nai. Even though (I) have bought a car, I cant drive on the highway because Im still afraid. C) A I Maniatta kara ii adjyoona monono , uchi o deru no ga moo monono mada kowaku te haiuee wa

sukoshi osokattara, hikooki ni nori-okureru tokoro datta yo. Though its all right now because we made it on time, if we had left the house a little bit later, we wouldve missed our plane. D ) Yasui kara to wa v vuu monono takusan kau to kaette son o suru koto ga aru. Even though its cheap, there are times when buying too much of it can make you lose out in the end.

M O N O - O -
1 . Expresses dissatisfaction over the current condition, implying that
103

there was an alternative which would have produced better results.

English approximation: although


A ) I I A Hayaku yasume ba a d i yokatta mono-o muri o shite hataraita node, byooki ni natte shimatta. Although I would have been fine if I had taken a rest earlier, because I pushed myself unreasonably to work, I became ill. 2. An exclamatory particle. Placed at the end of a sentence, indicates

dissatisfaction or regret.

English approximation: if only ...


A ) tfl Kon-na ni ame de zubunure ni natte! Dekakeru mae ni tenki-

yohoo o kiite kure ba a d j yokatta mono-o . You got rained on and are soaking wet! If only you had listened to the weather forecast before you left, you wouldnt have (gotten so wet). B ) < 4 [ ] Soto de yuushoku sumasete kita no? Matte ita noni. Hito koto denwa shite kurereba a d j ii mono-o . You ate dinner out? I was waiting for you. If only you had called me to tell me.

104

N A ( N A A ) (
Na and naa are used in almost the same way, but naa has an even more emotional tone. 1 . As an exclamatory particle, expresses emotion. Found in mens lan guage. Not translatable. A) A I Sukoshi awa-nai uchi ni ookiku v natta [na(naa)]. Youve grown so much during the little time I havent seen you!
B ) A H i I ( I

Yasai no nedan ga zuibun v agatta [na(naa)]. How the price of vegetables has increased!
C ) ! : ! ^ ( ]

Biiru san-daasu ka, zuibun takusan v nonda ina(naa)|. Three dozen beersyou drank a lot! 2. Places a casual emphasis on a decision, suggestion or opinion. Not

translatable. A ) Ashita mo shiken da. Iya c. da ina(naa I have an exam again tomorrow. What a pain!
B )

Boku wa sono uwasa wa hontoo da to v omou na . I think that rumor is true. 3. Elicits a response from the party addressed, in agreement with the

statement made. Usually seen in mens language.


105

English approximation:

right?

A ) Okari-shita hon wa, tashika ni v okaeshi-shi-mashita I definitely returned the book that I borrowed, right? B)
4

Kyonen no haru, kyooto de v ome-ni-kakari-mashita na We met in Kyoto last spring, right? 4. Expresses a casual remark of wishful thinking.

English approximation: I wish ... A ) H


^ "

Mainichi isogash sugiru. Sukoshi nonbirishi-tai Im too busy every day. I wish I could relax a little bit.
b) w m v i ^ r ^

Minami-juuji-see ga mieru to adj.ii ina(naa)|. I hope Ill be able to see the Southern Cross. 5. Following phrases such as (te) kudasai and

nasai , asks the party addressed for a favor. Found in womens language. Not translatable. A ) " ^ Ashita kanarazu odenwa v kudasai na Please be sure to give me a call tomorrow. B ) Moo juuni-ji sugi desu yo. Hayaku v oyasum nasai na Its past twelve already. You should go to bed soon. 6. Placed at the end of a phrase, sets a tone where the speaker is lecturing
106

to the addressee. Found in mens language. Not translatable.


A ) [^ ]
interj Ano

[na]f kono koto wa naisho da yo.

Listen, this is a secret, (ok)?

B ) [ ^ ]
conjTokorode \ n a \ , ii nyuusu ga aru-n da yo. By the way, I have some good news. 7. Placed at the end of a sentence, transforms it into a negative impera

tive. Strongly forbids an action. English approximation: dont ... A ) !"^] lyo-iyo marason-taikai no hi da ne. Saigo made v kujikeru inai. The big day of the marathon is finally here. Dont give up until the end!
B ) .

Kinoo no yuki ga koori ni natta kara abunai yo. v Korobu inaj. Yesterdays snow has turned into ice, so its dangerous. Dont fall. In colloquial usage, indicates a command. Not translatable. A ) Saa, hayaku v mise [na]. Come on, show it (to me) already! B ) Totto to v aruki ina]. Walk quickly!

107

N A D O ( N A N K A ) (
Colloquial form nanka . 1 . Used in listing examples from a category. ya ... n a d o . English approximation: such as ... (and ...) Often in the pattern

A ) 5 I J
p h Shoo-qakkoo ya chuu-qakkoo hayatte-imasu. The flu is going around in (places such as) elementary schools and junior high schools.
B ) M

nado

de infuruenza ga

Watashi wa isogashiku te, p h sentaku ya sooji I nado] wa tsui ato-mawashi ni shite shimai-masu. Im so busy, I tend to end up putting off things like laundry and house cleaning. 2. Belittles the preceding nominal or noun.

English approximation: something (like) ...


A ) A # j ^ 7 ]

Ano hito no n. hanashi [nadoi shinyoo dekiru mo-n desu ka. How could you trust something that person has said! B ) [] Dare ga n netami [nado suru mono desu ka. Who would ever be (something like) jealous!
108

"1

Ben kyoo ga isogashiku te, n kaimono nanka ike nai yo. Im so busy with my studies, shopping. D ) [4 Kuraku te, n shinbun inankaj yome-nai wa. Its too dark, I cant read something like the newspaper. 3. Makes a sentence more indirect and vague by referring to a category I couldnt do something like go

rather than focusing on the specific thing mentioned. English approximation: like say A ) 4 ] Ano n. e nado , naka-naka yoku kakete-iru ne. That painting, say, is done pretty well.

b )K

n Hokkaidoo [nado wa moo yuki datte sa. They say its already snowing in places like Hokkaido. C ) Kono daisuu no n mondai nanka kantan ni tokeru yo. I can easily solve algebra problems like this. D ) I Asoko no n mise I nanka], ii doresu ga ari soo yo. I think there will be nice dresses in a store like that one. 4. Indicates that the statement preceding it is an approximation of a

statement made previously on another occasion. English approximation: something like


109

A) X | |# Musuko kara no tegami ni, c l nihon-shoku ga koishii [nado| to kaite atta wa. In the letter from my son, (he) has written something like he missed Japanese food. B ) I I |

ci. Moo kesshite hanare-nai

nado

to itte-ita noni, hantoshi

shitara wakarete shimatta yo, ano kappuru. Even though they had said something like they would never part, that couple broke up after half a year.

N A G A R A
1 . Indicates that the action described by the verb it follows is being carried out at the same time another action is taking place. English approximation: while doing (also doing
A )

Kare wa poteto-chippusu o v. tabe nagara terebi o mite-iru. He is eating potato chips while watching T.V.
B ) A [ |

Boku wa ongaku o v kiki nagara doraibu o shita. I was listening to music while I drove. 2. Shows that the second phrase describes an unexpected characteristic,

considering the norm of the situation which is given in the first phrase.

1 1 0

English approximation: even though A ) ^1 || A Kare wa dai-gaisha no n shachoo hikui hito da. Even though he is the president of a large company, hes always humble. B) I I S H J nagara , itsumo koshi no

Kanojo wa an-na ni iro-iro v kuroo-shi [nagara], sore o ku ni shite-inai. Even though shes been through a lot of hardships, shes optimistic.

N A G A R A - M O - Combination particle
A combination of the particles nagara , and mo . 1 - Like nagara 1 .above, but more emphatic.

English approximation: even while doing ...


A ) ]

Watashi wa v benkyoo-shi nagara mo ano jiken no koto ga atama kara hanare-nai. Even while I m studying, I cant stop thinking about that incident. B ) M |T | # Kanojo wa, yamai no toko ni v fushi kaki-tsuzuketa. Even while she was bedridden and sick, she continued to write her book. ill nagara mo , hon o

2.

See nagara 2. above.

English approximation: even though A ) Kono ryoori wa, a d j oishiku-nai na-n da yo. Even though this dish isnt very good, I did slave over it, you know. B ) | # nagara mo kushin no saku

Ano ko wa, adj.chusai [nagara moj f ryooshin no kimochi ga yoku wakatte-iru. Even though that child is young, she understands her parents feelings quite well.

N A N T E
Colloquial expression. Has a belittling affect on the preceding statement. English approximation: or something

a ) m

c i. Raishuu wa kanarazu ojama-sh masu nante itte-ita kedo, ano daiku-san, hontoo ni kite kureru kashira. He said, I will definitely come next week or something, but I wonder if that carpenter is really going to come? B ) M 4 ||

1 1 2

Shiken de warui ten o totta gurai de, c l kono vo mo owari da nante kangaeru na yo. Just because you got a bad grade on an exam, dont think that its the end of the world or something.

N A R I
1 . Shows that the minute an action is completed, a change or another action occurs. English approximation: as soon as a ) ?! I i Kare wa, shukudai o v sumaseru inari asobi ni itte shimatta. He went out to play as soon as he was finished with his homework. B ) U ||?1 Boku wa, maiban atama o makura ni v. tsukeru [nari | nemutte shimau. Every night, I fall asleep as soon as my head hits the pillow. 2. In the pattern ta nari shows that a state or condition is

continued while another action is taking place.

English approximation: while doing and


A ) Kare wa, Kutsu o v. haita [nariI, tatami ni agatte shimatta. He stepped up onto the tatami mat with his shoes on. (literally: while keeping his shoes on) B )
113

Kanojo wa, arupusu tozan ni v dekaketa nari tsui ni modora nakatta. She had gone to climb the Alps, and in the end, she didnt return, (i.e. the state of her having gone to the Alps continued and did not change.) 3. Casually mentions an example.

English approximation: a ... or something


A ) | Tama ni wa onsen p.e [nari itte-mi-mashoo yo. Why dont we go to a hot spring or something once in a while? B ) ] A n Sono koto nara, oisha-san p ni [nari j kiite mita hoo ga ii yo. I think its better to ask a doctor or someone about that. 4. In the pattern nari ... nari

English approximation: whether or not A ) I ]

v . Iku [nari i v ika-nai [narn, hayaku kime nasai.


Whether youre going to go or not, decide quickly. B ) Kaze o hiita toki wa, n juusu koto desu. When you nave a cold, wnether its juice or water, drink plenty (of it). C)
114

mizu nari takusan nomu

i A

Machi kara tooi tokoro ni sumu no dakara, n. dai [nari] n shoo inari] no fuben wa aru daroo. Since (we) are going to live far away from town, there will prob- * ably be inconveniences, whether they be major or minor.

N - D E - Combination particle
A combination of the negative form (mase)n ( of the form masu and the particle de . A colloquial, polite expression. 1 . In a negation. English approximation: not having done ... A ) Gobyooki to ukagai nagara omimai ni mo v agari-masein de shitsuree itashi-mashita. Please excuse me for not having paid a visit even though I had heard you were ill.
B ) [

Odenwa o itadaki nagara sugu ni ohenji mo v shi-masein de mooshiwake-arimasen deshita. Im sorry for not having returned your call immediately. 2. Similar to the function in 1 . above, but with an implied apology.

English approximation: (Im sorry that I) did not do

but
115

A ) Sekkaku irash ite kudasa mashita no ni, ocha mo v sashi-agemase n de . Even though you had come (out of your way) for a visit, I didnt

even offer you tea ...


B ) S & +1

Waza-waza oide kudasai-mashita no ni, shujin wa shucchochuu de v ome ni kakare-mase n de . Despite the fact that you came all this way (from afar), my husband is on a business trip and you didnt get to meet him ...

N E ( N E E ) (
Ne and nee are used in almost the same way, but nee implies even more emotion. 1 . Expresses a casual exclamation. Not translatable. A ) ] Maa, baiorin ga joozu ni hikeru D no [ne^nee) | . My goodness, how well you play the violin! b ) ; i r | Rippana otaku ni osumai de v irasshai-masu [ne(nee)|. What a nice house you live in! 2. Makes a casual gesture of confirmation. right?

English approximation:
116

A ) < Ima watashi ga itta koto, yoku wakara-nakatta n mitai inei. You dont seem to have understood what I said just now, right? B ) Kore wa yahari honmono de wa nai yoo c desu ne . It indeed seems like this is not authentic, right? 3. Expresses a desire to elicit an agreement from the party addressed.

English approximation:

okay?

A ) ] Wakatta kara, moo naka-nai de [ne]. I understand, so please dont cry anymore, okay?
B ) [ ^ ]

c i Yurushite kudasai [ne]. Moo nido to goshinpai o okake shimasen kara. Please forgive me, (all right)? Ill never make you worry again. 4. Often following a phrase with an interrogative pronoun, softens the

posed question. Not translatable. A ) [ | Amerika ni ryokoo-shita no wa, d.itsu datta-kke [ne(nee)]. When was it that we went on a trip to the U.S.? B ) Kimi no kokyoo wa p h doko ka ne ? Where are you originally from? 5. Placed at the end of a phrase, as a meaningless particle used just to set

a rhythm. Not translatable.

A) i i |

Gogoo-me made kuruma de itte, conjsore kara [ne(nee) | , sono saki wa aruite choojoo made nobotta yo. We drove to the half way point, and then after that, we walked all the way up to the peak of the mountain. B) [ )] n Atashi ine(nee)], kyoo kakekko de it-too ni natta no yo. I came in first in a running race today. 6. Same as 5, but in the set phrases anone and da ne/desu ne

/ . English approximation: various translations, depending on the circum stances. A ) I ]> 5 in te r j Ano ine(nee)], konban boku no hoo kara mata denwa-suru yo. Listen, Ill call you again tms evening. B ) !}a ( ] c i Soo da [ne(nee) L moo ich nen mae ni naru-n da,

sotsugyoo-shita no wa. Yeah, youre right, its been a year already since I graduated.

N I
FUNDAMENTALS OF NI
118

Precedes verbs which indicate the existence of people or things in a


certain place, or which show direction, movement or action. In the latter case, it is interchangeable with the particle e see p. 30). 1 . After a noun or a nominal. 1 ) Placed after a noun or a nominal, it shows that the noun/nominal is the place in which the subject of the sentence exists. English approximation: at in on Some of the verbs that often follow ni are: aru to be, to be present, to exist)~used for inanimate objects, iru to be, to be present, to exist)~used for animate things. < kurasu (to live, to get along) nezasu (to stem from) nokoru to remain, to stay behind) ochitsuku to settle down) sumu to live) tomaru to stay over) tsutomeru to work at) ukabu (to float) yokotawaru (to lie down)

A ) 4 M
Tsukue no n. ue [ni] hon ga ari-masu. There is a book on the desk.

119

b )

Watashi-tachi wa tookyoo-eki no n.chikaku [mi sunde-imasu. We live in a place near Tokyo Station.

C ) 1 Mite goran, kono n ike I ni | koi ga takusan iru yo. Look, there are many carp in this pond.

D ) Oo-mukashi, r kasee [nT | mizu ga atta soo da. They say that a long time ago, there was water on Mars. E ) |7T| Anata wa n doko [ni] otsutome desu ka? Where do you work? (literally: Which place are you working at?) F ) n Michi ni yuki ga takusan nokotte-imasu. There is a lot of snow left on the street. > ,

G ) '

Asoko

tatte-iru otoko no hito

wa imagawa-san aesu. The man standing over there (literally: at that place) is Mr. Imagawa.

1 2 0

H ) | | Ano n kabe [ n \ \kakatte-iru e wa kiree desu ne. The painting hanging on that wall is beautiful. 2) After a noun, indicates the direction or the destination of an action.

English approximation: to in on into A ) X # Boku wa n. otoosan [ni i tegami o kaita. I wrote a letter to my father.

B)

Watashi wa raigetsu n igirisu I ni ] iki-masu. I am going to England next month. C)


Boku ga n. uchi [ni] kaetta toki, imooto mo gakkoo kara kaettekita. When I got home, my sister was also coming home from school.

|---------1

D) 5 Chichi wa n. kaisha [ni] dekake-mashita. My father has left for his office. E) & |7T| Keshiki no ii n tokoro [mi ryokoo-shi-tai ne. Dont you want to travel to a place with nice scenery?

1 2 1

F ) | | Taiyoo wa n.nishi [nT | shizumi-masu. The sun sets in the west. G ) I Saa, n hikooki [ n \ \noru jikan desu Its time to get on the plane now.

3)

After an abstract condition or state, indicates that the action prescribed by a related verb is proceeding toward it.

English approximation: to or not translatable. A ) Raigetsu n sukii im i ild-masen ka? Would you like to go skiing next month?

B ) | |
Karera wa n.koi [mi ochita. They fell in love.

C ) X Morita-shi wa n. seekai ni haitta. Mr. Morita joined the political circle. D ) Anata wa moo n toohvoo ni iki-mashita ka?

1 2 2

Have you already gone to vote? E ) I Watashi wa gogo n. kaia| [ni] de-masu. Im going to attend a meeting this afternoon. 4) In the pattern ni naru (nari-masu) ( or ni kawaru (kawari-masu) , indicates a change in condition/state. English approximation: (turn) into A) Shingoo ga n ao [ni] nari-mashita. Saa, watari-mashoo. The traffic light has turned green. Lets cross the street. B)
^

Moo n aki [mi nari-mashita ne. Its become autumn, hasnt it? C)
k l 1 ^

Watashi no sobo wa n. kyuujus-sai ni nari-mashita. My grandmother has turned ninety. D)


< A

Yamagami-kun wa n kameraman [ni] natta. Yamagami became a photographer. E)


W

Mae wa kusuri-ya datta ano mise wa kawatta.

meqane-ya

ni

That store which used to be a pharmacy is now an opticians. 5) Indicates the time that an action takes/took place.
123

English approximation: on in at A ) ^:H ni hajimari-masu.

Gakkoo wa mainichi n hachi-ji han

School starts at eight thirty every morning.

B ) H

I I

Watashi wa yuugata n. shichi-ji ni kaeri-masu. Ill be going home/coming home at seven in the evening. C ) M Watashi wa n kyuukee-[ikan ni

I had coffee during the break,

D) S F I - Boku wa raishuu no kin-yoobi ni n konsaato ni ild-masu Im going to a concert next Friday. e ) m ^ !

Watashi no haha wa hatachi no n toki [ni] kekkon-shita. My mother got married at age twenty. c

F)

Inazuma ga hikaru to n.dooji [n i] raimee ga todoroki-mashita. Lightening flashed, and at the same time, there was a roll of thunder.

6)

Indicates a rate, proportion, frequency or interval of time or space.

English approximation: at to in for per A ) M S i ni ni-kai ha o migaki-

Watashi wa, asa to ban, n ich nichi masu. I brush my teeth twice a day in the morning and in the evening.

B ) Yamanote-sen no densha wa n go-fun oki ni ki-masu. Yamanote line trains come every five minutes. C ) Kono shashin no saizu wa, tate n. has-senchi [ni] yoko juusansenchi desu. The size of this photograph is eight centimeters by thirteen centi meters.

D ) Tesuto-yooshi wa n hitori ich mai zutsu desu.

The exam should be one page per person. E ) n Ichi-do I ni] zenbu tabe-nai de, sukoshi zutsu oagari nasai. Dont eat it all at one time; eat it a little bit at a time. F ) IT t f n Sen en ni tsuite go-juu en no tesuuryoo ga kakari-masu. There is a fifty yen handling fee per every one thousand yen. 7) Shows that someone is involved in or influenced by an action or a condition.

English approximation: from w ith


A ) 4 Watashi-tachi wa, ima erekutoronikusu no tori-kunde-imasu. We are now working on a research in electronics. B ) ^ Kare wa karate no n keeko i ni i muchuu desu. Hes obsessed with karate practice. C ) | 7T| Watashi wa n samusa ni furueta. I shivered from the cold. D ) Boku wa n koonetsu | ~ n i] kurushinda. I suffered from a high fever.
126

n kenkyuu

ni

8)

Shows the intention or purpose of the action.

English approximation: as a token of as for by way of


A) n Boku, ojiichan kara r otoshidama ni n sen en moratta yo I was given two thousand yen by grandpa as a New Years gift. B)

Watashi-tachi w af n hanemuun

ni hawai e iki-mashita.

We went to Hawaii for our honeymoon. C)


'

Iro-iro osewa ni nari-mashita.

Tsumaranai mono desu ga,

doozo n oree I m I kore o ouketori kudasai. Thank you for everything. This isnt much, but please accept this as a token of my appreciation. 9) Placed after a noun, lists a number of things. Interchangeable with the particle to but ni implies an additive sense.

English approximation: and w ith


A ) Watashi wa n furaidochikin m hanbaagaa ga 1 1 wa

I want some fried chicken and a hamburger. B) ? U ni otoshiyori

Mura-matsuri wa, n kodomo I ni | wakai n hito to, soode de nigiwatta.

Everyone from the village gathered and enjoyed the festival, (in cluding) children, youngsters and the elders.
127

) |7 T | Kyoo no paatii, n sukaato inn burausu de ii kashira. For todays party, do you think a blouse and a skirt are appropri ate?

10) Shows the speakers respect toward the party addressed. Not translata ble. A ) i A # r Goshu[in-sama i ni | mo ogenki de irassharu koto to omoimasu. I hope your husband, too, is well. B) r Shushoo desu. The Prime Minister is supposed to make a visit to the U.S. next month. 11 ) Shows that something is/was done by/through a measure described by the preceding noun. Often in the patterns ni yotte (... ni y o r i / ni yore b a 7." ni yora-nai d e ). I I W ni wa, raigetsu amerika o hoomon-sareru soo

English approximation: by a t according to from due to A)

k <
Kiku n tokoro tooru soo da. According to what Ive heard, a new highway is supposed to be built through this town. ni yore ba, atarashii haiuee ga kono machi o

128

B ) A n. Fuchuui [n i] yori, tomodachi kara karita hon o yogoshite shimatta. Due to (my) carelessness, Ive soiled the book I borrowed from my friend.

C ) *
Saikin no n kenkyuu ni yore ba, ginga no chuushin ni wa

burakku-hooru ga aru to yuu koto da. According to recent studies, there is a black hole in the very center of our Milky Way. 12) Placed between two nouns, creates a pair.

English approximation: and in addition


A) n shinroo [mi n shinpu A bridegroom and a bride B) X n oni im i n kanaboo (proverb) A demon and a metal club. (i.e. the metal club gives the demon, already a strong being, additional strength.) 2. Placed after a verb. Most frequently used before the
<

1 ) Indicates the purpose of an action.

verbs iku to go) and kuru to come), and related verbs


such as mukau to head for) shuppatsu-suru to


129

depart) kaeru to return) and modoru to come back).

English approximation: to do ... in order to do


A) I Watashi wa sushi-ya e osushi o v tabe i ni ] iki-masu. I go to a restaurant to eat sushi. 0000

B ) Watashi wa tomodachi o v mukae [ni] kuukoo e iki-mashita. I went to the airport to pick up my friend.

w J i C) : W i i | |

'W

Shukudai o wasureta node, uchi e (shukudai o) v tori modotta.

ni

As I had forgotten to take my homework with me, I went back home to get it. D ) i Toshio, otomodachi ga v asobi ki-mashita yo. Toshio, your friends are here to play with you.
130

2)

In a pattern where the same verb is repeated with ni in between, intensifies the degree of the action.

English approximation: and


A) V Kyoo wa v machi ni matta ensoku no hi desu. Today is the day of school trip that I ve been really looking forward to.
B ) A i ! ^ ]

Sono shirase o kiite, kanojo wa v. naki [mi naita. Hearing the news, she just cried and cried. 3) When the verb is in passive form, reru or rareru the particle ni is placed after the agent of the action.

English approximation: by a )
Watashi wa n.suri i ni i saifu o su-rareta. I was robbed of my wallet by a pickpocket.

B ) X I Boku wa n chichi ni shika-rareta.

D ) T I Watashi wa n kuruma hane-rareta. I was splashed with mud by a car. doro o

3.

Makes the preceding noun an indirect object.

It is placed after the

indirect object and before the direct object.

English approximation: to
A ) ( [ ^ ] ) ( n. Watashi [nT | ) anata no shasihn o misete kudasai.
indirect object direct object

Please show me your picture. B)


i i

Imooto wa mash ita.

n watashi
indirect object

tanioobi no purezento o kuredirect object

My sister gave me a birthday present. C ) 6 Watashi wa n. kanojo furansu-go o oshieta. I taught her French. 4. In relation to the verb form: In a sentence where the verb follows the pattern te morau (... te morai-masu) , the particle ni identifies the preceding noun as the agent or the source of an action which was requested by the speaker. English approximation: (receive favor from ... by request)
132

A )

Watashi wa n. umeda-sensee [ni] piano o oshiete-moraimashita. I received piano lessons from Mrs. Umeda. B ) Watashi wa n haha |_m j sandoicchi o tsukutte-moratta.

My mother made sandwiches for me (at my request).

C ) A
n Tomodachi |ni hikkoshi no tetsudai ni kite-moratta.

5.

Placed after mimesis, creates an adverb that modifies the verb in the

predicate. Not translatable. A ) Ame ga hidoku te, m bisho-bisho I ni] nurete shimatta. As it was raining hard, I got thoroughly soaked.

b ) [ r r |
Kono pan, m kara-kara [ni] kawaite-iru ne.
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This bread is dried stiff. 6. In the pattern ni wa ... keredo(ga) ) placed

after an adjective or a verb. Used in admitting something with a certain degree of reservation. English approximation: it is certain that ... but A ) Ano resutoran no ryoori wa, a d j oishii chotto takai ne. The food at that restaurant is good, all right, but its a bit expen sive, dont you think. B ) 4 Henji, v suru wa suru kedo, moo sukoshi matte ne? I ll give you the answer, certainly, but could you wait a little longer? 7. After a short introductory remark before the main sentence, makes the ni wa oishii keredo,

verb into a present participle (ing form.

English approximation: ".-ing


A ) [^ ] > Ima v omou tari-nakatta. Thinking back on it now, I didnt make enough of an effort at that time. ni , watashi wa ano toki wa sukoshi doryoku ga

B) W k

Kangaete v. miru in u , kore ijoo no yookyuu wa muri daroo.


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In thinking about it, I dont think its possible to make any further demands. 8. In the patterns deshoo n i de aroo n i

daroo n i deshita deshoo n i

datta deshoo n i datta roo n i . Expresses ones sympathy or regret. Often placed at the end of a sentence.

English approximation: I suppose ... I regret ... I sympathize ...


A ) A |7T|| Koibito mo iru c daroo ni , wakai inochi o ushinau to wa.

He must have a sweetheart, what a pity that he lost his life so young. B ) [ ^] Hidoi otenki datta c deshoo [nil. Yoku kaereta koto. The weather must have been terrible. Its a wonder you managed to come home. C ) [^] Son-na ni yasumazu hataraite, sazo tsukareta c daroo ni . You have been working so hard without a break, how tired you must be. D )

Kon-na tensuu shika tore-nakatta ka. Motto ben kyoo shite okeba yokatta c daroo ni . You only managed to get a low grade. You should have worked harder.
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N I - M O -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles ni and m o . 1 . Indicates that there is something additional or surpassing the norm.

English approximation: even also


A) 1 | | : Kanojo wa, n hiru-yasumi ni mo shigoto o shite-iru. She is doing work even during her lunch break. B )

Watashi wa, n afurika ni mo itta koto ga ari-masu. I have also been to Africa. C ) ] Sono okashi, n boku [m mo choodai. Please (can you) give me some of those candies, too? In an honorific usage, follows the subject. Not translatable. A) || n Sensee [m mo ogenki no koto to omoi-masu. I presume that you (sir) are fine. B) [ Otaku no n minasama ni mo okawari wa gozaimasen ka? How is your family? (literally: There are no changes concerning your family?) 3. In the pattern (verb) ni mo (verb) zu/nai / where one

verb is repeated twice and followed by a negation, indicates that the action described by the verb is impossible or difficult to carry out.
136

English approximation: cannot do ... even if (I) were to try


a ) t i 4 4 || Awatete kimono o kita mama mizu ni tobikonde shimai, v , oyogu ni mo oyoge-masen deshita. I jumped into the water in my clothes in a panic, and I couldnt swim even if I tried. B ) [ Kon-na ni heya o chirakashite, v. aruku ni mo aruke-nai ja nai no. Your room is such a mess, I couldnt walk in even if I were to try.

IS H -M O -K A K A W A R A -Z U - - -
Combination particle A combination of ni mo zu and the verb kakawaru (to relate). 1 . Shows that an actual situation is the opposite of what is expected.

English approximation: even though


A ) 4 Maniau yoo ni eki ni v tsu ita ni mo kakawarazu , densha wa moo dete shimatta ato datta. Even though I had gotten to the station so that I would be on time, it was after the train had already left. B ) "I
137

Kyoo wa v. harete-iru ni mo kakawara zu , sumoggu de sora wa haiiro desu. Even though its a clear day today, the sky is gray because of smog. 2. A shortened form of sore ni mo kakawara zu .

Placed at the beginning of a sentence as a conjunction, showing that despite the previous sentence, an unexpected situation exists/existed.

English approximation: despite that fact,


A ) [ Kare ga benkyoo-shite-iru no o mita koto ga nai.

Ni mo kakawara zu , seeseki wa itsumo toppu da. I ve never seen him study. Despite that fact, his grades are always at the top (of the class). B ) []I Kyoo wa hidoi atsusa da. Ni mo kakawara zu , ano obaasan

wa fuyu no kooto o kite-iru. Its extremely hot today. Despite that fact, that old lady is wearing a winter coat.

N I-O I-T E - - Combination particle


A combination of the particles ni and oite the gerund of the verb oku ( (to place) 1 . Marks the place or time in which an action takes place.
138

English approximation: in

Sen kyuu-hyaku kyuu-juu-ni nen no orinpikku wa n. baruserona ni oite okonaware-masu. The 1 992 Olympics will be held in Barcelona. B) '

Juuhas-seeki ni oite katsuyaku-shita sakkyoku-ka ni moo-

tsaruto ga i-masu. Mozart is among the composers who were active in the eighteenth century. 2. Indicates the field of activity.

English approximation: concerning in the field of A ) *fcf E | q f l


Kare wa, amerika ni iru aida ni, n keezaiqaku ni oite sugureta kenkyuu o shita. When he was in the U .S., he conducted some outstanding research in the field of economics. B) S ill| | || n Kaiga ni oite mo, n onqaku ni oite mo, kanojo yori sainoo ni megumareta hito wa amari nai. In the fields of both art and music, there arent too many others who are more talented than she. A

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N S H I T E -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles ni and shite the gerund of the verb suru (to do). Indicates a time, a place or a condition.

English approximation: while a t


a ) 1 i i

Kare wa n rvokoo-chuu ni shite , yamai ni taoreta. While he was on a trip, he was stricken with an illness. B ) ] Ano pianisuto wa n hyaku-sai ni shite , raigetsu mata risaitaru o suru soo desu. That pianist, at age one hundred, will be holding another recital next month, I hear.

N I-S H IT E -M O

- -

Combination particle

A combination of the particle ni shite the gerund of the verb suru to do) and the particle mo as a condition for the clause that follows. Gives a hypothetical situation

English approximation: (even) if (you) were to do


A ) 1 Kodomo o v shikaru shi katte wa ike-nai. If you were to scold a child, you should not scold her/him just based
140

ni shite mo , jibun no kanjoo dake de

on your emotions. b)

1 m

i "]#

Ima made juubun renshuu-shita to v omotte-iru ni shite mo shiai no hi made renshuu o namakete wa ike-nai. Even if you think that (you) have practiced enough by now, (you) must not skip any practices until the day of the match.

N S H IT E -W A - - Combination particle
A combination of the particle ni shite the gerund of the verb suru (to do) and the particle wa . Shows that a result has surpassed what is usually expected from an individual or a category.

English approximation: fo r
A ) |]

For you, you sang pretty well. (i.e. T hats pretty good, considering your usual performance.) B) I A S 13 t n. Fuyu ni shite wa , kono ni-san-nichi wariai ni atatakai ne. For winter, these past two or three days have been relatively warm, havent they?

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N IT E
Equivalent to de . (See p. 17.) 1 . Placed after a noun of location, indicates it is where an action takes/ took place. Often in the patterns kore nite and koko nite used in more formal speech.

English approximation: a t w ith in


A ) A | I Tsugi no butsuri-gakkai wa, masu. The next physics conference will be held in Hiroshima. B) V s | Kyoo no ensoku wa n. koko [nite kaisan shi-masu. Todays school trip will be dismissed at this point. C) > ] Kon-gakki wa n kore nite oshimai ni shi-masu. With this, I conclude this semester. 2. Indicates a reason or motive for an action or occurrence. n hiroshima mite] kaisai sare-

English approximation: due to ... owing to ...


A) 5 ] Kinoo wa n. kaze mite] kesseki itashi-mashita. I was absent yesterday due to a cold. b ) r Watakushi no n fuchuui nite mooshiwake-arimasen deshita. Im sorry, it was due to my carelessness.
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N O ( N ) ( FUNDAMENTALS OF NO No basically transforms a noun into a possessive. It functions like the s in English. Placed between two nouns, the first noun together with the particle no modifies the second. For example: J

otoosan ino] hon my father book

otoosan inoi hon the book [of] my father

In Japanese, personal pronouns such as watashi , anata

kanojo etc. do not have cases, as in English. Particles must be attached in order to indicate the case of a personal pronoun. Examples with no are: watashi no m y),anata no your)

kanojo no her) etc., which are the genitive (possessive) case. The particle no is also used as an indefinite pronoun that is not followed by another noun. Compare: watashi inoi hon my book watashi r 10 mine

yasui i no (an) inexpensive one

yasui ringo an inexpensive apple

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watashi ga katta hon the book I bought

watashi ga katta r the one I bought

The following is an example of an exaggerated phrase with eight no used to indicate the location of a book : 0

tm

^ 0

m 0

% 0

asoko [noi hondana ino|ue[no]tana[no]migiino| hoo inoiookii jibiki


over there book shelves up shelf right toward big dictionary

%
book

ino|tonari[no]hon

The book next to the big dictionary on the right side of the upper shelf of the book shelves over there. As you can see, all of the preceding words modify the last word, hon . In translating this phrase into English, you must begin with hon and proceed backwards all the way to asoko .

1 . Placed between two nouns. 1 ) Indicates the possessive. English approximation: of belonging to with Examples: [ | kiree na me inoj hito
144

a person with beautiful eyes

^ -j daigaku [noi kyooju

a college professor (literally: a profes sor of a college) president of the bank

ginkoo [no] toodori kurasu [noi iin


a class representative

the sound of waves

nami ino| oto my fathers shoes chichi ino{ kutsu world peace (literally: peace of the sekai [noi heewa A ) Kore wa n.anata [no] hon desu. This is your book. B ) n Watashi [noi kaban ino] naka ni chizu ga ari-masu There is a map in my briefcase. 2) Indicates the relative location/direction of the first noun, world)

English approximation: of 1 teeburu inoi ue


145

on the table

tsukue no shita

next to the school

gakkoo ino] tonari


# ---------1

yuubinkyoku no mae ] depaato inoi yoko [ watashi [no] ushiro

in front of the post office

to the side of the department store

behind me

beyond that big building ano ookii biru inoi mukoo a ) n Teeburu ino| shita ni inu ga i-masu. There is a dog under the table.

B) M n. Nagashi no naka ni gokiburi ga iru yo! There are cockroaches in the sink!
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3)

Placed between two nouns, indicates the material the latter is made of.

English approximation: (made of) momen inoi shatsu a cotton shirt

4 - kegawa [no] kooto

a fur coat

a wooden oridge

ki [no] hashi

a pair of rubber boots

gomu

buutsu

a ) : ! Watashi wa kinoo n kawa no tebukuro o kai-mashita. I bought a pair of leather gloves yesterday, B ) Sono n. take [no] kago wa ikura desu ka? How much is that bamboo basket?

p k Ano n buronzu [no] zoo wa dare no saku desu ka? Whose work is that bronze statue?

4)

Shows that the second noun is the product of the first personal noun.

English approximation: of created by a )

Kore wa n kawabata yasunari no shoosetsu desu. This is a novel written by Kawabata Yasunari. B) ^ - r m

Kono kyoku wa n,maaraa no kookyookyoku ichi-ban desu. This is M ahlers First Symphony. 5) Indicates the relationship between the two nouns.

English approximation: o f by with between to A ) | | Ano hito wa n watashi [noi oji desu. That person is my uncle.
B) u f [^1 4 #

Kanojo wa n.shachoo no hisho desu. She is secretary to the president. C ) T 1 Ano hito wa watashi no n inochi no onjin desu. He saved my life, (literally: That person is the one who saved my
148

life .)
6) Establishes that the second noun is in the category of the first noun.

English approximation: of on about at A) G


1 :

Matsuoka-sensee wa n rika [no] sensee desu.

Mr. Matsuoka is a science teacher. B ) iS


Kore wa n nihongo [no] kyookasho desu.

This is a Japanese language textbook.


C) n Banyuu-inrvoku lno| hoosoku wa nyuuton ni yotte hakkensareta.

The law of gravity was discovered by Isaac Newton.


7) Shows that the first noun is an attribute of the second noun.

English approximation: that which is

Examples:
L shinyuu [noi jiroo-kun
|-------- 1 !---------1

my best friend Jiro (literally: Jiro who is my best friend)

| an old woman of age ninety kyuujus-sai ino| obaasan [1 bengoshi Mr. Shimizu, the attorney

shimizu-sensee

149

I---------1

Ij

the great music hall

ongaku inoi dendoo

a pink flower (litera lly : the flower


w which is pink)

pinku ino] hana

lly : the flower which is a a rose (litera


r( rose)

bara ino] hana


!---------1

A ) ! _ I
Watashi wa, n koocnoo no bandoo to mooshi-masu.

I am Bando, the principal of th is school.


B ) n Pianisuto ino| satoo-san o goshookai itashi-masu.

Let me introduce Ms. Sato, the pianist. 8) Where the firs t noun is a place name.

English approximation: at in on over from of A) @ n. Nyuuyooku ino| fuyu wa samui deshoo nee.

Winter in New York must be very cold.


B ) n. Atami [no] kaigan wa kiree desu yo.

The coastline of Atami is beautiful. C)


n. Kyooto ino| itoko kara tegami ga kita.

I received a le tte r from my cousin in Kyoto.


150

9)

The first noun describes the state in which the second noun exists or
has entered.

English approximation: in A ) Ano ojiisan wa n kookotsu [noi hito ni natta soo da. They say that the old man has become senile.

B )
Kanojo wa n hakui (byakue) no tenshi desu. She is an angel in a white uniform (a nurse). C ) 4 Watashi wa n nihongo [noi tegami ga yome-masu. I can read a letter written in Japanese. 2. Accompanies some names of colors in order to transform them into

adjectives. English approximation: (the color of) A ) U () V t

Are wa P midori (iro) no kuruma desu. That is a green car. B ) coW (fe) 1 I I Kono n murasaki (iro) [noi hana wa nan to i masu ka? What is the name of this purple flower? C ) 4 Kyoo wa kono n quree [no] kooto o kite ikoo. Ill go out with this gray coat on today.

Names of colors ending in i such as shiro-i , and aka-i


151

may drop the i and replace it with no i.e. shiro no and aka n o . 3. Placed after a noun, an adjective or a verb, functions as an indefinite

pronoun. English approximation: one "the one A ) M n Otoosan [no] wa, doko ni aru no ka na? Where is Dads? (literally: Where is the one which belongs to Dad?) B ) | | n. Kocchi no wa amai kedo, n socchi no wa karai yo. The one over here is sweet, but the one over there is salty. C ) n. Watashi no wa moo tabete shimatta yo. Ive already finished eating mine. D ) Osashimi wa a d i atarashii ino] ga oishii. As for pieces of sashimi, fresh ones are good. E ) Soko no sumi de v naite-iru no wa dare? Who is the one crying in the corner over there? F ) M Boku, mada v neru [no] wa iya da yo. Terebi mi-tai kara. I dont want to go to bed yet. Cause I want to watch TV. 4. Placed after a noun indicating time.

English approximation: of from


152

A ) T
Kore wa n juu-nen mae [no] shinbun da yo.

This is a newspaper from ten years ago.


B ) | | Kore kara n. nijup-pun [no] kyuukee ga ari-masu.

Wel l have a twentym inute interm ission now.

c ) :^ Mi
n Mukashi [noi hito-tachi wa don-na seekatsu o shite-ita no daroo.

I wonder what kind of lives people lead in ancient tim es.


5. Used instead of the particle ga ; it marks the subject of the verb

following it . Not translatable.


A) V b j <

Kyoo wa n. kaze [no] fuku samui hi desu ne.

Today is a cold windy day, isnt it ?


B ) r ^ ] B

n. Ame ino| furu hi wa uchi no naka de asobi-mashoo.

On a rainy day, lets play inside the house,


c ) 1 ^ Kore wa n nanbu-san ino] sakkyoku-shita kyoku desu.

This is a piece composed by Ms. Nanbu.


6. In the patterns no yoo na and no yoo ni

makes an adjectival phrase or an adverbial phrase, respectively. English approximation: as such as like A )
153

Hana ni tatoere ba, kanojo wa n shira-yuri no] yoo na hito desu. If I were to describe her as a flower, she would be a white lily. B ) 1

Kimi doo ka shita no? n Byoo-nin [no] yoo na aoi kao o shite. Is something wrong? You look pale like you are sick. C ) Kono suna wa n satoo no yoo ni shiroi ne. This sand looks white like sugar. D ) : Boku wa n tori [no] yoo ni sora o tonde mi-tai. I want to fly in the sky like a bird. 7. Following a verb, gives it a nominal meaning of a matter or a fact.

The main verb of the sentence usually describes one of the five senses or emotion. English approximation: a fact a matter

a ) r^ ~ i
d Hikooki ga tonde-iru no ga mie_masu. I can see an airplane flying in the sky. b ) r^~i d Inu no hoeru [no] ga kikoeru. I can hear a dog barking.

C ) S S c i. Kimi to voku asonda no o omoidasu ne.


154

I remember we used to play together all the time.


d ) r^~i #

c i. Watashi wa Dasuoooto o nakushita no ni ki-ga-tsuita. I realized that I had lost my passport. 8. Placed at the end of a sentence.

1 ) Following a verb, makes a softened command. Often accompanied by


yo after it. Found in womens language. English approximation: all right?

A ) A [ I Saa, kore kara ofuro ni v hairu no (y o ). Youre going to take a bath now.
B ) I j

Kaze dakara otonashiku v nete-iru ino (y o ). You have a cold, so stay in bed. 2) Emphasizes the action or the state described.

English approximation: the fact is that ... to tell the truth A ) Watashi, miyo-chan to v kenka-shi-chatta no . (The fact is that) I had a quarrel with Miyo. B ) I I I ) Tomodachi ga manga no hon o v kashite-kureta no . (The fact is that) my friend lent me a comic book. C ) I Boku onaka ga suita kara, moo v tabe-chatta no . (To tell the truth) Ive already eaten because I was hungry.
155

3)

Transforms a sentence into an interrogative (with a rising intonation). Informal version of no desu k a ? ? Not translatable. A ) Kono tegami kimi ga v kaita inoi? Was it you who wrote this letter? B) : ? Ashita v ko-nai [noi? You are not coming tomorrow? C) - ^ Kono hon moo v yon-iatta Youve read this book already?

4)

For casual emphasis.

Used often by elderly men.

Sometimes pro

nounced noo Not translatable. A ) k Oo, makoto ka, yoku v. kita Oh, its you, Makoto, good of you to come. b ) r^ ] Arigatai koto ja. Kotoshi wa kome ga hoosaku c de ino].

Thank God. We have a good rice harvest this year. 9. In the pattern no ... no connects two contrasting

actions/conditions. English approximation: (or) A ) V . Iku inoi v. ika-nai no to mayotte-inai de, hayaku docchi ka ni kimetara?
156

Instead of being indecisive whether or not to go, why dont you just decide whichever quickly? B) I

adj.Samui [no] adj.atsui shinasai.

to itte-nai de, jogingu wa maiasa

Dont complain about the weather being (too) hot or cold. must go jogging every morning. 10. The contraction of no tokoro English approximation: of Examples: | boku [noi uchi

You

. Colloquial expression.

I boku-i n I chi
|

my place

I j

your place

anata inoj tokoro

anta-|~ n~ | toko

her place

kanojo [noi tokoro


kanojo-|~n~| toko

A )

Otoosan, kono sansuu no mondai muzukashiku te, n koko tokoro ga wakara-nai yo. Dad, this math problem is hard, and I dont understand tms part here. B )

;^[Z ] (

A, boku n sunahama-[n I toko (tokoro) ni booshi wasurete ki-chatta.


157

Oops, I forgot my hat on the beach (literally: at the place on the beach).

N O - D A ( N - D A ) -( - Combination particle
A combination of the particle no and the copula da . Colloquial form: n da . Informal form of no desu . Past form no datta is used mostly in written language with a slight exclama

tory tone. 1 . Emphasizes an explanation, or a cause of events/actions. Not translata ble. A ) [ Ano ooyuki de, watashi-tachi wa aruku koto sae v. dek nakatta [no da]. It was impossible to even walk in such heavy snow. B ) _ || Naganen gaikoku ni kurashite-iru to, masu-masu nihon-shoku ga v koishiku-naru [no dai. The longer you live in a foreign country, the more you crave for Japanese food. 2. Expresses desire or will. Not translatable.

A ) # 4
Boku wa kondo koso benron-taikai de v yuushoo-suru ino da|. This time Ive got to win at the speech contest.

B)J& lf ^ |
158

Kono bijutsu-ten wa minogase-nai. zettai ni v iku- n da

Don-na koto ga atte mo

I cant miss seeing this art exhibition. definitely going to go. 3.

No matter what, Im

At the end of a sentence, as an exclamatory particle. Not translatable. A ) Benkyoo-shi-nai de asonde Dakari ita kara, ild-tai gakkoo ni . . haire-nakatta[no da]. Its because you didnt study and fooled around all the time, you couldnt get into the school of your choice.

b ) 1 :

| |

Kare wa isogashii no ni nagai tegami o v. kureta-[n da]. Sugu ni henji o dasa-nakute wa. Even though he is busy, he wrote me a long letter. I have to write back right away.

N O -D A R O O (N -D A R O O ) - -
Combination particle
A combination of the particle no and the copula daroo Colloquial form: n daroo Suggests a reason or a cause, though it is uncertain. English approximation: is/are probably ... (I) wonder ...
159

A )

I-------------------------

Ima ware-ware ni totte ichiban hitsuyoo na no wa, kooga mondai no kaiketsu c na no daroo . The most important thing right now is probably to solve the problem of pollution. B ) | ^ ] = H Doo v shita- n daroo , moo sanjup-pun ni mo naru no ni, kanojo wa mada modotte ko-nai. I wonder what happened to her? Its already been half an hour, she hasnt come back yet. S M

N O D E (N -D E )
Colloquial form: n de Note: node vs. kara While both are translated into English as since/because, node is employed more often in describing a reason or a cause that is objective, or already present and beyond the control of the speaker. Kara is used to express the speakers will, command, conjecture, or question. Compare:
A)
* ^ j 4

Kyoo wa adjatataka] inodei, sakura mo mankai ni naru deshoo. ^mce it is warm today, the cherry blossoms will likely be in full bloom. B ) : !
160

Kuruma o v kai-tai Ikara I chokin o shite-imasu. Because I want to buy a car, I am saving up. This distinction is sometimes very thin, and kara and node can on occasion be used interchangeably. 1 . Indicates a reason or a cause. English approximation: since because
A ) j

Akachan ga v umareta shite-imasu.

nodefn de) min-na de oo-yorokobi

Everyone is very happy, because the baby was born. B ) M | Sono ryoori wa, omotta yori a d j oishiku-nakatta hito-kuchi shika tabe-masen deshita. Mnce that dish wasnt as good as I thought it would be, I didnt eat more than a bite. 2. In the patterns to yuu node and a(n)mari ... node nodefn de)

English approximation: because (someone) said ... since it was so


A) e |( | Kare ga bijutsukan ni iki-tai to v.yuu nodefn de) an-nai-shite age-mashita. Because he said he wanted to go to a museum, I took him around. B ) [ Anmari a d j samui node (n de) , sutoobu o tsuke-mashita.
161

Since it was so cold, I turned on the heater. 3. Placed at the end of a sentence, preceded by a reason for an action

described in the first part of the sentence. English approximation: (because) A ) Kare no apaato e itta no, dooshitemo kite morai-tai to v yuu node (n d e ) . I went to his apartment, (because) he saia he really wanted me to come over. B ) ) Moo neru yo, ashita no asa ga a d j hayai node (n de) Im going to go to sleep now, (because) I have to get up early tomorrow morning.

N O - D E - Combination particle
A combination of the particles no and de . English approximation: by/from the fact that ... A ) | Kanojo ga ii sensee de aru koto wa, gakusee-tachi ni hyooban ga adj.ii [no de]wakaru. That she is a good teacher can be gathered from the fact that students say good things about her. B )
162

Kono machi no kuuki ga yoku-nai koto wa, sumoggu no hi ga adjooi n o d e wakaru. That this tow ns air isnt very clean is obvious by the fact that there are many days with smog.

N O -D E A R U - Combination particle
A combination of the particle no and the copula de aru . Emphatically expresses a reason or a cause. Mainly used in written lan guage. (See p . 164 no desu . English approximation: (because) A ) Mono ga ochiru no wa, chikyuu ni inryoku ga aru kara c. na no de aru . The reason why things fall is because the earth has gravity. B ) 1 ^ ' : 1 ] Mukashi, kyoo ryu u ga sunde-ita no ga wa katta no wa, kaseki ga hakken sareta kara c. na no de aru . The reason why we know that there were dinosaurs long ago is because fossils were discovered.

163

N O -D E S H O O (N -D E S H O O ) - -
Combination particle A combination of the particle no and the copula deshoo . Colloquial form: n deshoo . English approximation: perhaps its because ... A ) [] Kyoo wa obon da kara, mise ga v. aite i-nai no deshoo ka? Perhaps its because today is the day of the Obon ceremony that stores are not open? B ) I Anata wa, watashi ni ai-taku te v . kita n deshoo ? Perhaps its because you wanted to see me that you came over, isnt it?

N O -D E S U (N -D E S U ) - - Combination particle
A combination of the particle no and the copula desu . Formal form of no da . Colloquial form: n desu . 1 . Emphasizes a statement. Not translatable.
a ) ^ c y p ( |

Kodomo-tachi o mamoru no wa, watashi-tachi otona no sekinin c na no(n) desu . It is our responsibility as adults to protect (our) children. B ) ! : [ | Yuube osake o nomi-sugita see ka atama ga ad i.itai no(n) desu .
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Perhaps because I had too much to drink last night, my head hurts.
2. Emphasizes a question. Not translatable. A ) |

Anata wa, itsu ni nattara kashita okane o v . kaeshite-kureru no(n) desu ka? When are you going to pay me back the money you owe? B ) Daiji na tsubo o kowashite shimatte, n desu ka. (You) broke a treasured vase, what are you going to do about it? 3. In the past tense form no deshita , gives a description as an doo v. shite-kureru-

explanation for an action. English approximation: (it so happened that ) a ) ! ^ W 5 U | Kandoo-teki na supiichi ni, c Lchooshuu wa kokoro kara hakushu o okutta no deshita . After the moving speech, (it so happened that) the audience gave their wholehearted applause. B ) i A S [ Kawaisoo ni, shujin ga shinda koto mo shirazu ni, H sono inu wa mainichi eki made mukae ni itte-ita no deshita Not knowing that its master had died, (it so happened that) that poor dog went to the station to meet him every day.
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N O M I
Mainly used in written language; in colloquial speech, dake or bakari (if are usually used instead. 1 . Excludes other possibilities and establishes a limit.

English approximation: only


A ) l l | n . Kono mura nomi ga, suigai ni awa-nakatta. Only this village escaped the damages from the flood.

B) 2 | | S ^^
Ichi-do ya ni-do no n tesuto nomi de, gakusee o hyooka-shite wa ike-nai. (You) must not judge students based only on one or two exams. 2. In the pattern nomi narazu .

English approximation: not only ... A ) |

Kono suizokkan ni wa, n_shinkai-gyo nomi narazu, netta gyo mo iru. In this aquarium, there are not only deep-sea fish but also tropical fish. B ) H

Kanojo wa D h .kyooiu to shite nomi narazu, sakka to shite mo katsuyaku-shite-iru. She is active not only as a professor but also as a writer.
3. Placed at or near the end of a sentence for emphasis. The implication
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is that there is only one alternative which is not exactly desirable but unchangeable.

English approximation: only


A )

Dooka chichi ga ikite kaette kuru yoo ni to tada v. inoru


(I) can only pray that (my) father will come back alive. B)

! ^ 4 Mizu-busoku wa iyo-iyo shinkoku da. Ato wa tada ame ga furu no o v matsu nomi da.
The water shortage is really serious. The only thing we can do now is to wait for the rain to fall.

N O N I
1 . Adversative usage, with an implied tone of surprise or dissatisfaction. Also in the patterns to yuu noni and ii noni .

English approximation: although but even though A ) I ] Ara, moo san-bai mo v . tabeta noni , mata okawari?
My goodness, youve already had three helpings, but you want another one?

B ) ] Watashi no booshi, tashika ni koko ni v . oita noni , nai wa.


I know I definitely put my hat here, but its gone.

C ) p ) I
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Natsu-yasumi da to v vuu asobi ni ike-nai.

noni , shukudai ga takusan atte

Even though its summer vacation, (I) cant go out to play because (I) have too much homework, summer vacation . 2. tion. English approximation: (if ...), can/would do (but .") Expresses dissatisfaction or resentment toward an unexpected situa (literally: Even though it is called

A ) i !"^IT ]
Kimi ga kuru to wa katte ire ba, boku, uchi ni v. ita noni .
If I had known that you were coming over, I would have been home, (but)...

B ) A 1 Moo hyaku-en are ba, kono hon ga kaeru noni naa.


If only I had one hundred more yen, I could buy this book, (but)... 3. In rebuking the party addressed for a fault or wrongdoing.

English approximation: even though

A ) [ Tabe-nai no? Sekkaku v. tsukutta noni .


Youre not going to eat it, even though I went to the trouble of making it?

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N O - N I -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles no and ni . 1 . Indicates the method by which an end is to be achieved.

English approximation: in order to in doing ... A ) p

Nihon-go ga motto joozu ni hanaseru yoo ni v naru no ni wa, doo shitara ii desu ka?
In order to become a better speaker of Japanese, what should I do? B ) p

Yama-aruki o v suru no ni wa, mushi-yoke o motte-itta hoo ga ii yo.


In order to hike mountains, it would be better to bring an insect repellent. 2. Indicates the means or material with which something is to be achieved.

English approximation: for (i.e. as a means for doing )


A ) l i X []

Kono hako, hon o v ireru no ni choodo ii ne.


This box is perfect for putting books in, (isnt it)? B ) I I

Kono chokin, v ryokoo-suru no ni sukoshi tari-nai wa ne.


These savings arent quite enough for going on a trip, (dont you think)?

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O (W O )
FUNDAMENTALS OF O First, note that the particle o is always written even though its pronunciation is shown as o. See below. Examples: A ) I I Kore o mittsu kudasai.
|-------- j

Give me three of these.

B ) 0

Otoshita okane [o ihiroi-mashita.


I had dropped the money I picked up

I picked up the money I had dropped. Basically, o always follows a noun or a nominal which is the direct object of a transitive verb. Example: I Watashi wa keeki [^]
I cake

tabe-mashita.
ate

I
subject

ate
transitive verb

(a piece of) cake.


object

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However, some transitive verbs in English take the particle ga instead of o in Japanese. examples are: hoshii (desu)(3 ) (to want) iru to need) kikoeru to be able to hear) kirai (desu) (to dislike) mieru to be able to see) suki (desu) M ) (to like) wakaru to understand) Examples: A) Anata wa osushi ga suki desu ka? Do you like sushi? B) Anata wa nani |gai iri-masu ka? What do you need? C) Kimi wa dore ga wakara-nai no? Which is the one you dont understand? D) Asoko ni yama ga mie-masu. see a mountain over there. Such verbs are not numerous, and some

Another point concerning the particle o is that certain intransitive


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verbs which do not require objects in English are expressed in Japanese as a set pattern: noun + o + transitive verb. For example: ski. Literally: I do skiing.

Watashi wa skii I o] sh masu. I jog. [ I I do jogging.

Watashi wa jogingu l o] shi-masu. : study. I do studying.

Watashi wa benkyoo [o i shi-masu I s w e a te d . | Watashi wa ase [o 1 kaki-mashita. I was in a sweat.

1 . In relation to the type of verb in a sentence: 1 ) Placed after a noun, marks it as the direct object of the verb. Not translatable. A ) n Koohii o nomi-mashoo.

Lets have coffee. B )

^]I

Watashi wa, kinoo, oishii r tenpura | ~ o ~ | tabe-mashita. I had very good tempura yesterday.

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C ) || Boku wa ototoi furansu n. eega i o i mita. I saw a French movie the day before yesterday.

D)

E) Senshuu depaato de suteki na n kutsu kai-mashita.

(I) bought a pair of very nice shoes at the department store last week. 2) Placed after a noun which is the direct object of a transitive verb ending in the pattern tai (want to), taku-nai < (dont want to), takatta (wanted to), taku-nakatta (didnt want to), as shown below. In these cases, ga can be used instead of o to add slightly more emphasis. Not translata ble. A ) [ ] Boku wa n.osake [o (ga)] nomi-tai-n desu. I want to drink sake.
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B ) Watashi wa n aisu-kuriimu [o (ga) |tabe-tai. I want to have ice cream. 3) Placed after a noun in a sentence with a causative verb, indicates that a person/thing causes/caused another person/thing to do something. A couple of examples of the causative form of a verb are as follows. Not translatable. Dictionary form to come) kuru to go) iku Causative form ( (to make someone come) ko-saseru ( to make someone go) ika-seru

a ) Musume ni n piano i o i narawasete-imasu. I m making my daughter take piano lessons. B ): 4 0 o hashirase-nai yoo

Byooin no naka de wa, P kodomo-tachi ni shite kudasai.

Dont allow children to run around in the hospital. 4) Placed after a noun which is the direct object of a verb in the passive form reru(... re-masu) rareru( rare-masu) , indicates that the subject of the sentence receives an action from the other party. Not translatable.
a ) S ! I f

Watashi wa sensee ni n namae | ~ o] yobareta.


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I was called on by my teacher. B ) Watashi wa neKo m n sakana My fish was taken by a cat.

2.

In the pattern o shite-iru o shite-imasu

after a noun indicating an occupation, shows that the subject of the sentence is engaged in that occupation. Not translatable. A ) ^1 Watashi wa shachoo no n hisho | ~ o ~ | shite-imasu.

B) X

Chichi wa n sensee My father is a teacher. 3. Indicates the point of departure, both in the concrete and the abstract

sense.

English approximation: (at) from )


A ) Anata wa maiasa nan-ji ni n. uchi I o

de-masu ka?

What time do you leave home every morning? B ) Ashita n rooma 4 tatte pari ni iki-masu.

I m leaving Rome for Paris tomorrow.


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c ) 51
n Chikatetsu [o ] orite kara, takushii de uchi ni kaeri-mashita. After I got off the subway, I went home by taxi. E ) A A o sotsugyoo-shi-masu ka?

Anata wa itsu kono daigaku

When will you be graduating from this university? 4. Used with a verb of motion, indicates that an action is continued at the

place preceding it.

English approximation: on through


Some examples of verbs of motion are: doraibu-suru to drive) hashiru to run) hau to creep) iku to go) toor sugiru (to pass through) wataru to cross) A ) [ Watashi wa n suroopu [o i suberi-mashita. I slid down the slope. B ) Anata wa dono n michi i o i tootte koko e ki-mashita ka? Which road did you take to get here?

c ) L | IT]
Watashi-tachi wa hiroi umi no n. ue [o] hashiru doraibu-shi-mashita.
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n haiuee

We drove on a highway running over a wide stretch of ocean. 5. Used in some set phrases such as o hajime to shite

including, foremost), o hittoo ni (from the top down), kore o ki ni (taking this opportunity). A) X 1 Sotsugyoo-shiki ni wa, n fukee i o i hajime to shite, oozee no raihin ga shusseki-shita. Many guests, including family members, attended the graduation ceremony. B ) ^ Kono kaisha de wa, n. shachoo shite-imasu. At this firm, everyone from the president on down does exercises every morning. C) n Kore I o 1 ki ni kin-en o shiyoo. Let me take this opportunity to quit smoking. o hittoo ni maiasa taisoo o

S A
Placed at the end of a sentence. 1 . Emphasizes the sentence. Casual usage. Not translatable. A ) ! 0

Yuube tetsuya-shita-n da mono, nemui no wa n atarimae sa . You stayed up all night last night, so its natural (indeed) that
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youre sleepy. B ) I

Zutsuu ga hidoit te? Yuube an-na ni nonda-n da mono. Bachi ga atatta D no [sal. Your headache is really bad? You drank so much last night, you are (indeed) paying the price. 2. After interrogative pronouns or a phrase containing an interrogative

pronoun, emphasizes the question in a fairly brusque manner. Not trans latable.
a ) i i [^ ]

Jaa, dare ni kiitara ii p no isai. (So) who do you want me to ask, then? B ) 0

n. Nani isaj, henji mo shi-nai de. W hat(s with you), that (you) dont even answer me. 3. In the patterns te sa and to sa introduces something that

was said by someone else. English approximation: (I hear, he/she said) A) X [^] Oota-kun, raigetsu rosanzerusu ni tenkin p datte [sa]. Ota is going to be transferred to Los Angeles next month, I hear.

B) i l l l i II4
Sore kara ooji-sama to oojo-sama wa shiawase ni kurashimashita p.to [sa].
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The Prince and Princess lived happily ever after, it is said.

S A E
1 . Cites an extreme example to make a comment on the norm. Often

accompanied by a negative, or in the sae ... dakara pattern. English approximation: even A ) [ Kono sakana wa, P neko sae mimuki mo shi-nai yo. Even cats w ouldnt look twice at this fish. B ) ] Tatta hitotsu no machigai D de [saei zuibun sa ga dete shimau. Even a single mistake can make a big difference. 2. Indicates that if one criterion is fulfilled, all conditions will be fulfilled.

English approximation: if only only i f A ) ] 1 n. Jikan [saei are ba, kabuki mo mi-tai no desu ga. If only I had time, I would like to see a kabuki performance, as well, (but)... B ) A n Otaku-sama isaei yoroshikere ba, konban kanai to ojama shi-tai to omou no desu ga. I would like to come over with my wife this evening, only 11 it s convenient for you.
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3.

Shows that something exists in addition to something else. Often in a

bakari de naku ... s a e pattern. English approximation: (not only A) but) ... also

Doo shita no kashira, kono neko. Osakana bakari ja naku, dai-koobutsu no n miruku sae noma-nai no yo. I wonder w hats wrong with this cat? Not only is she not eating fish, but shes also not drinking milk, which she loves.

B)

1 Mukashi to chigatte, ima wa, natsu oakari de naku, fuyu p de sae nasu ya kyuuri ga taberare-masu. Unlike the old days, now we can eat eggplants and cucumbers not only in summer but also in winter.

S H I
1 . In citing a list, emphasizes the items listed, in a shi ... shi pattern. English approximation: and ... i ]

a) i

Shoku wa v. ushinau[shi j, tsuma to wa v. wakareru shi , kare wa hidoku genki ga nai. He has lost his job, (and) he has split with his wife; hes very
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depressed. B ) [ ^ ] [^ ]

Jishin de uchi wa v kowareru ishi], koozui de hatake wa dame ni v nam [shn, doo shitara ii no ka wakara-nai. The house was wrecked by the earthquake, and the fields were ruined because of the flood; I dont know what to do. 2. In a list, shows that the items or situations listed are the reasons or

basis for another action or condition.

English approximation: (and)..., so ...


A ) 4 ! [ ^ ]

Kaze wa a d i tsuyoi [shi|, yuki wa v furi-dashita shi , kyoo wa dekakeru no wa yame-mashoo yo. Its very windy, and its started to snow, so le ts not go out today. B ) ! ^ ] Moo kon-na jikan c da ishii, ashita ni shi yoo yo. Its already this late, so le ts put it off until tomorrow. 3. Lists two conflicting items or situations.

English approximation: but a ) Ir& 0 Atarashii yoofuku wa v hoshii shi okane wa a d j.nai shi , S f T |

gakusee no futokoro wa sabishii naa. I want some new clothes, but I dont have money (for them); a
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students budget is pretty sad.

B) i

iiH rn i
komatta yo.

Ha wa a d j itai [shij, haisha ni wa v iki-taku-nai shi

I have a toothache, but I dont want to go to a dentist; I m in a bind. 4. In the pattern aru mai shi

English approximation: its not as if


A)

Natsu de mo p h aru mai shi usui shatsu ich mai de. Samukunai no?
Its not as if its summer, (and youre wearing) only a thin shirt. Arent you cold?

B)

A A

Oo-ganemochi de mo p h aru mai

shi

an-nani zeetaku na

seekatsu o shite ite okane ga tsuzuku no kashira?


Its not as if (shes) a millionaire. I wonder if her moneys going to last, living the luxurious lifestyle she does.

S H IK A
Always followed by a negative; negates everything else except that which precedes it. 1 . Placed after a noun. English approximation: (not) any more (than) only (this) and nothing else
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A )

Kimatsu-tesuto made, ato tatta n is-shuukan Ishika I ari-masen.


Theres only a week left until final exams, (literally: Until final

exams, there isnt any more (time) than a week left.) B )

Okaasan, kyoo no oyatsu n kore IshikaJ nai no?


Mom, is this all there is for snacks today? (literally: Mom, is there only this and nothing else for snacks today?) 2. Placed after a verb, sets limit on the extent of the action.

English approximation: there is no choice but


A)

beminaa no repooto no shimekiri wa asatte. v tetsuva-suru IshikaJ nai.


The deadline for the seminar report is the day after tomorrow. Now I have no choice but to work on it all night long.

Koo nattara

B )

Saifu o nusumareta kara, aruite v kaeru IshiKal nai.


Because my wallet was stolen, I have no choice but to walk home.

S H IM O
1 . In set patterns such as mada shimo and ori shimo emphatic. Not translatable. A )
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Eego nara ad ., mada shimo , doitsu-go nan te zenzen wakaranai yo.


English is one thing, but I dont understand German at all. B )

Yuudachi ga yande, n ori kakatta.

shimo

sora ni utsukushii mji ga

The rainstorm ended, and at that time, a beautiful rainbow appear ed across the sky. 2. In the pattern dare shimo .

English approximation: anyone everyone


A )

Sore wa n dare shimo kangae-tsuku koto da


That is something anyone can think of. B ) [

n Dare [shimo|shinu no wa kowai.


Everyone is afraid of death. 3. In the pattern kanarazu shimo , followed by a negative;

indicates a partial negation.

English approximation: not necessarily ...


a) t w j

Ii daigaku ni haitta kara to itte, a d v kanarazu shimo ii shoku ga mitsukaru to wa kagira-nai.


Just because (you) get into a good university doesnt necessarily mean that (you) can find a good job.
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B ) * 4 M I I"! Kinoo made atatakai hi ga nan-nichi mo tsuzuita kara, kyoo mo atatakai to wa a & , kanarazu shimo ie-nai yo.
Just because its been warm for several days until yesterday, it cant necessarily be said that it will be warm today.

S U R A
Cites an extreme example.

English approximation: (not) even ...


A)

I A

Sekai ni wa, san-do no n shokuij sura manzoku ni taberare-nai hito ga takusan iru no da yo.
In the world, there are many people who cannot even get to eat three square meals a day, you know.

B ) S A Y I Ano roojin wa, moo jibun no n musume tsuka-naku natte shimatta.


The old man has reached a point where he cannot even tell ms daughter apart (from others).

sura

miwake ga

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TARA
Often used in the form of ttara 1 . Casually marks the topic or the subject. 1 ) Expresses a tone of familiarity or slight criticism. Not translatable. A )

Oneechan t tara , mada nete-iru yo. She (literally: elder sister) is still in bed! B ) - " moo atarashii gaaru-furendo ni muchuu na-n da

Kare t tara kara.

He is already head over heels about his new girlfriend. 2) In the pattern ttara ... nai , expresses surprise at an unusual situation. English approximation : an emphatic as for A ) San-jikan shika nete-nai-n da. a d j Nemui t tara nai yo. Ive only had three hours of sleep. Im so sleepy! (literally: As for being sleepy, its like nothing else.) B ) < Yuube no n kaminari tltaral, ima made ni naku, hidokatta no yo. As for last nights thunderstorm, it was an unprecedentedly severe one. Indicates a tone of impatience.
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1 ) In getting the attention of the party addressed, marks the pronoun or


the proper noun. Not translatable.

A ) ^ ] n Oniichan t tara , hayaku gakkoo e ikoo yo.


Oniichan (literally: older brother), lets hurry up and go to school.

B ) [ Omoshiroi mono ga aru yo. Hayaku kite yo, n. otoosan t[taraj.


Theres something interesting (here). Hurry over, Dad!

2)

Placed after a verb, often in an imperative. (do ... already!)

English approximation: (I said)

a ) 4 54[]
Min-na matteru no yo. Hayaku v kaette-kinasai t tara . Everyone is waiting, you know. Come home already! B ) 4 1 Mada ni-ji yo. Oyatsu wa motto D h .ato de t tara .
Its only two oclock. (I said) snacks are to be (eaten) later! 3. Placed at the end of a sentence or clause, expresses an emphatic

exclamation. Not translatable.

A ) [ I v. Yamete tftarai, son-na koto.


Stop doing that! (literally: Cut it out, (doing) something like that!)

B) > [ I Kondo wa boku ni v yarasete t tara .


Come on, let me do it this time!

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T A R I
1 Describes simultaneous or consecutive action. Often in a tari ... tari

pattern.

English approximation: (doing verb) and/while then (doing verb)


A ) I I Kuma wa ori no naka de, v. it Itari] v ki Itarn shite-ita.
The bear was walking back and forth in its cage, (literally: was repeating going then coming.)

B ) 4 ]

Shoojo-tachi ga, v ton [darn v hane tari shite asonde-iru.


The girls are playing, jumping up and down, (literally: The girls playing, leaping and jumping.) 2. Cites one action or condition as one example of others in the category.

English approximation: such a thing as A ) Kon-na ni kuraku-naru made soto de v. asonde-i tari shite wa, abunai yo.
Its dangerous to (do such things as) playing outside until its this dark.

B ) 0 ] Son-na tokoro ni gomi o v. sute Itari |shite wa ike-masen.


Dont (do such a thing as) throwing your trash in such a place.

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T A T T E
1 . Following a verb or an adjective, indicates a hypothetical situation.

English approximation: even if (you) were to ...


A) |] 1 Ima goro ryokoo ni v ikoo t tatte , doko mo man-in da yo.
Even if (you) were to want to go on a trip now (i.e. this late), it would be packed with people everywhere (you go).

B ) [] Kaeri-tai to v. omo t tatte , moo basu mo densha mo nai yo.


Even if you were to think that you want to go home, there are no more buses or trains running.

2. .

In an emphatic adversative usage. Usually in the form ttatte

English approximation: even though


A ) [ ^ :^ Sukoshi gurai chokin ga v aru t tatte , iza to yuu toki ni wa yaku ni tata-nai ne.
Even though you have a little bit of savings, when you really need

it (i.e. in an emergency), it wont be of any use (dont you think ?) B) I | # U ? v Nomu t tatte , sakazuki ni hon no yon-hai ka go-hai dake da yo. Even though (I) say (I) drink, I mean only four or five servings in
189

a sakazuki cup.

T E
Sometimes found in the tte form. 1 . Indicates that two actions occur simultaneously or successively.

English approximation: do (verb) and


A ) pT| Okyakusama desu yo. Kichin to v suwa t te goaisatsu nasai We have a guest. Sit up straight and say your greetings. B ) Sakura no hana ga v. chi t te , wakaba ga de-hajimeta. The cherry blossoms have scattered, and the leaves have begun to appear. 2. Indicates a reason or a cause.

English approximation: because


A)

Ano ko wa, sensee ni v shi kara re te naite-iru. That child is crying because (he) was scolded by (his) teacher. B)
I [^ ]

Hajimete go-juu meetoru oyogeta. Okaasan ni v homerare te totemo ureshikatta. I was able to swim fifty meters for the first time. I was very happy because my Mom said she was proud of me.
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3.

Indicates a method for an action.

English approximation: by w ith


A )

Watashi wa, koohii ni osatoo to miruku o v ire Ite I nomi-masu. I drink coffee with milk and sugar, (literally: I put milk and sugar in my coffee (and that is the way I) drink coffee.) B) Toomawari o v shi [tel ikoo. Lets take the long way around, (literally: Lets go by taking a road out of our way.) 4. As a conjunction, lists items.

English approximation: and


A ) [ ^ ] Kanojo wa, a d j yasashiku te kisaku de, dare ni demo sukareru. She is nice and she is down-to-earth, so (she) is liked by everyone. B ) 0

Kono mikan wa, a d j atarashiku [te] adiyasuku te oishii. These oranges are fresh and inexpensive, and very good.

5.

After a verb, in the pattern (t)te ... (t)te ...makuru

< . Emphasizes the action. English approximation: and ... A ) S Q 0 4

Genkoo no shimekiri-bi ga chikazuite, kare wa v. kai [te] v. kai [te] kaki makutta. As the deadline for the manuscript was approaching, he wrote and
191

wrote (like crazy).


B) S = g M <

Hikidashi ni irete-oita ich man en ga mitsukara-nai. Boku wa v saqashi te v sap ash i te sagashi makutta.

I couldnt find the ten thousand yen that I had put in the drawer. I looked and looked (like crazy). 6. In an adversative usage.

English approximation: even though A ) 1 o Kimi, sono uwasa o v shitte-i te naze na-n dai? Why was it that you pretended not to know about that rumor even though you did?
B ) [ ^ ]

shira-nai furi o suru nan te,

Kekkon no yakusoku made v. shite-oi te , kanojo o misuteru to wa, anmari ja nai ka. Isnt it too (cruel) (for you) to abandon her even though (you) had promised to marry her? 7. In the pattern ni tsuite , introduces the topic.

English approximation: concerning about


A)

tan,

Honjitsu wa, nichibee-booeki p h ni tsui


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te

tooron o itash

masu. Today, we will hold a debate concerning U.S.-Japan trade.


B ) 2 } i ^ | T |

Kazan ga mata katusdoo o hajime-mashita. Dooro-joohoo p h ni tsui [tei wa rajio no nyuusu o okiki kudasai. The volcano has become active again. Please listen to the news on the radio for (i.e. concerning ) road information. 8. Transforms a verb into a gerund by following it. Creates the te verb form. Not translatable. A ) ^ ] Watashi wa ima kao o v.ara t[tei i-masu. Im now wasning (my) face. B ) ? S # 0

Watashi wa shukudai no ronbun o v kai [te] shima mashita. Ive finished writing the essay for homework. 9. In womens language.
.

1 ) In the pattern (t)te yo Not translatable.

Asserts the speakers opinion.

A ) |

Ara, kono sukaato, pittari v. a t [te] yo. Look, this skirt fits me perfectly.
B ) 1

Ano kata, sono ohanashi nara moo v shit te irashi |tei yo. (If you are talking about) that story, that person already knows
193

about it. 2) Forms the interrogative. Not translatable.


A ) I pT|?

Anata, watashi no yuu koto v waka t te ? Do you understand what I m saying? B ) [ ^ ] ? Son-na takai toko ni v nobore [tei? Can you climb (some place that is) that high up? 10. Indicates a command or a request. Sometimes in the te yo or te ne pattern. Not translatable. A ) 0

Okaasan, mezurashii choocho ga iru yo. Hayaku v ki [te]. Mom, theres a rare butterfly. Come (here) quickly! B ) Hayaku v tabe lte{ yo. Isoideru-n da kara. Finish eating already! (literally: Eat quickly!) Im in a rush. 1 1 .Placed at the end of a sentence, in a casual tone. English approximation: (I say, think, believe, etc. )

a )g m v

Kimi no byooki wa kanarazu v naoru t te . You will surely get well, (I believe).
B ) [jT |

Anata no yasashisa o aitsu mo kitto v wakaru t te That fellow will surely appreciate your kindness, (I am sure). 12. As a variant of to makes a quotation. Not translatable.
194

A ) pT| ^

Koko wa n. nan [te] yuu machi daroo. I wonder what this town is called. B ) 0

Oniichan wa, d son-na koto wa dekin [te] itteta yo. My brother said that he couldnt do something like that.

T E B A
1 . Introduces the topic, with a feeling of familiarity or criticism. English approximation: speaking of A ) H 1 _ I n, Kimura-kun [teba], infuruenza de mada gakkoo yasunderu-n da yo. Speaking of Kimura, he is still not going to classes because of the flu, you know. B ) [ n Ojiichan teba , mata terebi no mae de inemuri shite-iru yo. Speaking of grandpa, (he) is dozing off in front of the TV again. 2. Placed at the end of a sentence, gives it a tone of impatience.

English approximation: (I said) A ) I I ] Oyuuhan dekita wa yo. Atsui uchi ni tabe-nai to v samechau t [teba | . D inners ready! If you dont come quickly, it will get cold, (I said).
195

B ) [ T i l ]

Wa katta yo. sugu v. iku t[teba]_ All right, Ill be right there, (I said).

T E M O ( D E M O )
Temo preceded by a word ending in n sound changes into demo See 4. B) below as an example. 1 . Gives an extreme case and negates it. English approximation: no matter a ) [i :i Don-na ni a d j takaku temo sono e o kai-tai. No matter how expensive the painting is, I want to buy it. B ) [3 A 4 Ima wa don-na ni a d j kanashiku temo , itsuka wa nori-koerareru yo. No matter how sad you might be now, someday you will be able to get over it. 2. Shows that regardless of a given condition or action, something occurs.

English approximation: despite regardless of A ) ^ ! [] Kono tango, nanben jisho o v hii [temo sugu imi o wasurete shimau. Regardless of how many times I look up this word, I always forget its meaning right away.
196

B ) Jitto v nete-i temo koshi no itai no ga naora-nai. Despite the fact that Im lying still, my lower back pain isnt getting any better. 3. In an emphatic usage, indicates the possible limit.

English approximation: at most at least A ) l i Kono kozutsumi wa a d j omoku temo go-kiro wa nai deshoo. This package weighs at most five kilograms (and is probably less). B ) S | i Sono hon wa adj.yasuku temo go-sen en wa suru deshoo. That book will cost at least five thousand yen. 4. In a sentence granting permission. Not translatable. A ) | Moo ochichi o nomaseta kara, akachan o v daite kudasa t temo ii desu yo. I gave it some milk already, so its all right for you to hold the baby. B ) I I ] Kono kusuri nara, miruku to issho ni v. non demo kamaimasen yo. It would be fine (for you) to take this medication with milk.

197

T E -N E

Combination particle

A combination of the particles te and ne . Also used in the form of de ne . Usually found in womens and childrens language, it is used in making a request with a familiar tone. It is the informal variant of the gerund form of a verb plus kudasai < . English approximation: please would you ."? A ) [I Okaasan, ashita no ensoku, onigiri v tsuku t te ne . Mom, could you make rice balls for tomorrows school trip? b ) |I m

Konya wa hayaku v kaette-ki te ne , mariko no tanjoobi dakara. Please come home early tonight, its Marikos birthday.

T E - W A - Combination particle
A combination of the particles te and wa . Also in the form de w a . 1 Gives a hypothetical situation followed by its result. Often implies that

the hypothetical situation is undesirable. English approximation: if (I) were to ...


A) S | & A

Hachi-ji no densha ni v nori-okure te wa kaigi ni maniawanai. If (I) were to miss the eight oclock train, (I) w ouldnt make it in
198

time for the meeting. B ) Ima kara v hajime te wa , okurete shimau. If (I) were to start now, I would be late. 2. Links something that has already happened to another situation, condi

tion or action. English approximation: (a comma) A ) t Kon-na ni takusan omiyage o v itadai arimasen. You brought so many souvenirs, you really shouldnt have.
B ) p I

te wa

mooshiwake-

Son-na ni v tanomare te wa iya to wa ie-nai ne. You beg me this much, I cannot say no. 3. Indicates a situation or a condition that is sure to give rise to the result

described in the second clause. English approximation: with when


A )

v Hayama t te wa , son o suru dake da. When (you) rush into things, you will only lose out.
B ) ^

Akanboo ga v umare te wa kimi mo isogashiku naru ne. With the baby born, youll be busy, .(wont you). 4. In describing a repeated combination of actions, links the first action to

the second.
199

English approximation: keep doing ...


A ) [ T il] [ T il]

Kare wa, koishi o v. hiro t te wa nage v. hiro t te wa nageteita. He kept picking up a pebble and throwing it.
B )

h i m I
Tomo-chan wa,

Ashita wa ensoku na noni, konya wa ame. sora o v_miage te wa tameiki o tsuite-iru.

Tomorrow is the school trip, but its raining tonight. Tomo keeps looking up at the sky and sighing.

T O
1 . The most basic function of to is to list nouns, noun phrases and noun clauses. Note that another particle ya has a similar function, but its usage is slightly different (see ya p. 241). 1 ) Lists concrete and abstract things. English approximation: and A ) n. Ringo Itoi n budoo ga teeburu no ue ni ari-masu. There are apple(s) and grape(s) on the table. B ) n. Akai ringo |to| n midori no budoo mo teeburu no ue ni arimasu.
200

There are also red apples and green grapes on the table.
C ) A A M

n. Watashi ga katta ringo teeburu no ue ni ari-masu.

to

n anata ga katta budoo

wa

2)

Often in the (noun) to (noun) to pattern, compares the two nouns.

contrasts or

English approximation: and or between A ) ^ ] ! Sukimu n miruku [to] futsuu no n miruku to dochira o kaimashoo ka? Which should I buy, skim milk or regular milk?

b) x s m
n. Natsu to

n.fuyu Itoi de wa kion wa taihen chiga masu.

Between summer and winter, there is a great difference in tempera ture. o # ?^ n. p h Tani-kun no kaita sakubun [to] n p h kitagawa-kun no kaita sakubun to anata wa dochira no hoo ga suki desu ka? Which do you like better, the composition written by Tani or the one by Kitagawa? ^ 4

D ) []S
Are kara moo nijuu-nen ka, kono machi mo n. mukashi to
201

zuibun kawatta ne. Twenty years have passed since then. This town has changed a lot (since then). * Note that although to functions like the English and, it cannot connect two separate sentences, nor can it stand alone at the beginning of a sentence. Soshite must be used in these cases instead. a) The sentence: I wrote a letter, and you wrote a letter (also) must be translated as Watashi wa tegami o kaki-mashita. Soshite, anata mo tegami o kaki-mashita.

. It can never be: Watashi wa tegami o kaki-mashita.


To, anata mo tegami o kaki-mashita.


.

b)

The sentence: And, after that, (she) sat down. must be translated as Soshite, sono ato, suw atta. . It can never be: to, sono ato, suwatta.^K^ . Therefore, do not get into the habit of always translating and as to
V /

. M ake sure that you think about its usage first. 2. Indicates that the speaker carried out an action together with the

subject who is marked off by this particle. English approximation: with accompanied by a ) r m ^

Kinoo wa, n. otooto [to I kawa e oyogi ni iki-mashita. Yesterday, I went swimming in the river with my brother.
V h i s 2 r ^ i r ^ i i

2 0 2

Kyoo ohiru ni, boku wa n otoosan baagaa o tabe-mashita.

to

n okaasan

to

han

Today for lunch, I had a hamburger with my father and my mother. C ) A I S ^ ] H Kitajima-san wa raigetsu n minamida-san [to] kekkonshimasu. Kitaj ima is going to marry Minamida next month. 3. After a noun.

1 ) Indicates that an action which follows is performed in a struggle against something. English approximation: against A) t ( U W Kare wa n kyoofu Itoi tatakatte, tsui ni katta. He fought against his fears, and he finally conquered them.

B ) | | [^ ]
Mizuno-kun wa iro-iro na n kon-nan to tata katte, tsui ni yuushoo-shita. Mizuno, after struggling against many obstacles, finally won first place. 2) Precedes certain incomplete intransitive verb such as call ... (...to yobu ),

become ... (...to

naru name ... (".to

nazukeru . The noun preceding to becomes the complement of the verb. Not translatable. A ) ^ 0

Takeshita-kun wa koogakubu no n gakusee to natta.


203

Takeshita became a student in the engineering department. B ) Tomodachi wa boku no koto o n.tacchan [to] yobi-masu. My friends call me Tacchan. C ) [ Atarashii kissaten no namae o doriimu to tsuke-mashita

We named the new coffee shop Dream. 3) Indicates that something reaches/reached a goal or a new state. Not translatable. A) lyo-iyo undoo-kai no n h| ItoJ nari-mashita. At last the field day has come. B)

|^ "|
Kurisumasu no gaitoo-bokin wa zenbu de n hyaku-man en to natta. The total amount of donations collected on the streets during the Christmas season reached one million yen.

C)

4 Ano hiroba wa kodomo-tachi no n kooen to natta. That field has now been made into a playground for children.

4)

After a quantity or a number, indicates that something can be done : less than that quantity or number. Also, emphasizes the negative.

English approximation: (not) as much as never (not even once) A)

Son-na shigoto wa n mik-ka [toi kakari-masen.


204

It w ouldnt take more than three days to do that kind of work. B )

S
is-shuukan to tata-nai uchi

Himawari no tane o maite kara, ni me ga dete-kimashita.

The sunflower seeds sprouted in less than a week after I planted them. C ) Moo n ni-do to an-na tokoro e wa ika-nai. Im never again going to go to a place like that. 4. In the patterns (a verb) yoo to ... mai to , (a

noun) and (an adj.) . English approximation: (whether) ... or not


A)

Kimi ga v shinji-yoo to okotta-n da yo.

shinjj-mai [to], sore wa hontoo ni

Believe it or not, that really happened, you know. B )

[^J

Sore ga jijitsu c de aroo [to] a r ii nakaroo [to], watashi wa kamawanai. Whether its true or not it doesnt matter to me. D)

r^ ~ | g

a d j Ookikaroo ItoJ a rii chiisakaroo Ito] aji sae yokere ba ii. Whether its big or small,I dont care as long as it tastes good.

205

5.

As a quotation particle, introduces a clause or a phrase.

English approximation: th at or a comma


Some examples of verbs that introduce a quoted clause are: ... to hanasu (tell that ... to yuu say that ... to kangaeru (consider that ...) ... to omou think that
...

to soozoo-suru (imagine that

... to wakaru (understand that ...) A ) ci Itsuka wa daijishin ga aru daroo Itoi omou. I think that someday, there will be a big earthquake. B ) 1 S5 ^

ci Kimatsu-tesuto wa ni-shuukan saki to ki matta. Its been decided that the final exam is going to be in two weeks. C ) c i 0 bake ka Ito] omottara, yanagi no ki da yo. I thought that it was a ghost, but its (merely) a willow tree. D ) Marason wa kurushikatta ga, d tomodachi ni okure-mai Itoi isshoo-kenmee hash itta. The marathon was very hard; determined that I wasnt going to fall behind my friends, I ran the best I could.

F ) ^ 4 3

206

Omise wa kyoo wa aite-inai yo. to dete-iru deshoo.

Hora, p h "honi[tsu kyuuavoo"

The store isnt open today. See, there is a sign that says closed for today. 6. Follows a mimesis, an onomatopoeic adverb.

English approximation: in the manner of


A )

Soko ni m .]i tlto] suwatte i-nasai. You sit still there, (literally: There, in the manner of stillness, keep sitting.) B ) Rooka o o bata-bata to hashitte wa ike-masen. fou snould not run aown the hall making lots of noise, (literally: Down the hall, in the manner of making lots of noise, you should not run.)
C )

0 Goro-goro to kaminari ga natte-iru. Thunder is rumbling, (literally: In a rumbling manner, the thunaer is making noise.) D ) Ookina ki ga Q dosa t [to] taoreta. A huge tree fell down with a thud, (literally: A huge tree, in the manner of a thud, fell down.) 7. Placed after a verb, indicates that the action/condition described in the

clause preceding it immediately initiated another action/condition.


207

English approximation: when as soon as


A) i to seeto-tachi wa

Sensee ga kyooshitsu ni v haitte-kuru awatete seki ni tsuita.

As soon as the teacher entered the classroom, the students took their seats in a hurry. B) # <

Boku ga gakkoo ni v tsuku [to i, tomodachi ga oozee yotte-kita. As soon as I got to school, many of my friends came over to me. C)
IT i /

Maku ga v. agaru to ni natta.

kankyaku wa mizu o utta yoo ni shizuka

When the curtain went up, the audience became completely silent. D)

Yuki ga v furi-hajimeru Ito], doobutsu-tachi wa toomin o hajimeru. When the snow starts to fall, animals go into hibernation. 8. Placed after an adjective or a verb, creates a conditional.

English approximation: if when


A ) ^ ] Anmari ad vasui to kaette shinpai da. If its too cheap, then that makes me worry. B ) | Kimi ga v ko-nai to tsumaranai naa. Itll be boring if you dont come.
208

C ) ^ ] y Kono furui to, v kowareru mashoo. Lets fix this old door before it breaks, (literally : As for this door, it wont be good if it were to break, so le ts fix it soon.) D ) [^ ] :^ Ame ga v furu to , mizu-busoku ga kaishoo-suru no desu ga. If it were to rain, the water shortage would be solved, but ... E ) [ ^ ] Ano udon-ya ni v iku lto|, oishii udon ga taberareru yo. If you go to that noodle restaurant, you can have great udon (noodles). 9. In the pattern ari to arayuru.... to ikenai kara hayaku naoshi-

English approximation: every possible (thing/method) Depaato ni wa ari to arayuru shinamono ga narande-iru. Everything that you can think of is available in a department store. 10. In the pattern "... to naku ... to naku describes a ceaseless action.

English approximation: without ... or


i g w

Kare wa n hiru [to] naku n yoru to naku hataraita. He worked all day long, (literally: without day or night)

209

T O - I E - B A - -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and ba and the verb ie , from yuu to say). Introduces the topic casually. English approximation: speaking of A ) (!] + Aa, r mitsui-kun to ie ba , sakki rooka de atta yo. Oh, speaking of Mitsui, (I) saw him in the hallway awhile ago. B ) [ n.Taki to ie b a nan to itte mo naiagara da ne. Speaking of waterfalls, it s definitely Niagara Falls (thats the best), no question.

T O -II

Combination particle

A combination of the particle to and the verb ii , from yuu i (to say). In the pattern "... to ii ... to ii , lists two or more items and establishes them as the topic, to be followed by a comment. English approximation: as for ... and A ) [!| Ano mise no suteeki wa, n a]i to ii n nedan to ii yuu koto nai ne. The steak at that restaurant, (as for its) taste and price, its perfect. B ) ] [

2 1 0

Hasegawa-san wa, n benkyoo to ii demo toppu na no yo.

n supootsu to ii

itsu-

Hasegawa, (in) studies and sports, is always the best one (in the group).

T O - I T T A - Combination particle
A combination of the particle to and the verb itta , from

yuu to say). Lists two or more items. English approximation: such as

A ) S i > 1 ^ SS |
1o
Nihon no omiyage nara, p h shinju ya shippoo [to ittai akusesarii mo ii deshoo. In terms of souvenirs from Japan, accessories such as pearls and cloisonne are probably suitable, too.
B ) / K 4 7 | B

Uchi no musume wa, p h suuqaku ya rika to itta kamoku ga tokui desu. Our daughter is good at subjects such as math and science.

T O - I T T E - Combination particle
A combination of the particle to and the verb itte , from

yuu to say). In an adversative usage at the beginning of a sentence.

2 1 1

English approximation: however A ) A [


Isoge ba juu-ji no basu ni mani-ai soo da. 1 1o ittei hashiru no wa iya da. Tsugi no basu ni shi yoo. If (I) rush, it looks like I might be able to make the ten oclock bus. However, I dont want to run. Ill (catch) the next bus.
B ) | | / / i

Nihon wa, tashika ni keezai-taikoku ni natta. 1 1o ittei, kokumin hitori hitori no kurashi ga yutaka ni natta wake de wa nai. Japan has certainly become an economic giant. However, that doesnt mean that the standard of living of each member of society has increased significantly.

T O -IW A -Z U - - Combination particle


A combination of the particles to and zu , and the verb iwa(-nai) , from yuu (to say).

1 . A negative imperative that influences a quotation. English approximation: dont say that ... A ) [] 0 0 Moo heto-heto da p nado to iwazu ni ganbatte. sugu da yo. Dont say things like youre completely worn out; just hang in there. Hora, moo

2 1 2

Look, were almost there. B ) |1

v Akirameta

to iwazu moo ichido sensee ni soodan shite

mitara ii-n ja nai? Dont say that youve given up; why dont you (literally: w ouldnt it be better if you) talk to your teacher about it again? 2. In the pattern to iwa zu ... to iwa zu indi

cates an all-inclusiveness. English approximation: not only all but ...

A ) | | ^ + n Te to iwa zu n ashi to iwa zu karada-juu ka ni sasareta.

Not just all over my hands and feet, but I was bitten by mosquitoes all over my body. B ) [] Kare wa, n asa to iwa zu n voru to iwa zu hima sae are ba manga o yonde-iru. Not just in the morning and in the evening, but he reads comics whenever he has time.

T O K A
1 . Lists several items. English approximation: such as ... and ... (and ... etc. ) A ) I & I I
213

Miyo-chan wa, n piano toka kusan okeeko ni itte-iru no yo.

toka

n oshuuji toka ta

Miyo is taking many lessons such as piano, drawing, and calligra phy, you know.
( I [ ^ ]

Terebi bakari mite-inai de, sukoshi wa otooto no mendoo o miru toka inu o sanpo ni v tsurete-iku Itoka |, shi-nasai yo.

Instead of watching TV all the time, why dont you at least do something like look after your little brother or take the dog out for a walk? Conveys uncertainty, often due to its hearsay nature. English approximation: something like (I hear) A)

Ano ie wa, n ich oku en toka de ureta soo desu yo. That house was sold for something like one hundred million yen, hear. B) I g i

akashi-kun no ojnsan wa, n hyaku ikutsu Itoka I de mada eego o oshiete-iru-n desu-tte. Takashis grandfather is something like a hundred-odd years old, and is still teaching English, I hear.

214

T O K O R O
Shows that two events occurred successively.
English approximation: when A ) [ Uchi e v kaette-mita tokoro , gookaku-tsuuchi ga todoite-ita. When I came home, (I found that) the acceptance letter had been delivered.

B)IjuA |

Jinji-bu ni v kiite-mita tokoro , buchoo no rondon tenkin wa hontoo da to wa katta. When I asked the personnel division, I found that it was true that our director would be transferred to London.

T O K O R O D E
Poses a hypothetical situation. The tone is pessimistic, implying that

even if that something were to happen, an undesirable situation would still exist in reality. English approximation: even if (you) were to ... A ) j ] v Nageite-mita tokorode , nakushita bideo-kamera wa

modotte wa ko-nai sa. Even if you were to grieve, the camcorder that you lost wont come
215

back. B ) |+ Ima v denwa-shita tokorode kare wa mada rusu deshoo. Even if you were to call now, hes probably still out.

T O K O R O -E

- Combination particle

A combination of the noun tokoro a place/an occasion) and the particle e . Indicates that as one action was being carried out, by chance, something else happened. English approximation: just when " A ) [ Watashi ga shukudai o hajime-yoo to v shite-iru murata-san ga asobi ni kita. Just when I was about to start doing my homework, Murata came over for a visit. B ) ]& Oo-ame ga v yanda tokoro e yama-kuzure ga okita. Just when the rainstorm had ended, there was a landslide. tokoro e ,

T O K O R O G A
Indicates that although the speaker was anticipating one result which is described in the first clause, the real result was unexpectedly negative.
216

English approximation: but


A ) : [ ] I i T

Oishi-soona ichigo na node, takusan v katta Itokoroga hako no shita no hoo no wa daibu kusatte-ita. The strawberries looked good, so I bought a lot, but many of the ones at the bottom of the box were rotten. B ) 4 S ] Asa otenki datta kara kasa o motazu ni v dekaketa Itokorogaj, gogo ni natte dosha-buri ni natta. I went out without an umbrella because it was nice out this morning, but in the afternoon, there was a downpour.

T O K O R O - O -
Indicates that something unexpected has happened or is happening. Colloquial form: toko-o . English approximation: although (usually) ... A) i A ( i 51i _ Shujin wa, itsumo nara juu-ji ni wa v kaette-kuru tokoro-o|, kon-ya wa mada kaera-nai. Although my husband usually comes home before ten oclock, he hasnt come home yet tonight.
217

B ) 2 1 |

4 W

<
Itsumo no toshi nara, imagoro wa yama wa yuki de v shirokunaru Itokoro-oi, kotoshi wa atatakaku te mada yuki ga arimasen. Although usually at this point, the mountains turn white with snow, this year, its warm and there is still no snow at all. C ) & || I 4 L Itsumo nara shichi-ji ni wa v okiru toko-o , kesa wa

mezamash dokee ga koshoo shite, neboo-shite shimatta. Although usually I get up at seven oclock the alarm clock was broken this morning and I overslept.

TO M O
1 . In the patterns such as don-na ni ... tomo * doredake ... tomo , expresses an absolute determination. English approximation: no matter ... A ) Gooru made ato hito-mawari da. tomo ganbatte hashiru zo. One more lap until the finish line. No matter how hard it may be, Ill give it my best and run. B )
218

Don-na ni a d j kurushiku

Doredake jikan ga v ka karoo tomo , kono shigoto dake wa yatte shimawa-nakere ba nara nai. No matter how long it may take, I absolutely have to finish doing at least this job. 2. After an adjective, indicates an approximate limit.

English approximation: at least at most A) u<

adj.Osoku tomo raishuu made ni wa ohenji o kudasai. Please give me an answer by next week at the latest B) :1 <

roku-joo

Heya o sagashite-iru-n desu ga, a d j sukunaku tomo wa hoshii to omoi-masu.

Im looking for a room, and I d like one that has at least six-tatami mats. 3. At the end of a sentence, strongly and curtly expresses a decision or

statement of fact. English approximation: A)


"

all right.

U F O | ''Kimi hontoo ni UFO o mita no ka?" Mita [tomo

You really saw a UFO? I saw it, all rig h t B) tomo Boku ga son-na koto yuu

Kimi no kild-chigai c da wake nai daro?

You misheard me, all right.

You know theres no way I d say


219

something like that!

T O - M O -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and mo Emphasizes the preceding noun. Not translatable. A ) I ' Asu amerika ni tachi-masu. n Anata to mo toobun ome ni kakare-masen ga, dooka ogenki de. I m leaving for the U.S. tomorrow. I wont be seeing you for a long time, but please take care of yourself. B) || A Ife n Keekan [to mo aroo hito ga, nusumi o hataraita to wa nee. (Can you believe that) a policeman (literally: someone who is a policeman) committed a theft!

T O -M O -A R E - - Combination particle
A combination of the particles to and mo and are from the verb aru to be/exist). 1 . After a noun or a nominal followed by wa plays down its impor tance. English approximation: putting aside never mind ... A ) S |I 4 I

2 2 0

Ikisaki n wa shi-yoo yo.

to mo are

kotoshi koso wa kaigai-ryokoo o

Putting aside the (issue of the) destination (for the time being), le ts (agree to) finally go on a trip overseas this year. B ) liwake D wa to mo are gakkoo ni haire-nai yo. Never mind excuses; if you dont study more, you wont be able to get into the school of your choice. 2. In the pattern nani wa to mo are

motto benkyoo shi-nai to kiboo-suru

English approximation: in any case ... A)


Uwaa, oish soona keeki!" to mo are

"Ima itadaita no yo. p h Nani wa

sassoku itadaki-mashoo y o .

Wow that cake looks good! (Someone) just gave it to us. In any case, le ts go ahead and eat it now. B )

p h Nani wa to mo are

subete wa asu no koto ni shite, kyoo no

tokoro wa neru koto ni sh mashoo. In any case, le ts leave everything for tomorrow, and go to bed for tonight.

2 2 1

TO-SHI-TE

- -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and te and shi from the verb suru (to do) . 1 . Indicates a position or a circumstance. English approximation: as
A ) t _

Kondo no suiee-taikai ni wa, hayakawa-san ga n gakkoo-daihyoo-senshu to shi te erabare-mashita. For the coming swim meet, Hayakawa was chosen as the athlete representing our school. B ) b ' ^ a ] "] Jon manjiroo wa, n nihonjin to shi te hajimete, amerika de kyooiku o uketa. John Manjiro was the first Japanese person (literally: the first person as a Japanese) to receive an education in the U.S. 2. Sets aside a topic for the time being.

English approximation: le ts leave the ...


a ) 4 m

Hanashi wa ato de v suru mashoo.

to shi te , mazu shokuji ni shH -

Lets leave talking for later, and eat first.

B )II 0
2 2 2

Sono uwasa wa n sore to shi te , kare ni tsuite wa mada iro-iro to hanashi ga aru-n da yo. That rumor aside, I have many other stories about him, you know. 3. Followed by a negative in the sentence or clause, shows that there are

no exceptions to a category.

English approximation: not even ...


A) - X | M S n Hitori to shi te kono mondai ga toketa gakusee wa i-masen deshita. There was not even one, among the students, who could solve this problem. B ) - b \~^ | Boku wa, n ich nichi to shi te kanojo no koto o omowa-nai hi wa nai. There isnt a single day that I dont think about her.

T O -S H IT E -M O

- - Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and mo , and shite , from the verb suru (to do). 1 . Indicates that a position or a circumstance is the same as that which was mentioned in a previous sentence. English approximation: as for also/too ...

A ) I I
223

n Watashi to shite mo r anata no nayami wa yoku wakari-masu. Onaji-yoona keeken ga ari-masu kara. As for me, too, I understand your worries. I ve also had similar experiences. B) PT A [ ^1 S

n PTA to shite mo , jugyoo-ryoo no ne-age wa, mondai da to kangae-masu. As for the PTA, (we) too, think that the increase in tuition is a problem. 2. Establishes a hypothetical situation.

English approximation: even if (you) were to ... A ) [] Watashi wa sono an ni wa v sansee-suru to shite mo , okane wa ima wa dase-masen. Even if I were to agree to that proposal,I cannot give you any money now.
B ) I j

Kuruma o v kai-kaeru to shite mo , kondo mo yappari shiroi no ni shi-mashoo ne. Even if we were tp buy a new car, we would stick with white, right?

T O -S H IT E -W A

- - Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and wa , and shite , from the verb suru to do). Indicates a position or a circumstance.
224

English approximation: as for A ) ]


p

Kanojo to shite wa , kare no puropoozu o kotowaru hoka

n a katta no daroo. As for her, there was probably no other choice but to say no to his marriage proposal. B ) |IT|:fe n Watashi to shite wa , kare no iken ni hantai desu. As for me, I dont agree with his opinion.

T O - W A - Combination particle
A combination of the particles to and wa . 1 . As a quotation, introduces the topic.

English approximation: the (thing) that is called


A ) [] n Burakku-hooru to wa , ittai don-na mono na no daroo. What exactly is the thing that is called a black hole? B ) [] n Seei] to wa , seeji-ka ni dake makasete-oite yoi mono de aroo ka. That which is called government, is it something that we should leave only in the hands of politicians? 2. As an emphatic version of to m eaning together with.

English approximation: w ith


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A ) 5 Watashi, r takami-kun to wa moo tsuki-au no yameta wa. I ve decided to stop being friends with Takami. B ) n Oqawa-san to wa , shoogakoo no toki kara no otomodachi desu no. I ve been friends with Ogawa since grade school. 3. Placed at the end of a sentence as an exclamatory particle, expresses

surprise, anger or some sort of emotion.

English approximation: to think that ...


a ) S 1 H I; A9 || Takeuchi-kun, an-na ni isshoo-kenmee benkyoo-shita no ni
fu-gookaku c datta to wa .

Takeuchi studied so hard and to think that he didnt pass! b ) 4 1 m i

Moo kotoshi mo r juuni-qatsu to wa . Tsukihi no tatsu no wa nan to hayai no daroo. To think that its already December! How quickly the days and months pass.

T O - W A - I E - - Combination particle
A combination of the particles to and wa , and ie , from
the verb yuu to say). Used as an adversative conjunction. Inter changeable with to wa ii-nagara or to wa yuu mono no
226

.
English approximation: even though A ) [4 '

P Tsuvu to wa ie , kotoshi wa hareta hi ga ooi.


Even though its the rainy season, there have been many clear days this year. B ) [|

Kono matsutake wa a d j oishii to wa ii nagara , zuibun nedan ga takai ne.


Even though this matsutake mushroom is good, its really expen sive, isnt it?

T O - Y U U -

Combination particle

A combination of the particle to and the verb yuu to say, called/named ). 1 . Introduces a proper noun. English approximation: called/named ... A )

r Fuiisan to yuu yama wa, nihon de ichiban takai yama desu.


The mountain called Fuji-san is the tallest mountain in Japan. B )

n Nanshii to yuu josee wa dono hito desu ka?


Which person is the woman named Nancy? After a number, indicates that the quantity of something has reached
227

that number.
English approximation: numbering totaling

A ) 4 & i . ^ A | ^"|A Puro-yakyuu no kaimaku-jiai ni, r go-man nin to yuu hito ga sutajiamu ni oshikaketa.
For the opening game of baseball, people numbering fifty thousand rushed to the stadium.

B ) ] ;! 2 0 i n Nan-zen mai to yuu takara-kuji ga, ich nichi de uri-kireta.


Lottery tickets totaling several thousand were sold out overnight. 3. Placed after a phrase or a sentence, sets as a quotation and modifies the

noun that immediately follows it.

English approximation: (something) that

"

a ) !E i i ci Hayashi-san no musuko-san qa basuketto-booru no senshu da to yuu koto o ki ki-mashita.


I heard (the story) that Hayashis son was a basketball player.

B) / [ f
cLObake ga deru to yuu hanashi wa shinjirare-masen.
I cannot believe a story that claims that there are ghosts. 4. Placed at the end of a sentence, follows a statement as a quotation.

English approximation: I hear they say its said A ) m x p j0


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c i. Kare no sofu wa dai-gakusha datta to yuu


They say that his grandfather was a great scholar.

B ) ci Mukashi kono machi wa vama datta to yuu


It is said that this town used to be a mountain a long time ago.

5.

Used between two repeated nouns, signifies every single one in that

category.

English approximation: every single ...


A) * Koi kiri no tame, ^ kuruma to yuu kuruma wa min-na raito o

tsukete hashitte-iru.
Due to the dense fog, every single car is running with its headlights

B)

Omatsuri de, mura-juu no n otoko to yuu otoko ga omikoshi o katsuide-iru.


Since it is festival time, every single man in the village is helping to carry the portable shrine.

T O - Y U U - K O T O - W A - - -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and wa , the verb y u u

(to say) and the noun koto fact/matter) . Used in drawing a conclusion from the action/situation described in the previous sentence.

English approximation: that means ...


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A )

Kare kara maaa denwa ga kakatte-ko-nai. [To yuu koto wa mada shucchoo kara kaette-nai no daroo. He hasnt called me yet. That means he probably hasnt come

home from his business trip yet.

T O - Y U U -N O -W A (M O ) - - - ( Combination particle
A combination of the particles to no and w a(m o) and the verb yuu to say). Explains a reason or a cause for an action or situation.

English approximation: the reason (for that) ...


A ) [I Kare wa hito o shinji-nai. To yuu no wa , tomodachi ni

damasareta koto ga aru kara desu. He doesnt trust other people. The reason (for that) is that he has been deceived by a friend in the past. B) M | Kare wa saikin kaisha o yame-mashita. To yuu no mo , atara shii jigyoo o hajimeta kara desu. He recently quit his job. The reason (for that) was that he started a new business.
230

T O - Y U U - T O - -

Combination particle

A combination of the particles to and the verb yuu to say). 1 . As a conjunction, shows that whenever something occurs, something else also always happens.

English
a

approximation: every every tim e


a IT a 4 A 1 I Kono daigaku de wa, zenjitsu made ame demo, n sotsuayooshiki to yuu to kanarazu hareru no da yo.
At this university, even if it were to rain until the day before, it always clears up on graduation day.

2.

A t the beginning of the sentence, in drawing what seems like the

natural conclusion judging from the preceding statement.

English
A)

approximation:

if (we) say that, then

| Gakusee wa asobu tokoro o takusan shitte-ru kara ne. To yuu to , gakusee wa amari benkyoo-shite-inai yoo ni kikoeru kedo.
Students know of lots of places to have fun, you know. If we say that, then, it sounds like theyre not. studying very much, but ...

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T T E
Used in casual speech. 1 Introduces a quotation, similar to to

English approximation: say (that) A ) I Otoosan ga ne, c watashi no tsukutta orvoori tottemo oishikatta tte .
Dad said that the dishes I cooked were really good.

B ) | | Kare ne, c konban kite kurenai ka tte yuu no yo.


He asked me if I could come over tonight, (literally: He said to me, could you come over tonight.)

2.

An informal variant of to yuu modifies the noun that directly

follows this particle.

English approximation: the (noun) called ...


A ) [j

n Sumoo tte supootsu wa, naka-naka omoshiroi ne.


The sport called sumo is pretty interesting, isnt it?

B) 3 n. Nyuuyooku tte machi wa, kitanai kedo kakki ga aru ne


The city called New York is dirty but full of life, isnt it? 3. Introduces the topic casually. (speaking of)

English approximation:

A ) M
232

n Ookami tte kowai-n da ne, inu ni yoku niteru kedo. Wolves are vicious, even though they look a lot like dogs. B )

I Ashita oosaka e iku tte hontoo? Is it true youre going to Osaka tomorrow? (literally: That you are going to Osaka tomorrow, is it true?) 4. In an interrogative sentence.

1 ) Repeats that which was said by the other party. English approximation: (You) are asking/saying ? A)

Isogashii kara toobun dame da

Itsu onsen ni ikoo ka tte ne.

Youre asking when we should go to a hot spring? Not for a while because Im busy. B )

Moo dekake voo tte ? Kimi hayai ne, shitaku-suru no. Youre saying lets go already? arent you? 1 ) Expresses a desire to confirm what was said by the other party. English approximation: Is it true that ? A ) | c i. Kano[o o mikaketa tte ? Itsu, doko de? Is it true that you saw her? When and where? B) ci Igakubu ni gookaku tte Omedetoo
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Youre quick at getting ready,

nasatta-n desu

gozaimasu. Is it true that you got into medical school? Congratulations! 5. In talking about hearsay.

English approximation: (they) say I hear A ) I 7 Watanabe-san chi ne, c_ ookina karaaterebi katta-n da tte I hear that the Watanabes bought a big color TV. B) & 4 4 Kachoo no hanashi de wa, d kondo no boonasu itsumo vori sukunai-n da tte According to what the section chief said, our bonuses this time will be less than usual. 6. In the pattern datte

English approximation: (he/she) says A) c i Oniichan ashita tesuto ga aru kara, boku to asobu iikan nai-n da Itte My elder brother said that he has a test tomorrow, so he has no time to play with me. B ) -

ci Konkuuru ne, havakawa-san qa it-too da tte sa. They said that Hayakawa has placed first in the competition. 7. The casual version of tote poses a hypothetical situation.

English approximation: even if (I) were to ...

a) m
234

Isshoo-kenmee v benkvoo-shita tte

iida-kun ni wa kanawa-

Even if I were to study very hard, I couldnt compete with Iida. B ) Imasara v naqeita tte hajimara-nai. It wouldnt do any good to grieve now. (literally: Even if I were to grieve now, it wouldnt do any good.)

W A
FUNDAMENTALS OF WA First, note that the particle is read wa, even though it is normally read ha. Also, when reading a romanized sentence, you should note that wa has two hiragana possibilities: (i, which is the particle to be discus

sed here, and the particle . Generally speaking, you can apply the following rule in deciding between the two choices: (a) If wa appears in the middle of a sentence after the subject (a noun or a nominal), then it is the particle (i. (b) If wa appears at the end of a sentence or clause following a copula, verb, or adiective. the Darticle is .

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1 . Wa as a topic marker in an affirmative sentence. wa marks the topic or the subject by directly following it. The

structure that is established, then, is a topic followed by a comment on that topic, where wa functions like as for " or in referring to Note that the particle ga also serves as a topic/subject marker, but is used differently (see p. 34). A ) n Raion wa moojuu da. As for lions, (they) are ferocious animals.

B ) 1 1 Kono n hon wa muzukashii. As for this book, (it) is difficult. C ) [^] Ano n hito w a , yamada-san no goshujin desu. As for that person, (he) is Mrs. Yamadas husband. 2. Wa as a topic marker in a negative sentence.

In a negative sentence, wa usually indicates a comparison, emphasis, or choice. A ) n, Watashi |w ai iki-masen.


236

As for me, I wont go Im not going to go. (i.e. I will not go, but someone else probably will.)

B ) [ n, Boorupen |w ai ari-masen. There is no ball-point pen. (i.e. There is no ball-point pen, but there are other writing instruments.)

* Note that when the subject is an interrogative pronoun, ga is used instead of wa (see p. 34). 3. As an emphatic particle.

1 ) When the topic is the object of a verb, it is followed by wa which emphasizes it. A ) ! n Okane |w ai boku ga harau yo. As for the money, Ill pay (it), (i.e. but I may not be responsible for other things.)

B ) n Shukudai wa moo sun-da. As for homework, (I) have already finished (it), (i.e. but I
237

havent finished doing other things.)


Follows a particle or an adverb. A ) ; 5 a d v Itsumo | w a| basu de iki-masu. Usually, (I) go by bus.
b ) [iTI

Ano hito p to iwa] moo tsuki-ai-masen. Im not going to associate with that person anymore, (literally: As for (relations) with that person, Im not going to associate (with him/her) anymore.) Following a verb, adjective, or the particles te or de . A ) S Moo nido to v tanomi wa shi-nai kara sa. Look, I wont ever ask you (for this favor) again, so ...
B ) [i i ]

Kusuri wa, mada non D de | w a| i-nai yo.

As for the medication, I havent taken it yet.

C ) ! " ii]
Sono uwasa, uso p de |w ai nai no yo. That rumor isnt a lie, you know. Indicates a contrast between two topics.

A) i M
n Hiru |wg atsuku, n yoru wa samui. Sore ga sabaku no kikoo da. Days are hot, and nights are cold. That is the climate of the desert.
238

B ) n Kore wa watashi no, n sore [w al anata no. Machigae-nai de. This is mine, that is yours. Dont get them mixed up. 5. In the pattern "... (de)wa ... (da)ga indicates that the

speaker is recognizing another view or giving way to something. English approximation: " (to be sure) A ) & Denwa o kakeru p n \|wai kaketa ga, tegami mo dashite okoo. I did telephone (to be sure), but Ill also send a letter. B )
p

Kono hon, yomu yoku wakara-nai.

ni wai yonda ga, muzukashiku te amari

Ive read through this book (to be sure), but its so difficult that I couldnt understand it well.

W A
1 . Found in womens language. 1 ) Placed at the end of a sentence, serves to soften the statement. Not translatable. a ) ^ j i Ara, hen c da |wa]. Kuruma no kagi, tashika ni koko ni oiteoita-n da kedo. Hmm, this is strange. Im certain I put the car keys here, but ...

B )
239

Ara, suteki c da | w a| ne, anata no doresu. Wow, your dress is so nice.

C )
Soo ne, ima sugu kare ni denwa-shita hoo ga ii to v omou Well, yes, I think it would be better to call him right now. Expresses a casual exclamation. Not translatable. A)
[^]

Joozu c da Iwa], kono e. Sachiko-san ga kaita-n desut te. This drawing is done well! Sachiko drew it, I hear. B) [ ^] ;^ | :% $ 5 1 v Odoroita iwai, kyooryuu tte an-na ni ookii to wa omowa nakatta mono. Im surprised! I hadnt thought that dinosaurs were that big. In making a list in an exclamatory tone. Not translatable. A) g

Netsu wa v deru w a , nodo wa a d j jtai iwaj, kondo no kaze wa hidokatta. I had a fever, and a sore throat; this cold was pretty severe. B)
i

Ari no su o tsutsuitara,

deru

deru iwa], nan-byaku to

yuu ari ga hai-dashite kita. When I poked at the anthill, several hundreds of ants came flooding out (they just kept coming out (literally: came out and came out)).

240

YA
FUNDAMENTALS OF YA The basic function of the particle ya is similar to that of the particle to (see P. 200). It lists nouns, phrases and clauses like the word and

in English. However, whereas to refers to specific, clearly defined things, ya refers more to a category, and makes the thing more vague. Compare:

a )
Pikunikku ni wa n okashi [to] n nomimono o motte ik mashoo. Lets bring some candies Iand I drinks on the picnic.

^ ] ;

Pikunikku ni wa n okashi [ya] n nomimono o motte iki-mashoo. Lets bring something like] candies and drinks on the picnic.

241

b ) n Gakkoo e iku toki lto| n kaimono ni iku toki wa jitensha de


clause clause

iki-masu. I ride my bicycle (only when I) go to school and go shopping.

! n Gakkoo e iku toki |ya] n kaimono ni iku toki wa jitensha de


clause clause

iki-masu. I ride my bicycle to go to school and to go shopping, (and to go to other places )

1 . Placed after a noun, loosely refers to it and other things that are also present or similar. English approximation: and ... (among other things/places) A) S i
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Mono-oki ni n jitensha ya sukii ga shimatte ari-masu. In the storage room, there is a bicycle and a pair of skis (among other things).

b ) g

Natsu-yasumi de, n hoteru ya ryokan wa doko mo man-in da. bince it is summer vacation, hotels, inns and the like are fully

C) 0

& K Kyoo wa takashi-kun no tanjoo paatii datta no. n Mamoru-kun [ya] n asako-chanjyai n tomo-chan ya makoto-kun, nakayoshi ga min-na atsumatta no yo. Takashi had a birthday party today. All his good friends like Mamoru, Asako, Tomo, Makoto, among others, got together. 2. Indicates that an action is immediately followed by another action.

Shortened version of ya ina ya (see p. 247). English approximation: as soon as when the moment ... A) " p 7]^ S
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Kanojo wa, boku no sugata o v miru [ya], ikari o bakuhatsu saseta. As soon as she saw me, she went into a fit of anger. B ) 0 Jishin ga i f S

v hassee-suru

ya , kishoo-choo wa tadachi ni

tsunami-keehoo o dashita. As soon as the earthquake happened, the Meteorological Agency issued a tidal wave warning. 3. Placed at the end of a sentence in mens language.

1 ) Used in casually coaxing or inviting action. English approximationshall we? would we? A ) & ^ ] Maa, moo sukoshi hanashi o shite kara v kaeroo ya . Well now, le ts talk a little more before we go home, shall we? B ) 0

Hisashiburi ni, unagi demo tabe ni v ikoo ya . Its been a long time (since we had some), so le ts go and have unagi or something, shall we?

C ) [^]
ci Moo yame-yoo |ya|, sofutobooru. kita yo. Lets stop playing softball, shall we ? 2) Its getting dark. Soro-soro kuraku-natte

Expresses a sense of resignation, helplessness or some sort of emotion. Not translatable.

A ) 0
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Fumiko-san, boku no kimochi wakatte-kure-nai-n da. c i shikata-ga-nai ya . Sono uchi wakatte-kureru sa. Fumiko wont try to understand how I feel. Well, there is nothing I can do. I hope shell understand me some day. B ) Maa, a d j ii [yai. Moo ichido yari-naosoo. Forget it. I ll do it over again. C ) 0 Maa

Sonoda-kun, gaaru-furendo ga dekita-n datte. a d j Urayamashii ya I hear that Sonoda has a girlfriend now. I m envious.

D ) S
j A, booru ga atatte mado-garasu ga warechatta. nara-nai [ya]. Min-na de ayamari ni ikoo yo. Oh no, the ball broke the window! We cant do anything about it. Lets all go and apologize. 4. After the name of the party addressed, softens the tone of the entire d Doo ni mo

sentence. Mainly used by elderly people. Not translatable. A ) [^ ] n Yoshiko ya , chotto hari ni ito o tooshite okure-de-nai ka i? Yoshiko, my dear, will you thread the needle for me? B ) ] n Ojiisan ya kyoo wa anata no tanjoobi desu yo.
245

My dear old man, today is your birthday, you know. 5. In set phrases such as mata mo ya and mashite ya

intensifies the meanings of mata mo (again) and mashite even more). Not translatable. A ) 0 k Boku wa, p h mata mo ya kanojo o okorasete shimatta. I ended up making her angry yet again. B) [^ ] Kono doresu, kyonen de sae kyuukutsu datta no yo. a d v Mashite ya kotoshi wa mata futotta mono, hairu hazu-ganai wa. This dress was too tight for me last year even. So it s even more true that I cant fit into it, because I put on extra weight this year.

Y A I
1 . Used in calling out to someone, with a tone of familiarity or scorn. Not translatable. A ) Akio-kun chotto ojisan ni te o kashite kure.

Akio, come lend me (your uncle) a hand for a bit. B ) Kemushi aa kowai nor n Ikujinashi

Youre scared of caterpillars? You coward!


246

2.

At the end of a sentence, creates an exclamatory, curt statement. Not

translatable. A ) 14| Sono hachi kowashita no c l boku ja nai yai . I m not the one who broke that flower pot! B ) Moo kimi ni nanka v tanoma-nai yai . I ll never ask you for a favor again!

Y A - I N A - Y A - -

Combination particle

A combination of the particle ya the adverb i n a (not) and the particle ya . Indicates that an action is immediately followed by another action. English approximation: as soon as ...

A ) g A H
shimatta.

| ^

1 ^

Shujin wa shucchoo kara v kaeru ya ina ya , kaze de nekonde

My husband, as soon as he came back from his business trip, took to bed with a cold. B ) ] Wakamono wa uma ni v mataparu ya ina ya , kaKe-satta. The young man, as soon as he got on the horse, galloped away.

247

Y A R A
1 . Following an interrogative or a word indicating uncertainty, empha sizes the uncertainty. Not translatable. A)

Boku no ojiisan wa ha ga takusan kakete-iru no de, nani o v . itte-iru (no) yara sappari wakara-nai. Since my grandfather is missing lots of teeth, (I) cant understand what hes saying at all. B) []!^ Hn-obaasan ga nakunatta no wa, itsu no koto c. datta |yara| wasurete shimatta yo. I ve completely forgotten when it was that my great-grandmother passed away. 2. In the pattern to yara , to make a statement more vague.

English approximation: or something/someone A ) Takami D to yara yuu hito ga ome-ni-kakari-tai soo desu. Someone named Takami or something says he would like to see you. B) Sakamoto-san wa, doko p. to yara watashi no ane ni nite-iru. Ms. Sakamoto somehow resembles my elder sister.
248

3.

In the pattern "... yara ... yara , follow ed by a negation,

indicates an indecision between the choices. English approximation: or A) X i A I |X 1 Musuko mo ookiku natte, docchi ga shujin no n. shatsu |yara| musuko no n shatsu yara miwake ga tsuka-nai.

My son has grown up, and I cant tell which are my husbands shirts and which are my sons. B ) [ ^ | ]

Kyoo wa ame ga furu p no yara fura-nai D no yara kasa dake wa mo tte ikoo.

Maa

(I wonder) if it will rain today or not. I ll bring an umbrella (just in case). 4. Lists two or more items, with the implication that other items exist as

well. English approximation: and ... (other things) A) Ashita wa kurisumasu, oishii n gochisoo yara takusan tsukuri-mashoo ne. Tomorrow is Christmas Day, le ts make lots of good food and cakes (and other things). keeki yara

249

B ) * p i I | Ue no kai de mata fuufu-genka ga hajimatta yo. v nageru yara v wameku yara , taihen da naa. The couple upstairs has started fighting again. Theyre throwing things and screaming (at each other) (and doing other things), its quite sometning. 5. Placed at the end of a sentence, expresses a casual remark addressed Mono o

to oneself with a tone of uncertainty. English approximation: I wonder ... A) V iA I A | | Kyoo mo shujin wa sakana-tsuri ni dekaketa. Nan-biki v tsuttekuru (no) |yarai. My husband went fishing again today. I wonder how many hell catch and bring back? B) [ Yakusoku no jikan o ich jikan juugo-fun mo sugita no ni, kanojo wa mada ko-nai. Doredake v mata-sareru (no) |yara|. Even though its an hour and fifteen minutes past the time were supposed to meet, she hasnt come yet. I wonder how long I ll be kept waiting?

250

Y O
1 . Placed at the end of a sentence. 1 ) Transforms the sentence into an exclamation. Not translatable. a) m 1 H 'W g

Kanojo no hanayome-sugata, hontoo ni kiree c datta |yol. She looked really beautiful in her wedding dress! B ) |T | Anata no ensoo suteki datta p wa |yo|. Your performance was really splendid. 2) After an interrogative pronoun, adds a tone of criticism. Not translata ble. A ) ^ ] S i Sono kakkoo wa D h nan da yo . Zubon kara shatsu ga hami dashite-iru ja nai ka. W hats with your attire? Your sh irts hanging out of your pants.
B) U S 0

Kyuu ni naki-dashitari shite, ittai d doo shita no yo . (You) suddenly burst into tears, what in the world is the matter? 3) Emphasizes a command. Not translatable. A ) [^] Hayaku v. tabero yo . Gakkoo ni okureru zo. Eat quickly, already! Youll be late for school.

251

b)

M ^ |T | Damatte jisho o tsukatta gurai de, son na ni okoru D na [yo]. Dont get so angry at me just for using your dictionary without asking you!

After the form oo or yoo Emphasizes a statement of suggestion. Not translataole. A ) [ T | Ii otenki da. Sanpo ni demo v ikoo yo . Its nice out. Lets go take a walk or something. B ) 0

Nee, otoosan, osushi v tabe voo yo . Say, Dad, shall we have sushi? Expresses an emotional state. Not translatable.
C ) g [ i ]

Nan te kurai michi na-n c deshoo yo . What a dark road (this) is!

D )
[ j

Kanojo ni wa atarashii booi-furendo ga dekita rashii. Boku no koto nan ka sugu wasureru c daroo yo . I ve heard that she has a new boyfriend. Fll bet shell forget about me very soon! Placed at the end of a clause or a sentence. Expresses an exclamatory address. Not translatable. A)
252

n . Kami [yo], omamori kudasai. God, please protect me. B ) Ooi! Subarashii

n, Hiraiwa-kun [yo], hayaku nobotte koi yo.

keshiki da zo. Hey! Hiraiwa, come climb up quickly! Its a great view! 2) As a filler particle placed at pauses in a sentence, to catch a breath or call something to the attention of the party addressed. Not trans latable. A ) |T | Otoosan mada kaette ko-nai no? Hyotto suru to c da |yo|,

ojisan no uchi ni yotte-iru no kamo-shirenai ne. Your fathers not home yet? Theres a chance that maybe he has stopped by your uncles. b) r 0 t

Man-ichi c da [yo], takara-kuji no it-too ga atattara doo suru? Lets say that by a one-in-ten-thousand chance, you won the lottery, what would you do?

Y O R I
1 . Makes a comparison. Also in the forms yorika , or yorimo
.

English approximation: than


253

A)

Kono ringo wa, ano n rinqo yori ookii desu. This apple is bigger than that apple. B ) |_ t Watashi wa, n anata yori(ka/mo)

Im taller than you.

C ) [ . j

Kyoo no tesuto wa n akatta.

v omotta

yori(ka/mo)

muzukashiku-

Todays exam was less difficult than I had expected.


D ) [ . |

n Kinoo yori(ka/mo) kyoo no hoo ga zutto samui. Today is much colder than yesterday. 2. Establishes a boundary. Often followed by a word describing time,

distance, or position. English approximation: than

A ) g

| ^

Boku tachi no gakkoo wa, n eki yori temae ni ari-masu. Our school is before the station, (i.e. closer to us than the station.) B ) ^ ] Mada onaka ga suite-inai nara, yuushoku wa n shichi-ji yori ato ni shi-mashoo.
254

If youre not hungry yet, le ts have dinner after seven oclock. (literally: later than seven.) C ) 6 |TT|4 Hoomu no n hakusen [yorn uchigawa de omachi kudasai. Please wait inside the white line on the platform, (literally: at a more inner location than the white line.) 3. In the pattern yori hoka 3, followed by a negation, shows that

matters are limited to what precedes the particle and nothing else. English approximation: (nothing else) to do besides ... A) [ _ (3 Doo shite mo denwa ga tsuuji-nai. Koo natte wa, nakaya-kun no uchi e v iku yori hoka nai. I cant get through on the phone no matter what. This being the case, theres nothing (I) can do except go to Nakayas house. B ) || Keeburukaa ga koshoo de ugoka-nai. [yorii hoka nai ne. The tramway is out of order and not running. Theres nothing to do but wait. 4. In formal or written language, indicates the starting point of time or Naoru made v matsu

space for an action. In colloquial usage, kara is usually used in its place. English approximation: from A) I
255

Shin-kansen hikari-ichi-goo hakata-yuki wa, n juuroku-ban-sen yori hassha-shi-masu. Shin-kansen Hikari No. I to Hakata will be leaving from track No. 1 6 .
B) V

Kyoo no kaigi wa n ichi-ji [yori] hajimari-masu. Todays meeting will start from one oclock.

5.

Used with an interrogative noun such as doko where), dare

who), nani w hat) etc., to indicate that which follows it is the best. English approximation: no better than A ) || , n. Doko | yori] wagaya ga ichi-ban da ne. There is no better place than our home. B)
[ |

Maa, toritate no nashi, gozaimasu.

n nani

yori

no mono o arigatoo

My goodness, (these are) freshly picked pears; thank you so much (for giving us something that cannot be surpassed.) C ) |( Kimi wa n dare yori (mo) hayaku hashitta ne. You ran faster than anyone else, didnt you? 6. Indicates the basis for conclusions, results, etc.

English approximation: on the basis of from A ) . H A |


256

Piano konkuuru no yuushoo-sha wa ashita no saishuu-shinsa no kekka p ni yori kime-masu. The winner of the piano competition will be selected on the basis of the results of the final performance tomorrow. b ) ; W 4 ]

Konkai no jinkoo-choosa p ni yori nihon no jinkoo wa yaku ich oku ni-sen-man nin to wakatta. From this census, its understood that the population of Japan is about one hundred twenty million. 7. In the pattern to yuu yori indicates that a person/thing

seems to be or is considered to be something other than what it is. English approximation: more of a ... than ... A) W i i i , Saitoo-kun wa, bijinesuman p h to yuu |yori] kagakusha da. Saito is more of a scientist than a businessman. B) A ( I S m Ookii naa!

Kore wa mizuumi p h to yuu yori umi da.

Its so big! Its more like an ocean than a lake.

Z E
Found in mens language. Used only in casual conversation among

colleagues or with those whose supposed social status is below that of the speaker.
257

To elicit an agreement from the party addressed. Not translatable. A ) ; ^ I 4 [^] Yoshioka-kun ga kakari-choo ni naru-n da. Min-na de v oiwaishiyoo ze . Yoshioka is going to become an assistant section chief. Lets all celebrate (for him). B) ^ p ^ l Ima made wa mikka-boozu datta. Daga, kondo wa kitto tabako o v yameru ze . Until now, I couldnt keep a resolution past three days. However, this time, Im really going to quit smoking.

ZO Placed at the end of a sentence or a clause, emphatically states ones opinion or judgement. Found in mens language. Not translatable. A )
|--------

Kimi yori boku no hoo ga se ga a d j takai izoj. Im taller than you! B) (3 K h f Hora, shin-ichi, v naqeru zo Look, Shin-ichi, Im going to throw (the ball)!

258

Z U T S U
Establishes equal divisions. English approximation: at a time (quantity) each A ) > [] Ha ga warui node, katai mono wa n sukoshi kame-masen. Since I have bad teeth, I can only chew tough things a little at a time. B) M i l # i Manga no hon, n is-satsu zutsu ja naku te, motto takusan kashite yo. Dont lend me comic books one at a time; let me have a lot more (at once). C) I masu. zutsu shika

Dono kurasu ni mo, gakkyuu-iin ga n futari zutsu

There are two class representatives for each and every class.

259

MASTERING PARTICLES: EXERCISES

INTRODUCTION
1 his section is designed for students who are at the beginning level of Japanese language studies. Learning how and when to use particles is so essential to Japanese that its best to master the basics at an early stage. Exposure to numerous examples and problems will familiarize you with the appropriate usages. These exercises start out with a variety of practice sentences involving the particles wa and ga , since its crucial to grasp the difference between these two fundamental particles. As you progress, other particles are gradually introduced into the problems, and sentence structures become increasingly more complex. Your instructor may wish to use these problems as homework. There is also an answer key in the back.

Lesson 1
Complete the sentences below, using either (wa)Mor (ga)" in the parentheses. 1 . Ringo ( I ) mit-tsu ari-masu.

There are three apples. 2 . Are ( I ) akai ringo desu.

That is a red apple. 3. Gakusee ( ! I ) futari i-masu.

There are two students. 4 . ( ) A I ) amerika-jin desu.

Ano gakusee (

That student is an American. 5 . Anata ( I ) doko ( 2 ) itai-n desu ka?

(As for you,) where does it hurt? 6 Watashi ( I 2 ) itai-n desu.

) atama (

(As for me,) my head hurts. 7 Watashi ( I 2 ) itaku-arimasen.

) atama (

(As for me,) my head doesnt hurt (but other parts do).
263

8 .

4 I ) takusan ld-mashita yo.

Hora, kodomo-tachi (

Look, many children have come. 9 . ( ) * I ) min-na otoko-no-ko desu yo.

Kodomo-tachi (

The children are all boys. 1 0 . Tanaka-san ( I ) kyoo ld-masu ka?

Will Mr. Tanaka come today? (Literally: As for Mr. Tanaka " 1 1 . 4 Hai, ki-masu yo. A, tanaka-san ( 4 | ) ki-mashita.

Yes, (he) will come. Ah, Mr. Tanaka has come. 1 2 . Kaze ( I ) tsuyoi desu nee.

Its windy, isnt it? (Literally: The winds are strong, arent they? 13 Ame ( I ) futte-ki-mashita yo.

It has started to rain. (Literally: The rain has started to fall. 1 4 . ( ) I ) kiree desu.

Ano ookii mado (

That big window is clean. (Literally: As for that big window . . . 1 5 . Mado ( I ) aite-imasu.

The window is open. 16


264

Yama (

) mie-masu.

(I) can see a mountain. 1 7 . Anata ( I Z ( ) 2 ) mie-masu ka?

) ano yama (

Can you see that mountain? (Literally: As for you " 1 8 . lie, yama ( I ) mie-masen ( 2 }, ki ( ) 3 ) mie-masu.

No, (I) cant see a mountain, but (I) can see trees. (Literally: As for a mountain, I cant see (it), but 1 9 .( Don-na ki ( ) I ) mie-masu ka?

What kind of trees can (you) see? 2 0 . Iro-iro na ki ( I ) mie-masu.

(I) can see many kinds of trees.


2 1 . g ( )

Kiree na hana (

) takusan saite-imasu.

Beautiful flowers are blooming in abundance.


2 2 . 4

Chuurippu (

) mada saite-imasen.

Tulips have not bloomed yet (but other flowers have). 2 3 . Sakura ( I ) doo desu ka?

What about cherry blossoms?


24
265

Sakura (

) ari-masen yo.

There are no cherry blossoms (but there are other flowers). 2 5 . Watashi ( I ) yamada to mooshi-masu.

I am (called) Yamada. 2 6 . Aa, anata ( I ) yamada-san de irasshaimasu ka.

Oh, you are Mr. Yamada. 2 7 . Jaa, donata ( I ) tanaka-san desu ka?

Then, who is Mr. Tanaka? 28. Watakushi ( I am Tanaka. 2 9 . Watashi ( 4 I K ) I I 2 ) sukoshi hanase-masu. | ) tanaka desu.

) nihongo (

I can speak a little bit of Japanese. 30 A ( )

Watashi (

) furansugo (

) wakari-masu ga, doitsugo (

wakari-masen. I can understand French, but not German.

266

Lesson 2
Complete the sentences below, using (wa)", (ga)", or mo)" in the parentheses.
1

Kore (

) hyaku en desu.

This is one hundred yen.


2 .

Dore (

) ni-hyaku en desu ka?

Which one is two hundred yen? 3 Are ( I ) ni-hyaku en desu.

That is two hundred yen.


4 )

Kore (

) n hyaku en desu ka?

Is this two hundred yen also? 5 . lie, sore ( I

) ni-hyaku en ja ari-masen.

No, that isnt two hundred yen. 6 . Anata ( I ) se ( ) 2 ) takai desu nee.

You are tall, arent you. (Literally: Your height is high, isnt it. ) 7 . Toyoda-san (

2 ) takai desu nee.

) se (

Ms. Toyoda is also tall, isnt she?


267

8 . Watashi (

I ) se (

) 2 ) hikui-n desu.

I am short. (Literally: As for me, my height is low . ) 9 Kinoo ( I ) don-na otenki deshita ka?

How was the weather yesterday? 10 Kinoo ( I ) yuki ( 2 ) furi-mashita.

Yesterday, it snowed. 1 1 . Kyoo ( ( I ) 2 ) futte-imasu ka?

) yuki (

Is it snowing today, too? 1 2 . lie, kyoo ( koi desu. No, today its not snowing (although it snowed yesterday), But the fog is dense.
13 P i

) yuki (

) futte-imasen.

Demo kiri (

Ashita (

) ame (

) furu deshoo.

Tomorrow, it will probably rain. 14 Kyoo ( I 2 ) ari-masu.

) netsu (

Today, (I) have a fever. 15


268

Kinoo (

) netsu (

) ari-mashita ka?

Did you have a fever yesterday as well? 16 Kinoo ( I 2 ) ari-masen deshita.

) netsu (

Yesterday, I didnt have a fever. 17. S ( Sora ( ) I ) aoi desu.

The sky is blue. is . 1 4( Umi ( ) I ) aoi desu.

The ocean is blue, too. 19. m i ( Chikyuu ( ) I ) aoi desu yo.

The earth is blue also. 20. ^ ( )

I ) aoi desu ka?

Kumo (

Are clouds blue as well? 2 1 . lie, kumo ( I


) aoku ari-masen.

No, clouds arent blue (although other things listed above are blue). 2 2 . Hoka ni aoi mono ( I ) ari-masu ka?

Is there anything else blue? 2 3 . 4 ( )

I ) genki desu.
269

Watashi (

I am fine, too
2 4 . Anata ( I ) genki desu.

You are fine, too. 2 5 . Dare ( I ) byooki desu ka?

Who is sick?

2 6 .

I ) byooki desu.

Kawamoto-san (

Mr. Kawamoto is sick. 2 7 . I 2 ) warui-n desu ka?

Kawamoto-san (

) doko (

What is wrong with Mr. Kawamoto? (Literally: As for Mr. Kawamoto, where is (he) not well (i.e. which part of him is sick)? ) 28. ( I ) 2 ) onaka ( 3 ) itai soo

Kawamoto-san ( desu.

) atama (

I heard that Mr. Kawamoto has both a headache and a stomachache. (Literally: "... both (his) head and stomach hurt. 29. Man-nen-hitsu ( (3 I ) booru-pen ( 2 ) iri-masen. Enpitsu ( ) ( ) I

) hoshii-n desu.

I need neither a fountain pen nor a ball-point pen. What I need is a pencil.
270

3 0 .

Kinoo ( | ) nishikawa-kun to maeda-kun ( 3 ) yakyuu o shite asonda. We played 2 ) asobi-ni-kita.

Boku-tachi (

Yesterday, Nishikawa and Maeda came over to play. baseball.

271

Lesson 3
Complete the sentences below, using (wa)M , (ga)M , (mo)", or (no)" in the parentheses. 1 . Tookyoo (

2 ) ari-masu ka?

) chizu (

Do you have a map of Tokyo? 2 . Oosaka (

2 ) ari-masu ka?

) chizu (

Do you have a map of Osaka, too? 3 . Oosaka ( I 2 ) ari-masen.

) chizu (

We dont have a map of Osaka.


4 . Al l ( )

Nagoya (

) chizu (

) ari-masu (

We have a map of Nagoya, but ... 5 . ! Jaa, nagoya (

chizu o misete kudasai.

Well, then please show me a map of Nagoya. 6 . Kimi (

2 ) tabe-tai?

) nani (

What would you like to eat?


7 .

Boku (

) hanbaagaa (

) tabe-tai.

I want to eat a hamburger.


272

8 .

) nani ( 2 ) ii?

Nom mono (

What would you like to drink? 9 Boku ( I 2 ) kawaita kara aisu-tii ( 3 ) ii na.

) nodo (

As I m thirsty, Id like to drink iced-tea. 1 0 . Watashi ( X ( I ) ( 2 ) A 3 ) futari i-masu.

) chichi (

) kyoodai (

My father has two brothers. (Literally: As for my father, there are two brothers. 11 Chichi ( desu. (My) fathers older brother and younger brother are both my uncles. 12. X ( ( )

) Z (
I

) 2

) otooto ( 3 ) watashi ni totte wa oji

) ani (

) Z (
/ ( I 5 )

X ( )

S a 2 ) kodomo ( 6 ) musume ( 3 7 ) i-masen ( 4 ),

Chichi ( chichi (

) ani (

) otooto (

) futari i-masu.

(My) fathers older brother doesnt have children, but (my) fathers younger brother has two daughters. 1 3 . Watashi ( I ) haha ( 2 ( ) A 3 ) futari i-masu.

) kyoodai (

My mother has two brothers as well. 1 4 . Haha ( I 2 ) watashi ni totte wa oji desu.
273

) kyoodai (

(My) m others brothers are my uncles, too. 15. V a ( ) I ) otenki ( 2 ) doo desu ka?

Kyoo (

How is todays weather? 16 Kyoo ( I 2 3 ) futte imasu.

) kaze (

) fuite, ame (

Today, its windy and its raining as well. (Literally: the wind is blowing, and the rain is falling, too. 1 7 . Ashita ( I

) otenki (

S
2 ) warui deshoo ka?

Will it be bad weather tomorrow, too?

1 8 .
lie, ashita ( I

) ii otenki deshoo.

No, tomorrow will probably be good weather. 1 9 . Enpitsu ( I : I 2 ).

) hoshii-n desu (

Id like a pencil ... 2 0 . Nan iro ( I ) yoroshii desu ka?

Which color do you want? (Literally: Which color would be good? 2 1 . Akai no ( M I 2 3 ).

), kuroi no (

) ari-masu (

There are red ones as well as black ones... 2 2 . Kuroi no (


274

I ) hoshii desu.

I want a black one. 2 3 . Akai no ( I 2 ) iri-masen.

) doo desu ka? Sore (

What about a red one? That I dont need. 24. 1 4 ( Umi ( ka? What kinds of creatures are there in the sea? 2 5 . Umi ni ( (3 | M ( I ) A ( 2 ) ) I 2 3 ) masu

) naka ni (

), don-na seebutsu (

), sakana ya kai (

) i-masu. Shokubutsu

) ari-masu.

In the sea, there are such things as fish and shellfish. There are plants, too. 2 6 .

Akai kuruma ( uma ( 3

) ikaga desu ka? Watashi (

) shiroi kur

) suki desu.

How about a red car? I like white cars.

27. (

) (

Shiroi kuruma (

) migi ni, aoi kuruma (

) ari-masu nee.

Aoi iro no mo ii-desu ne. To the right of the white car, there is a blue car, (right)? The blue one is nice, too. 28. U ( )
275

Boku ( I ) terebi o mite-iru toki ni, oji-san to oba-san [

tazunete kita. When I was watching T .V ., my uncle and aunt came to visit. 2 9 . ( )

) ) fuyu ( 6 4 )

4 I 5 }sukii ( ) hotondo 2

Watashi ( supootsu ( ( 7

) tokui desu (

deki-masu. Sukeeto

) hokkee

) yari-masu.

Im good at skiing, but I can do most winter sports, I skate and play hockey, too.

3 0 . ( )

Kiree na keshiki ( ), soshite, I ) mieru yo. 4 ) mieru-

Ano yama ni nobotte miyoo. Kawa ( 2 ) mizuumi ( 3

kisha (

kamo-shire nai yo. Lets go climb that mountain. W ell be able to see a great view. W ell be able to see a river, a lake, and possibly even a train.

276

Lesson 4
Complete the sentences below, using " de}" or " o in the parentheses. 1 . Anata wa doko ( I 2 ) kai-mashita ka?

) kono jisho (

Where did you buy this dictionary? 2 . M I ) ik mashita.

Watashi wa eki e takushii ( I went to the station by taxi. 3 . Sono akai tokee (

I ) misete kudasai.

Please show me that red clock. 4 . Watashi wa kinoo depaato no shokudoo ( (2 ) tabe-mashita. I ) supagettii

Yesterday, I ate spaghetti at the restaurant in a department store. 5 . Kono baasudee-keeki ( I ) naifu ( 2 ) kitte kudasai.

Please cut this birthday cake with a knife. 6 . Koko e anata no onamae ( I 4 2 ) kaite kudasai.

) pfen (

Please write your name here with a pen. 7.


(

( ) W

) S U
277

Watashi wa haha ni tegami (

) kakitome (

) okutta.

I sent my mother a letter by registered mail. 8 . Onaka ga suita. Doko ( I ) 2 ) tabe-yoo?

) nani (

Im hungry. Where and what shall I eat? 9 . I ) sotsugyoo-shi-mashita ka?

Anata wa doko no gakko (

From which school did you graduate? 1 0 .

Kono michi ( (2 I ) massugu iku to, basu-tee ga ari-masu. Soko

) basu ni notte kudasai.

If you go straight down this street, there will be a bus stop. Get on the bus there.

1 1 . ( )
Nihon ( I

( )

) wa,

kuruma wa michi no hidari-gawa (

hashiri-masu. In Japan, cars keep to the left side of the road.

12.i i ( )
Ashita no asa, hikooki ( masu.

) nyuuyooku (

) shuppatsu-shi-

Tomorrow morning, I m leaving New York on a plane. 1 3 .

2 ) shi-masu.

Raishuu watashi no uchi (

) paatii (

Im going to throw a party at my house next week.


278

1 4 . Kono restoran ( I

) ichiban oishii oryoori wa nan desu ka?

What is the best dish (served) at this restaurant? 15. i A Yamada-san no okusan wa, goshujin ( (2 ) apaato ni sunde-imasu. I ) nakushite kara hitori ( ) I I

After having lost her husband, Mrs. Yamada is living alone in his apartment. 1 6 . ( ( ) I ) kyuujus-sai ni nari-masu. )

Watashi no sobo wa, kotoshi ( Min-na ( 2 ) oiwai ( 3

) shi-masu.

My grandmother is going to turn ninety this year. W ere all going to celebrate ( her birthday). 1 7 . ( Min-na ( ) I

2 ) tabe-mashoo.

) issho ni dezaato (

Lets all have desert together. 1 8 . Kitte ( I


) nori (

2 ) hatte kudasai.

Please paste down the postage stamp with glue. 1 9 . : Aka-chan ( mashita. I took the baby out for a walk in a stroller.
279

2 ) sanpo ni tsurete-iki-

) uba-guruma (

2 0 .
Obentoo (

2 ) tabe-mashoo ka?

) doko (

Where shall we eat our boxed lunch?


2 1 . ' ( ) l i ( )

Watashi wa inu ( (2

) sanpo ni tsurete ik mashita.

Kooen

), yoso no inu ni de-au to, watashi no inu wa, ureshisoo ni 3 ) furi-mashita.

shippo (

I took my dog for a walk. At the park, when my dog saw another dog, it wagged its tail in delight. 2 2 . M ( ) I K ) jisho ( 2 ) shirabe-

Watashi wa, sono eego no tango ( mashita.

I looked up that English word in the dictionary. 2 3 . ( )

I ) kurasu-kai ga ari-masu. 2 Watashi wa,

Konya wa, hoteru (

tomodachi to takushii (

) hirotte, hoteru made iki-masu.

Tonight, there will be a class reunion at a h o te l.I m going to catch a taxi with a friend, and (that is how) were going to go to the hotel. 24 I 2 ) mi-mashita.

Kyoo wa nihongo no kurasu (

}, suraido (

Today in Japanese class we saw slides. 2 5 .

280

Kon-na tokoro ( hiki-masu yo.

) hirune (

) shite-iru to, kaze (

If you take a nap at a place like this, youll catch cold. 2 6 .

Watashi wa depaato ( kai-mashita. I bought this change purse for one thousand yen at a department store. 2 7 . I ) kono koin-ire ( 2 ) sen en ( 3 )

1
) kuruma ( 2 ) tomete kudasai.

Ano gakko no mae (

Please stop the car in front of that school. 28 Shanpen ( I 2 ) iwa mashoo.

) chiimu no yuushoo (

Lets celebrate our victory with champagne. 2 9 . & ( )

Kono teekiken wa, kigen ga kirete-imasu ne. Asoko no mado-guchi ( I ) atarashii no ( 2 ) katte kudasai.

Your (train/bus) pass is no longer valid. Please buy a new one at that ticket window. 3 0 . ( ) ( )

I ) hanabi-taikai ga ari-masu. Asoko no 2 ) hanabi ( 3 ) mi-mashoo.

Kyoo wa, sumidagawa (

takai tatemono no okujoo (

281

Today, theres going to be fireworks over (at) the Sumida River. Lets watch the fireworks from the rooftop of that tall building.

282

Lesson 5
Complete the sentences below, using " (de), "(o ) or " ni) ((e)") in the parentheses. 1 . I ) basu ( i 2 ) omatsuri

Watashi wa, kodomo-tachi ( (3 ) tsurete iki-mashita.

I took my children to the festival by bus.


2.

Watashi wa kyooto ( ii deshoo ka?

) ikitai-n desu ga, kono densha (

Id like to go to Kyoto, (but) is this the right train?


3 .

Boku wa kissa-ten ( I ) kanojo ( 2 ) sandoicchi ( 3 )

gochisoo shi-mashita. I bought her a sandwich at a coffee shop. 4 . ( ) I ) sumitai kara, shinbun ( 2 ) ( )

Watashi wa nyuuyooku ( apaato ( 3

) sagashite-imasu.

Because I want to live in New York, I am looking for an apartment through the newspaper. 5.
i
283

Watashi no enpitsu (

) doko (

) oita no?

Where did you put my pencil?


6. ( )

2 ) ai-mashoo ka?

Konban nanji (

) doko (

Where and when shall we meet tonight? 7 . 6 ( I ) 2 ) tegami ( 3 )

Watashi wa pen-furendo ( kaki-mashita.

) nihongo (

I wrote a letter to my penpal in Japanese. 8 .

I ) hawai ( 2 ) ikitai. Soshite, soko

Boku wa, itsuka fune ( (3 ) saafin ( 4

) shitai.

Some day Id like to go to Hawaii by boat. Then, I d like to go surfing there. 9 . Suupaa-maaketto ( mashita. I went to the supermarket by bicycle to buy some bread. 10. ( ) ( ) I 1 4 ( ) 2 ) denwa I ) jitensha ( 2 ) pan ( 3 ) kai ni iki

Watashi wa ich nichi ( (3 ) shi-masu.

) ichi-do haha (

I call my mother once every day. 1 1 .


284

Mikka-go (

) mata koko (

) ai-mashoo.

Lets meet again here in three days.

12.0

) 'iH ( )
nanji ( 2

&

Rondon (

) iku hikooki wa,

) kuukoo (

shuppatsu shi-masu ka? When will the plane for London leave the airport? 1 3 . I S 2 ) wasurete kita.

Watashi wa saifu (

) uchi (

I forgot my wallet at home (and came here). 14. ( ) ( ) ) ( )

I ) uchi ( 5 2 ) dete, jidoosha

Kare wa, maiasa shichiji-han ( (3 ) haiuee ( 4

) hashitte kaisha (

) iki-masu.

Every morning, he leaves his house at seven-thirty and drives on the highway to get to his office. 15. Boku ( wa ) yon aka ( I ( ) 2 )gokiburi ( 3 )

)senmenjo (

mitsuketa. I found a cockroach in the washroom at midnight. 1 6 .;]

)n
I

2 ) totta.

Kariya-kun wa tesuto (

) hyaku-ten (

Kariya got a hundred (A+) on the test. 1 7 . ( )


285

Kyoo wa samui kara, min-na ( (3 > geemu ( 4

) issho (

) uchi no naka

) shi-mashoo.

Since its cold outside today, le ts all play a game inside the house. 1 8 . ( ) wa, 4

I 5 ) tabe ( 2 ) resutoran ( 3 ) itte,

Boku soko (

ohiru ( ) saifu (

) nakushite shimatta.

I went to a restaurant to eat lunch, and lost my wallet (there).


19 14 (

Watashi wa, imooto to issho ( (3 ) iki-mashita.

) depaato (

) kaimono

I went shopping at a department store with my sister. 20 Ato ( I ) ) dezaato ( 2 ) aisukuriimu ( 3 ) tabe-mashoo.

Lets have ice cream ior dessert later. 2 1 . Herikoputaa ( I ) ( ) notte, sora ( ) 2 : ) tonde-mitai naa.

I want to fly through the air in a helicopter. 2 2 . S Ashita gakko ( I ( ) A 2 ) kiite-miyoo.

) sensee (

Ill ask my teacher (about it) at school tomorrow. 2 3 . M :I ( ) A

Oniisan ( (3
286

) wakara-nai tango no imi ( datte.

) kiitara, "jisho

) shirabete goran"

My older brother said, Look it up in the dictionary when I asked him


the meaning of a word that I didnt know. 24.

Tsukue no ue ( (3

) atta tomodachi no shashin (

}, doko

) shimatta no ka wasureta.

I forgot where I put the picture of my friend which had been on the desk.

25

S ( )

Aa, eki desu ka? Ano hashi [ (2 ) migi ( 3 I ) watatte, saisho no shingoo 4 ) massugu iku

) magatte, sono michi ( 5 ) ari-masu yo.

to, hidari no hoo (

Oh the station? Go across that bridge, turn right at the first traffic light, (then) keep going straight on that road, then youll see the station on your left. 2 6 . ( ) ^

Ashita wa, gakkoo (

), katoo - sensee no seminaa [ 2 3

) )

shusekki-shi-nakere ba nara nai kara, konya juuji made ( taipu ( 4 ) repooto ( 5 ) tsukuroo.

Since I will have to attend Prof. K atohs seminar at school tomorrow, Ill type my report by ten oclock tonight.
287

2 7 .

Paatii (

) don-na doresu ( 3

) kite ikoo kashira? Kare wa,

burakku-tai (

) ikutte itta kedo.

What sort of dress shall I wear to the party? He was saying that he would go in black-tie. 28. V 4 K 4

) |{

Kyoo wa atatakai kara, kono hachi-ue ( shite, mizu ( 3 ) yatte-ku re nai? I ) soto ( 2 ) da

Its warm today, so could you take these plants outside and water them? 2 9 . I

( )
Nodo ga kawaita kara, 3 ano kissa-ten ( I ) koohii ( 2 )

nonde kara uchi (

) kaeri-mashoo.

Im thirsty, so lets go home after we have coffee at that coffee shop. 30

m (

m (
( )

osushi ( I ) ohashi ( 2 ) kono 4 osara ( 3 ) totte 5 )

Sono

kudasai.

Sore kara, kono chiisai osara ( 6

) oshooyu (

sukoshi irete, wasabi (

) tsukete tabete kudasai.

Please put the sushi onto this plate with the chopsticks. Then, pour a little bit of soy sauce onto this small plate, and eat it with the wasabi.

288

Lesson 6
Complete the sentences below, using " kara) (ni)",(" (e)"),"

(made)", or "(madeni)" in the parentheses.


1 . Konsaato-hooru ( I 5 ) takusan hito ga dete ki-mashita.

A crowd of people came out of the recital hall.

2 . )
Kimi, kinoo wa nanji ( I ) terebi o mita no? Until what time did you watch T.V. last night?
3 . 4

Anata wa itsu (

) kono mura ni sunde i-masu ka?

How long have you lived in this village?

4.

S (

)I

Watashi wa kyonen no rokugatsu ni tookyoo ( (2 ) ki-mashita. Rainen no sangatsu ( 4 3

) oosaka

) oosaka ni i-masu.

Sorekara, mata tookyoo (

) kaeri-masu.

I came to Osaka from Tokyo in June of last year. Ill be in Osaka until March of next year. Then, Im going to go back to Tokyo.
5.

Washinton (

) mosukuwa (

hikooki de, dore kurai

kakari-masu ka? How long does it take from Washington D.C. to Moscow by plane?
289

6 . ( )

Kyoo wa sutoraiki de, densha ga hashitte i-masen ( (2 ) kaisha ( 3 ) aruite iki-mashita.

), uchi

Because there was no train service today due to the strike, I walked to my office from my house. 7 . 1 ( ) Sora ( I ) inseki ga ochite kita.

A meteorite came falling out of the sky. 8 . ( ) !^ | ( ) #1 2 ), shinkansen de nijikan-han gurai

Tookyoo ( kakari-masu.

) kyooto (

It takes two and half hours from Tokyo to Kyoto by Shinkan-sen (bullet train). 9 . I ) asobi ni ika nai.

Boku wa, kyoo wa tsukareta (

Because Im tired today, Im not going to go out to have fun. 1 0 . ( 4 ) ( 2 ) nihongo no sakubun o

) I 3

Watashi wa, kin-yoobi ( kaka-nakereba nara-nai ( (4 ) matte kudasai.

), eega o miru no wa raishuu

As I have to finish writing a Japanese composition by this Friday, please (could we) wait until next week to see a movie. 1 1 . (
290

) 5

Watashi wa, hiroshima ( sen ( 2 ) de-masu ka?

) ikitai-n desu ga, densha wa nanban-

Id like to go to Hiroshima, (but) from which platform will the train leave?

1 2 . i p i ? ! (

Yubiwa o naku-shita node, heya no sumi ( sagashi-mashita ga, mitsukari-masen deshita.

) sumi (

I lost my ring, so I looked for it everywhere in my room, but it couldnt be found. 1 3 . : ^ ! Hikooki ga deru ( (2 I ) mada ni-jikan ari-masu. Shokuji o shite <

) koohii de mo nomi-mashoo.

We still have two more hours until the departure of our flight. Lets eat something and then have some coffee.
1 4 . | j ( ) )

Kono manga wa omoshiroi (

) kimi (

) kashite ageru yo.

This comic book is funny, so Ill lend it to you. 1 5 .


Sora ga kuraku natte-kita ( itsu ( 2

) mata ame ga furu yo. Tsuyu wa

) tsuzuku no daroo.

The sky is getting dark, so its going to rain again. I wonder how much
291

longer the rainy season will continue? 1 6 . ( )

I 3 ) ittara, banana ga totemo yasukatta ) katte kita.

Kudamono-ya [ (2 ), oyatsu (

I went to a fruit shop, and I found their bananas so cheap that I bought some for snacks. 17 ( ) I ), watashi wa rokuji ( 2 ) suzushii

Totemo atsui hi datta ( ofisu ( 3 ) i-mashita.

Since it was a very hot day, I stayed at the cool (air-conditioned) office until six oclock. i s . Hamada-san mashita ( 3 wa, rokujus-sai ( I ) ginkoo ( 2 ) tsutome( ) 1 1 4

), taishoku shi-mashita.

As Mr. Hamada worked at the bank until he was sixty years old, he has now retired. 1 9 . Watashi wa, umarete ( ari-masen. Ive never skied in my life. (Literally: Between the time I was born until now ...) 2 0 .
292

) 2 ) sukii o shita koto ga

) ima (

I {

Kono

shukudai

wa,

itsu (

) (

) dasa-nakereba

nari-

masen ka? By when do I have to hand in this homework to you? 2 1 . H ( ) I

1 ^ 2 ) ( 3 ) sangen

Tonari no ie (

) hi ga dete, akegata (

ga zenshoo shita. The fire started at my neighbors, and by dawn, three houses were completely lost in the fire.
2 2 .
0

Boku wa, kurisumasu ( ratta.

) santakuroosu (

) mitto o mo

On Christmas, I got a baseball mitt from Santa Claus. 2 3 . Konkai no samitto-miitingu ( futari no daijin ga sanka-shita. For this Summit Meeting, Japan sent the Prime Minister, accompanied by two ministers. A V 51 ( ) I ), nihon ( 2 ) shushoo to )B ) A A S

24.

Asa ( (3 I ) atama ga ita katta ( 2 )watashi wa kyoo gakko

) iki-masen deshita.

Because I had a headache until this morning, I didnt go to school today. 2 5 . ( )


293

Watashi-tachi wa, yokohama ( (3 ) norikaete, hoteru ( 5 }( 6 4

) densha de itte [ 2

), basu

) iki-mashita ga, hoka no hito-tachi 7 ) tsuite i-mashita.

wa, sono toki (

), moo hoteru (

We took a train as far as Yokohama, then (from there), we transferee! and got on the bus to the hotel, but the others had already arrived at the hotel by that time.
2 6 . ( ) ( )

Ashita wa ofiisu de asa kuji ( hach ji han ( 3 )( 4

) miitingu ga aru ( 5

),

) ofisu (

) ika-nakere ba nara-nai.

As I will have to attend a meeting in my office at nine oclock tomor row morning, I
27. V (

have to be in my office by eight-thirty.


)

( ) kk

Kyoo wa zangyoo ( (3 ) kuji ( 4

) aru (

}, watashi wa kaisha 5 ) kaeri-masu.

) ite, sore kara uchi (

Because I have to work overtime today, I will be at my office until nine oclock, then I will go home.
28. ( ) ( ) ( ) ) g

t m

Fune de oki (

) itte (

), watashi wa umi no naka ( 4

mogutta. Taiyoo no hikari ga kaitee ( (5 ) itta-yoo ni kiree datta.

) todoite, yume no kuni

294

After I went off shore by boat, I dove into the sea. The suns rays reached all the way down to the bottom of the sea, and it was as if I had wondered into a dream, it was so beautiful. 29. tn
( ) V ) ( )

i\L 4n
) ( 3

# 4

Anata wa, sengetsu ( ( 4

) kyoo (

)tosho-kan

) nansatsu hon o kari-mashita ka?

How many books have you borrowed from the library since last month (until today)? 30. T l ( )

)
i

( )

III

( ) ( )
3 ) tegami ga kita. 5 ),

Chuugoku (

) iru ani ( 4 7

) watashi (

Rainen no natsu ( kugatsu ( 6 ) (

) chuugokugo o benkyoo shite ( ) nihon ( 8 ) kaeru-soo da.

A letter (addressed to me) came from my brother in China. He wrote that after studying Chinese there until next summer, he would come back to Japan by September.

295

Lesson 7
Complete the sentences below, using either " (to)," " ( y a ) , " (dake),"" (shika)," or " (kurai [ gurai] in the paren theses. 1 . I 2 ) desu.

Akai enpitsu wa, kore (

) desu ka? Hai, sore (

Is this the only red pencil? Yes, there is only that one. 2 . Boku wa, kazuo-kun ( I ) kooji-kun ( 2 ) fumio-kun ( 3 )

kakurenbo o shi-mashita. I played hide-and-seek with (such friends as) Kazuo, Kooji, and Fumio. 3 . Watashi wa, kesa koohii ( I ) juusu ( I 2 ) nomi-mashita.

I only drank coffee and juice for breakfast this morning. 4 .

I didnt eat anything but an omlet and a salad this morning. 5 . 1


( I 2 ) mie-masu ka? ) mieru yo.

Hoshi ga, ikutsu ( Boku wa mittsu ( mie-nai wa.


296

Watashi wa hitotsu (

(Approximately) how many stars can you see in the sky? I can see only three stars. I can see only one. 6 . )

10
Ashita no ensoku ni wa, sandoicchi ( ame o motte ikoo. I ll take a sandwich, some fruit, and some candies on the picnic tomor row. 7 . ? ( I ) 2 ) nomi-mono o motte iku I ) kudamono ( 2 )

Boku wa, onigiri ( yo.

)okashi (

I ll bring some onigiri (rice balls) and things like cookies and beverages. 8 .

(
I

2 ) motte ika-nai

Watashi wa, obentoo ( wa.

) nom mono (

I ll only bring a boxed lunch and beverages. 9 . d ( Sore dake? )

4 I ) nom mono ( 3 2 ) jaa onaka ga

Obentoo (

suku deshoo? Kudamono o futatsu (

) motte ild-nasai yo.

Thats all? Youll be hungry with only a boxed lunch and beverages. Why dont you bring a couple of pieces of fruit or so.

1 0 . v 4
( )

k T

I ) de,
297

Kyoo no fukee-kai ni ryooshin ga kita no wa, boku (

zenbu de sanjuu-nin ( (3 ) ko-nakatta.

) kita keredo, chichi-oya wa go-nin

Among the parents who attended todays P.T.A., I was the only one whose parents both came, and thirty parents came altogether, but there were only five fathers who came.

11.

) A H

i w' w ( )

#
Watashi, kyoo n hyaku en ( go-hyaku en ( 2 I ) motte i-nai no. Keezoo-kun,

) kashite-kure-nai?

I have only two hundred yen with me today. Keezo, could you lend me about five hundred yen?

1 2 .

Anata no ie kara eki made kuruma de dore (

) kakari-masu ka?

How long does it take from your house to the station by car? 1 3 . K d ( )

I ) ari-masu ka?

Tookyoo kara sapporo made nan-kiro (

How many kilometers are there between Tokyo and Sapporo? 1 4 . ( ) ) 4

T ( Boku no tomodachi ( keredo, kore ( shatsu ichi-mai ( 2 3 I

) sensee wa, samui samui to itte-iru Boku wa ti

) no samusa wa heeki da yo. ) kite- nai yo.

(People like) my friends and my teacher keep saying that its cold, but cold weather like this doesnt bother me at a l l . I m only wearing a T-shirt.
298

I 5 Biifu ( I

) chikin ( 2

) dochira ga suki desu ka?

Which do you like better, beef or chicken? 16. (


''Kimi o aishite iru yo," (2 ( I

) itte-hoshii no ni, kissa-ten 3 ) desu.

) resutoran ni haitte mo, kare wa damatte-iru (

I want him to say (to me), I love you, but when we go to (places like) a coffee shop or a restaurant, he only remains silent. 17. + H I ( ) S I ( )

M Kotoshi wa isshuu-kan ( chuugoku ( 2 I

) yasumi ga tore-nai kara, ryokoo wa 3 )

} ni shiyoo to omotta keredo, moo futsuka (

yasumi ga tore-soo da kara, tai nimo ikoo to omou. Since I could only take one week for vacation this year, I had planned just to travel around China, but now since it looks like I can get two more days off, I hope to go to Thailand, as well. 1 8 . Konban no okazu kore ( tabe-tai naa. Is this all we re having for dinner tonight? I wish I could have (at least) a salad as well. 19. K ! ! 1 ( )
299

) (

) nai no?

Sarada (

Kyoo no suugaku no shukudai wa ni-peeji ( hanbun ( 2 ) dekitei-nai.

) na no ni, mada

The math homework for today is only two pages, but I ve only done half of it.
20. ( )

) I

) nara e shuugaku-ryokoo ni iku noda to 2 ) ( 3 ) nemure-na-katta.

Ashita wa, kyooto (

omou to, ureshikute, ni-jikan (

When I thought about going to Kyoto and Nara tomorrow on the school trip, I was so excited that I could only sleep for about two hours.

300

Lesson 8
Complete the sentences below, using (to ), " (de)," (no), (yori) or (hodo)" in the parentheses.
1 .

Kono tokee ( yasui desu ka?

) ano tokee (

)dochira (

) hoo ga

Which is more inexpensive, this watch or that watch?

2.

Koohii (

) koocha (

) dochira ga ii desu ka?

Which would you like to have, coffee or tea? 3 . Watashi wa koohii (

2 ) hoo ga nomi-tai desu.

) koocha (

I d rather drink tea than coffee. 4 . I ) suki ja ari-masen.

Boku wa koocha wa koohii (

I dont like tea as much as I like coffee. 5 . V ) ( 5 K ( ) _

Kinoo ( kaidoo ( | 3 ) kyoo ( 2 ) hoo ga samui desu ne. Demo hok-

) samuku-arimasen yo.

Its colder today than it was yesterday, isnt it? But its not as cold as Hokkaido. 6 .

2 ) yari-mashoo.
301

Kono shigoto wa, anata (

) watashi (

Lets you and I do this work. 7 .

Sukiyaki ( I ) osushi ( 2 ) tempura ( 3 ) uchi ( 4 )

dore ga ichiban osuki desu ka? Of sukiyaki, sushi, and tempura, which do you like best? 8 . ( ) I T I ( )

Watashi wa ane ( ( 2 ) takai desu.

) se ga takaku-ari-masen ga, imooto

I m not as tall as my elder sister, but I m taller than my younger sister. 9 . Kyooto kara ( desu. It is closer to Tokyo from Nagoya than from Kyoto. 1 0 . Kisha ( yo. It is cheaper to go by bus than by train. 1 1 . Kyoo wa ototoi ( I ) atsui keredo, kinoo ( 2 ) atsuku-nai. I ) iku ( 2 ) basu ( 3 ) iku hoo ga yasui desu I 2 ) hoo ga tookyoo ni chikai

) nagoya kara (

Its warmer today than it was the day before yesterday, but not as warm as yesterday. 12. ^ ( )

# < & Kimi (


302

), kimi no otoosan (

)oniisan (

) (

),

dare ga asa ichiban hayaku oki-masu ka? Among you, your father, and your brother, who gets up the earliest in the morning? 1 3 . K ( 5 Boku wa, suugaku ( Kokugo wa rekishi ( 3 I } seebutsu ( ) suki ja nai. I dont like Japanese as much as 2 ) hoo ga suki da. ) m 5 ( ) e

I like biology better than math. history. 14. ? Nyuuyooku (

) ( 5

) tookyoo (

) wa, dochira (

) hoo ga

jinkoo ga ooi desu ka? Which has a greater population, New York or Tokyo?
15. ( ) i

I ) katta banana ( 4 2 ), kono suupaa

Ano suupaa ( (3

) banana (

) hoo ga zutto yasui.

The bananas at this supermarket are much cheaper than the bananas I bought at that supermarket. 1 6 .

) ( 3 I ) baiku ( 4 2

) ) wa dochira ( 5 3 ) hoo ga hayai ) hayai desu yo.

Jitensha (

desu ka? Baiku (

) hoo ga, jitensha (

Which is faster, a bicycle or a motorcycle? A motorcycle is faster than


303

a bicycle.
17. ( ) r n ( ) r u ) I i

Tomodachi ( ( 3 I ) kyooto ( 2 ) ryokan ni tomari-mashita. Futari

) ip-paku ni-man en deshita.

I stayed at a Japanese style inn in Kyoto with my friend. The charge was twenty thousand yen for the two of us for the night. 1 8 . ( ) )

I 3 ) se ga takaku-ari-masen ga, kutsu ( ) ookii desu. 2 )

Watashi wa ani ( saizu wa, ani no (

I m not as tall as my (elder) brother, but my shoe size is larger than his.

19 .

) 11

Ii

Kyoo wa otooto ( ( 3 ) ( 4 I ) tanjoobi desu. Haha ( 5 2 ) watashi

) oiwai ( 6

) gochisoo o tsukuri-mashita. Keeki

wa kyonen (

) zutto joozu ni deki-mashita.

Today is my brothers birthday. My mother and I cooked a feast to celebrate. The cake we made this year was much better than the one we made last year. 20. H ( ) A ( ) 3 A

) S

304

Boku wa otooto to, daigaku ( itta. Takusan ( ( 4 2 ) hito ( 3

) gookaku-happyoo o mini-

) ippai datta ga, boku wa futsuu 5 ) bangoo ga

) se ga takai kara, tooku kara, jibun ( Kyoo ( 6

yoku mieta. Gookaku da!

) ureshii hi wa nai.

My brother and I went to the college to see the acceptance list. It was packed full of people, but since I m taller than average, I could see my number well from a distance. happier than (I am ) today. Id been accepted! Ive never been

305

Lesson 9
Comprehension Exercises. Complete the sentences below, using appropri ate particles.
My Experience Living in Japan (A):

1 . Watashi (

3 ) ii-masu

) namae (

) burenda (

My name is Brenda.

Watashi ( ( 4

a (

a^l l

( )

h kon-gakki (

), kono daigaku (

) nihongo

) benkyoo-shi-masu.

Im going to study Japanese at this college starting this semester.


3 . * ( ) T l t i + a ( ) )

Watashi ( shikago ( 4

), kyonen ( ) tookyoo ( 5

) juuni-gatsu hatsuka ( ) ki-mashita.

),

I came to Tokyo from Chicago on December 20 of last year. 4 . ( $ ( ( ( ) <

) b U

) MW

(Watashi ( ( 4 I ) ) nihon ( 5 2 ) hajimete desu ( 6 3 ), shikago 7 ) shi-

) daigaku (

) nihongo ( 8

) benkyoo ( 9

mashita shi, nihonjin (


306

) otomodachi (

) takusan i-mashita

(1 0

h hajimete no yoo na ki (

1 1 ) amari shi-masen.

This is my first time in Japan, but I studied Japanese at a college in Chicago, and had many Japanese friends (there), so I dont feel very much like I m (here) for the first time. 5 . A ( ) ( ( ) , ) 2 ( ) ( )

mk

) Ur n ( I 5 )(

W ), nihongo ( 6 3 ) de wa naku, nihon 7 ) benkyoo-shi-

Kono daigaku ( ( 4 masu. ) bunka (

) rekishi (

) keezai (

At this college, Im going to study not only Japanese language but also Japanese culture, history, and economics as well. 6 . ( ) ( )

2 ) ita toki ( 6 9

Shikago (

) daigaku (
5

3 7

), ryoo (

sunde-imashita ( ( 8

) tookyoo (

) (

) hoomustee 1 0 )

) shite-imasu. Hosuto famirii (

) kurokawa-san (

ii-masu. When I was at the college in Chicago, I lived in a dormitory, but in Tokyo, I m staying with a host family. My family is the Kurokawas. 7 . i A ( ) I ( 2 ) 3 )

Goshujin (

) kurokawa-san (

), booeki-gaisha (

shachoo-san desu. Mr. Kurokawa, the husband, is the president of a trading company. 8 . ( )
307

Okusan (

) akiko-san (

), ikebana (

) sensee desu.

His wife, Akiko, is a teacher of flower arrangement. 9. ( ) ) W I ) ojoosan ( 5 2 ), kekkon-shite, nisai ( 3 ) ) ( )

Ichiban ue ( otoko ( 4

) ko (

) i-masu.

Their eldest daughter is married, and has a two-year old boy. 1 0 . # I ( ) 1 W I 5 ) ojoosan ( 2 ), namae ( 3 ) kimiko ( 4 ) ) ( )

Niban-me (

itte, watashi (

) onaji toshi desu.

Their second daughter is named Kimiko, and she is my age.


1 1 .

( ) I

T )

) 1

), shinji ( 2 ) yuu otooto ( 4 )

Kimiko-san ( imasu ( 5

) shita ( 6

), kare (

) kookoo ichi-nen-see desu.

Kimiko has a younger brother, Shinji; he is a first-year student in high school. 1 2 . ( ) )

2 ) ita toki ( 6 3 ), kimiko-san

Watashi ( ( 4

) shikago ( 5

) buntsuu (

) shite-imashita (

), kyoodai no yoo ni

nakayoshi desu. Because I had been exchanging letters with Kimiko while I was in

308

Chicago, we are very good friends, like real sisters. 1 3 . 4 ( ) a^a ( )

Senshuu ( ( 4

} nichiyoobi (
5

), kimiko-san ( 6

) otoosan 7 )

) kimiko-san ( 8

), watashi (

), kuruma (

dizunii-rando (

) tsurete-itte kudasai-mashita.

Last Sunday, Kimikos father took Kimiko and me to Disneyland. 1 4 .

( )

2 6 ) dizunii-rando ( ), tookyoo ( 7 3 ) ( 4 )

Watashi ( itta-koto ( ( 8

) amerika (
5 ) arimasu ( 9 ) (

) dizunii-rando

) amerika (

1 0 ) sokkuri de, bikkuri-shi-mashita.

I have also been to Disneyland in the U.S. I was surprised that the Disneyland in Tokyo was so similar to the one in the U.S. 1 5 .

Dizuni rando ( nobori-mashita. After we had fun at Disneyland, we went up the Tokyo rower. 16. I ) asonde ( 2 ), tookyoo-tawaa ( 3 )


3 ) iki-mashita.


Yoru (

) min-na (

), osushi-ya-san (

309

Kauntaa (

) isu (

) koshi-kakete, nigiri-zushi (

chuumon-shi-mashita. In the evening, we went to a sushi restaurant. We sat on tall stools at the counter and ordered nigiri-zushi. 1 7 . ( ) )

( ) I

Sore (

) min-na ( 4

), karaoke-baa ( 5

) iki-mashita. 6 ) takusan 9 )

Kaisha-zutome (

) otoko ( 7

) hito-tachi ( 8

kite i-mashita. Osake ( motte uta (

) nonde iru hito ( II

), maiku (

1 0 ) utatte-iru hito (

) i-mashita.

Then all of us went to a karaoke bar. There were many men who worked at companies who had come (to the bar). There were people who were (doing such things as) drinking sake and singing songs, holding a microphone. 1 8 . ( ) ) ) A ( )

# 2

Kimiko-san (

) watashi (

), onaji daigaku ( 3
5 ) senkoo (

) ben 6 )

kyoo-shite-imasu ( 4 eebungaku desu.

), kimiko-san (

Kimiko and I are studying at the same college, but Kimiko is majoring in English literature. 1 9 . ) A ( ) , ^ 4 I ) daigaku ( ( 2 ) 3 ) ari-masu.

Watashi-tachi (
310

), shibuya (

Our college is in Shibuya. 2 0 .

I ) watashi ( 5 2 ), mainichi chikatetsu (

Kimiko-san ( basu ( 4

) daigaku (

) kayoi-masu.

Kimiko and I commute to school by subway and bus every day.

Lesson 10
Comprehension Exercises. Complete the sentences below, using appropri ate particles.
My Experience Living in Japan (B):

1 . Va a

111 (

I ), watashi ( 2 ) nihon ( 3 ) ( 4 ) seekatsu

Kyoo ( (5

) tsuite ohanashi-shi-mashoo.

Today, I shall talk about my life in Japan. 2.


( ) ) & )

bxk
I 3

W atashi ( Shawaa ( desu.

}maiasa ) abite,

taitee mi-jitaku (

roku-ji ( 4

) oki-masu.

) suru to, chooshoku

Every morning, I usually get up at six. getting ready for school,I have breakfast.
3 . ( ) (

After taking a shower and

m )

) (

Kurokawa-san ( wafuu de,

) uchi ( 4

) chooshoku ( 5

), taitee 6

gohan ( 7

) omisoshiru ( 8

) hoka (

yude-tamago (

) yasai (

) ari-masu.

Breakfast at the Kurokawas is usually Japanese style, and we have (there are) rice, and miso-soup, as well as boiled eggs, and vegetables.
312

4 . (

) I 5 ) nihon-shoku ( 2 ) daisuki desu ( 3 ), nattoo

Watashi ( ( 4 ) (

), mada dooshitemo taberare-masen.

I love Japanese food, but natto is the only thing I cant eat yet, no matter what. 5 . 1 ^ ( ) 2 #

( )
Kimiko-san ( ku uchi ( (7 4 I

( ) I ( )? ( ) X
2 5 ), uchijuu ( }, otooto ( 3 6 ) ichiban haya ) shinji-kun 9 )

) watashi ( ) de-masu ( 8

), gakkoo (

) chikai node shichi-ji han goro uchi (

de-masu. In the family, Kimiko and I leave home the earliest, but Kimikos brother, Shinji, leaves home around seven-thirty, since his school is close to the house. 6 . ( ) ^ ( i A ( ) U 4 S 2 U )

) 4 I ) goshujin ( 4

Kurokawa-san ( ( 3

) shachoo-san desu 5 ), hachi-ji goro

), mai-asa kaisha ( 6

) kuruma ( 7

kurokawa-san (

) mukae (

) ki-masu.

Since Mr. Kurokawa is the president, his compnay car (his chauffeur) comes to pick him up about eight oclock every morning.

7.

( )

i (

) MW ( )

) I
313

# (

Asa daigaku ( owaru ( ( 8 5 I ) tsu ite ( 2 6 ) gogo ( 3 ) jugyoo ( 7 4 )

), kimiko-san ( 9

) watashi (

) betsu-betsu

) koosha (

) benkyoo-shi-masu.

After we arrive at school, until our afternoon classes are over, Kimiko and I study in separate buildings. 8. 1 ( Nihongo ( ) I ( ) V i ( ) 2 ( )

A ) sensee ( 2 ) namae ( 5 3 ) ikegami ( 4 )

itte, wakakute kiree na on-na (

) hito desu.

The name of my Japanese teacher is Ikegami, and she is a young and beautiful woman. 9. ( ) xU ( ) IIW ( )

A (

Nihongo ( go-jikan ( I 5

) A M 2 ) jugyoo ( 6 3 )shuu ( 4 )

) bunpoo (

) ari-masu shi, kaiwa (

) ni-jikan ari-masu.

We have a Japanese grammar class (as much as) five hours a week, and we also have two hours of conversation class. 10. ( ) ( ) ) ( )( 3 A ( ) ), amerika-jin ( 7 4 ) furansu) A

( I

T I a 2 6

Nihon ( jin ( 5

) kurasu (

) doitsu-jin (

) chuugoku-jin (

) i-masu.

In my Japanese class, there are students (whose nationalities include) American, French, German and also Chinese.

314

1 1 . ( )

) (

Nihon ( ( 4

} bunka (
ocha (

2 5

) benkyoo-suru ) ikebana ( 8 6

kurasu ( ) benkyoo ( 9 ) ikebana

3 7

) )

)ima,

shite-imasu. Kimiko-san ( (1 0 ) sensee desu ( 1 1

) okaasan (

)watashi (

1 2 ) iro-iro

oshiete

morai-masu In the class where we study Japanese culture, we are learning tea ceremony and flower arranging. Since Kimikos mother is a teacher of flower arranging, I learn a lot from her. 12. ( ) | ( ) 4 2 ) benkyoo-suru kurasu ( 6 ) hon ( 7 3 )

Nihon ( ( 4 imasu.

) rekishi ( 5

), meeji-ishin (

) tsuite (

) yonde-

In the class in which we study about Japanese History, we are now reading a book on the Meiji Restoration. 13. ( ) ( )

) -U

Ohiru ( I ) taitee 4 gakkoo ( 5 2 ) shokudoo ( 3 )

otomodachi ( 6

) issho ( 7

) tabe-masu.

Washoku (

) yoo-shoku (

) atte, totemo oishii desu.


315

Usually, I have lunch at the school cafeteria with my friends. Both Japanese and Western style foods are available, and they are delicious. 1 4 .

( ) -U (
Yoji ( I watashi ( 5

51

) jugyoo ( ) issho (

2 6

) owaru ( ) uchi ( 7

), kimiko-san ( ) kaeri-masu.

When school is over at four oclock, Kimiko and I go home together. 1 5 . ) y


)

'u (
( ( ) ) i

( )

I I (

/X/o
Yuushoku ( otoosan ( (5 attari issho ( masen. Dinner time is a fun time. But since Kimikos father is very busy, and even after work, he has meetings with visitors from foreign countries, he seldom has a chance to have dinner with us. 1 6 . ) ( 3 6 I ) tanoshii hitotoki desu. ) totemo isogashiku 7 ) ( te, 8 Kimiko-san ( kaisha ( 4 2 )

) owatte 9 )

), gaikoku (

) okyaku-san ( watashi-tachi (

shi-masu (

10 ), fudan ( I I )

12 )

1 3 ) yuushoku (

14 ) taberu koto (

1 5 ) amari ari-

( (
316

) )

II (

Demo, kimiko-san ( (4 (8 ) uchi ( ) ocha ( 5 9

) otoosan (

2 6

) yoru ku-ji goro ( ), min-na ( 7

) kaette ki-masu ( ) nondari okashi (

) issho

1 0 ) tabe-tari shi-nagara, 1 3 ) shinji-

gakkoo ( I I ) kun (

koto (

1 2 ) hanashi-masu. Otooto (

14 ) issho desu.

However, when Kimikos father comes home at around nine oclock, all of us drink tea and eat sweets while we talk about things (that

happened) at school. Kimikos brother, Shinji, (chats) with us, too. 1 7 . 1 ( )

Mainichi shukudai ( watashi ( 3

) takusan aru node, kimiko-san ( 4 ) benkyoo-sh masu.

) yoru juun ji (

Because we have a lot of homework assignments every day, Kimiko and I study until twelve oclock midnight. 1 8 .

6 (
)


Kimiko-san ( ( 4

I ) eego ( 2 ) wakara-nai toki ( 5 3 ), watashi 6 )

) oshiete-age-masu shi, watashi ( 7 ) kimiko-san ( 8

) nihongo (

wakara-nai toki (

) oshiete-kure-masu.

When Kimiko does not understand English, I help (teach) her, and in return, when I dont understand Japanese, Kimiko teaches me. 1 9 .

I ) tomodachi ( 5 2 ) tegami ( 6 3 ) U-

Toki-doki shikago ( masu. Watashi ( 4

) shikago ( 7 ) ( 8

) nihongo ( 9

) na-ratta

yokoyama-sensee (

) tegami (

) kak masu.

I sometimes get a letter from my friend in Chicago. I also write letters to Mrs. Yokoyama from whom I learned Japanese. 2 0 . ( Watashi ( ( 4 ( 7 ) A )

6 | ) mai-asa shawaa ( 5 2 ) ab masu ( 6 3 ), nihon

) ofuro (

) daisuki desu ( 8

), yoru yoku ofuro

) hairi-masu. Sutoresu (

) to rete ii kimochi desu.

Although I take a shower every morning, because I love Japanese baths, I often take a bath in the evening. It rids me of stress, and makes me feel good.

318

W
( / / / ( / ( / / ( / ( ( / ( / I / I / I / r / / / / / 1 1 s( s s s( s \ \ 1 \w \ \ \ s \ w \ \ \ 1 \w \ss \ \ \ V w w ww w\ / ww | \ |

ANSWER KEYS
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1
2
3

^ ^ ^

II
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- (w a), 2 - (w a), - w a), 2 - ga) - m o), 2 - (ga) - w a), 2 - ga) - w a), 2 - wa) - (wa) - mo) - mo) - mo) - (wa) - (ga) - mo)

- (ga)

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d

(ga) 2 - (gi (g a )/

- mo) - (ga) - (ga) - wa) 2 - ga) mo) - (w a), 2 - m o), 3 - , 3 - (ga) - m o), 2 - m o) wa) - w a), 2 - g a), 3 - [ L e s s on 3 g a ) / (wa) 1. 1- no), 2 - 2. 3. 4. mo) 1- no), 2 - 1- no), 2 - (wa) w a), 3 - (ga) 1- no), 2 - no) (w a), 2 - (ga) (w a), 2 - (ga) (w a), 2 - (ga) (w a), 2 - (g a ), 3 - (ga) w a), 3 - (ga) 1- no), 2 - mo) m o), 3 - 1- no), 2 - w a), 3 - (g a), 1- no), 2 - (g a ), 5 - no), 6 - w a), 7 - m o), 3 - (ga) no), 2 -
319

9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 L

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r a

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m o

13.

2 2 2 2 I S u S I

- no), 2 - (mo) - no), 2 - (wa) - w a), 2 - (g a), 3 - (ga) - no), 2 - (mo) - (wa) - (g a), 2 - (ga) - (ga) - m o), 2 - m o), 3 - ga) - (ga) - w a), 2 - wa) - no), 2 - w a), 3 - ga) - (w a), 2 - (g a), 3 - mo) - (w a), 2 - w a ) 3 - ga) - no), 2 - ga) - (g a), 2 - (ga) - (w a), 2 - (g a), 3 - (g a), 4 - (no), 5 - (w a), 6 - m o), 7 - mo) (g a), 2 - mo), 3 - mo), 4 - (mo)

(d e), 2 - o ), 3 - o) (d e), 2 - o ) 3 - de) (d e), 2 - (o) (d e), 2 - (o) (d e), 2 - (o) (d e), 2 - de), 3 - o

8 . 9 . 0 .

0 . 2 . 3 .

2 3 [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 911111 1 1 1 L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..L . . 4

on 5
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5 . 6 .

1 I I S 1222 222

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9 . 0 . 1 . 2 . 1

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2 2223 4_ 0 6 5 .

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9 . O .

( I 2 2 I I I P I I 2 2

320

Lesson 6 (kara) 1. made) 2. 1- (kara) 3. 4. kara), 2 - e ) / ni), 3 - made), 4 - e ) / ni) 1- (kara), 2 - (made) 5. 6. kara), 2 - kara), 3- (made) (kara) 7. 8. 1- kara), 2 - made) 9. (kara) 10 . made) 2 - ni), 3 - (kara), 4 - made) 11 . made)/ n i) / e), 2 - (kara) 12 . 1- kara), 2 - made) 13. made), 2 - kara) 14. kara), 2 - ni) 15. kara), 2 - made) 16. ni), 2 - kara), 3 - ni) 17. kara), 2 - made), 3- (ni) 18. 1 - made), 2 - ni), 3 - (kara) 19. kara), 2 - made) 20. made), 2 - ni) 21. kara), 2 - made), 3- (ni) 22. ni), 2 - kara) 23. ni), 2 - kara) 24. made), 2 - kara), 3- ( e ) / (ni) 25. 1- (made), 2 - kara),3 - (ni), 4 - made)/ ni), 5- (made), 6 - ni), 7 - ni) 26. kara), 2 - kara), 3- (made), 4 - ni), 5 - e ) / ni) 27. ga) 2 - kara) 3 - ni) 4 - made), 5 - e ) / ni) 28. made), 2 - kara), 3- ( e ) / ni), 4 - made), 5 - e )/ (ni) 29. kara), 2 - made), 3- (ni), 4 - kara)

30.

ni), 2 - kara), 3 - ni*), 4 - made), 5 - kara), 6 - (made), 7 - ni), 8 - e ) / ni)

Lesson 7 1. dake), 2 - dake) 2. ya), 2 - ya), 3 - to) 3. to ) 2 - dake) 4. (to), 2 - shika) 5. gurai), 2 - dake) 3- (shika) 6. to), 2 - to) 7. (to), 2 - (ya) 8. (to), 2 - (shika) 9. to), 2 - dake), 3- (gurai) 10 . dake),2 - gurai), 4- (shika) 11 . shika), 2 - gurai) 12 . kurai) 13. 1- gurai) 14. ya), 2 - kurai), 3- (shika) 15. (to), 2 - (to) 16. (to), 2 - ya), 3 - dake) shika), 2 - dake), 3- 17. (gurai) dake), 2 - shika), 3- 18. (gurai) dake), 2 - shika) 19. ya), 2 - gurai), 3- 20. (shika) Lesson 8 to ) 2 - to), 3 - no) (to), 2 - (to) 2. yori), 2 - (no) 3. (hodo) 4. yori), 2 - no), 3 - 5. (hodo) to), 2 - de) 6. to), 2 - to), 3 - no), 4- 7. (de) hodo), 2 - yori) 8. yori), 2 - no) 9.
1.

1 0 . de), 2 - yori), 3 - de) 11 . yori), 2 - hodo) 1 2 . to), 2 - to), 3 - to), 4- (de) 1 3 . yori), 2 - no), 3 - (hodo) 1 4 . (to), 2 - (de), 3 - (no) 1 5 . de), 2 - (yori), 3 - no), 4 - no) 1 6 . to), 2 - (de), 3 - no), 4-<7) (no), 5 - yori) 1 7 . (to), 2 - no), 3 - (de) 18. I - hodo), 2 - no), 3 - (yori) 1 9 . (no), 2 - to), 3 - to), 4- (de), 5 - no), 6 - yori) 20. I - no), 2 - no), 3 - (de), 4- yori), 5- no), 6 - hodo)

13.

4.

5.
6.

7.

1 8 1 9 2 0

I - no), 2 - w a )/ ni), 3 - (no), 4 - (ga), 5 - (), 6 - ( 0 ), 7 - de), 8 - e ) / ni) no), 3 - e ) / ni), (wa), 2 - 4 - mo), 5 - ga), 6 - ga), 7- (no), 8 - wa), 9 - no),10- (to) I - (de)2 - kara), 3 - e)/ (ni) de), 3 - e ) / ni), (wa), 2 - 4 - no), 5 - ni) , 6 - o) kara), 2 - de), 3 - e)/ (ni), 4 - no),5 - no),6 - ga), 7 - (o), 8 - (ya) 9 - (o ) 0 - ( ) , 11- (mo) . to), 2 - (wa), 3 - de), 4- (ga), 5- no), 6 - (wa) . no), 2 - wa), 3 - ni) . to), 2 - wa), 3 - to), 4- (de), 5- e ) / ni)

Lesson 9
1 2 3 4 . no), 2 - wa), 3 - to) . wa), 2 - kara), 3 - 4 - (o) . wa), 2 - no), 3 - ni), 4 - kara), 5 - e ) / ni) . wa), 2 - wa), 3 - ga), 4- (no), 5 - de), 6 - no), 7 - o), 8 - (no) ,9 - (mo) 10 - (kara), I (g a )/ (wa) . de), 2 - wa), 3 - dake), 4 - no), 5 - (ya), 6 - (ya),
7 - mo)

Lesson 10
1 2 3. . wa), 2 - no), 3 - (de), 4-<7) (no), 5 - (ni) . wa), 2 - ni), 3 - o), 4 - o) 1- no), 2 - no), 3 - wa), 4- (to), 5 - no), 6 - ni),7- ya), 8 - mo) wa) , 2 - w a )/ (ga), 3 - (ga),4 - dake), 5 - wa) to )2 - wa)3 - de), 4- (o), 5 - ga), 6 - no), 7 - wa), 8 - (ga), 9 - (o) 1- no), 2 - (wa), 3 - kara), 4 - no), 5 - ga)6 - o) 7- (ni) kara), 3 - no), (ni), 2 - 4 - (ga), 5 - made), 6 - to ), 7 - wa),, 8 - no), 9 - (de) no), 3 - wa), 4- 1- no), 2 - (to), 5 - no) 1- no), 2 - no), 3 - wa), 4- (ni), 5 - (mo), 6 - (mo) ni), 3 - wa), 4- (no), 2 - (ya), 5 - ya), 6 - ya), 7 - mo) |- no), 2 - 0 ), 3 - de), 4-

4. 5.

I- no), 2 - ni), 3 - (wa), 4- (ni), 5 - (ga), 6 - (de),7- wa), 8 - (o), 9 - wa),IO- (to) 7 . no), 2 - wa), 3 - no) 8. no), 2 - wa), 3 - no) 9 . no), 2 - wa), 3 - no), 4- (no), 5 - (ga) 1 0 . no), 2 - wa), 3 - o), 4- (to) 5 - to) 1 1 . no), 2 - ni), 3 - to), 4- (ga), 5 - (ga), 6 - (wa) 1 2 . wa), 2 - ni), 3 - kara), 4 - (to ), 5 - (o) , 6 - (kara)
6.

6.

7.

8.

9.
10 . 11 .

322

(wa), 5 - (to), 6 - no), 7 - o),


8- no), 9 - (wa), 10- (no),

I kara), I 2 d i(w a ) 1 2 . no), 2 - o), 3 - (de), 4- (wa), 5 - ni), 6 - no),7 - o) 1 3 . wa), 2 - no), 3 - de), 4- (to), 5 - (ni), 6 - mo), 7 - mo) 1 4 . ni), 2 - (ga), 3 - to), 4- (to), 5 - (wa), 6 - ni), 7 - e)/ (ni) 15. U i( w a ) , 2 - no), 3 - wa),4- (ga),5 - kara), 6 - mo),7- (kara), 8 - no), 9 - to), 10- (kara), I l-(i( w a ), 12 - to), 13- (ni), 14- o), 15- wa) 16. I - no), 2 - (wa), 3 - ni), 4- (wa), 5 - e ) / ni), 6 - kara), 7 - (de), 8 - ni), 9 - o), 10- (o ), no)12- o), 13- no), 1 4 - mo) 1 7 . (ga), 2 - (mo), 3 - (mo), 4- (made) 1 8 . (ga), 2 - (ga), 3 - wa), 4- (ga), 5 - (ga), 6 - (ga), 7 - wa), 8 - (ga) 19. I - no), 2 - kara), 3 - (ga), 4 wa), 5 - (de), 6 - o), 7 - ni), 8 - mo), 9 - (o) 2 0 . wa), 2 - o), 3 - ga), 4- (no), 5 - (ga), 6 - kara), 7- (ni), 8 - (ga)

323

PATTERNS
A about according to

according to (topic) again also although and and ... and ... g and like crazy)

"ni tsuite ............................................192 "... ni y o t t e ni y o r i / ni yore b a / ni yora-nai d e ) ....................................................... 128 to ie ba "... nara ba mata mo ya

.................................... 246 mo . . . 91 to yuu noni ii noni 167 ta n a r i ........................................ 113 (noun) to ( n o u n ) .................................201 the same verb is repeated with ni in between 131 s h i s h i .................................... 180 t)te t)te m a k u ru .............................................................. 191 " (doing verb) and/w hile then (doing "... tari tari ..........................188 verb) anyone dare shimo .................................... 184 as "... no yoo n a no yoo n i .............................................................. 153 as fo r tta ra n a i " .............................186 as fo r ... and ... "... to ii ... to ii " .............. 210 as i f "ga gotoku ........................................ 38 as well as "... mo ... mo , .................................93 at de wa , de mo .................................20 at ni y o t t e ni y o r i / ni yore b a / ni yora-nai d e ) ................................................... 128 at kore n it e "koko n it e 142 at all marukkiri .................................... 75 B because naze nara ba .................................4 (precisely) because "... kara koso or "... ba koso " .................................................................... 76 because (someone) said to yuu node .................................161 between k ara m a d e ..................... 57 between (noun) to ( n o u n ) ............................. 201 both "... mo ... mo .................................93 but to yuu n o n i ii n o n i 167 324

by

ni y o t t e ni y o r i / ni yore ba /... ni yora-nai de ) ................................................... 128 (verb) ni mo verb) zu/nai / "


ni tsuite

C cannot do ... even if (I) were to try


concerning

136

............................................. 192

considering (something, it is evident that

"... suru to shita tokoro ga " ........................................................................ 2 koso sure .................... .................. 76 "... de mo or "... te mo " ...... 94 "... de mo " or te mo " ...... 94 "... ni y o t t e ni y o r i / ni yore b a / ni yora-nai de ............................................128
mo ... mo ..................................93 sae d a k a r a ......................... 179 "doose ... keredomo .......... 72 mashite ya ........................................ 246 kara to itte ..................... 63 to yuu noni " ii noni 167 .......... 209 ari to arayuru dare shimo " .................................... 184 ga mama ni .................................... 38

do (something), but doesnt make much difference doesnt m atter due to

E
either ... or

even (even if I were to ... ) even more even though even though every possible (thing/m ethod) everyone exactly as (something)

m
from "... ni y o t t e ni y o r i / ni yore b a / ni yora-nai d e ................................................... 128 "... kara ... made ..................... 83 ka ra m a d e ..................... 57 k ara m a d e ..................... 83
ta bakari

from ... t ill fro m /to fr o m to

H
have/has just done (something)

(he/she) says (he/she said)

datte te sa

..................................7 ................................................... 234 to sa ............................. 178

I
I hear) I regret ... te sa to sa " .............................178 "... deshoo ni de aroo ni daroo n i " deshita deshoo n i "... datta deshoo n i " "... datta roo n i ..................... 135 dakke dattakke .......... 69

( remember)

325

I suppose ...

I sympathize ...

I wish (it) would ... i f only there were (something), even just a little b it of it... in in
in/at (location) and in/at (loca-

"... deshoo ni "... de aroo ni "... daroo n i deshita deshoo n i datta deshoo n i "... ..................... 135 datta roo n i "... deshoo ni "... de aroo ni daroo n i ...deshita deshoo n i datta deshoo n i "" datta roo n i " ..................... 135 nai kana ........................................ 53 "semete... d e m o ... ..................28 "de wa " de mo " ............................. 20 "kore n it e , koko n it e 142 "... demo demo " .................. 19 nani wa to mo are .................. 221 to ie ba "... nara ba "... ni wa ... keredo ( g a ) 134 aru mai shi . .................................182 " kara ni ........................................ 65

tion) ... in any case in terms of (topicL. it is certain that but i t s not as if

J
just by doing... L let us say ... like M more of a than must do (something)

iwa ba tatoe ba .......... 4 "... no yoo na " ... no yoo ni ...............................................................153 to yuu yori " .................................... 257 ne ba nara-nai nakere ba naranai/nari-masen / .................................................................. 3
"... mo ... ba

N
neither ... nor ...

no m atter ... no m atter (something) no m a t t e r w h a t / h o w


thing) ...

(so m e -

..................................... 3 don-na ni ... tomo , doredake ... to m o .................................... 218 "... u ga "... mai ga ...... 39 don-na ... demo ......................... 27

not not not not

all bad necessarily only only but (a ls o )

"manzara ... demo ..............28 kanarazu shimo .............................184 nomi narpzu .............................166 "... dake de(ja) naku mo

" ..............................................................................................................................12

326

not only all

but ...

"... to iwa zu ... to iwa zu

"
thing)...

........................................................................ 213

not only (something), but also (some- bakari ka I f " (not only but) ... also

......................................... 8

"... bakari de naku ... sae


,

................................................................................ 180

not unthinkable (nothing else) to do besides now that

...............28 manzara ... demo ......................................... 255 yori hoka kara ni wa .............................. 64 "... kara ... e ..................................58 (noun) to ( n o u n ) .............................. 201 "... k a k a ..................................... 47 "... yara ... yara ...................... 249 " n o n o ..................................... 156 ka . . . " .............................................. 48 to yara .................................................248 "... te morau(". te m orai-m asu) ................................................... 132 de mo or "... te mo ....... 94 don-na ... demo .......................... 27 kara ni w a " ..............................64 dake atte ..................................... 13 "a(n)mari ... node ...............161 "iwa ba "tatoe ba ........... 4 "bakari ni , ......................................... 6 "... mo ... ba ..................................... 3

0
one after another or or ... or ... (or)
(number) or (number)

... or something/someone

R
(receive favor from ... by request) regardless of regardless of the fact that...

since since/because..., (as expected) ... since it was so ... so to speak solely due to (one cause), matters
took a turn for the worse.

(something) and (something) also


speaking of (topic)...,

to ie ba nara ba

such as such a s and

"... no yoo na " ... no yoo ni ...............................................................153 y a n a d o ............................. 108 ........................................ 76 sore koso "... ba ... dake ............................. 12 "... suru hodo " ba ... hodo " ........................................................... 44 "naze nara ba ..................................4 "... dano ... dano ..................... 14

that (would ...) ... the more (something), the... the more the more ....
the reason being...

things like (something) and (something)

327

th is/th a t many

th is/th a t much

(this was the situation) when (something else happened)

"koo mo kon-na ni 1 soo mo son-na n i aa m o .................................... 97 (an-na ni koo mo kon-na ni soo mo son-na n i " aa m o (an-na ni .................................... 97 "... tokoro e .................................34

to be su re ) too (turn) into


...

W
wasnt it so that ... what is/was it ...? when is/w as it ...? whether i t s (something) or (something)... whether or not (whether) ... or not whether (you) do (something) or not,
it doesnt matter...

de) wa da) g a , ...2 3 9 "... mo . . . ................................................... 92 "... ni naru (nari-m asu) or ni kawaru (kawari-m asu) .................................................................. 123
"... de wa/ja nai ka / " 50 dakke " dattakke .......... 69 "dakke dattakke .......... 69 "... datte ... datte or, variation: tatte tatte 15 nari nari ......................... 114 (a verb) yoo to ... mai to

,
"... u ga

........................................................................ 205

"... mai ga

...... 39

while doing why dont you do ... w ith w ithout ... or ...

ta nari " ........................................ 113 ..................... 51 "... tara doo ka " kore nite koko nite 142 "... to naku ... to naku ...... 209

328

GLOSSARY (English-Japanese)

a ... or something a fact a m atter about about about about accompanied by according to according to according to after doing (not once done ...) against all right? all right. also also although although although although although (u s u a lly ) always just doing (something) among and and and ... (and) . . . so ... and ... (among other things/ places) and ... (other things) anyone anytime anywhere approxim ately approxim ately approxim ately
around

nari ............................................................ 114 no ....................................................................154 no ....................................................................154 hodo ............................................................ 43 kurai(gurai) .............................. 79 mo ....................................................................95 no ....................................................................149 to ....................................................................202 de ....................................................................... 25 kara ............................................................ 62 n i ....................................................................128 kiri ...............................................................74 to ....................................................................203 no ....................................................................155 tomo ............................................................ 219 mo b .................................................................... 92 ni-mo C . P . ) ................................................. 136 ga ....................................................................39 monono ..................................................... 102 mono-o .....................................................104 noni ............................................................ 167 tokoro-o ............................................. 217 bakari ............................................................ 5 de ....................................................................19 ni ............................................................ 127 129 te ....................................................................191 to ....................................................................200 shi ....................................................................181 ya ....................................................................242 yara ............................................................ 249 datte ........................................................ 16 datte ........................................................ 16 datte ........................................................ 16 bakari .....................................................7 hodo ............................................................ 43 kurai(gurai) .............................. 79
mo b ...................................................................... 95

as

kara ............................................................ 61 329

as as as a token of as fa r as as fa r (a distance) as as fo r as fo r as fo r as fo r ...also/too ... as long a time as as many as as many/much as as much as ... as much as as soon as as soon as as soon as as soon as as well as as you've already heard at at at at at at (at) at a tim e at least at least at most at most

n i .................................................................. 127 to-shi-te C.P.) ........................................ 222 n i .................................................................. 127 made ....................................................... 84, 86 mo b .................................................................. 95 ga .................................................................. 38 to-shite-wa C.P.) ............................. 225 wa .................................................................. 236 to-shite-mo C.P.) ............................. 223 mo .................................................................. 95 kara ........................................................... 60 mo .................................................................. 95 dake ........................................................... 11 kara ...........................................................60 nari ........................................................... 113 to .................................................................. 208 ya ^ .................................................................. 243 ya-ina-ya (C.P.) ................................. 247 mo .................................................................. 95 ga .................................................................. 38 de ....................................................... 18, 20 23 e ...................................................................... 33 kara ...........................................................56 ni ............................................119, 124, 125,128 ni-shite ................................................... 140 no ...........................................................149 150 o ...................................................................... 175 zutsu ...........................................................259 temo b ........................................................... 197 tomo ...........................................................219 temo ...........................................................197 tomo ...........................................................219 kara ...........................................................61 mono ...............................................................98 mono-de(mon-de) .................. 100 .................................... 161 node(n-de) te .................................................................. 190 node(n-de) .................................... 162 no-de aru ............................................163 made-ni ................................................... 90 no .................................................................. 144 no .................................................................. 148 ga .................................................................. 39 keredomo ................................................70

because because because because because (because) (because) before belong to between but but 330

but but but ... but ... by by by by by b y /fro m the fact that ... by way of

kuse-ni C.P.) ........................................ 82 noni ...........................................................167 tokoroga ............................................217 shi .................................................................. 181 de ...............................................................23, 25 kara ...........................................................62 ni ...........................................................128 131 no .................................................................. 148 te .................................................................. 191 no-de ...........................................................162 n i .................................................................. 127 to yuu ................................................... 227 no .................................................................. 151 ni-oite l ................................................139 kara ...........................................................61 ba .................................................................... 2 kara-shite ............................................ 66 kiri ...............................................................74 bakari ................................................... 5 kashira ................................................... 68 no .................................................................. 148 de .................................................................. 25 temo ...........................................................196 ga .................................................................. 39 ni-mo-kakawara-zu C . P . ) .......... 138 n de ...........................................................115 te .................................................................. 190 de .................................................................. 21 ka .................................................................. 50 tari ................................................................ 188 bakari ................................................... 5 na .................................................................. 107 to-iwa-zu C.P.) ................................ 212 de .................................................................. 24 kara ....................................................... 61 63 n i .................................................................. 128 n it e ...........................................................142 zutsu ...........................................................259 demo ...........................................................26 331

... called/named ... (the color of) concerning considering


considering (something, it is evident

that ...) consequently continuously only doing ... could only do (something) could (you) do created by

depending on despite despite doing (something) despite that fact (Im sorry that I) did not do . . . but ... do (verb) and ... do (something) by using (something) do you want to ...
(doing verb) and/w hile then (doing verb)

doing only one thing all the tim e dont ... dont say that due to ... due to due to due to ...

(quantity) each ... even

even even even even even if (I) were to ... even if (you) were to ... even if (you) were to ... even if (you) were to ... (even) if (you) were to do ... even (something) is/does ... (even) though even though even though even though even though even though even though even though even though even though even though even though (its not to the extent that) ... even while doing ... every every single every time (excuse me, but)

made ........................................................... 86 mo .................................................................. 97 ni-mo C . P . ) ................................................136 sae ...............................................................179 tte ...............................................................234 tatte ....................................................... 189 tokorode ............................................215 to-shite-mo C.P.) ............................. 224 ni-shite-mo C . P . ) .................................140 datte ....................................................... 15 domo ...........................................................30 keredomo ............................................70 kuse-ni C.P.) ........................................ 82 monono ................................................... 102 nagara ................................................... I l l nagara-mo C . P . ) .................................112 ni-mo-kakawara-zu C . P . ) .......... 137 noni ................................................... 167,168 tatte ....................................................... 189 te .................................................................. 192 to-wa-ie C.P.) .................................... 227 made-mo C.P.) ........................................ 88 nagara-mo C . P . ) .................................I l l to-yuu-to C.P.) ................................. 231 to-yuu C.P.) ............................................ 229 to-yuu-to C.P.) ................................. 231 keredomo ............................................72 de * ...................................................................... 23 e ...................................................................... 33 kara ...........................................................61 ni ...........................................................125,127 ni-shite-wa C . P . ) .................................141 no-ni C . P . ) ............................................... 169 de .............................................................. 23, 25 kara .................................... 54, 55, 56, 59, 63 ni ...........................................................126 128 no ...........................................................150,152 o ...................................................................... 175 yori ................................................... 255, 256 kara ...........................................................62 datte ....................................................... 17 koto ...........................................................79

n
fo r fo r fo r fo r fo r fo r (i.e. as a means fo r doing ...) from from from from (from) from from a viewpoint of

he/she said that ... how about ...?


332

however however

keredomo ............................................73 to-itte C.P.) ........................................ 212 ga ................................................................... 41

[I]
something) I d thought ( I) d done but ... I hear I hear I hope..., though .... I m wondering if I could ... (I say) (I said) (I said) (do ... alread !)
(I) think/(I) will do ... I wish ...

I wish ...
I wish (it) would ... I wonder ... I wonder ... (I) wonder ? (I) wonder ... (I) wonder ...

tte ...............................................................234 to yuu C.P.) ............................................ 228 ga-na(ga-naa) C.P.) ..................... 42 ga .................................................................. 40 te .................................................................. 194 teba ........................................................... 195 tara ........................................................... 187 ka-na(ka-naa) C.P.) ..................... 53 kashira ................................................... 68 na(naa) ............................................106 ..................... 53 ka-na(ka-naa) C.P.) kashira ................................................... 68 yara ........................................................... 250 ka-na(ka-naa) .............................52 kashira ................................................... 66 no-daroo C . P . ) .................................... 159
ba

.........................................................................1

if )but... f . )can/would do if .") can/would do : (I) were to ... : only ... only : ... then : (we) say that, then . (you think) you can

(but...) (but...)

ka .................................................................. 46 to .................................................................. 208 keredomo ............................................71 ga .................................................................. 40 noni ........................................................... 168 te-wa ........................................................... 198 mono-o ................................................... 104 sae ...............................................................179 mononara(mon-nara) ...... 101 to-yuu-to C.P.) ................................. 231 mononara (mon-nara) 102 de ...............................................................1 8 ,19 kara ........................................................... 55 ni ............................................ 119 121 124 125 ni-oi-te C_P.) ....................................139 no ........................................................... 150,151 mo b .................................................................. 95 ni .................................................................. 129 de .................................................................. 21 no-ni C . P . ) ................................................169 ni iZ .........................................................................130 no-ni C . P . ) ................................................169 wa ...................................................................... 235 333

addition addition (amount of time) doing ... order to do ... order to ... referring to

in the field of
in the manner of (in this manner) ...

ni-oite C . P . ) ........................................ 139


to de .................................................................... 207 .................................................................... 24

(indeed) ... -ing into Is it true that ...? isnt it ... is/are probably i t s not necessary to i t s said (it so happened that ...)

koso ...........................................................75 ni .................................................................. 134 ni .................................................................. 121 tte ...............................................................233 koto ...........................................................78 no-daroo C . P . ) .................................... 159 made-mo C.P.) ........................................ 88 to yuu ................................................... 228 no deshita ............................................165 kara ...........................................................62 bakashi ................................................... 10 dake ........................................................... 10 kiri ...............................................................74 made ...........................................................87 bakari ( ................................................... 7 made-ni C.P.) ........................................ 89 tokoro-e C.P.) .................................... 216 tewa ........................................................... 200 ka .................................................................. 50 to-shi-te C.P.) ........................................ 222
nado(nanka) ................................109

J
judging from just just just just just about to do (something) just fo r/to just when

K
keep doing ...

le ts ... le ts leave the


lik e

M
(made of) merely

no .................................................................. 147 made ...........................................................87 to .................................................................. 204 to-mo-are C.P.) ................................. 220 dokoroka ............................................29 mo b .................................................................. 96 yori ...........................................................256 mo .................................................................. 95 kara ...........................................................60 temo ...........................................................196 datte ....................................................... 16 demo ...........................................................28 mo b .................................................................. 96 shika ...........................................................182 hodo ...........................................................44 to .................................................................. 204

never (not even once) never mind never mind (something)... no ... no better than no fewer/less than no less than no m atter ... no one not all bad not any (not) any more (than) (not) as m u ch /little as (not) as much as 334

(not) "either (not) even ... not even ... not having done ...

not possible to do, (for example) not unthinkable nothing nothing nothing except fo r ... numbering

.................................................................. 92 mo b sura ...........................................................185 to-shi-te C.P.) ........................................ 223 n de ...........................................................115 d okoro ................................................... 29 demo ...........................................................28 d a tte ....................................................... 16 mo b .................................................................. 96 hoka ...........................................................45 to-yuu C.P_) ............................................ 228 de .................................................................. 23 kara ...........................................................54 kara ...........................................................59 no .............................144, 145, 148, 149, 152,157 ne(nee) ............................................117 de .................................................................. 25 ni ................................................... 119 121,124 no ...........................................................149,150 o ...................................................................... 176 yori ...........................................................256 no .................................................................. 152
bakashi

0
of of of of okay? on on on on on the basis of one only only only only only (only) about ... only if only (this) and nothing else ... or something out of over
owing to ... owing to ...

........................................................ 10

dake ........................................................... 10 hoka ...........................................................45


kiri nomi

.................................................................... 74 ........................................................ 1 6 6 ,167

bakashi ................................................... 9 sae ...............................................................179 shika ...........................................................182 nante ....................................................... 112 kara ................................................55, 59, 63 no .................................................................. 150 de .................................................................. 24 nite ...........................................................142 ni .................................................................. 125 ka .................................................................. 47 no-deshoo C . P . ) .............................164 te-ne C _ P . ) ................................................198 to-mo-are CP.) ................................. 220 kurai(gurai) .............................81 temo ...........................................................196 na .................................................................. 106 335

per perhaps because of ... perhaps i t s because ... please


putting aside ...

R
rather than doing ... regardless of right?

right?

n e (n e e )

................................................. 116

tte ...............................................................232 kara ...........................................................61 ya .................................................................. 244 kashira ................................................... 67 mononara (m o n -n a ra ) .......101 kara ....................................................... 56, 61 mono ...........................................................99 .................................... 161 node(n-de) dake-ni C . P _ ) ........................................ 13 dake-ni C . P . ) ........................................ 13 SO mono ...........................................................99 so kara ...........................................................61 .................................................................. 26 (something) is/was done by (some de thing) something lik e ... demo ...........................................................27 (something like) kurai(gurai) .............................80 nado(nanka) .............................108 something (like) ... nado(nanka) ............................... 109 something lik e ... toka ...........................................................214 something lik e (I hear) to-yuu ................................................... 228 (something) that ... teba ...........................................................195 speaking of ... to ie-ba C.P.) .................................... 210 speaking of ... (speaking of) tte ...............................................................232 starting w ith ... kara-shite CP.) ................................. 65 tari ...............................................................188 such a thing like such as to itta C.P.) ........................................ 211 toka ...................................................................213 such as ... and ... (and etc.) ... say (that) seeing shall we? should (I/we) do ... should there be ... since since since since/because (as expected) ... since (... was not expected) ...

than that (introduces a clause phrase) that means ... that which is the (noun) called ... the fact is that ... the moment ... the one the reason (for that) ... the (thing) that is called ... there is no choice but they say (they) say (this is what I think), but ... 336

or

yori ................................................... 253 254 to .................................................................. 206


to-yuu-no-wa C .P .)................................230

no .................................................................. 149 tte .............................................................. 232 no .................................................................. 155 ya .................................................................. 243 no .................................................................. 152 to-yuu-no/wa C.P.) ..................... 230 to-wa C.P.) ................................................ 225 shika ...........................................................183 to-yuu C.P_) ............................................ 228 tte ...............................................................234 ga .................................................................. 40

though through through till to to to to to to do ... to tell the tru th to the extent of to the extent that to the extent that ... to thin k that too totaling towards

keredomo ............................................. 70 kara ' .............................................................55 o ........................................................................176 made .............................................................83 e ........................................................................32 e ........................................................................33 made ................................................. 83 84 86 ni ..............................................121, 122 125,132 no .................................................................... 148 ni .................................................................... 130 no .................................................................... 155 made ............................................................ 86 hodo ............................................................ 43 kurai(gurai) .............................. 80 to-wa C.P.) ................................................. 226 mo b .................................................................... 92 to-yuu CP_) ............................................. 228 e ........................................................................32 made .........................................................83 86 made ............................................................ 85 made-ni .....................................................90 ke ....................................................................69 demo ............................................................ 27 te-wa C . P . ) .................................................199 to ....................................................................... 208 tokoro .....................................................215 ya ................................................................... 243 ba .................................................................. 1 demo ............................................................ 27 ke ....................................................................69 ka ....................................................................46 ni-shite .....................................................140 nagara .....................................................110 gatera ................................................... 42 ka ....................................................................50 koto ............................................................ 79 ka ....................................................................51 ni ............................................................ 126,127 no ............................................................ 144,148 te ................................................................... 191 te-wa C . P . ) .................................................199 to ................................................................... 202 337

un til up to (up to)

what is/was it ? whatever ... when when when when when (something happens)", (instead of if . . . whenever when is/was it ...? whether ...? w hile w hile doing (also doing ...) w hile doing ...on the way, do ... why dont we ... why dont we ? why dont you do ... w ith w ith w ith w ith w ith

w ith (w ith intention to) ... w ithin would we? would you ? Y yet (you) are asking/saying (you) did remember?

to-wa C.P.) ................................................. 225 de ................................................................... 24 made ............................................................ 85 ya ................................................................... 244 te-ne C . P . ) .................................................198 keredomo .............................................73 tte ............................................................... 233 kuse-ni .................................................... 82

338

GLOSSARY (Japanese-English)
B ba ba ba bakari bakari bakari bakari bakashi bakashi bakashi D dake dake dakeni dakeni datte datte datte datte de de de de de de de de de de de de de demo demo demo demo considering (something, it is evident that . .. ) ........................................................... if ... ....................................................................1
2

when (something happens) ... (instead of if ) ................................................... 1 always just doing (something) doing only one thing all the tim e ................................. 5 approxim ately ................................................. 7 could only do (something) .......................... 5 ...................... 7 just about to do (something) ju s t ................................................................... 10 only ................................................................10 (only) about ... ................................................. 9 as much as ... .................................................11 only ju st .................................................... 11 since/because " as expected) ... ...............13 since ( ...was not expected) ... ...................... 13 anyone anytim e anywhere .................. 16 even (something) is/does ... ..........................15 he/she said that ... ......................................... 17 no one nothing ......................................... 16 a t ....................................................................... 20
a t in ............................................................. 18

a t fo r ............................................................ by fo r ............................................................ by fro m on according to .................. depending on according to ...................... do (something) by using (something) ....... due to ... owing to ... .............................. fro m o f ........................................................
in am ong ......................................................19

23 23 25 25
21

24 23
21

in (amount of tim e) ..................................... (in this manner) ... (w ith intention to) ... (something) is/w as done by (something) even ............................................................... not all bad not unthinkable .................. something lik e ......................................... whatever whenever ................................. 339

24 26 26 28 27 27

d o koro dokoroka d o m o

not possible to do, (for example) ................. 29 never mind (something) ... ......................... ... 29 (even) though ................................................... 30 a t ...................................................................... ... 33 to fo r .............................................................. 33 to tow ards ................................................... 32

0 0 0 0 0 0

G]

.

ga n ga-na(ga-naa) ) g a te ra

as "as fo r as youve already heard ..." 38 bu t despite doing (something) although 39 I d thought (I)d done (something) but ... 41 I m wondering if I could ... (this is what I think), but " ................................................... 40 (if ...) can/w ould do (but ...) ..................... 40 I hope though ... .................................... ... 42 w hile doing on the way, do " ................. 42 about approxim ately .................................... 43 ................................ 44 (not) as m u c h /little as ... to the extent that ... .................................... ... 43 ..................... ... 45 nothing except fo r ... only i f whether ................................................... ... 46 perhaps because of . . . .................................... 47 why dont we ... do you want to ... le ts ....................................................... ...50 why dont you do .................................... ...51 (not translatable) ............................................... 52
(I) th ink/(I) w ill do ... ..................................... 53

ho do ho do ho do ho ka

K
ka ka ka ka ka-i ka-na(ka-naa) ) ka-na(ka-naa) ) ka-na(ka-naa) ) kara kara kara kara kara kara kara kara kara-shite kara-shite kashira kashira 340

I wish (it) would ...


"(I) wonder

........................................ ...53

................................................. ... 52

as so since due to fo r because considering seeing ....................................61 as many as as much as no less than 60 from a viewpoint o f judging fro m by according to ...................................................62 ........................................ ...56 fro m a t since fro m o f ....................................................... ...54 fro m o f out o f ........................................ ...59 fro m out o f due to ....................................63 fro m through out o f in ..................... ...55 consequently ................................................... 66 starting w ith ... ...............................................65 I wish ... could (you) do ... ..................... 68 (I) wonder ". ................................................... 66

kashira I wonder . . . ................................................... .. 68 kashira should (I/we) do ........................................ 67 ke when is/w as it what is/was it ? ... 69 keredomo (keredo, kedo, kedomo) even though but ........................................ .. 70 keredomo (keredo, kedo, kedomo) (excuse me, but) .............................................. 72 keredomo (keredo, kedo, kedomo) however yet ...................................................73 keredomo (keredo, kedo, kedomo) (if ...), but ................................................... ...71 keredomo (keredo, kedo, kedomo) though bu t ...................................................70 k ir i after doing ... (not once done ) .................74 k ir i continuously only doing ". ........................ ...74 k ir i only ju s t ................................................... ...74 k o s o (precisely) because ........................................ ...76 k o s o (indeed) ..............................................................75 k o to how about ."? w hy dont we ... ? .................79 k o to isnt it ... ....................................................... ...78 kurai (gurai) ( ) about approxim ately ....................................79 kurai (gurai) ( ) rather than doing ... .................................... ...81 kurai (gurai) ( ) (something lik e ) ...............................................80 kurai (gurai) ( ) to the extent that .................................... 80 kuse-ni even though bu t ........................................ ...82 kuse-ni (you) did remember? ................................82

M
even ................................................................ ...86

m a d e m a d e m a d e m a d e m a d e m a d e made-mo made-mo m ade-ni m ade-ni m ade-ni m o m o m o m o m o m o

ju s t merely ...................................................87 to as fa r as ...................................................84 to t i l l u n til ................................................83 u n til to as fa r as to the extent o f ... 86 up to w ith in ...................................................85 even though ( its not to the extent that) ... 88 i t s not necessary to ... .................................... 88 before ..................................................................90 just fo r/to ... ................................................... 89 (up to) ........................................................... ... 90 also too (not) either ......................... ... 92 around about ............................................... 95 as many/m uch as no fewer/less than as long a tim e as as fa r (a distance) as 95 even .................................................................. 97 in addition as w ell as ................................ 95 not any no ... nothing ......................... ... 96 341

mo b mo b m o n o m o n o mono-de(mon-de) monoka(monka) mononara(mon-nara) monona a(mon-na a) monon3 3 (mon-n3 3 ) m onono m ono-o m ono-o

th is /th a t many th is /th a t much .............. 95 too also both as well as either ... o r 93 because ............................................................... 98 since ... so ................................................ 99 because ........................................................... 100 (not t r a n s l a t a b l e ) ............................................ 100 if ... then ....................................................... 101 if (you think) you can should there be even though although although .................... if only ....................
dont ... right? ................................... ............................... 102
101

102

104 104 107 106 106 109 108 109

na

na na(naa)
nado(nanka) nado(nanka)

I wish _
like

..............................

..........................................

nado(nanka) nagara nagara nagara-mo nagara-mo n a n te n a r i n a r i n -d e n -d e ne(nee) ne(nee)

something (like) ... ............... something lik e ............... even though .......................... w hile doing (also doing ) even though .......................... even w hile doing ... ........... or something ................... a or something ............... as soon as .............................. (Im sorry that I) did not do . , but , not having done .................................. okay? .................................................. right? ..................................................
and in addition ...................................

and w ith ............................................. as a token o f as fo r by way o f a t in on .............................................


a t to in for per .......................

by ............................................................ by a t according to fro m due to fro m w ith .............................................


-ing ......................................................

on in a t to 342

.............................................
...................................

129 127 127 119 125 131 128 126 134 124
121 122

to in on into

..............................................................

ni
ni

to

....................................................................... 132
............................... 130

to do ... in order to do

ni-mo ni-mo-kakawara-zu ni-mo-kakawara-zu ni-oi-te ni-oi-te ni-shite ni-shite-mo ni-shite-wa nite nite no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no-da(n-da) no-daroo node(n-de) node(n-de) no-de no-de aru no deshita no deshoo nomi noni noni no-ni no-ni

even also .................................................... 136 despite that fa c t ............................................. 138 even though .....................................................137 concerning in the field o f ...................... 139 in ....................................................................... 139 w hile a t ........................................................ 140 (even) if (you) were to do ...................... 140 fo r ................................................................... 141 a t w ith in .................................................142 due to owing to ..................................142 a fa ct a m atter ......................................... 154 ... all right? .................................................... 155 a t in on over fro m .....................150 in ....................................................................... 151 (made of) ........................................................ 147 o f ....................................................................... 145 o f belong to w ith ..................................144 o f by w ith between to ...................148 o f created b y .............................................148 o f fro m ........................................................ 147 o f on about a t ..................................... 149 o f fro m ........................................................ 152 ................................................ 152 one the one that which is ................................................ 149 ................................................ 151 (the color of) the fact is that ... to tell the tru th ....... 155 n o t t r a n s l a t a b l e ) .............................................158 is/are probably ... (I) wonder ... ...............159 (because) ........................................................ 162 since because .............................................161 b y /fro m the fact that ... ..............................162 (because) ........................................................163 (it so happened that ) ................................. 165 perhaps i t s because ................................. 164 only ........................................................ 166 167 .................................................... 168 even though (if...), can/w ould do but...) ...................... 168 fo r (i.e. as a means fo r doing ...) ...............169 in order to . in doing ..........................169 (at) (from ) on through .................................................... 175 ................................................ 176

0
o o

343

s
sa sae sae shi shi shika shika sura n o t t r a n s l a t a b l e ) ............................................ 178 even ............................................................... 179 if only only i f ............................................ 179 and) " so ... ............................................ 181 but ........................................................... 181 (not) any more (than) only (this) and nothing else ...............................................................182 there is no choice but ................................. 183 (no even ... .................................................... 185 (I said) " do already!) ..........................187 such a thing as ............................................ 188 even if (you) were to ..............................189 even though .................................................... 189 and ................................................................... 191 because ............................................................190 b y w ith ........................................................191 do (verb) and .............................................190 "even t h o u g h " .................................................... 192 (I say) ............................................................... 194 (I said) ............................................................195 speaking of ................................................ 195 at most at least .........................................197 ................................. 196 despite regardless o f no m atter .................................................... 196 please would you ? ................................. 198 i f were to ... .............................................198 keep doing ................................................ 200 w ith when .................................................... 199 against ............................................................ 203 and ................................................................... 200 i f when ........................................................ 208 in the manner o f ............................................. 207 (not) as much as never (not even once) 204 th a t ................................................................... 206 that (introduces a clause or a phrase) ....... 201 when as soon as ......................................... 208 w ith accompanied by .............................. 202 speaking of ... ................................................. 210 such as ............................................................ 211 however ............................................................ 212

tara tari tatte tatte te te te te te te teba teba temo temo temo te-ne te-wa te-wa te-wa to to to to to to to to to to-ie-ba to itta to itte

344

to k o r o to k o ro d e to k o ro -e to k o ro g a to k o ro -o to m o to m o to -m o -a re to - s h i- te to - s h i- te to - s h i- te to -s h ite -m o to -s h ite -m o to -s h ite -w a to - w a to - w a to -w a to -w a -ie to - y u u to - y u u to - y u u to - y u u to - y u u

to-yuu-koto-wa to-yuu-no-wa to-yuu-to to-yuu-to

t t e t t e
t t e

t t e
t t e t t e t t e

"when ............................................................... 215 even i f (you) were to ............................. 215 just when .. ................................................... 216 but .................................................................. 216 although (usually) ... .................................... 217 all rig h t ................................................... 219 at least at most ........................................ 219 putting aside ... never mind ... .............. 220 as ...................................................................... 222 lets leave the ... ............................................ 222 not even ... ................................................... 223 as fo r also/too ... .................................... 223 even if (you) were to ... ............................. 224 as fo r ............................................................... 225 the (thing) that is called ......................... 225 to thin k that ... ............................................ 226 w ith ............................................................... 225 even though ................................................... 227 called/named ........................................ 227 every single ................................................229 I hear they say i t s said ..................... 228 numbering to ta lin g ................................. 228 (something) that ........................................ 228 that means ................................................ 229 the reason (for that) ... ................................. 230 every every tim e ........................................ 231 if (we) say that, then .............................231 even if (I) were to ... .................................... 234 Is it true that ? ............................................ 233 say (that) ................................................... 232 (speaking of) ................................................ 232 the (noun) called ... .................................... 232 (they) say I hear ........................................ 234 (You) are asking/saying . . ? ......................... 233 ..................... 236 as fo r ... in referring to ... (not translatable) ............................................ 239 and ... (among other things/places) ...... .242 as soon as when the moment ... .......... .243 shall we? would we? ..................................244 (not translatable) .............................................246 as soon as . . .................................................247 and ... (other things) .................................... .249 I wonder ... ................................................... .250 345

w a wa

m
ya ya ya y a i ya-ina-ya y a ra y a ra

yo yori yori yori yori


(not translatable) ............................................. 251 fro m ................................................................ 255 no better than ................................................. 256 on the basis o f fro m .................................. 256 than ........................................................ 253 254 (not translatable) ............................................. 258 (not translatable) ............................................. 258 at a tim e (quantity) each ............... 259

ze zo zutsu

346