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Region Gluteal

Muscle Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fascia lata

Function Hip abductor Hip medial rotator Hip abductor Hip medial rotator Hip abductor Hip medial rotator Stabilizes hip, knee

Origin Dorsal iliac crest Dorsal ilium Ant. sup. iliac spine

Insertion Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Iliotibial tract

Innervation Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Superior gluteal

Blood Supply Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Superior gluteal Lat. circum. fem.

All three gluteal muscles act as hip abductors and medial rotators and receive the superior gluteal nerve and artery. Gluteus medius covers gluteus minimus. Pelvic Gluteus maximus Piriformis Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Quadratus femoris Obturator externus Hip extensor Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Hip lateral rotator Ilium, sacrum, coccyx Sacrum Ischial spine Inner obturator Ischial tuberosity Lateral obturator Outer obturator Iliotibial tract Gluteal tuberosity of femur Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric crest Greater trochanter Inferior gluteal Sacral plexus Sacral plexus Sacral plexus Sacral plexus Sacral plexus Obturator Inf & sup gluteal Inf & sup gluteal Inf. gluteal Inf. gluteal Inf. gluteal Med. circum. fem. Obturator Med. circum. fem.

Hold hands to mimic chicken tail to understand direction of gluteus maximus fibers (inferolaterally) and why it is a hip extensor. Last 6 muscles are the classic lateral rotators. All classic lateral rotators insert into greater trochanter, receive sacral plexus and inferior gluteal a. EXCEPT - Piriformis also gets sup gluteal a. due to position (inf. and sup. gluteal aa. emerge around piriformis) - Quadratus femoris is lower (no more room on trochanter) and receives med. circum. fem. a. - Obturator externus must receive obturator n. and a. through obturator canal Piriformis through quadratus femoris listed in superior-to-inferior order.

Region Anterior Thigh

Muscle Sartorius

Function Hip flexor Hip abductor Hip lateral rotator Knee flexor Iliacus Psoas Hip flexor Hip adductor Hip flexor Knee extensor Knee extensor Knee extensor Knee extensor

Origin Ant. sup. iliac spine

Insertion Upper medial tibia

Innervation Femoral

Blood Supply Femoral

Iliopsoas Pectineus

Ventral ilium L1-L5 Pubic ramus Ant. inf. iliac spine Ilium above acetab. Upper femur Upper shaft femur Upper shaft femur

Lesser trochanter Upper medial tibia Patellar ligament Patellar ligament Patellar ligament Patellar ligament

Femoral Lumbar plexus Femoral Femoral Femoral Femoral Femoral

Internal iliac Med. circum. fem. Obturator Lat. circum. fem. Femoral Lat. circum. fem. Lat. circum. fem.

Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Vastus intermedialis Vastus lateralis

All muscles above EXCEPT iliopsoas basically receive femoral n. and a. The 3-and-1 quadriceps femoris are knee extensors, go from femur into patellar ligament, and receive femoral n. and a. EXCEPT - Rectus femoris spans two joints Sartorius also spans two joints and runs inferomedially. Rectus femoris is most anterior muscle of thigh and covers vastus intermedialis As expected, medial to lateral: medialis, intermedius, lateralis. Medial Thigh Gracilis Adductor longus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Hip adductor Knee flexor Hip adductor Hip lateral rotator Hip adductor Hip lateral rotator Hip adductor Hip lateral rotator Pubis Pubis Pubis Pubis Upper medial tibia Post. shaft femur Post. shaft femur Post. shaft femur Obturator Obturator Obturator Obturator Obturator Med. circum. fem. Obturator Med. circum. fem. Obturator Med. circum. fem. Obturator And bunches other

The 3-and-1 medial thigh muscles are all hip adductors, go from pubis to femur, and receive obturator n. and a. EXCEPT

- Gracilis spans two joints and thereby flexes knee Hamstring part of adductor magnus receives sciatic n. Gracilis is most medial muscle and covers adductor magnus From anterior to posterior: longus, brevis, magnus Posterior Thigh Biceps femoris, long head Biceps femoris, short head Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Hamstring part of adductor magnus Hip extensor Knee flexor Knee flexor Hip extensor Knee flexor Hip extensor Knee flexor Hip extensor Ischial tuberosity Lateral shaft femur Ischial tuberosity Ischial tuberosity Ischial tuberosity Fibula head Fibula head Upper medial shaft tibia Medial condyle tibia Adductor tubercle Tibial Fibular Tibial Tibial Tibial Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris Perforating branch of profunda femoris

The 3-and-1 hamstring muscles are all hip extensors and knee flexors, come from ischial tuberosity, receive tibial n. & perf. br. EXCEPT - Hamstring part of adductor magnus only spans hip, and is not a knee flexor Short head of biceps femoris also is a major exception From medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris Region Anterior Leg Muscle Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus Fibularis tertius Function Dorsiflexion Inversion (DI) Dorsiflexion Inversion (DI) Dorsiflexion Eversion (DE) Dorsiflexion Eversion (DE) Origin Shaft tibia Lower shaft fibula Shaft fibula Lower shaft fibula Insertion Medial cuneiform Dorsal base 1st metatarsal Distal phalanx of big toe Phalanges toes 2-5 Base 5th metatarsal Innervation Deep fibular Deep fibular Deep fibular Deep fibular Blood Supply Anterior tibial Anterior tibial Anterior tibial Anterior tibial

All dorisflexors; inversion/eversion dependent on insertion point relative to 2nd toe. All receive deep fibular n. (so called as viewed from posterior) and anterior tibial a. Lateral Leg Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Plantarflexion Eversion (PE) Plantarflexion Eversion (PE) Shaft fibula Lower shaft fibula Plantar base 1st metatarsal Lateral base 5th metatarsal Superficial fibular Superficial fibular Perforating branch of fibular artery Perforating branch of fibular artery

Tendons of muscles run under lateral malleolus. Easy to feel lateral muscles tense with plantarflexion and eversion. Posterior Leg Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris Popliteus Tibialis posterior Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Plantarflexion (P) Knee flexor Plantarflexion (P) Knee flexor Plantarflexion (P) Knee flexor Unlocks knee Plantarflexion Inversion (PI) Plantarflexion Inversion (PI) Plantarflexion Inversion (PI) Condyles tibia Shafts tibia and fibula Lateral femur Lateral femur Shafts tibia and fibula Lower shaft tibia Lower shaft tibia Calcaneum Calcaneum Calcaneum Shaft tibia Navicular tuberosity Plantar distal 1st phalanx Plantar 2-5 phalanx base Tibial Tibial Tibial Tibial Tibial Tibial Tibial Sural (br. of popliteal) Posterior tibial Fibular Sural Sural Posterior tibial Posterior tibial Fibular Posterior tibial Fibular Posterior tibial

Gastrocnemius and soleus converge in Achilles tendon, which inserts into calcaneum Sustentaculum tali contains Tom, Dick, Harry (superior to inferior): tendons of Tibialis posterior, flex. Digitorum longus, flex. Hallucis longus Region Dorsal foot Muscle Extensor hallucis brevis Function Extend hallux Origin Calcaneum Insertion 1 phalanx Innervation Deep fibular Blood Supply Dorsalis pedis Arcuate

Extensor digitorum brevis Plantar foot, 1st layer Abductor hallucis Abductor digiti minimi Flexor digitorum brevis Quadratus plantae Lumbricals Plantar foot, 3rd layer Flexor hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis Flexor digiti minimi Dorsal interossei (4) Plantar interossei (4)

Extend toes Abduct hallux Abduct toe 5 Flex toes 2-4 Laterally pull flexor digitorum longus tendon Extend toes Flex hallux Adduct hallux Flex toe 5 Abduct toe Adduct toes

Calcaneum Medial calcaneum Calcaneum Medial calcaneum Calcaneum Flexor digitorum longus tendon Cuboid, cuneiform Base 2-4 metatarsal Base 5 metatarsal Metatarsals Metatarsals

2-4 phalanx Medial 1 phalanx Proximal 5 phalanx Middle 2-4 phalanx Flexor digitorum longus tendon

Deep fibular Medial plantar Lateral plantar Medial plantar Lateral plantar Lateral plantar except #1 (med. pl.)

Dorsalis pedis Arcuate

Plantar foot, 2nd layer

Proximal 1 phalanx Proximal 1 phalanx Proximal 1 phalanx Phalanges Phalanges

Medial plantar Lateral plantar Lateral plantar Lateral plantar Lateral plantar

Plantar foot, 4th layer

All lateral plantar innervation except medial plantars as marked in italics. Interossei mnemonic PAD/DAB: plantar adduction, dorsal abduction Anterior tibial gives rise to dorsalis pedis and arcuate aa. Posterior tibial gives rise to medial and lateral plantar aa. Best way to remember is what you saw in dissection! Know location and function (more important than origin/insertion).