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ProductBlending

Chapters12
Light Naphtha
Crude
Oil
Desalter
Atmospheric
Distillation
Vacuum
Distillation
Gas
Separation &
Stabilizer
Solvent
Deasphalting
Coking
Visbreaking
Fluidized
Catalytic
Cracking
Hydro-
cracking
Naphtha
Reforming
Isom-
erization
Sat Gas
Plant
Polymer-
ization
Alkylation
Naphtha
Hydro-
treating
Treating &
Blending
Coke
Fuel Gas
LPG
Aviation
Gasoline
Automotive
Gasoline
Solvents
J et Fuels
Kerosene
Solvents
Heating Oils
Diesel
Residual
Fuel Oils
Lubricant
Greases
Waxes
Asphalts
Heavy
Naphtha
Kerosene
Distillate
AGO
LVGO
HVGO
Vacuum
Residuum
Cat
Distillates
Gas Oil
Hydro-
treating
DAO
Isomerate
Gas
Alkyl
Feed
Alkylate
Polymerization
Naphtha
Gases
Butanes
LPG
Reformate
Naphtha
Fuel Oil
Bottoms
Distillates
Distillate
Hydro-
treating
Cat
Naphtha
Cycle Oils
SDA
Bottoms
Coker
Naphtha
Heavy
Coker
Gas
Oil
Light Coker
Gas Oil
Sulfur
Plant
Sulfur
Fuel Oil
Solvent
Dewaxing
Lube Oil
Waxes
2
Topics
Blendingspecifications/targets
Typicalgasolineblendstockproperties
Adjustingupstreamoperationstomeetdownstreamtargets
3
TypicalBlendGasolineStockProperties
4
Table12.1BlendingComponentValuesforGasolineBlendingStreams
PetroleumRefiningTechnology&Economics 5
th
Ed.
byJamesGary,GlennHandwerk,&MarkKaiser,CRCPress,2007
No. Component RVP,psi (R+M)/2 MON RON APl
1 iC4 71.0 92.5 92.0 93.0
2 nC4 52.0 92.5 92.0 93.0
3 iC5 19.4 92.0 90.8 93.2
4 nC5 14.7 72.0 72.4 71.5
5 iC6 6.4 78.8 78.4 79.2
6 LSRgasoline(C5180F) 11.1 64.0 61.6 66.4 78.6
7 LSRgasolineisomerizedoncethrough 13.5 82.1 81.1 83.0 80.4
8 HSRgasoline 1.0 60.5 58.7 62.3 48.2
9 Lighthydrocrackate 12.9 82.6 82.4 82.8 79.0
10 Hydrocrackate,C5C6 15.5 87.4 85.5 89.2 86.4
11 Hydrocrackate,C6190F 3.9 74.6 73.7 75.5 85.0
12 Hydrocrackate,190250F 1.7 77.3 75.6 79.0 55.5
13 Heavyhydrocrackate 1.1 67.5 67.3 67.6 49.0
14 Cokergasoline 3.6 63.7 60.2 67.2 57.2
15 Lightthermalgasoline 9.9 76.8 73.2 80.3 74.0
16 C6+lightthermalgasoline 1.1 72.5 68.1 76.8 55.1
17 FCCgasoline,200300F 1.4 84.6 77.1 92.1 49.5
18 Hydrog.lightFCCgasoline,C5+ 13.9 82.1 80.9 83.2 51.5
19 Hydrog.C5200FFCCgasoline 14.1 86.5 81.7 91.2 58.1
20 Hydrog.lightFCCgasoline,C6+ 5.0 80.2 74.0 86.3 49.3
21 Hydrog.C5+FCCgasoline 13.1 85.9 80.7 91.0 54.8
22 Hydrog.300400FFCCgasoline 0.5 85.8 81.3 90.2 48.5
23 Reformate,94RON 2.8 89.2 84.4 94.0 45.8
24 Reformate,98RON 2.2 92.3 86.5 98.0 43.1
25 Reformate,100RON 3.2 94.1 88.2 100.0 41.2
26 Aromaticconcentrate 1.1 100.5 94.0 107.0
27 Alkylate,C3= 5.7 89.1 87.3 90.8
28 Alkylate,C4= 4.6 96.6 95.9 97.3 70.3
29 Alkylate,C3=,C4= 5.0 93.8 93.0 94.5
30 Alkylate,C5= 1.0 89.3 88.8 89.7
31 Polymer 8.7 90.5 84.0 96.9 59.5
GasolineBlendingConsiderations
Availableblendstocks
Amounts
Properties
Appropriatetodetermineproduct
properties
Associatedcosts/values
Specificationoffinalproduct(s)
Amount(s)
Properties
Volatility/RVP(maximum)
Octanenumber(minimum)
DrivabilityIndex
Distillation
o T10(minimum)
o T50(range)
o T90(maximum)
Composition
o Sulfur(maximum)
o Benzene&totalaromatics(maximums)
o Olefins(maximum)
Value
5
DieselBlendingConsiderations
Availableblendstocks
Amounts
Properties
Appropriatetodetermineproduct
properties
Associatedcosts/values
Specificationoffinalproduct(s)
Amount(s)
Properties
Cetane index(minimum)
FlashPoint(minimum)
Distillation
o T90(minimum&maximum)
Coldproperties
o Cloudpoint(minimum)
o Pourpoint(minimum)
Composition
o Sulfur(maximum)
o Aromaticity (maximum)
o Carbonresidue(maximum)
Color
Value
6
ComparisonKerosene/Jet/Diesel/HeatingOil
7
Property No.2Kerosene JetA JetB No.2DS15 No.2DS500 No.2HOS500
CetaneNumber min 40 40
Aromatics [vol%] max 25 25 35 35
Sulfur [wt%] max 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0015 0.05 0.05
FlashPoint [C] 38 52 52 38
Distillation(D86)
T10 [C] max 205 205
T20 [C] max 145
T50 [C] max 190
T90 [C] min 282 282 282
[C] max 245 338 338 338
EP [C] max 300 300
DistillationResidue [vol%] max
DistillationLoss [vol%] max
FreezingPoint [C] max 40 50
PourPoint [C] max 6
CarbonResidue [wt%] 0.35 0.35 0.35
KinematicViscosity
@40C mm/s min 1.9 1.9 1.9
mm/s max 4.1 4.1 4.1
ASTMSpecificationsforMiddleDistillates
CutPointEconomics
Adjustupstreamcutpointstomeetneedsinthedownstreamblending
HeavyLSRvalueasblendingcomponentversusReformerfeed
HeavyNaphthavalueasReformerfeedversuskeroseneblendstock
HeavyKerosenevalueaskeroseneblendstockversusdieselblendstock
HeavyDieselvalueasdieselblendstockversusFCCfeed
HeavyGasOilvalueasFCCfeedversusresid/asphaltproductionorcoker feed
TherefineryLPcandeterminetheoptimumcutpointforeachofthesegivenanyset
ofconstraints
Cutpoints ToMeetOperatingEconomies
Cut IBP EP Processi ng Use
LSR 90 180 MinLSRcut
90 190 NormalLSRcut
80 220 MaxLSRcut
Naphtha 180 380 Maxreformingcut
190 330 Maxjetfuel
220 330 Minreformingcut
Kerosene 330 520 Maxkerosenecut
330 480 MaxJetAcut
380 520 Maxgasoline
Diesel 420 650 Maxdieselcut
480 610 Maxjetfuelcut
520 610
Min diesel cut
GasOil 610 800 Catcrackerfeed
VGO 800 1050 Catcrackerfeed
Resid 1050+ Cokerfeed,asphalt
TBP Cut Poi nts (F) for Vari ous Crude Oi l Fracti ons
Topics
Blendingspecifications/targets
Typicalgasolineblendstockproperties
Adjustingupstreamoperationstomeetdownstreamtargets
10