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Ideal Gas Law and Molar Mass Equation

By: Louish Oriel Victorio

Ideal Gas Law


The Ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behaviour of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by mile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of Boyle's law and Charles's law.

The ideal gas law is often introduced in its common form:


where P is the absolute pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the amount of substance of gas (measured in moles), T is the absolute temperature of the gas and R is the ideal, or universal, gas constant. P is pressure measured in atmospheres. V is volume measured in Liters N is moles of gas present R is a constant that converts the units. Its value is 0.0821 L atm/K mol T is temperature measured in Kelvin

Elsewhere, we can learn quantitatively the effects of pressure and thermodynamic temperature on gas volume, we can return to the relation between volume and amount of substance. Avogadro's law tells us that at constant P and T, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas. Boyle's law says that volume is inversely proportional to pressure,and Charles' indicate s that volume is directly proportional to temperature. These three laws may all be applied at once if we write

or, introducing a constant of proportionality R,

Equation (2) applies to all gases at low pressures and high temperatures and is a very good approximation under nearly all conditions. The value of R, the gas constant, is independent of the kind of gas, the temperature, or the pressure. To calculate R, we rearrange Eq. (2):

and substitute appropriate values of P, V , n, and T. The molar volumes of several gases at 0C (273.15 K) and 1 atm (101.3 kPa) were close to 22.4 liters (22.4 dm3). Substituting into Eq. (3),

Equation (2) is usually rearranged by multiplying both sides by P, so that it reads

PV = nRT

(4)

This is called the ideal gas equation or the ideal gas law. With the ideal gas equation we can convert from volume of a gas to amount of substance (provided that P and T are known). This is very useful since the volume, pressure, and temperature of a gas are easier to measure than mass, and because knowledge of the molar mass is unnecessary. Example: 6.2 liters of an ideal gas are contained at 3.0 atm and 37 C. How many moles of this gas are present?

Step 1 Convert C temperature to K T = C + 273 T T = 310 K = 37 C + 273

Step 2 Derived the formula PV=nRT to get the formula for the mole. PV=nRT n=PV RT RT RT Step 3 Solve ideal gas law for number of moles n = PV / RT n = ( 3.0 n = 0.75 mol atm x 6.2 L ) / ( 0.08 L atm /mol K x 310 K)

Molar Mass Equation


The molar mass is the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by its amount of substance. Molar mass (M) is a physical property of chemical elements and compounds. The molar mass of an element or compound is defined as the mass of one mole of said element or compound. The molar mass of an element is relative to its atomic mass. Molar masses are commonly expressed in units of grams per mole and are often referred to as molecular weights. The molecular weight (molar mass) of any gas is the mass, expressed in grams, of its molecules. The formula for finding the molar mass is :

Mm=gRT Pv P=pressure measured in atmosphere V= volume measured in Liters R= constant, its value is 0.0821 L atm/ K mol T=temperature measured in Kelvin G= mass Mm=molar mass If the molar mass is given and the volume is missing, you will just derive a formula to get the volume. Mm=gRT Pv gRT=MmPV MmP MmP V=gRT MmP gRT=MmPV

Example: G=3000 g Mm= 44 g/m the volume? Using


.

P= 3.0 atm formula

T=298K what is
V=gRT

the
MmP

*Remember R is constant it has a value of 0.0821 V=3000(0.0821)(298) . 44(3.0) V= 560 L V=600 L (since there is only one significant figure)