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Hazardous Area Classification


WARNING: This guide is not intended to replace published standards, codes of practice or
other relevant publications. This is for External used only.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Hazardous Area Classification
Definitions of hazardous Area

Definition 1: Petroleum Rule, 1976

An area shall be deemed to be hazardous area where petroleum having flash point below 65°C or any flammable gas or
vapour in concentration capable of ignition is likely to be present.

Definition 2: IS 5572
Hazardous area is an area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present or likely to be present, in quantities such as to
require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of electrical apparatus.

Q. Why Zoning is required?

Ans: To provide or decide the protection and selection.
i. Leak Potential & Presence of Ignition Sources.
ii. Hazardous properties of hydrocarbons.
iii. Safe selection (& optimisation) of Electrical Equipment.

Hazardous areas are defined by three main criteria:

• The type of hazard

• The likelihood of the hazard being present in flammable concentrations
• The ( auto) ignition temperature of the hazardous material

The hazard will be in the form of a gas, vapour, dust or fibre.

Hazardous Area Classification (HAC) is as follows:

Definitions of hazardous area are different as per IEC and NEC.


Zone 0 Highly Flammable for long period
Flammable atmosphere present continuously (Typically 1000 hours / year).
Div 1
Flammable during normal Flammable atmosphere present intermittently (Typical 10 & 1000 hours /
Zone 1 operation year).
Div 2 Most Safer Zone Flammable atmosphere present abnormally (typically as a result of a
Zone 2 process fault condition) (Typically less than 10 hours / year).

Ex Zone 0 – Typical Areas (Continuous grade)

• Closed process vessels
• Storage tanks
• Closed containers
• Areas containing open tanks of volatile, flammable liquid

Q. How to identify Zone 1 areas?
Ans: 1. Flammable gas or vapour concentration is likely to exist in the air under normal operating conditions.
2. Flammable atmospheric concentration is likely to occur frequently because of maintenance, repairs or
3. Flammable liquid or vapour piping system (containing valves, meters, or screwed or flanged fittings) is in an
inadequately ventilated area.
4. The area below the surrounding elevation or grade is such that flammable liquids or vapors may accumulate.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Zone 1 – Typical Area

• Imperfectly fitting peripheral seals on floating roof tanks.

• Inadequately ventilated pump rooms for flammable gas or volatile, flammable liquids.
• Oily waste water sewer / basins
• Loading / unloading gantries of hazardous products.

Zone 2 – Typical Areas (Secondary grade)

• The system handling flammable liquid or vapour is in an adequately ventilated area and is so designed and
operated that the explosive or ignitable liquids, Vapours or gases will normally be confined within closed containers
or closed systems from which they can escape only during abnormal conditions such as accidental release of a
gasket or packing
• The flammable vapours can be conducted to the location as through trenches, pipes or ducts
• Locations adjacent to Zone 1 areas
• Pressurized rooms where flammable gas / vapour can enter in the case of failure of positive mechanical ventilation

Ex Safe Areas – Typical areas

The following locations are considered safe from the point of view of electrical installation
• Area where the piping system is without valves, fittings, flanges or similar appurtenances.
• Areas where flammable liquids or vapors are transported only in suitable containers or vessels.
• Areas where permanent ignition sources area present like area where combustion gases are present, for example
flare pits,tips,other open flames 7 hot surfaces.
• Diesel Generator shed room /shed having adequate ventilation
• GT installation meeting the ventilation (12 ACPH), pressurization (0.5 mbar) and flange (not more than one pair of
flanges inside the turbine room) requirements.

Ex HAC Comparison

• North America (NFPA / API/ NFPA 70E or NEC)

• Hazardous Areas:
• Division I- Z0 + Z1
• Division II- Z2

• Hazardous Locations
• Class I-Flammable Gases / Vapour
• Class II- Combustible dust
• Class III- Combustible fibers or flyings

• Gas / vapour grouping

• A, B, C, D, E, F & G

• Japan
• Hazardous Areas
- Classes 1, 2 & 3

• Gas / vapour groups

- G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 & G6

An experienced process engineer’s judgement in visualizing leak scenarios and classifying hazardous
areas is the most CRUCIAL factor in the HAC exercise

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer

• API RP 500- Area Classification of Petroleum Installations

• IEC 79-10 :1995 -Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, part 10 Classification of hazardous areas
• IP Part 15, 1990- Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations
• BS EN 60079-10, : 1996 -Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, part 10 Classification of hazardous
• BS 5345, 1983-Selection, installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres (other than mining applications or explosive manufacturing), part 2, Recommendations for particular
industrial situations


• Selection Criteria

– Gas Grouping (based on ignition energy)

– Temperature Classification

– Classified Zones

IEC Gas Grouping

Mining Surface Industry

Group I Group II
Propane Ethylene Hydrogen/Accetylene
180 Microjoules 60 Mircojoules 20 Mircojoules

NEC Gas Grouping

Group A Group B Group C Group D

Acetylene Hydrogen Ethylene Propane
20 Mircojoules 20 Mircojoules 60 Mircojoules 180 Mircojoules

Temperature Classes:
Hot surfaces can ignite explosive atmospheres. To guard against this all Electrical Equipment intended for use in a
potentially explosive atmosphere is classified according to maximum surface temp. it will reach in service. This
temperature is normally based on a surrounding ambient temperature of 40°C (102°F).This temp. can then be
compared to the ignition temp of the gas(es) which may come into contact with the equipment & a judgment reached as
to the suitability of the equipment to be used in that area

T-Class Max. Surface temperature in °C

T1 450°C
T2 300°C
T3 200°C
T4 135°C
T5 100°C
T6 85°C

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
EX d typical marking: EEx d IIB T5
The bigger the T-number the lower is the ignition temperature of the hazard. So equipment to be installed in hazardous
areas where the hazard has temperature class T5 or T6 must be ensured not to get hot. Electrical equipment is marked
with a T-Class. The T-Class on the equipment states that the equipment will not provide an ignition capable surface hotter
than the temperature represented by the stated T-Class. For equipment in hazardous areas, the bigger the T-Number on
the equipment the less hot it will get.



Ex-proof (Flameproof )(EX d)

Intrinsically Safe (Ex i )

Increased Safety (Ex e )

Non-Sparking (Ex n )

Pressurization (Ex p )


Powder filled Ex ‘q’ type

Oil immersed Ex ‘o’ type

Special Ex ‘s’ type


1. Ex‘d ‘Flameproof Equipment

A type of protection in which the parts can ignite an explosive atmosphere are to be placed in an enclosure,
which can withstand the pressure developed during internal explosion of an explosive mixture, and which
prevents the transmission of the explosion to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the enclosure.

US- Explosion-Proof, UK- Flame-Proof, GERMANY - Pressure-Proof

- Assumption:
• Flammable gases / vapours, if present in atmosphere will enter the enclosure

• The apparatus will be selected, installed, operated and maintained within the acceptable ratings.
The maintenance and use of FLP equipment shall be so that its safety will not be impaired, is
the responsibility of the user

• The electric circuit of the FLP equipment will have all required protection devices

• Sparking which will ignite a flammable gas or vapour, may occur at any part of the equipment
contained in the enclosure in normal operation due to an internal fault due to insulation failure, etc.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
• Contain internal explosion
• Explosion cannot be transmitted outside enclosure
• External temperature of enclosure below ignition
temperature of surrounding gases
• Similar to NEC® "explosion proof"
• Cable fittings must have 5 threads engaged
• Internal and external ground screw
EX d typical marking: EEx d IIB T5
- Enclosures

Round junction box with cable

Round junction box with cable

32 Amp 380v receptable Control station start-stop

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Electrical apparatus produces no sparks in normal operation and is conservatively designed to reduce
changes of abnormal occurrences which could cause sparks of temperatures with sufficient energy to
ignite a specific flammable atmosphere.

- Construction Method: Stringiest construction methods to ensure that no sparks, excessive

temperature are produced
• Careful terminal design
• Use of good quality insulation material
• Use of special materials to protect the enclosure against impact, ingress of dust & moisture
• Can be used for I, II A, B, C gas groups
• Permitted for us in T1, T2, T3 classes only
• Terminal with minimum IP 54 ingress protection

- Requirements:

 Must use high impact resistant materials FRP, or GRP will not hold static charge
 Cannot produce arcs or sparks
 Has special air and line leakage and creepage distances
 Use I EC non-loosen connection
 Minimum IP 54 ingress rating
 Control internal and external temperature. External should not exceed T6 (85°C)

EX d typical marking: EEx e IIA T3

Increased safety fixture 18, 36 or 58

Round junction box

with cable glands

16 amp, 24 v receptacle Control station, start-

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer

Approved of seal in


Approved locking No. of terminals is restricted
type terminals by dissipated power per ckt.

Approved internal
ground screw (4)


Torque in unlocked position


Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Electrical apparatus and its associated wiring which is located in the hazardous area has insufficient electrical
or thermal energy under normal of abnormal condition to ignite the specific hazardous atmospheric mixture.

“Simple Apparatus” is defined as an apparatus which does not generate power exceeding 1.2 V, 100mA, 25
mW or 20 µ J, such as thermocouples, RTD, Contact, terminal strips, junction boxes, etc. They are not
required to be certified and connected to the intrinsic safety loops without approvals.

 Only electrical protective measure (protection technology by way of power limitation), the other
protective techniques use mechanical means to prevent ignition from electrical faults (max. 30 volts
or 50 mA)
 Ex ‘i’ apparatus is the one which has all the circuits within intrinsically safe
 Ex ‘i’ circuit is the one which has intrinsically safe barriers with Zenner diodes for power limitation
 Minimum IP 20 ingress protection

Ex ib: Equipment shall be incapable of causing ignition in normal operation, with a single fault and with
the following safety factors:

– 1.5 in normal operation and with one fault

– 1.0 with one fault, if the equipment contains no unprotected switch contacts in parts likely to be
exposed to a potentially explosive atmosphere and the fault is self-revealing

Ex ia: Equipment shall be incapable of causing ignition in normal operation, with a Two fault.

EX i typical marking: EEx ia IIC T5


By maintaining positive pressure of clean air or inert gases inside an instrument enclosure with respect to
an external atmosphere, the external atmosphere can not come in contact with sources if ignition inside.


 Dynamic Pressurization (DP) or pressurization by continuos circulation of protective gas

(purging) DP is a method of maintaining pressure in an enclosure in which after purging the
protective gas is passed continuously through the enclosure at a pressure above that of the
specified minimum and discharged to the outside atmosphere

 Static Pressurization or pressurization with leakage compensation Air supplied & pressurized
continuously from a non-hazardous area to avoid ingress of flammable gases / vapour inside the
- Pressurized Equipment
 Ingress protection minimum IP 4X
 Over pressure 1.5 times or 0.2 kPa
 Material of construction should be flame retardant, self- extinguishing and should not be affected
by protective gas.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Nonincendive circuits may contain components which spark under normal operation, but the energy released by
such components limited in normal operation to values incapable of causing ignition.
Non-sparking circuits contain no open sparking components (such as provided with hermetic sealing)
during normal operation. In short SUBSTANTIAL COST SAVING

 Equipment construction in such a way that in normal operation, it is incapable of igniting a

surrounding explosive atmosphere and a fault incapable of causing ignition
 Hermetically sealed type
 Restricted breathing type
 Careful design of terminals
– Tools
– Equipment


 Equipment enclosure filled with quartz /sand so that in normal operating condition, any arc
occurring within the enclosure of electrical equipment will not ignite the surrounding atmosphere

 No ignition shall be caused either by flame or by excessive temperature of the surfaces of the

 Enclosure constructional features:

o High mechanical strength
o Ingress protection
o Powder filled
o Insulation of enclosed equipment

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
 Protection technique in which the equipment or its parts are immersed in oil in such a way that
an explosive atmosphere which, may be above the oil or outside the enclosure cannot be

 Oil used shall be mineral oil confirming to relevant standards

 Constructional features:
− Fully enclosed, leak-proof enclosure
− Oil level indicator
 Transformers, Switch gears, Control gears


 This is a concept that has been adopted to permit the certification of those types of equipment
which by their nature, do not comply with the constructional or other requirements specified for
equipment with established types of protection but which, nevertheless, can be shown, wherever
necessary, by test to be suitable for use in hazardous areas in prescribed zones
 This concept permits flexibility on the part of certifying and assessment authorities in their
approach to applications for certification of equipment the use of which would otherwise not
permitted in hazardous areas on account of non-compliance with the requirements of standards
for established types of protection. This allows flexibility of approach to innovative ideas and
new designs, the development of which otherwise be obstructed.
− Factory sealed hand lamps, Encapsulation (Ex ‘m’ type), Gas detection apparatus

Equipment Code Description Suitable for zones...

Ex ia Intrinsic safety 'ia' 0, 1, 2
Ex ib Intrinsic safety 'ib' 1,2
Ex ic Intrinsic Safety 'ic' 2
Ex d Flameproof protection 1,2
Ex p Purge/pressurized protection 1,2
Ex px Purge/pressurized protection 'px' 1,2
Ex py Purge/pressurized protection 'py' 1,2
Ex pz Purge/pressurized protection 'pz' 2
Ex e Increased safety 1,2
Ex m Encapsulation 1,2
Ex ma Encapsulation 0,1,2
Ex mb Encapsulation 1.2
Ex o Oil immersion 1,2
Ex q Sand / powder (quartz) filling 1,2
Ex n Type - n protection 2
Ex s Special protection Normally 1 and 2

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer

Ingress First Digit Second Digit

(IP) Protection against solid bodies Protection against Liquid
0 No Protection No Protection
1 Objects greater than 50 mm vertically dripped water
2 Objects greater than 12 mm Angled dripped water
3 Objects greater than 2.5 mm sprayed water
4 Objects greater than 1 mm splashes water
5 Dust- Protected water jets
6 Dust- Tight Heavy seas
7 - Effective immersion ( 1 meter )
8 - Indefinite immersion.

NEMA Standards

Type Description
Type 1 General Purpose – Indoor
Type 2 Drip - proof - Indoor
Type 3 Dust - tight, Rain - tight and Sleet (Ice) - resist - Outdoor
Type 3R Rain - proof and Sleet (Ice) - resistant - Outdoor
Type 3S Dust - tight, Rain - tight and Sleet (Ice) - proof-Outdoor
Type 4 Water - tight and Dust - tight - Indoor and Outdoor
Type 4X Water - tight Dust - tight and Corrosion resistant - Indoor and Outdoor

Type 5 - Superseded by Type 12 for control apparatus -

Type 6 Submersible, Water - tight, Dust - tight and Sleet (Ice) - resistant - Indoor
and Outdoor
Type 7 Class I, Group A, B, C or D - Indoor Hazardous Locations, Air Break
Type 8 Class I. Group A, B, C or D - Indoor Hazardous Locations, Oil - immersed

Type 9 Class II, Group E, F or G - Indoor Hazardous Locations, Air Break

Type 10 Bureau of Mines
Type 11 Corrosion - resistant and Drip - proof Oil - immersed - Indoor Equipment

Type 12 Industrial use, Dust - tight and Drip - tight - Indoor

Type 13 Oil - tight and Dust - tight - Indoor

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Indian Standards for Various Protection Techniques
IS 5571 Guide For Selection Of Electrical Equipment For Hazardous Areas

IS 5572 –Part I Classification of Hazardous Areas for Electrical Installations

IS 13408 Part I, II, III Code of Selection, Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for Use in
Explosive Atmospheres

IS 8239 Classification of Maximum Surface Temperature of Electrical Equipment for Use In Explosive

IS 6381 Construction and testing of Electrical Apparatus with type of protection ‘e’

IS 2148 Flameproof Enclosures of Electrical Apparatus

IS 13346 General Requirements for Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

IS 5780 Specification For Intrinsically Safe Electrical Apparatus and Circuits

IS 8240 Guide for Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres

IS 2147 Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures For Low Voltage Switch Gear & Control Gear

IS 4691 Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures For Rotating Electrical Machinery

IS 8241 Methods of Marking for Identifying Electrical equipment for Explosive Atmospheres

IS 8224 Specification for Electric Lighting fitting for Explosive Atmospheres

IS 8289 Electrical Equipment with Type of Protection ‘n’

IS 7389 Specification for Pressurized Enclosures

IS 2206 (PART I,III) Specification for Flame proof Electric Light Fixtures


Approval / Testing Agencies

CMRI (Central Mining Research Institute), Dhanbad, BIHAR

CCoE (Chief Controller of Explosives), Nagpur

BIS (Bureau Of Indian Standards)

DGMS (Director General Mine Safety), Dhanbad, BIHAR

DGFASLI (Director General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Instituites), Mumbai

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer

 Types of Enclosure Protection

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
 Enclosure Rating

 IP Protection

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
 Certification Code

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
 Types of Electrical Equipment Suitable for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmosphere

Useful References

Hazardous Area Classification & Selection of Electrical Equipment for

Flammable Atmospheres by P.G.Sreejith (
Flammable Facts MTLFF 03
Explosive Facts By STAHL

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Types of Electrical Equipment Suitable for
use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres

Different techniques are used to prevent electrical equipment from igniting explosive
atmospheres. There are restrictions on where these different types of equipment can be used as
follows :

European - IEC - Area USA - Area of use

Area of use of use Designation
Designation Designation Standard
Standard Standard
Flameproof Enclosure – An Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2 Class 1 Divisions 1 & 2
enclosure used to house EExd Exd UL1203
electrical equipment, which EN50018 IEC60079-1
when subjected to an internal
explosion will not ignite a
surrounding explosive
Intrinsic Safety – A Zones 0, 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2 Class 1
technique whereby electrical EExi Exi Divisions 1 & 2
energy is limited such that any EN50020 IEC60079-11 UL913
sparks or heat generated by
electrical equipment is
sufficiently low as to not ignite
an explosive atmosphere.
Increased Safety – This Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
equipment is so designed as to EExe Exe
eliminate sparks and hot EN50019 IEC60079-7
surfaces capable of igniting an
explosive atmosphere.
Purged and Pressurised – Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2 Class 1
Electrical equipment is housed EExp Exp Divisions 1 & 2
in an enclosure which is initially EN50016 IEC60079-2 NFPA496
purged to remove any
explosive mixture, then
pressurised to prevent ingress
of the surrounding atmosphere
prior to energisation.
Encapsulation – A method of Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
exclusion of the explosive EExm Exm
atmosphere by fully EN50028 IEC60079-18
encapsulating the electrical
components in an approved
Oil Immersion – The Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2 Class 1
electrical components are EExo Exo Division 2
immersed in oil, thus excluding EN50015 IEC60079-6 UL698
the explosive atmosphere from
any sparks or hot surfaces.
Powder Filling – Equipment is Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
surrounded with a fine powder, EExq Exq
such as quartz, which does not EN50017 IEC60079-5
allow the surrounding
atmosphere to come into
contact with any sparks or hot

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Non-sparking – Sparking Zone 2 Zone 2 .
contacts are sealed against EExn Exn
ingress of the surrounding EN50021 IEC60079-15
atmosphere, hot surfaces are
Special Protection – Zones 0, 1 & 2 Zones 0, 1 &
Equipment is certified for use *Exs 2
in a Potentially Explosive Exs
Atmosphere but does not
conform to a type of protection
listed above.

* This type of protection is only recognised by National Authorities, not as a

European-wide type of protection.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
Selection, Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Equipment Intended
for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres

International and national standards are published giving details of requirements for the safe use
of Electrical Equipment in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres as follows :

. International U.K. U.S.A.

General Recommendations BS5345:Part N.E.C. Chapter
1 5
Classification of Hazardous Areas N.E.C. Chapter
IEC60079-10 .
Inspection and Maintenance of
Electrical Equipment
Requirements for Flameproof BS5345:Part N.E.C. Chapter
Enclosures 3 5
Requirements for Intrinsically BS5345:Part N.E.C. Chapter
Safe Equipment 4 5
Requirements for Increased BS5345:Part N.E.C. Chapter
Safety Equipment 6 5
Requirements for Purged and BS5345:Part N.E.C. Chapter
Pressurised Equipment 5 5
Requirements for Non-Sparking BS5345:Part
IEC60079-14 .
Equipment 7
Requirements for Equipment BS5345:Part
with Special Protection 8

MEDC advise that all Explosion-proof electrical equipment is maintained, by suitably trained
personnel, in accordance with the Manufacturers' recommendations.

Any spare parts used should be purchased from the original Manufacturer and repairs should be
carried out by the Manufacturer or under his supervision, in order that the item remains in
conformance with the certification documents.

The Certification Process

All Electrical Equipment, intended for use in a Potentially Explosive Atmosphere, should be
certified as suitable for such use.

The methods of obtaining certification differ in detail, see below, between each certifying body or
group of bodies (e.g. CENELEC). Basically this process consists of supplying a representative
sample of the equipment along with a set of drawings to a recognised test/certification body e.g.
BASEEFA who in turn test the equipment against a recognised Standard e.g. EN50018 and issue
a Certificate. The user of the equipment can then refer to this Certificate to enable him to safely
put the item into service in a zone appropriate to the Certification.

European Practice – after 1st July 2003

After the above date the ATEX Directive comes into force throughout the EEC. This becomes a
mandatory requirement for all equipment intended for use in a hazardous area. The fundamental
difference between current practice and ATEX certification is that ATEX addresses the essential

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
safety requirements for hazardous area equipment and uses Standards as part of the method of
conforming to these. Amongst other documentation required by certifying authorities will be
Technical Manuals in order that the user is informed of installation methods etc.



In practice this means re-certification of all currently certified electrical equipment.

MEDC have started this process and all relevant equipment will be covered by the
implementation date of 1st July 2003.

It should be noted also that MECHANICAL equipment is covered by the ATEX Directive so for the
first time items such as gearboxes will have to carry ATEX certification.

The equipment coding will be as the current practice plus an additional code as follows:

ExII2G i.e.

Ex – Explosion proof in accordance with ATEX.

II – Group II surface industries.

2 – category 2 equipment (suitable

.....for use in Zone 1) note: Category 1 is suitable for Zone 0.
Category 3 is suitable for Zone 2.

G – suitable for atmospheres containing gas ( D is suitable for atmospheres containing dusts).

Equipment will be CE marked when certified to ATEX.

European Practice – Current – until 30th June 2003

The method is basically as above. In addition all electrical equipment intended for use in the
European Economic Community (EEC) must comply with Electromagnetic Compatibility
regulations (EMC) and manufacturers must issue, on request, an EC Declaration of Conformity in
accordance with the EMC regulations.

When certified, an item of equipment and its' certificate, carry a code e.g. EExdIIBT4. This can be
broken down as follows:

E – European certificate in accordance with harmonised standards

Ex – Explosion-proof electrical equipment

d – flameproof enclosure type of protection

II – Group II surface industries

B – gas group B

T4 – temperature class T4 (135 degrees centigrade surface temperature).

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
North American Practice

Sample equipment and supporting documentation are submitted to the appropriate authority e.g.
.U.L., F.M., C.S.A.

The equipment is tested in accordance with relevant standards for explosion protection and also
for general electrical requirements e.g. light fittings.

After successful testing a listing is issued allowing the manufacturer to place the product on the

The product is marked with the certification details such as the gas groups A,B,C,D the area of
use e.g. Class 1 Division 1

World-wide Certification

Most countries outside Europe or North America use the IEC Standards as a basis for their own
national standards.

The Russian Federation certifies equipment to GOST standards, these closely follow CENELEC

There is a scheme in place which will when fully adopted allow for internationally recognised
certification to become a reality, this is the IEC EX SCHEME. This uses the IEC standards and IEC
recognised test and certification bodies to issue mutually recognised test reports and certificates.
The scheme is in its infancy and its level of success cannot yet be measured.

Ingress Protection

2 digits are used to denote the level of ingress protection that a piece of apparatus enjoys :–
(The first digit denotes the level of protection against solid objects and the second against

. Solids . Liquids
0 No protection. 0 No protection.

1 Protected against solid objects 1 Protected against vertically falling

up to 50mm, e.g. hands. drops of water.
2 Protected against solid objects 2 Protected against water spray up
up to 12mm, e.g. fingers. to 15 degrees from vertical.
3 Protected against solid objects 3 Protected against water spray up to
up to 2.5mm, e.g. tools. 60 degrees from vertical.
4 Protected against solid objects 4 Protected against water sprays from
over 1mm, e.g. wires. all directions.
5 Protected against dusts. 5 Protected against water jets from
(No harmful deposits). all directions.
6 Totally protected against dust. 6 Protected against strong water jets
from all directions, e.g. Offshore.
7 Protected against immersion between
. .
15cm and 1m in depth.
8 Protected against long immersion
under pressure.

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer
North American practice is to use NEMA standards to describe ingress protection, i.e.:

NEMA 3 is similar to IP 54
NEMA 4 is similar to IP 55
NEMA 4x is similar to IP 56
NEMA 6 is similar to IP 67

Dattatray K. Nikam
Instrument Engineer