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_________________________________________________LEMBAR PENGESAHAN________

PENGARUH KONSENTRASI ALUMINIUM FLORIDA BERLEBIH


DALAM BATH TERHADAP LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE
REDUCTION CELL

Disahkan :

O
L
E
H

____________________

______________________

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

LAPORAN PRAKTIK KERJA LAPANGAN DI PT INDONESIA


ASAHAN ALUMINIUM (INALUM)
Pengaruh Konsentrasi Aluminium Florida Berlebih Dalam Bath
Terhadap Liquidus Temperature Pada Reduction Cell

OLEH :
PUTRA EKA SUDJANA

092401027

Disetujui oleh:
Dosen Pembimbing

ii

Dra. Emma Zaidar Nasution, M.Si


NIP : 195512181987012001

Diketahui Oleh:
A.n. Dekan
Pembantu Dekan I

Ketua Departemen Kimia

Dr. Marponghatun, M.Sc

Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS.

NIP : 19611115 198803 2 002

NIP : 195408301985032001

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

LAPORAN PRAKTIK KERJA LAPANGAN DI PT INDONESIA


ASAHAN ALUMINIUM (INALUM)
Pengaruh Konsentrasi Aluminium Florida Berlebih Dalam Bath
Terhadap Liquidus Temperature Pada Reduction Cell

iii

OLEH :
WAHIDA FEBRIANA

092401040

Disetujui oleh:
Dosen Pembimbing

Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS.


NIP : 195408301985032001
Diketahui Oleh:
A.n. Dekan
Pembantu Dekan I

Ketua Departemen Kimia

Dr. Marponghatun, M.Sc

Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS.


iv

NIP : 19611115 198803 2 002

NIP : 195408301985032001

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

LAPORAN PRAKTIK KERJA LAPANGAN DI PT INDONESIA


ASAHAN ALUMINIUM (INALUM)
Pengaruh Konsentrasi Aluminium Florida Berlebih Dalam Bath
Terhadap Liquidus Temperature Pada Reduction Cell

OLEH :
HARRY NUGRAHA

092401056

Disetujui oleh:
Dosen Pembimbing

Drs. Mimpin Ginting, M.s.


NIP : 195510131986011001
Diketahui Oleh:
A.n. Dekan
Pembantu Dekan I

Ketua Departemen Kimia

Dr. Marponghatun, M.Sc

Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS.

NIP : 19611115 198803 2 002

NIP : 195408301985032001

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN

LAPORAN PRAKTIK KERJA LAPANGAN DI PT INDONESIA


ASAHAN ALUMINIUM (INALUM)

vi

Pengaruh Konsentrasi Aluminium Florida Berlebih Dalam Bath


Terhadap Liquidus Temperature Pada Reduction Cell

OLEH :
MHD. SAID IBRAHIM HSB

092401063

Disetujui oleh:
Dosen Pembimbing

Dr. Marponghatun, M.Sc


NIP : 19611115 198803 2 002
Diketahui Oleh:
A.n. Dekan
Pembantu Dekan I

zzzzzzzz

Ketua Departemen

Kimia

vii

Dr. Marponghatun, M.Sc

Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS.

NIP : 19611115 198803 2 002

NIP : 195408301985032001

KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadhirat Allah SWT atas semua rahmat dan karunia-Nya
sehingga penulis telah menyelesaikan laporan kerja praktek dengan judul Pengaruh
Konsentrasi Aluminium Fluorida Berlebih Dalam Bath Terhadap Liquidus
Temperature Pada Reduction Cell.
Praktik Kerja Lapangan ini berlangsung selama kurang lebih 38 hari, dari
tanggal 05 Desember 2011 13 Januari 2012 di PT Indonesia Asahan Aluminium
(INALUM) Kuala Tanjung - Kab. Batubara, Sumatera Utara. Pelaksanaan Praktik
Kerja Lapangan ini terdiri dari studi literatur dan praktik lapangan guna mendalami
materi dalam pengerjaan tugas khusus yang diberikan oleh pihak pabrik.
Adapun laporan Praktik Kerja Lapangan ini disusun untuk memenuhi salah
satu persyaratan dalam menyelesaikan kurikulum pada Jurusan D3 Kimia Industri
Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam. Dalam penulisan laporan praktik
kerja lapangan, penulis banyak mendapat bimbingan dan bantuan dari berbagai pihak.
Untuk itu penulis mengucapkan rasa terima kasih yang sedalam-dalamnya kepada
1. Kedua Orang Tua yang telah memberi dukungan baik berupa materi maupun
doa.

viii

2. Ibu Dr. Rumondang Bulan, MS., selaku Ketua Departemen Kimia Universitas
Sumatera Utara.
3. Ibu Dra. Emma Zaidar Nasution, M.Si., selaku Program Studi D3 Kimia

4. Bapak dan Ibu Dosen Pembimbing dari penulis


5. Bapak Damianus, Faisal Hidayat dan seluruh staff dan karyawan PT Inalum yang
telah membimbing penulis selama menjalani praktik kerja lapangan
6. Seluruh teman-teman Kimia Industri angkatan 2009 yang telah banyak membantu
penulis dalam menyelesaikan Laporan Praktik Kerja Lapangan ini.
7. Seluruh teman-teman OJT dari Teknik Kimia ITM dan Unsyiah
Penulis menyadari bahwa Laporan Praktik Kerja Lapangan ini masih banyak
terdapat kekurangan, untuk itu saran yang bersifat membangun dari semua pihak
sangat penulis harapkan demi kesempurnaan laporan ini.
Akhir kata, semoga Laporan Kerja Praktek ini dapat bermanfaat bagi kita
semua.

Medan, Januari 2012

Penulis

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DAFTAR ISI

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN.................................................................................................
i
KATA PENGANTAR.........................................................................................................
vi
DAFTAR ISI.......................................................................................................................
viii
DAFTAR TABEL...............................................................................................................
xiii
DAFTAR GAMBAR...........................................................................................................
xiv
DAFTAR GRAFIK.............................................................................................................
xvi
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN.......................................................................................................
xvii

BAB I PENDAHULUAN
I.1. Latar Belakang..............................................................................................................
1...........................................................................................................................................
I.2. Tujuan............................................................................................................................
2...........................................................................................................................................
I.3. Manfaat..........................................................................................................................
2...........................................................................................................................................
I.4. Batasan Masalah............................................................................................................
3...........................................................................................................................................
I.5. Waktu dan Tempat Pelaksanaan....................................................................................
3
BAB II GAMBARAN UMUM PERUSAHAAN
II.1. Visi dan Misi PT Inalum..............................................................................................
4...........................................................................................................................................
II.2. Sejarah Singkat............................................................................................................
4...........................................................................................................................................
II.3. Ruang lingkup..............................................................................................................
6...........................................................................................................................................
II.4. Perbandingan Saham dan Tenaga Kerja .....................................................................
10
II.5. Fasilitas Lainnya..........................................................................................................
10

xi

II.6. Alih teknologi..............................................................................................................


11
II.7. Kinerja Perusahaan .....................................................................................................
12
II.8. Kontribusi PT Inalum..................................................................................................
13
II.9. Proses Produksi............................................................................................................
15
BAB III STRUKTUR ORGANISASI DAN MSDM
III.1. Struktur Organisasi.....................................................................................................
17
III.2. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM)............................................................
22
BAB IV DEPARTEMEN OPERASI REDUKSI
IV.1. Sruktur Organisasi Departemen Reduksi dan Penuangan..........................................
25
IV.1.1. Seksi Operasi Reduksi.............................................................................................
25
IV.1.2. Seksi Persiapan Reduksi..........................................................................................
27
IV.2. Peraturan Dalam Gedung Reduksi.............................................................................
30

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IV.3. Alat Pelindung Diri (APD) di Wilayah Gedung Reduksi..........................................


30
IV.4. Peraturan Lalu Lintas di Wilayah Gedung Reduksi...................................................
31
IV.4.1. Peraturan Umum......................................................................................................
32
IV.4.2. Peraturan Khusus.....................................................................................................
32
IV.4.3. Peraturan Tambahan................................................................................................
33
IV.5. Operasi Tungku Reduksi............................................................................................
34
IV.5.1. Proses Produksi Aluminium dengan Elektrolisis....................................................
34
IV.5.1.1. Sejarah dan Teori..................................................................................................
34
IV.5.2. Deskripsi Ringkas Proses........................................................................................
36
IV.5.3. Produksi Aluminium...............................................................................................
38
IV.5.4.Efisiensi Arus...........................................................................................................
39

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IV.5.5. Konsumsi Daya Listrik............................................................................................


40
IV.5.6. Properti Elektrolisis.................................................................................................
40
IV.5.6.1. Keasaman Bath.....................................................................................................
40
IV.5.6.2. Temperatur Liquidus............................................................................................
41
IV.5.6.3. Komposisi Bath....................................................................................................
42
IV.5.7. Voltase Pot..............................................................................................................
42
IV.5.8. Siklus Operasi Pot Reduksi.....................................................................................
44
IV.5.8.1. Perakitan Katoda dan Rekonstruksi Pot...............................................................
44
IV.5.8.1.1. Perakitan Katoda...............................................................................................
44
IV.5.8.1.2. Rekonstruksi Penuh...........................................................................................
47
IV.5.8.1.3. Rekonstruksi Sebagian......................................................................................
49

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IV.5.8.2. Baking dan Start Up..........................................................................................


50
IV.5.8.2.1. Baking...............................................................................................................
50
IV.5.8.1.2. Start Up...........................................................................................................
51
IV.5.8.3. Masa Transisi.......................................................................................................
54
IV.5.8.4. Operasi Normal....................................................................................................
54
IV.5.8.4.1. Penggantian Anoda............................................................................................
55
IV.5.8.4.2. Pengambilan Metal............................................................................................
59
IV.5.8.4.3 Penaikkan Busbar Anoda...................................................................................
61
IV.5.8.4.4. Pengambilan Karbon.........................................................................................
61
IV.5.8.4.5. Pengambilan Bath..............................................................................................
62
IV.5.8.4.6. Penanggulangan Efek Anoda............................................................................
63

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IV.5.8.4.7. Pengatasan Noise...............................................................................................


64
IV.5.8.4.8. Pengukuran (Measurement)..............................................................................
64
IV.5.8.5. Cut Out.................................................................................................................
67
IV.6. Kegiatan Pendukung...................................................................................................
69
IV.6.1. Alur Dari Material...................................................................................................
69
IV.6.2. Pengelolaan Material Alumina................................................................................
69
IV.6.3. Dry Scrubbing System (DSS)..................................................................................
73
IV.6.4. Pengoperasian Bath Material Mixing Centre (BMMC)..........................................
75
IV.6.5. Transportasi.............................................................................................................
76
IV.6.6. Kontrol Proses Pot...................................................................................................
79
IV.6.6.1. Perangkat Keras....................................................................................................
81

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IV.6.6.2. Perangkat Lunak...................................................................................................


82
IV.6.7. Ladle Cleaning Shop (LCS)....................................................................................
85
IV.6.8. Perawatan (Maintenance)........................................................................................
88
IV.6.9. Perbaikan Teknik (Technical Improvement)...........................................................
93
IV.6.9.1. Pembuatan Celah Pada Anoda (Slotted Anode)...................................................
95
IV.6.9.2. Anoda Besar dan Tinggi dan Tangkai Besar........................................................
97
IV.6.9.3. Siklus Pengambilan Metal....................................................................................
99
IV.6.9.4. Pemanasan Dengan Gas.......................................................................................
101
IV.6.9.5. Teeth Blade...........................................................................................................
103
BAB V TUGAS KHUSUS
V. Tugas Khusus..................................................................................................................
106
BAB VI KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

xvii

VI.1. Kesimpulan.................................................................................................................
120
VI.2. Saran...........................................................................................................................
120
DAFTAR PUSTAKA........................................................................................................
121

DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel IV.1. ..........................................................................................................................


58
Tabel IV.2. ..........................................................................................................................
63
Tabel IV.3. ..........................................................................................................................
72
Tabel IV.4. ..........................................................................................................................
77
Tabel IV.5. ..........................................................................................................................
86

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Tabel IV.6. ..........................................................................................................................


97
Tabel IV.7. ..........................................................................................................................
99
Tabel IV.8. ..........................................................................................................................
100
Tabel IV.9. ..........................................................................................................................
102
Tabel IV.10. ........................................................................................................................
105
Tabel V.1. ...........................................................................................................................
108
Tabel V.2. ...........................................................................................................................
109
Tabel V.3. ...........................................................................................................................
111
Tabel V.4. ...........................................................................................................................
112

DAFTAR GAMBAR

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Gambar IV.1. ......................................................................................................................


29
Gambar IV.2. ......................................................................................................................
37
Gambar IV.3. ......................................................................................................................
39
Gambar IV.4. ......................................................................................................................
42
Gambar IV.5. ......................................................................................................................
46
Gambar IV.6. ......................................................................................................................
57
Gambar IV.7. ......................................................................................................................
58
Gambar IV.8. ......................................................................................................................
59
Gambar IV.9. ......................................................................................................................
71
Gambar IV.10. ....................................................................................................................
74
Gambar IV.11. ....................................................................................................................
75

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Gambar IV.12. ....................................................................................................................


91
Gambar IV.13. ....................................................................................................................
91
Gambar IV.14. ....................................................................................................................
92
Gambar IV.15. ....................................................................................................................
92
Gambar IV.16. ....................................................................................................................
96
Gambar IV.17. ....................................................................................................................
96
Gambar IV.18. ....................................................................................................................
102
Gambar IV.19. ....................................................................................................................
103
Gambar IV.20. ....................................................................................................................
104
Gambar IV.21. ....................................................................................................................
108

xxi

DAFTAR GRAFIK

Grafik V.1. ..........................................................................................................................


115
Grafik V.2. ..........................................................................................................................
115
Grafik V.3. ..........................................................................................................................
116
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Grafik V.4. ..........................................................................................................................


117
Grafik V.5. ..........................................................................................................................
118

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran A..........................................................................................................................
122

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Lampiran B..........................................................................................................................
126
Lampiran C..........................................................................................................................
128

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