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8. Tim KTM. Pedoman bertanam cengkeh. 1st ed, Bandung: Nuasa Aulia, 2010: 1-33 9. Wibowo EAA. Perbandingan kuantitas bakteri rongga mulut antara berkumur dengan klorheksidin dan minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh

(Syzgium aromaticum l.). Skripsi, Sukakarta : FK UMS, 2010 10. Rahman MSA, Thangaraj S, Salique SM. Antimicrobial and biochemical analysis of some spices extract agains food spoilage pathogens. J Food Safety 2010; 12: 71-5 11. Babu AJ, Sundari AR, Indumathi J. Study on the antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils of spices. Vet World 2011; 4: 311-6 12. Salman MT, Khan RA, Shukla I. Antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa linn. Seed oil agains multi-drug resistant bacteris from clinical isolates. Nat Pro Rad 2008; 7:10-4 13. Yasni S. Potensi pemanfaatan dan pengembangan jintan hitam untuk kesehatan. Skripsi, Bogor: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB, 2008 14. Monroy TB, Maldonado VM, Martinez FF et al. Candida albicans, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus mutans colonization in patient wearing dental prosthesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2005; 10: 27-39

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15. Shokrzadeh M, Ebadi AG. Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum l) on Staphylococcus aureus. Pakistan J Bio Sci 2006; 9: 1577-9 16. Anantyo DT, Jusup I.Efek minyak atsiri dari bawang putih (Allium sativum l) terhadap persentase jumlah neutrofil tikus wistar yang diberi diet kuning telur. Skripsi, Semarang FKUD 17. Sunarto P, Pikir BS. Pengaruh garlic terhadap penyakit jantung koroner. http://www.kalbe.co.id/files/cdk/files/09 pengaruh Garlic 102.pdf/09 pengaruh Garlic 102.html 1995; 28-32 18. Ross ZM, OGara EA, Hill DJ et al. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil agains human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparison with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. American Society for Microbiologi 2001; 67: 475-80 19. Tattleman E. Health of garlic. American Family Physician J 2005; 72: 103-6 20. Higdon J. Garlic and organosulfur compound. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University, 2005 21. Mohd A. Extraction of nigella sativa using modern hydro distillation technique. Thesis, Pahang: Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Technology UMP, 2006

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22. Sirat HM, Basar N, Fang EM. Analisis biji jintan hitam (nigella sativa). Malaysia J of Ana Sci 2001; 7: 245-8 23. Hidayati N. Ekstraksi eugenol dari minyak daun cengkeh. Skripsi, Sukakarta: Fakultas Teknis Kimia UMS, 2010 24. Sukandar D, Radiastuti N, Khoeriyah. Karakterisasi senyawa aktif bahan antibakteri minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh. JKTI 2010; 12: 1-7 25. Al-Jabre S, Al-Aklaby OM, Al-Qurashi AR et al. Thymoquinone an active principle of nigella sativa inhibited aspergillus niger. Pak J Med Res 2003; 42 26. Sultan MT, Butt MS, Anjum FM et al. Nutritional profile of indigenous cultivar of black cumin seeds and antioxidant potential of its fixed and essential oil. Pak J Bot 2009; 41: 1321-30 27. Asniyah. Efek antimikroba minyak jintan hitam (nigella sativa) terhadap pertumbuhan E.coli in vitro. J Biomedika 2009; 1: 26-9 28. Kumar TVS, Negi PS, Sankar KU. Antibacterial activity of nigella sativa l. seed extracts. Bri J of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2010; 1: 96-100 29. Nasution M. Pengantar Mikrobiologi. 1st ed, Medan: USU Press, 2010: 74-84 30. Hanafiah KA. Rancangan percobaan: teori dan aplikasi. 6th ed. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2000: 6-7

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31. Sivam GP. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infection by garlic. J N 2001; 131: 1106-8 32. Saeed S, Tariq P. In vitro antibacterial activity of clove agains gram negative bacteria. Pak J Bot 2008; 40: 2157-60 33. Marhhadian NV, Rakhshandeh H. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of nigella sativa extract against S.aureus, P.aeroginosa and C.albicans. Pak J Med Sci 2005; 21: 47-52 34. Zuridah H, Fairuz ARM, Zakri AHZ, Rahim MNA. In vitro antibacterial activity of nigella sativa against Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae, E. coli and B. cereus. Asian J of Plant Sci 2008: 1-3

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