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Human communication is concerned with the making of meaning and the exchange of understanding about human development Lasswell's maxim, "who says what to whom in which channel with what effect


Exhibit 3-1: The Communication Process Model


CBS model


Clarity Brevity Sincerity This model argues that the aforementioned are the only purpose to prose discourse, therefore communication.


Due to the fact that Employed the use of Basic fundamentals Completely eliminate Alternative choices Actual experience Connected together Final result Prove conclusively In as few words as possible

Brevity Activity

o o

o o o o o

Due to the fact that o o Employed the use of o Basic fundamentals o Completely eliminate o Alternative choices o Actual experience o Connected together o Final result o Prove conclusively o In as few words as possible

Because Used Fundamentals Eliminate Alternatives Experience Connected Result Prove Concisely

Communication model by Rothwell

1. 2.



Sender--- --the initiator and encoder of a message Receiver---- the one that receives the message (the listener) and the decoder of a message Decode---- translating the senders spoken idea/message into something the receiver understands by using his knowledge of language from personal experience. Encode----- puts the idea into spoken language while putting their own meaning into the word/message.

5. Channel------ the medium through which the message travels such as through oral communication (radio, television, phone, in person) or written communication (letters, email, text messages) 6. Feedback----- the receivers verbal and nonverbal responses to a message such as a nod for understanding (nonverbal), a raised eyebrow for being confused (nonverbal), or asking a question to clarify the message (verbal). 7. Message----- the verbal and nonverbal components of language that is sent to the receiver by the sender which conveys an idea

8. Noise----- Interference with effective transmission and reception of a message.


noise or external noise which are environmental distractions such as poorly heated rooms, startling sounds. Physiological noise are biological influences that distract you from communicating competently such as sweaty palms, pounding heart, butterfly in the stomach, induced by speech anxiety, or feeling sick, exhausted at work, the ringing noise in your ear.


noise are the preconception bias and assumptions such as thinking someone who speaks like a valley girl is dumb, or someone from a foreign country cant speak English well so you speak loudly and slowly to them. Semantic noise are word choices that are confusing and distracting such as using the word tri-syllabic instead of three syllables.

Listening and Drawing

Draw an egg shape Draw a circle touching the egg shape Draw a small circle inside the circle you have just drawn Draw three straight lines inside the egg shape Draw two small lines coming out of the circle that touch at one end Repeat just below Draw two longer lines coming out of the egg shape Draw a line to join up these two lines Draw three straight lines inside the shape you have just created Draw two lines coming out of the bottom of the egg shape Draw two short lines coming out of the lines you have


Linear Model is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise. Draw backs the linear model assumes that there is a clear cut beginning and end to communication. It also displays no feedback from the receiver. For example; a letter, email, text message, lecture.



Interactive Model is two linear models stacked on top of each other. The sender channels a message to the receiver and the receiver then becomes the sender and channels a message to the original sender. This model has added feedback, indicates that communication is not a one way but a two way process.

For example instant messaging. The sender sends an IM to the receiver, then the original sender has to wait for the IM from the original receiver.



An open question starts with, what, why, how. Closed questions are questions that only need a one word answer, like yes or no. In this exercise you will practice a conversation and you are not allowed to use a closed question. Work in pairs, follow the instructions for As and Bs.

Workplace Listening: Instructions for A's

You are the boss at a local newsagent and you are interviewing person B for a cashiers job. Try to bring out the best in the candidate by really asking them about themselves. You may only ask open questions. For example; Why did you apply for this job? Can you say a bit more about... Tell me about... How do you feel about

Workplace Listening: Instructions for B's

You are applying for a cashier's job at your local newsagent. You want to work Saturdays and one night during the week to make some extra money. You are at the interview with the boss. You must tell them about yourself and he can ask you questions. Talk about . Why you want the job Any work experience you have An example of what you have done before

Various kinds of written communications

Communication skills are essential for job success. Choose one of the following professions and discuss the various kinds of written communications Salesperson Manager Nurse Electrician Accountant Flight attendant Mechanic