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ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. AP M 1993 MC 5 001 10.0 points If F1 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on a satellite in orbit about the Earth and F2 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the satellite on the Earth, then which of the following is true? 1. F1 F2 . 2. F2 F1 . 3. F1 = F2 . correct 4. F2 > F1 . 5. F1 > F2 . Explanation: The forces must be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Concept 05 E12 002 10.0 points Consider a baseball bat hitting a ball. Which of the following is correct? 1. Both slow down. 2. The baseball bat slows down, and the ball speeds up. 3. None of these correct 4. The baseball bat speeds up, and the ball slows down. 5. Both speed up. Explanation: A baseball exerts an external force on the bat (opposite to the bats motion) which decelerates the oncoming bat. Whether the ball will speed up or slow down is dependent on the direction of its velocity.

Concept 05 E20 003 10.0 points Ken and Joanne are astronauts oating some distance apart in space. They are joined by a safety cord whose ends are tied around their waists. If Ken starts pulling on the cord, what will happen? 1. Joanne will move toward Ken while Ken remains stationary. 2. Neither will move. 3. The move toward each other. correct 4. Ken will move toward Joanne while Joanne remains stationary. Explanation: Both will move. Kens pull on the rope is transmitted to Joanne, causing her to accelerate toward him. By Newtons third law, the rope pulls back on Ken, causing him to accelerate toward Joanne. Conceptual 04 07 004 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points Tracy (of mass 46 kg) and Tom (of mass 67 kg) are standing at rest in the center of the roller rink, facing each other, free to move. Tracy pushes o Tom with her hands and remains in contact with Toms hands, applying a constant force for 0.45 s. Tracy moves 0.3 m during this time. When she stops pushing o Tom, she moves at a constant speed. What is Tracys constant acceleration during her time of contact with Tom? Correct answer: 2.96296 m/s2 . Explanation: Let : d = 0.3 m and t = 0.45 s . 1 Since d = a t2 , 2 a= 2 (0.3 m) 2d = = 2.96296 m/s2 . 2 t (0.45 s)2

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) 005 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points What is Tracys nal speed after this contact? Correct answer: 1.33333 m/s. Explanation: Let : a = 2.96296 m/s2 t = 0.45 s . and

By Newtons third law, the forces have the 1 same magnitude, so a . m 1 But v = a t , so Tom has a smaller m acceleration and nal velocity because he is more massive. Conceptual forces 02 008 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points Consider the following statement made regarding a book at rest on a level table: The two forces exerted on the book are the normal force directed up and the weight of the book directed down. These are equal and opposite to one another. By Newtons third law they are an actionreaction pair, so the normal force is always equal to the weight of the book. Do you agree with the statement? 1. Disagree; if an additional force acts down on the book, the normal force must also counter this extra force. correct 2. Agree; a normal force only exerts enough force to keep the object from falling through. The normal force and weight are always equal, even when other forces are present. 3. Agree; for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (Newtons third law). Since gravity pulls down on the book, to be equal and opposite the force of gravity must equal the normal force. 4. Disagree; the weight must be slightly greater than the normal force to keep the book in contact with the table. However, the forces are an action-reaction force pair because they are acting on one object. Explanation: If we were to put a weight on the book, the normal force would not be simply the weight of the book as the statement implies (see part 2). Note: This force pair is not a third law

v = a t = (2.96296 m/s2 ) (0.45 s) = 1.33333 m/s . 006 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points What force was applied to Tracy during this time? Correct answer: 136.296 N. Explanation: Let : m = 46 kg and a = 2.96296 m/s2 . F = ma = (46 kg) (2.96296 m/s2 ) = 136.296 N . 007 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points What is correct about Toms motion? 1. Toms acceleration is greater. 2. The force acting on Tom is greater than the force acting on Tracy. 3. Toms acceleration is smaller. correct 4. Toms nal velocity is greater than Tracys. Explanation:

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) action-reaction pair. The force pairs in Newtons third law always act on two dierent objects! The action-reaction pair is Earth exerts a force on the book and the book exerts a force on the Earth. Caution: The explanation introduces something not mentioned in the problem. 009 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points Consider a book on top of a level table while the book is being pressed straight down with a force F by your hand.

3.

normal

gravitational

hand

4.

gravitational

normal

5.

The following gures show several attempts at drawing free-body diagrams for the book. Which gure has the correct directions for each force? Note: The magnitude of the forces are not necessarily drawn to scale.

normal

gravitational

6.

gravitational

hand

1.

normal

normal correct hand Explanation: The normal force opposes both the gravitational force down and the Fhand down. 010 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points What forces change when comparing the free body diagram before the hand was placed on the book to after? 1. gravitational 2. gravitational and normal 3. gravitational and Fhand 4. gravitational, normal, and Fhand

gravitational

2.

hand

normal

gravitational

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) 5. None of these 6. Fhand 7. normal and Fhand correct 8. normal Explanation: There will be a change in both the normal force and the Fhand . When the hand is removed, the normal force is equal to the weight of the book. Force and Motion 07 011 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points The following 3 questions refer to the collisions between a car and a truck whose weight is much heavier than the car (M m). For each description of a collision below, choose the one answer from the possibilities that best describes the size (or magnitude) of the forces between the car and the truck. M

m

6. None of the answers above correctly describes the situation. Explanation: By Newtons third law, action and reaction are of the same magnitude and in opposite directions. 012 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points The car is moving much faster than the heavier truck when they collide. 1. The truck exerts the same amount of force on the car as the car exerts on the truck. correct 2. Neither exerts a force on the other; the car gets smashed simply because it is in the way of the truck. 3. The car exerts a greater amount of force on the truck than the truck exerts on the car. 4. The truck exerts a greater amount of force on the car than the car exerts on the truck. 5. None of the answers above correctly describes the situation. 6. Not enough information is given to pick one of the answers above. Explanation: The same reason as Part 1. 013 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points The heavier truck is standing still when the car hits it. 1. The car exerts a greater amount of force on the truck than the truck exerts on the car. 2. Not enough information is given to pick one of the answers above. 3. The truck exerts the same amount of force on the car as the car exerts on the truck. correct

They are both moving at the same speed when they collide. 1. Neither exerts a force on the other; the car gets smashed simply because it is in the way of the truck. 2. The car exerts a greater amount of force on the truck than the truck exerts on the car. 3. The truck exerts a greater amount of force on the car than the car exerts on the truck. 4. The truck exerts the same amount of force on the car as the car exerts on the truck. correct 5. Not enough information is given to pick one of the answers above.

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) 4. Neither exerts a force on the other; the car gets smashed simply because it is in the way of the truck. 5. None of the answers above correctly describes the situation. 6. The truck exerts a greater amount of force on the car than the car exerts on the truck. Explanation: The same reason as Part 1. Force and Motion 10 014 10.0 points Two students sit in identical oce chairs facing each other. Bob has a mass of 95 kg, while Jim has a mass of 77 kg. Bob places his bare feet on Jims knees, as shown to the right. Bob then suddenly pushes outward with his feet, causing both chairs to move.

Conceptual forces 06 short 015 10.0 points A spherical mass rests upon two wedges, as seen in the gure below. The sphere and the wedges are at rest and stay at rest. There is no friction between the sphere and the wedges. M

The following gures show several attempts at drawing free-body diagrams for the sphere. Which gure has the correct directions for each force? Note: The magnitude of the forces are not necessarily drawn to scale.

1.

normal weight

normal weight

Bob

Jim

In this situation, while Bobs feet are in contact with Jims knees, 1. Neither student exerts a force on the other. 2. None of these answers is correct. 3. Each student exerts a force on the other, but Bob exerts a larger force. 4. Bob exerts a force on Jim, but Jim doesnt exert a force on Bob. 5. Each student exerts the same amount of force on the other. correct 6. Each student exerts a force on the other, but Jim exerts a larger force. Explanation: By Newtons third law, action and reaction are of the same magnitude and in the opposite direction.

2.

normal friction

3.

4.

normal

6.

9 cm

7.

normal weight

normal weight

4. 8 m 8.2 kg At what rate are the two masses accelerating when they pass each other? Correct answer: 3.89118 m/s2 .

8. weight

Explanation: Let : R = 9 cm , m1 = 8.2 kg , m2 = 19 kg , h = 4.8 m , and v = R. Consider the free body diagrams

9.

normal

normal weight

correct

Explanation: Weight the force of gravity pulls the sphere down. The normal force of the left wedge upon the sphere acts perpendicular to (normal to) their surfaces at the point of contact; i.e., diagonally upward and rightward. Likewise, the normal force of the right wedge upon the sphere acts diagonally upward and leftward. Atwood Machine 14 016 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A light, inextensible cord passes over a light, frictionless pulley with a radius of 9 cm. It has a(n) 19 kg mass on the left and a(n) 8.2 kg mass on the right, both hanging freely. Initially their center of masses are a vertical distance 4.8 m apart. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

19 kg m2 g

8.2 kg m1 g

T T m1 g = m1 a m2 g T = m2 a a (1) (2)

Since the larger mass will move down and the smaller mass up, we can take motion downward as positive for m2 and motion upward as positive for m1 . Apply Newtons second law to m1 and m2 respectively and then combine the results: For mass 1: F1 : For mass 2: F2 :

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) a= m2 m1 g m1 + m2 19 kg 8.2 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 19 kg + 8.2 kg = 3.89118 m/s2 . 2. a 4 m/s2 3. a 3 m/s2 4. a 2 m/s2 correct 5. a 6 m/s2 6. a 8 m/s2 7. a 1 m/s2 Explanation: 8. a 10 m/s2 Given : m1 = 64 kg , m2 = 32 kg , R = 0. 3 m , = 7 m , and g 10 m/s2 . Consider the free body diagrams T1 T2 T2

017 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points What is the tension in the cord when they pass each other? Correct answer: 112.268 N. Explanation: T = m1 (g + a) = (8.2 kg) (9.8 m/s2 + 3.89118 m/s2 ) = 112.268 N .

AP M 1993 MC 9 018 10.0 points Pretend you are on a planet similar to Earth where the acceleration of gravity is approximately 10 m/s2 . The pulley is massless and frictionless. A massless inextensible string is attached to the masses. The objects are initially held at rest.

m2 m2 g m1 g

m1 T1

m1 m1 g

0. 3 m

64 kg 7m 64 kg 32 kg If a third object with a mass of 32 kg is hung on one of the 64 kg objects as shown and the objects are released, the magnitude of the acceleration a of the 32 kg object is most nearly 1. a 30 m/s2

The total unbalanced force on the system (the total mass is 320 N) is the gravitational force on the 32 kg object. Therefore the acceleration, according to Newtons second law of motion, is Fnet = m2 g = (2 m1 + m2 ) a , and m2 g a = 2 m1 + m2 (32 kg)(10 m/s2 ) 2 (64 kg) + (32 kg) 320 N 160 kg 2 m/s2 . Atwood Machine 11

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) 019 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A pulley is massless and frictionless. 1 kg, 2 kg, and 8 kg masses are suspended as in the gure.

23.9 cm T2 2 kg T1 1 kg What is the tension T1 in the string between the two blocks on the left-hand side of the pulley? The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Correct answer: 14.2545 N. Explanation: Let : R = 23.9 cm , m1 = 1 kg , m2 = 2 kg , m3 = 8 kg , and h = 2 m. Consider the free body diagrams T1 T2 T3 2m 8 kg T3

and T3 are in the same direction (up). The acceleration of the system will be down to the right (m3 > m1 + m2 ), and each mass in the system accelerates at the same rate (the string does not stretch). Let this acceleration rate be a and the tension over the pulley be T T2 = T3 . For the lower left-hand mass m1 the acceleration is up and T1 m1 g = m1 a . (1)

For the right-hand mass m3 the acceleration is down and T + m3 g = m3 a . Adding Eqs. (1), (2), and (3), we have (m3 m1 m2 ) g = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) a (4) m3 m1 m2 g m1 + m2 + m3 8 kg 1 kg 2 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 1 kg + 2 kg + 8 kg = 4.45455 m/s2 . (3)

a=

(5)

The tension in the string between block m1 and block m2 (on the left-hand side of the pulley) can be determined from Eq. (1). T1 = m1 (a + g ) (6) 2 2 = (1 kg) (4.45455 m/s + 9.8 m/s ) a = 14.2545 N . 020 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the lower left-hand block? Correct answer: 4.45455 m/s2 . Explanation: The acceleration is the same for every mass, since the string is inextensible.

1 kg m1 g

2 kg m2 g T1

8 kg m3 g

For each mass in the system Fnet = m a . Since the string changes direction around the pulley, the forces due to the tensions T2

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) keywords: Atwood Machine 15 021 10.0 points A light, inextensible cord passes over a light, frictionless pulley with a radius of 14 cm. It has a(n) 18 kg mass on the left and a(n) 9.5 kg mass on the right, both hanging freely. Initially their center of masses are a vertical distance 2 m apart. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Since the larger mass will move down and the smaller mass up, we can take motion downward as positive for m2 and motion upward as positive for m1 . Apply Newtons second law to m1 and m2 respectively and then combine the results: For mass 1: F1 : For mass 2: F2 : m2 g T = m2 a (2) T m1 g = m1 a (1)

14 cm

We can add Eqs. (1) and (2) above and obtain: m2 g m1 g = m1 a + m2 a a= m2 m1 g m1 + m2 18 kg 9.5 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 18 kg + 9.5 kg = 3.02909 m/s2 .

18 kg 2m 9.5 kg At what rate are the two masses accelerating when they pass each other? Correct answer: 3.02909 m/s2 . Explanation:

T = m1 (g + a) = (9.5 kg) (9.8 m/s2 + 3.02909 m/s2 ) = 121.876 N . Exam Accelerated System 022 10.0 points A mass of 2.7 kg lies on a frictionless table, pulled by another mass of 3.8 kg under the inuence of Earths gravity. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 2.7 kg

Let :

R = 14 cm , m1 = 9.5 kg , m2 = 18 kg , h = 2 m , and v = R.

18 kg m2 g

9.5 kg m1 g

3.8 kg What is the magnitude of the acceleration a of the two masses? Correct answer: 5.72923 m/s2 .

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Explanation: Given : m1 = 2.7 kg and m2 = 3.8 kg . a m1 N m1 g T T m2 m2 g a a m1 N m1 g T T m2 m2 g a

10

Calculate the acceleration of the rst block. Correct answer: 6.86182 m/s2 . Explanation: Given : m1 = 3.22 kg , m2 = 7.52 kg . and

Let the direction of acceleration as indicated in the gure be positive. The net force on the system is simply the weight of m2 . Fnet = m2 g = 37.24 N . From Newtons second law, Fnet = m2 g = (m1 + m2 ) a . Solving for a, a= m2 g m1 + m2 3.8 kg = 2.7 kg + 3.8 kg = 5.72923 m/s2 .

Since the cord is unstretchable, the rst block accelerates to the right at exactly the same rate a as the second (hanging) block accelerates downward. Also, the cords tension pulls the rst block to the right with exactly the same tension T as it pulls the second block upward. The only horizontal force acting on the rst block is the cords tension T , hence by Newtons Second Law

net m1 a = F1 =T.

Accelerated System 01 023 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A block of mass 3.22 kg lies on a frictionless horizontal surface. The block is connected by a cord passing over a pulley to another block of mass 7.52 kg which hangs in the air, as shown on the following picture. Assume the cord to be light (massless and weightless) and unstretchable and the pulley to have no friction and no rotational inertia. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 3.22 kg

The second block feels two vertical forces: The cords tension T (upward) and the blocks own weight W2 = m2 g (downward). Consequently,

net = m2 g T . m2 a = F2

Adding the two equations together, we arrive at (m1 + m2 ) a = m2 g , and hence a= m2 g m1 + m2 7.52 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 3.22 kg + 7.52 kg = 6.86182 m/s2 . 024 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

7.52 kg

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Calculate the tension in the cord. Correct answer: 22.0951 N. Explanation: T = m1 a = (3.22 kg) (6.86182 m/s2 ) = 22.0951 N . Accelerated System 02 025 10.0 points A block of mass 4.51 kg lies on a frictionless horizontal surface. The block is connected by a cord passing over a pulley to another block of mass 4.94 kg which hangs in the air, as shown on the following picture. Assume the cord to be light (massless and weightless) and unstretchable and the the pulley to have no friction and no rotational inertia. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 4.51 kg

11

pulls the rst block to the right with exactly the same tension T as it pulls the second block upward. The only horizontal force acting on the rst block is the cords tension T , hence by Newtons Second Law

net m1 a = F1 =T.

The second block feels two vertical forces: The cords tension T (upward) and the blocks own weight W2 = m2 g (downward). Consequently,

net m2 a = F2 = m2 g T .

Adding the two equations together, we arrive at (m1 + m2 ) a = m2 g , and hence a= m2 g m1 + m2 4.94 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 4.51 kg + 4.94 kg = 5.12296 m/s2 .

4.94 kg Calculate the acceleration of the rst block. Correct answer: 5.12296 m/s2 . Explanation: Let : m1 = 4.51 kg and m2 = 4.94 kg .

Accelerated System 03 026 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points A block of mass 2.6792 kg lies on a frictionless table, pulled by another mass 4.97091 kg under the inuence of Earths gravity. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 2.6792 kg

4.97091 kg a m1 N m1 g T T m2 m2 g a What is the magnitude of the net external force F acting on the two mass system connected by the string? Correct answer: 48.7149 N. Explanation: Given : m1 = 2.6792 kg and m2 = 4.97091 kg .

Since the cord is unstretchable, the rst block accelerates to the right at exactly the same rate a as the second (hanging) block accelerates downward. Also, the cords tension

12

pulled by another mass of 4.6 kg under the inuence of Earths gravity. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

The net force on the system is simply the weight of m2 . Fnet = m2 g = (4.97091 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) = 48.7149 N . 027 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points What is the magnitude of the acceleration a of the two masses? Correct answer: 6.36787 m/s2 . Explanation: From Newtons second law, Fnet = m2 g = (m1 + m2 ) a . Solving for a, m2 a= g m1 + m2 4.97091 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 2.6792 kg + 4.97091 kg = 6.36787 m/s2 . 028 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points What is the magnitude of the tension T of the rope between the two masses? Correct answer: 17.0608 N. Explanation: Analyzing the horizontal forces on block m1 , we have Fx : T = m1 a = (2.6792 kg) (6.36787 m/s ) = 17.0608 N . Accelerated System 04 029 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A mass of 2 kg lies on a frictionless table,

2

4.6 kg What is the magnitude of the acceleration a of the two masses? Correct answer: 6.8303 m/s2 . Explanation: Let : m1 = 2 kg and m2 = 4.6 kg . a m1 N m1 g T T m2 m2 g a

Let the direction of acceleration as indicated in the gure be positive. The net force on the system is simply the weight of m2 . Fnet = m2 g . From Newtons second law, Fnet = m2 g = (m1 + m2 ) a . m2 a= g m1 + m2 4.6 kg (9.8 m/s2 ) = 2 kg + 4.6 kg = 6.8303 m/s2 . 030 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points T , a and g represent positive quantities. Which equation is correct? 1. (4.6 kg) g T = (2 kg) a

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) 2. T (4.6 kg) g = (4.6 kg) a 3. T (4.6 kg) g = (2 kg + 4.6 kg) a 4. T + (2 kg) g = (2 kg) a 5. T (2 kg) g = (2 kg) a 6. T (4.6 kg) g = (2 kg) a 7. T + (2 kg) g = (4.6 kg) a 8. (4.6 kg) g T = (4.6 kg) a correct 9. (4.6 kg) g T = (2 kg + 4.6 kg) a 10. T (2 kg) g = (4.6 kg) a Explanation: Applying Newtons second law (and the free-body diagram above) to the mass m2 yields Fnet = m2 g T = m2 a (4.6 kg) g T = (4.6 kg) a Static Friction and Pulley 031 10.0 points A 75 N block rests on a table. The suspended mass has a weight of 24 N. 75 N s s N a T T a

13

W1 W2 N Consider the forces then the blocks would rst start to move: For block W2 vertically, Fy,net = T W2 = 0 For block W1 horizontally, Fx,net = T N = 0 N = T = W1 = 24 N . Accelerated Blocks 032 10.0 points Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless string as shown in the gure. The system starts from rest. When the 2.12 kg mass has fallen through 0.377 m, its downward speed is 1.28 m/s. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . a 3.72 kg

2.12 kg What is the frictional force between the 3.72 kg mass and the table? Correct answer: 8.08601 N. Explanation: Given : m1 m2 v0 v = 2.12 kg , = 3.72 kg , = 0 m/s , and = 1.28 m/s .

24 N What frictional force is required to keep the blocks from moving? Correct answer: 24 N. Explanation: Given : W1 = 75 N and W2 = 24 N .

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Solution: The acceleration of m1 is obtained from the equation

2 v 2 v0 = 2 a (s s0 ) 2 v 2 v0 2h (1.28 m/s)2 (0 m/s)2 = 2 (0.377 m) = 2.17294 m/s2 .

14

3.6 kg

a=

2.2 kg What is the coecient of friction between m2 and the table? Correct answer: 0.233938. Explanation: Given : m1 = 2.2 kg , m2 = 3.6 kg , s = 0.374 m , v0 = 0 m/s .

and

Basic Concept: Newtons Second Law F =Ma Solution: The acceleration of m1 is obtained from the equation

2 v 2 v0 = 2 a (s s0 )

Because m1 and m2 are tied together with string, they have same the speed and the same acceleration, so the net force exerted on m2 is F2 = m2 a The net force on m1 is m1 a = m1 g T , so that T = m1 g m1 a. Thus F2 = T fk , fk = T F2 = m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a = (2.12 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) (2.12 kg + 3.72 kg) (2.17294 m/s2 ) = 8.08601 N .

a=

Consider free body diagrams for the two masses a m2 m2 g N which leads to m2 g T T m1 m1 g a

Falling Mass 01 033 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless cord over a frictionless massless pulley as shown in the gure. Assume the system starts from rest. When the masses have moved a distance of 0.374 m, their speed is 1.31 m/s. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) where T is the tension in the cord and from Eq. 3, fk N = m2 g . Because m1 and m2 are tied together with a cord, they have same the speed and the same acceleration. Adding Eqs. 1 & 2 we have (m1 + m2 ) a = m1 g fk = m1 g m2 g so that m2 g = m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a . Thus = m1 (m1 + m2 ) a m2 m2 g 2.2 kg 2.2 kg + 3.6 kg = 3.6 kg 3.6 kg 2.29425 m/s2 9.8 m/s2 = 0.233938 . The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

15

s m/

m k

27

Find k between the block and the inclined plane. 1. 0.148 2. 0.166 correct 3. 1.289 4. 0.853 5. 0.510

034 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points What is the magnitude of the tension in the cord? Correct answer: 16.5126 N. Explanation: Using Eq. 1 the tension T is T = m1 (g a) = (2.2 kg) (9.8 m/s2 2.29425 m/s2 ) = 16.5126 N or, using Eq. 2 and from Part 1, the tension T is T = m2 [a + g ] = (3.6 kg) [(2.29425 m/s2 ) + (0.233938) (9.8 m/s2 )] = 16.5126 N . Since the T is the same using Eqs. 1 & 2: Part 1, = 0.233938, is veried. Accelerating Down a Plane 03 035 10.0 points A block accelerates 3 m/s2 down a plane inclined at angle 27.0.

Explanation: Given : a = 3 m/s2 , = 27 , and g = 9.81 m/s2 . Consider the free body diagram for the block a

sin g m

Basic Concepts:

mg

s N g co =m

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Perpendicular to the ramp: Fy,net = Fn Fg,y = 0 Fg,y = mg cos Solution: Consider the forces parallel to the ramp: Fk = Fg,x max = mg sin max Consider the forces perpendicular to the ramp: Fn = Fg,y = mg cos Thus the coecient of friction is k = Fk Fn m g sin m a = m g cos g sin a = g cos 9.81 m/s2 sin 27 3 m/s2 = 9.81 m/s2 cos 27 = 0.166306 . Accelerating Down a Plane 036 10.0 points A block accelerates 3 m/s2 down a plane inclined at angle 27.0. The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . Given : a = 3 m/s2 , = 27 , and g = 9.81 m/s2 .

16

sin g m

Basic Concepts:

mg

s N g co =m

Fnet = ma Parallel to the ramp: Fx,net = max = Fg,x Fk Fg,x = mg sin Fk = k Fn Perpendicular to the ramp: Fy,net = Fn Fg,y = 0 Fg,y = mg cos Solution: Consider the forces parallel to the ramp: Fk = Fg,x max = mg sin max Consider the forces perpendicular to the ramp: Fn = Fg,y = mg cos

s m/

m k

27

Find k between the block and the inclined plane. Correct answer: 0.166306. Explanation:

Thus the coecient of friction is Fk k = Fn m g sin m a = m g cos g sin a = g cos 9.81 m/s2 sin 27 3 m/s2 = 9.81 m/s2 cos 27 = 0.166306 .

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Block on Incline 01 037 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Your teacher placed a 2.5 kg block at the position marked with a + (horizontally, 0.5 m from the origin) on a large incline outlined on the graph below and let it slide, starting from rest. 10 9 Vertical Height, y (m) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Horizontal Distance, x (m) Figure: Drawn to scale. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom edge (right-hand edge) of the incline. The coecient of kinetic friction for the block on the incline is 0.83 and the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Correct answer: 4.49856 N. Explanation: Let : = 0.83 , xb = 4 m , yb = 4 m , xt = 0 m , yt = 8. 5 m , yt yb = arctan , xb xt 8. 5 m 4 m = arctan , 4m0 m = 48.3665 , and x = 0. 5 m . The graph below shows the trajectory of 0 0 1

17

the block while it is on the incline and after it slides o the incline where it nally hits the oor. 10 9 Vertical Height, y (m) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Horizontal Distance, x (m) The free-body diagram when the block is on the incline is os c g m N in s g m

m os gc

mg y = yt yt yb xb 8. 5 m 4 m = 8. 5 m 4m = 7.9375 m .

a = g (sin cos )

xd = xb x = 4 m 0 . 5 m = 3 . 5 m .

18

yd = y yb = 7.9375 m 4 m = 3.9375 m .

t= =

1 g

vy

2 + 2 g y vy

d= =

2 x2 d + yd

= 5.2682 m .

vb = =

= 4.49856 m/s . 038 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Calculate the horizontal distance from the bottom edge (right-hand edge) of the incline to where the block hits the oor (i.e., y = 0). Correct answer: 1.86304 m/s. Explanation: vy = vb sin = (4.49856 m/s) sin 48.3665 = 3.36226 m/s .

Block Sliding Down 01 039 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points Hint: This problem requires a train of logic. (1) Analyze force diagram, (2) use Newtons Laws, and (3) solve the equations of motion. A block starts from rest at a height of 8.8 m on a xed inclined plane. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

7k

g . 27

25

0 =

What is the speed of the block at the bottom of the ramp? Correct answer: 8.52122 m/s. Explanation:

so

g 2 t + vy t y = 0 and 2

2 vy + 2 g y = (3.36226 m/s)2

Let :

19

N Ff

Ff 25

mg

25

a = g If v0 is speed of block when it leaves incline, and as the nal speed vf = 0, we have

2 2 vf = v0 +2ax 2 v0 = 2 a x = 2 g x 2 v0 x= 2g (8.52122 m/s)2 | x| = 2 (9.8 m/s2 ) (0.27) = 13.7209 m .

The normal force to the inclined plane is N = m g cos . The sum of the forces parallel to the inclined plane is Fnet = m a = m g sin m g cos a = g sin g cos Since

2 2 vf = v0 + 2ax = 2ad

then

(1)

along the plane, and neglecting the dimension of the block, the distance, d, to the end of the ramp is d sin = h d= therefore vf = = = 2ah 2 g h (sin cos ) = sin sin 2 g h (1 cot ) h sin (2)

Friction on an Incline 02 041 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A block is at rest on an inclined plane.

80 kg . 48

=0 s

(3)

= 8.52122 m/s .

Find the critical angle, c , at which the block just begins to slide. Correct answer: 25.641 . Explanation: Basic Concepts: Friction: fs s N , fk = k N Let : m = 80 kg , s = 0.48 , c = 25.641 , and vf = nal speed .

040 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points If the block continues to slide on the ground with the same coecient of friction, how far will the block slide on the ground until coming to rest? Correct answer: 13.7209 m.

20

N

Ff 25.641

6. fs =

1 m g cos 2

9. fs = s m g cos

mg

Solution: At the critical angle c , the magnitude of the static frictional force attains its maximum value s N . Since the block is at rest, the component of the gravitational force parallel to the incline is equal in magnitude to the frictional force m g sin c = fs = s N . (1)

10. fs = s m g sin Explanation: Below the critical angle, the block is still at rest. So by Newtons second law, it still remains true that the parallel component of the gravitational force is equal in magnitude to the static frictional force fs = m g sin .

Also the component of the gravitational force perpendicular to the incline is equal in magnitude to the normal force N = m g cos c . Combining (1) and (2) yields m g sin c = s m g cos c , or tan c = s c = tan s = arctan(0.48) = 25.641 . 042 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points Find the magnitude of the static frictional force when < c . 1. fs = 0 2. fs = m g 3. fs = m g cos 1 s m g sin 2 1 5. fs = s m g cos 2 4. fs =

1

(2)

Holt SF 04D 03 043 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points A 76.0 kg box slides down a 24.0 ramp with an acceleration of 3.10 m/s2 . The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . 2 /s m 3. 1

76 kg k

24

a) Find k between the box and the ramp. Correct answer: 0.0993192. Explanation:

Given : m = 76 kg , a = 3.1 m/s2 , = 24 , and g = 9.81 m/s2 . Consider the free body diagram for the block

a N g cos =m

21

Basic Concepts: Parallel to the ramp: Fx,net = max = Fg,x Fk = mg sin k Fn Perpendicular to the ramp: Fy,net = Fn Fg,y = 0 Fg,y = mg cos

sin g m

mg

Basic Concepts: Fnet = ma Parallel to the ramp: Fx,net = max = Fg,x Fk Fg,x = mg sin Fk = k Fn Perpendicular to the ramp: Fy,net = Fn Fg,y = 0 Fg,y = mg cos Solution: Consider the forces parallel to the ramp: Fk = Fg,x max = mg sin max = (76 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) sin 24 (76 kg)(3.1 m/s2 ) = 67.6466 N Consider the forces perpendicular to the ramp: Fn = Fg,y = mg cos = (76 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) cos 24 = 681.103 N Thus the coecient of friction is k = Fk 67.6466 N = = 0.0993192 . Fn 681.103 N

48

Given : Solution:

m = 161 kg

and =0 .0993192 . k

= (161 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) sin 24 (0.0993192)(161 kg) (9.81 m/s2 ) cos 24 = 499.1 N

down the ramp. Pushing a Block Upward 02 045 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points As shown in the gure, a block is pushed up against the wall. Let the mass of the block be m = 2.2 kg, the coecient of kinetic friction between the block and the wall be = 0.66, and = 48 . Suppose F = 67 N. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . k = 0.66

2.2 kg

044 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points b) What acceleration would a 161 kg mass have down this ramp? Correct answer: 3.1 m/s2 . Explanation:

Version PREVIEW Newtons 3rd Law Friction Johnson (84248) Recall that f = N . From F = 0 in the horizontal direction, one can see that N = F cos . Hence the force of friction is f = N = F cos = 29.5889 N . 046 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points The force, F , which keeps the block moving upwards with a constant velocity satises which equations? 1. F cos = m g + F sin 2. F cos = m g + F cos 3. F sin = m g + F sin 4. F sin = m g 5. F sin = m g F cos 6. F cos = m g 7. F cos = m g F sin 8. F cos = m g F cos 9. F sin = m g F sin 10. F sin = m g + F cos correct Explanation:

22

For constant velocity, acceleration is zero. Hence Fy = 0 = F sin m g F cos . The rst term is the applied upward force, the second term is the weight of the block, and the third term is the frictional force.

v m

mg

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