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Ch 3: Bin i Laplace v hm truyn

Cc phn t ca h thng iu khin c m t bi mt phng trnh thit lp mi quan h v thi gian gia tn hiu vo v tn hiu ra ca phn t. Nhng phng trnh ny l nhng hm theo thi gian v thng gm c nhng thnh phn vi / tch phn. Php bin i Laplace c s dng bin i phng trnh vi phn thnh phng trnh i s - l nhng hm theo tn s. Khi phng trnh i s ny c sp xp dng t l gia tn hiu ra v tn hiu vo, th kt qu c gi l hm truyn t ca phn t. Php bin i Laplace rt thun tin trong vic m t h thng cng nh trong qu trnh phn tch v thit k h thng iu khin.
3-1

C.B. Pham

1. Thit lp quan h input - output


Bn nuc
Ta c:

C.B. Pham

3-2

Thit lp quan h input - output


Nu phng trnh ca dng chy ra khi bn l tuyn tnh (dng chy tng)

hay

Vi

l hng s thi gian ca bn nuc

l h s khuch i ( gi tr xc lp) ca h thng


C.B. Pham 3-3

Thit lp quan h input - output


Mch in RC

i vi t in

Vi
C.B. Pham

l hng s thi gian ca mch in


3-4

Thit lp quan h input - output


Nhit k cht lng
Ta c:

Vi
C.B. Pham

l hng s thi gian ca nhit k


3-5

Thit lp quan h input - output


Van iu khin qu trnh

Lc tc dng ln mng

Phng trnh cn bng lc

Vi

C.B. Pham

3-6

2. Bin i Laplace

nh ngha:

Th d: lm php bin i Laplace i vi hm f(t) = K

Vi
C.B. Pham 3-7

Bng bin i Laplace

C.B. Pham

3-8

nh l ca php bin i Laplace

C.B. Pham

3-9

Bin i Laplace

C.B. Pham

3-10

Bin i Laplace
Th d: Bin i Laplace cho hm sau: Gii Th d: Bin i Laplace cho hm sau vi tt c iu kin ban u bng 0:

Gii Th d: Bin i Laplace cho hm trn khi c iu kin ban u l:


C.B. Pham 3-11

Bin i Laplace
Gii

Th d: Bin i Laplace cho hm sau vi tt c iu kin ban u bng 0:

Gii
C.B. Pham 3-12

Bin i Laplace
Th d: Mt phn t c thi gian tr c m t nh sau: fi(t) = 4t v fo (t) = 4(t - 6), hy bin i Laplace cho tn hiu ra ca phn t. Gii

Bin i Laplace ngc Chuyn i hm theo tn s thnh hm theo thi gian. Trong phn tch h thng iu khin, hm trong min tn s thng c dng l phn s ca hai a thc.
C.B. Pham

3-13

Bin i Laplace
Th d: Thc hin php bin i Laplace ngc cho nhng hm sau:

Gii

C.B. Pham

3-14

Bin i Laplace

C.B. Pham

3-15

3. Hm truyn
Hm truyn ca mt phn t l phn s gia php bin i Laplace ca tn hiu ra v php bin i laplace ca tn hiu vo. Th d: Xc nh hm truyn ca mch RC c phng trnh theo thi gian nh sau:

Gii Th d: Mt van iu khin c hm truyn nh sau nh sau:

C.B. Pham

3-16

Hm truyn
Kho st c tnh p ng ca van khi tn hiu dng in (ng vo) tc ng nh sau:

Gii

C.B. Pham

Gi tr xc lp: 8 (mm) Dng p ng: dao ng tt dn

3-17

Hm truyn
Step Response 14 12 10

Amplitude

8 6 4 2 0

0.5

1 Time (sec)

1.5

C.B. Pham

3-18

Hm truyn
nh l gi tr u / cui Gip xc nh nhng gi tr xc lp nhanh chng m khng cn thc hin bin i Laplace ngc

Th d: ng dng nh l gi tr u / cui kim chng kt qu ca th d trn Gii

C.B. Pham

3-19

4. p ng tn s
Hai loi tn hiu thng dng kho st c tnh p ng ca phn t: tn hiu bc thang v tn hiu dao ng iu ha. c tnh p ng ca phn t i vi tn hiu dao ng iu ha c l p ng tn s v c th hin qua biu Bode

H s khuch i v gc lch pha


Input
A q Period = 1/f
C.B. Pham 3-20

Output

Biu Bode
p ng tn s ca mt phn t l mt tp hp cc gi tr ca h s khuch i v lch pha khi tn hiu dao ng iu ha bin thin trn mt dy tn s. Cc bc xy dng biu Bode: Th s = j trong biu thc hm truyn Biu din hm truyn dng s phc, t c th biu dn dng ta cc. Bin ca s phc chnh l h s khuch i ca phn t tn s . Gc ca s phc chnh l gc lch pha ca phn t tn s .
C.B. Pham 3-21

Biu Bode

C.B. Pham

3-22

p ng tn s
Th d: xt th d v bn nc vi biu thc ton nh sau: Cho lu lng u vo dng dao ng iu ha vi bin trung bnh l 0.0002 (m3/s) v tn s (f) l 0.0001592 (Hz). Cho G = 2000 (s/m2) v = 1590. Xc nh bin v pha ca tn hiu ra (h).

Gii

C.B. Pham

v lch pha l 57.8o

3-23