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# THE ATOM

(Bohr Model, Atomic Notation, Isotopes, Isobars & Isotones and Relative Atomic Mass) by: Leah Rose F. Paras; III - PABLO

- Bohr Model
In 1913, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr proposed improvements to the Rutherford model. In Bohrs model, the electrons were not required to lose energy. Therefore, they would be able to stay in orbit rather than spiralling toward the nucleus. Because the Bohr Model is a modification of the earlier Rutherford Model, some people call Bohr's Model the Rutherford-Bohr Model. The Bohr Model contains some errors, but it is important because it describes most of the accepted features of atomic theory. The Bohr Model is a planetary model in which the negativelycharged electrons orbit a small, positively-charged nucleus similar to the planets orbiting the Sun (except that the orbits are not planar). This model describes the paths of electrons as energy levels; the electrons are only allowed to have a certain amount of energy which restricts their path around the nucleus. The distance of the electrons from the nucleus, tells the energy the electrons possess as well as the atom. The greater the distance, the greater the energy (valence electrons).

Main Points of the Bohr Model: Electrons orbit the nucleus in orbits that have a set size and energy. The energy of the orbit is related to its size. The lowest energy is found in the smallest orbit. Radiation is absorbed or emitted when an electron moves from one orbit to another.

- Atomic Notation
What is Atomic Notation? - It is the symbolic representation of an atom and its properties. It is a method of expressing the composition of the atomic nucleus; the atomic mass and atomic number are included. - Also called the Nuclear Notation which shows the chemical symbol, the mass number and the atomic number of the isotope.

Atomic Number (Z) indicates the total protons found inside the nucleus. The protons are equal to the electrons also.

Atomic Mass (A) represents the total number of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom.

16

O 8

## - Isotopes, Isobars and Isotones

What are these? Isotopes these are atoms from the same element but of different masses . Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; the different possible versions of each element are called isotopes. For example, the most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons at all; there's also a hydrogen isotope called deuterium, with one neutron, and another tritium with two neutrons.

Hydrogen

Deuterium

Tritium

Isobars - Isobars are elements, which are chemically different but physically the same. So, isobars are atoms of different elements having the same atomic mass but different atomic number. Since their number of electrons is different, their chemical properties are different.

Isotones - Isotones are elements having the same number of neutrons. Examples of isotones are Chlorine - 37 and Potassium - 39. Both have 20 neutrons in their nuclei.

## - Relative Atomic Mass

Atoms are too small to be weighed but we can compare the mass of different atoms. We can do this by getting the Relative Atomic Mass or the Isotopic Mass. The actual mass of an atom basically depends on the numbers of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Since the rest mass of proton and neutrons are too small to regard, to calculate the actual mass of an atom seems inconvenient for scientists. In order to solve this problem, relative atomic mass, which unit is defined as 1/12th of the mass of carbon-12 atom, is introduced. For elements with isotopes, calculate the product of the isotopic mass and the abundance of the isotope present in the whole element. EXAMPLES:

Isotope Cl 35 Cl 37

## Abundance (75% ; 0.75) (35% ; 0.25)

RAM - amu (atomic mass unit) = 26.25 amu + = 9.25 amu__ 35.5 amu Relative Atomic Mass (RAM) Isotope Ag 107 Ag 109 Isotopic Mass 106.904 amu 108.905 amu Abundance (0.5128) (0.4818)

RAM - amu (atomic mass unit) = 55.40 amu + = 52.47 amu__ 35.5 amu Relative Atomic Mass (RAM)