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COGENERATION OF POWER THROUGH WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN CEMENT PLANTS

OVERVIEW AND PROSPECTS


PRADEEP KUMAR GENERAL MANAGER NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CEMENT AND BUILDING MATERIALS, NEW DELHI

INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY PRESENT STATUS


International Ranking Installed Capacity* Production* No. of Plants : : : : 2nd 180 mn.t 162 mn.t Large Mini** : 130 : 206 - Rotary : 13 - VSK
*Projected, 2006-07 **AIMCMA - 2006

: 193

PLANTS WITH CAPACITY OF ONE MILLION TONNES AND ABOVE


80 NO. OF PLANTS 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1995-96 2001-02 2003-04 2005-06 YEAR 62 73

68

39

QUANTUM OF ENERGY INPUTS TO INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY


COAL CONSUMPTION : 22 MILLION TONNES/YEAR

POWER CONSUMPTION : 14 BILLION UNITS/YEAR TOTAL ENERGY BILL : RS 95 BILLION/YEAR

AVERAGE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN A 1 MTPA CEMENT PLANT


THERMAL ENERGY ELECTRICAL ENERGY COAL REQUIREMENT : 0.80 MILLION KCAL/TONNE CLINKER : 100 KWH/TONNE CEMENT : 2,00,000 TONNES/YEAR

POWER REQUIREMENT : 20 MW (AT 70% LOAD FACTOR)

TOTAL POWER AND CAPTIVE POWER REQUIREMENT FOR VARIOUS PLANT CAPACITIES
PLANT CAPACITY, TPD 1200 3000 4500 TOTAL POWER REQUIREMENT, MW 9.5 23.5 29.0 CAPTIVE POWER* REQUIREMENT, MW 3 7 9

* TAKING CAPTIVE POWER REQUIREMENT @30% OF TOTAL POWER FOR MAINTAINING CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION FROM KILN

INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY - 2006


CAPTIVE POWER GENERATION DIESEL THERMAL WIND ENERGY TOTAL : : : : 1108 MW 716 MW 80 MW 1904 MW

PREHEATER EXIT GAS 300 - 400oC, 180 - 250 KCAL/KG

COOLER EXIT GAS 200 - 300oC, 80 - 130 KCAL/KG

SOURCES OF WASTE HEAT

UPTO 25-30% OF TOTAL POWER REQUIREMENT CAN BE MET THROUGH COGENERATION OF POWER UTILISING WASTE HEAT IN A CEMENT PLANT

COGENERATION SCENARIO IN JAPAN


OUT OF 40 CEMENT PLANTS 16 HAD 31 WASTE HEAT BOILERS (27 FOR NSP AND 4 FOR SP KILNS) TOTAL COGENERATION CAPACITY IS ABOUT 200 MW OUT OF WHICH MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRY SHARE IS ABOUT 42% SEPARATE BOILERS ARE INSTALLED FOR KILN AND AQC SMALLEST CAPACITY OF WASTE HEAT BOILER 2300 KW FOR 4440 TPD KILN WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS ARE OPERATING SINCE 1983

COGENERATION SCENARIO IN CHINA


24 KILNS HAVING CAPACITY OF 2000 TPD AND ABOVE HAVE COGENERATION UNITS WITH SUPPLEMENTARY FIRED BOILERS ABOUT 22-36 KWH/T CLINKER POWER GENERATION IS POSSIBLE WHICH COULD BE INCREASED UPTO 190 KWH/T WITH SUPPLEMENTARY FIRING TCDRI HAS ALREADY COMMISSIONED 12 COGENERATION PLANTS. MOREOVER, 3 EACH ARE UNDER CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN

OVERSEAS SCENARIO
KOREA UTILISATION OF WASTE HEAT FROM COOLER VENT, EACH 2 X 5500 TPD COOLER TO UTILISE FORCED CIRCULATION WATER TYPE HIGH PRESSURE AND LOW PRESSURE WHB SYSTEM GAS FLOW : 5,66,000 AM3/H AT 370oC FROM EACH COOLER POWER GENERATION : 9100 KW (NET) ~ 17.5 KWH/T CEMENT

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
WASTE HEAT BOILER THERMOWIR REMOVING 60% (48-60gm/NM3) DUST FROM THE GASES REDUCING LOAD ON EXISTING ESP HIGHER EFFICIENCY COMPARED CONVENTIONAL HEAT EXCHANGERS TO

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
MODIFIED RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEM KALINA CYCLE USES BINARY FLUID OF AMMONIA AND WATER EFFICIENCY GAINS OF UPTO 50% FOR LOW TEMPERATURE (200-280oC) AND UPTO 20% FOR HIGHER TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCES COMPARED TO RANKINE CYCLE

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
ORMAT ENERGY CONVERTER (OEC) USES ORGANIC FLUID AS WORKING MEDIUM INSTEAD OF STEAM SUITABLE FOR MUCH LOWER TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCES AS ORGANIC FLUID HAS A MUCH LOWER BOILING POINT THAN WATER

NCBs ACHIEVEMENTS & CONTINUING EFFORTS FOR PROMOTION OF COGENERATION TECHNOLOGY


ACHIEVEMENTS
z EVALUATED COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN VARIOUS PLANTS OF 1 MTPA AND ABOVE CAPACITY WORKED OUT TECHNO-ECONOMIC VIABILITY IN A 1.2 MTPA CEMENT PLANT THROUGH DETAILED INPLANT STUDIES NCB IDENTIFIED AS NODAL AGENCY FOR EVALUATION OF VARIOUS COGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES BY MINISTRY OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY, GOVT. OF INDIA.
Contd ...

NCB IDENTIFIED BY MOCI, GOVT OF INDIA TO DISSEMINATE TECHNOLOGY AFTER SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT INDIA CEMENT LTD., VISHNUPURAM UNDER GREEN AID PLAN.

CONTINUING EFFORTS
z TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR INSTALLATION COGENERATION POWER PLANTS. OF

COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN VARIOUS PLANTS


PLANT CAPACITY, TPD PH EXIT GAS FLOW TEMP (Nm3/hr) (oC) X 1000 186 350 289 194 188 234 170 157 200 148 172 415 320 360 350 295 300 300 320 390 378 365 COOLER EXIT GAS FLOW TEMP (Nm3/hr) (oC) X 1000 258 250 129 277 233 165 130 120 154 149 120 250 250 230 220 245 250 250 250 290 260 230 COGEN. POTEN. MW

A B C D E F G H I J

3000, 4ST* 4500, 5ST 3300, 4ST 3000, 4ST* 3300, 6ST 3300, 6ST 2X2800, 6ST 2X1700, 5ST 3300, 4ST* 2250, 5ST 2500, 4ST

4.6 5.5 4.5 4.0 3.2 3.2 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.2 3.0

CONTD ...

COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN VARIOUS PLANTS


PLANT CAPACITY, TPD PH EXIT GAS FLOW TEMP (Nm3/hr) (oC) X 1000 88 88 225 210 151 183 300 300 295 360 280 330 COOLER EXIT GAS FLOW TEMP (Nm3/hr) (oC) X 1000 142 142 240 180 373 210 220 220 230 220 220 240 COGEN. POTEN. MW

K L M N O P *

2225, 5ST 2225, 5ST 3250, 6ST 3000, 4ST 3700, 4ST 2000, 5ST

3.4 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.4

SP PLANTS, ALL OTHERS PC PLANTS

COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN INDIA

PLANTS AMENABLE FOR COGENERATION: TOTAL COGENERATION CAPACITY, MW EXPECTED POWER SAVINGS : :

40 160

UPTO 25-30% OF

PLANTS REQUIREMENT

CO2 EMISSION IN CEMENT MANUFACTURE


CO2 EMISSIONS FROM CEMENT PLANTS (MILLION TONNES/YEAR) PROCESS (THERMAL) CALCINATION COAL COMBUSTION YEAR 2005-06

: :

63 52 115

ELECTRICITY GRID POWER (THERMAL) CAPTIVE POWER (DIESEL & THERMAL)

: :

4.5 3.9 8.4 123.4

TOTAL CO2 EMISSIONS, MILLION TONNES/YEAR :

NOTE : AT THE CEMENT PRODUCTION OF ABOUT 145 MILLION TONNES

CO2 REDUCTION POSSIBILITIES


CO2 REDUCTION POTENTIAL (MILLION TONNES/YEAR) : 1.50

PERCENTAGE REDUCTION AS COMPARED TO EMISSIONS DUE TO ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (i.e. 8.4 MILLION TONNES/YEAR) : 18

CASE STUDY IN A 1.2 MTPA, 4-STAGE PREHEATER CEMENT PLANT


ITEM TOTAL HEAT INPUT BY HEAT BALANCE AVAILABILITY OF WASTE HEAT (i) SENSIBLE HEAT IN PH GASES 224 122.9 346.9 KCAL/KG CLINKER 797.5

(ii) SENSIBLE HEAT IN COOLER EXHAUST TOTAL

ESTIMATED COGENERATION POTENTIAL IN A 1.2 MTPA PLANT


LOCATION QTY OF GASES Nm3/hr WASTE HEAT BOILER WORKING TEMP. INLET OUTLET GROSS POWER GENERATION MW

PREHEATER EXHAUST

195427

390

260 4.0

II COOLER EXHAUST

182588

300

230

ECONOMIC EVALUATION
COGENERATION POTENTIAL, MW ESTIMATED COST, Rs MILLION DEBT/EQUITY RATIO REPAYMENT OF LOAN, YEARS INTEREST RATE, PER ANNUM COST OF PURCHASED POWER, RS/KWH PAYBACK PERIOD, YEARS : : : : : : : 4.0 260 75:25 10 13% 4 3.5

BARRIERS IN SETTING UP COGENERATION SYSTEMS IN INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY


NON AVAILABILITY OF DESIGN OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILER SUITABLE FOR HIGH DUST LOAD IN WASTE GASES HIGH PERFORMANCE RISK LACK OF OPERATING EXPERIENCE HIGH COST OF TECHNOLOGY

WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM INSTALLED UNDER GREEN AID PLAN BY KAWASAKI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, JAPAN AT THE INDIA CEMENTS LIMITED VISHNUPURAM, WADAPALLY (A.P.)

BRIEF PRESENTATION ON POWER GENERATION THROUGH WASTE HEAT RECOVERY


UTILISATION OF WASTE HEAT FROM THE PREHEATER GASES FOR POWER GENERATION. UTILISAITON OF WASTE HEAT FROM AQC. UTILISING 40% THERMAL ENERGY DISCHARGING INTO ATMOSPHERE. PRODUCING 30% OF TOTAL POWER REQUIRED FOR THE PLANT. REDUCING CO2 AMOUNT IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

REDUCTION OF CO2 GAS


Quantity of power generated In-house power consumption Net quantity of power generated Reduced power purchased Annual operating hours Annual Reduction of fossil fuel consumption at the existing power station (on a crude oil basis) Annual Reduction of CO2 emission KW KW KW KW H T/Y 7700 800 6900 7080 7920 14617

T/Y

46093

DESIGN BASIS
ITEMS Volumetric flow rate Temperature at Boiler Inlet Temperature at Boiler Outlet Dust Content UNIT Nm3/h Deg.C Deg.C G/ Nm3 PH 360,750 340 230 50-60 AQC 191,600 360 90 5*1

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION
ITEMS EVAPORATION RATE STEAM PRESSURE BOILERS STEAM TEMP FEED WATER TEMP HEAT RECOVERY VALUE STEAM TURBINE OUTPUT CAPACITY GENERATOR POWER FACTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE FREQUENCY UNIT T/H MpaG Deg.C Deg.C Kj / h KW KVA % V Hz PH BOILER 28.20 1.57 315 200 AQC BOILER 14.63 1.70 345 56

63,773,337 34,070,001 7,700 9,625 80 6,600 50

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
QUANTITY OF POWER GENERATED IN-HOUSE POWER CONSUMPTION NET QUANTITY OF POWER GENERATED QUANTITY OF COOLING WATER REDUCED POWER PURCHASED PRICE OF POWER PURCHASED ANNUAL REDUCITON OF QUANTITY OF POWER PURCHASED ANNUAL SAVING OF POWER FEE KW KW KW T/h KW Rs.. /kwh 106 kwh 7,700 800 6,900 26.5 7,080 4.15 56.07

Million Rs. /y

232.7