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AP Psychology Ms.

Giola

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Unit Guide: History, Methodology, and Approaches


Myers Psychology for AP Prologue: The Story of Psychology (pg 1-17 Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (pg 19-51) Supplemental Readings Item Response Theory by Steven P. Reise, Andrew T. Ainsworth, and Mark G. Haviland (highlight/notes) Guidelines for the Use of Human Participants in Research or Demonstrations Conducted by High School Students (highlight/notes and summarize) Unit Vocab Quiz: 9/13/13 Unit Test: 9/18/13 Unit Notebook Check: 9/18/13

AP Psychology Ms. Giola

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Key Terms
Psychology Philosophy Psychiatry Physiology APA Basic Research Applied Research Correlational Research Causation Scientific Method Development Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology Structuralism v. Functionalism Case study Survey Naturalistic Observation Laboratory Observation Scales of Measurement Measures of Central Tendency Types of Graphs Frequency Distributions Standard Deviation Scatter Plot Correlation Coefficient Hypothesis Experimental Group Control Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable Conclusion Empiricism Structuralism Functionalist Behaviorist Humanistic Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience Natural Selection Biopsychosocial Approach Psychodynamic Evolutionary Psychology Social-Cultural Psychology Cognitive Psychology Biological Psychology Psychometrics Educational Psychology Human Factors Psychology Counseling Psychology Clinical Psychology Hindsight Bias Theory Critical Thinking Operational Definition Replication Population Random Sample Experiment Random Assignment Double-Blind Procedure Placebo Confounding Variable Mode Mean Median Frequency Distribution Percentile Rank Correlation Coefficient Inferential Statistics Range Standard Deviation Normal Curve Statistical Significance Cultural Perspective Biological Perspective Behavior Genetics Positive Psychology Confirmation Bias Participant Bias Longitudinal Study Cross-Sectional Study Placebo Informed Consent Debriefing Gestalt Psychology Psychoanalysis IRB Informed Consent Coercion Anonymity Risk

Key People
Wilhelm Wundt G. Stanley Hall Hermann Ebbinghaus William James E.L. Thorndike Sigmund Freud Alfred Binet Mary Cover Jones Jean Piaget Margaret Floy Washburn John Watson Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Abraham Maslow Charles Darwin Dorothea Dix Carl Rogers G. Stanley Hall Mary Whiton Calkins

AP Psychology Ms. Giola

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Questions to Consider
1. What is the APA? When was it founded, and what is its function? 2. How did psychology develop from its prescientific roots in early understandings of mind and body to the beginnings of modern science? 3. When and how did modern psychological science begin? 4. How did psychology develop from the 1920s through today? 5. Describe psychologys big issues: stability v. change, nature v. nurture, rationality v. irrationality, conscious v. unconscious. What is the biggest issue? 6. What are psychologys levels of analysis and related perspectives? 7. Explain the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist. 8. List and describe the major subfields of psychology. 9. For the following scenario be able to explain Billys behavior from each of the psychological perspectives: Billy is foreman of a painting crew. His boss said that if he ran the crew well and the job was done right then hed get a bonus. Toward the end of the job Billy noticed that a couple of the younger painters (who he called gimps) have spilled some paint of the roofing shingles, washed their brushes in the customers flower bed and theyve painted the plastic tracks of all the windows. Billy was furious. He knew the boss would hold him responsible and he was going to lose his bonus. He really got angry and let the younger painters have it. Neuroscience Behavioral Cognitive Sociocultural Psychoanalytic Humanistic 10. Why are the answers that come from a scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense? 11. What are three main components of the scientific attitude? 12. How do theories advance psychological science? 13. How do psychologists observe and describe behavior? 14. What are positive and negative correlations, and why do they enable prediction but not cause and effect explanations? 15. What are illusory correlations? 16. How do experiments, powered by random assignment, clarify cuase and effect? 17. How can we describe data with measures of central tendency and variation? 18. What principles guide our making generalizations from samples and deciding whether differences are significant? 19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of laboratory experiments? 20. Does behavior depend on ones culture and gender? 21. Why do psychologists study animals? Is it ethical to study animals? 22. Is it ethical to experiment on people?