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# CIRCLES

I. CIRCLE A circle is a sets of points in a plane which are at a fixed distance from a fixed point. The fixed point is called centre f the circle and fixed distance is called the radius of the circle. II. CIRCLE AND SYSTEM OF CIRCLE. Therom: If the centre of the cirle is at (h,k) and radius = r then equation of the circle is given by (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 N.B: Equation of circle having centre at orgin and radius r is x2 + y2 = r2 III. GENERAL FORM OF EQUATION OF A CIRCLE IS: x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 In the general second degree equation in (x,y) if a = b 0 and h =0 then it will represent a circle .In the above equation the centre of the circle is (-g,-f) and radius is = g 2 +f 2 - c The general equation of a circle has following charasteristic (1) It is a secondary degree equation in x and y. (2) It contains no x, y term (3) Coifficent of x2 = coifficent y2. IV. EQUATION OF A CIRCLE WHEN THE END POINTS OF A DIAMETER ARE GIVEN. Let (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) be the end points of a diameter of a circle. P(x,y) Let P(x,y) be any point on the circle then the equation of a circle is (x x1)(x x2) + (y y1)(y y2) = 0 This form of the equation is known as diameter form. V.PARAMETRIC FORM OF THE EQUATION OF A CIRCLE. Let P(x,y) be any point on the circle with centre at the orgin and radius r cos = sin =
x x = r cos r y y = r sin r

(x1,y1)A

B(x2,y2)

This equations are called parametric equations of the circle. If the circle is (h,k) and radius r

then the parametric equations are: x = h + r cos y = k + r sin The equation x2 + y2 = r2 is called CARTESIAN EQUATION VI.POINT OF INTERSECTION OF A LINE AND A CIRCLE WITH CENTRE AT THE ORGIN. Length of the perpendicular from the orgin to the line y = mx + c is
c 1 +m 2

The line y = mx + c is tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = r2. If c2 = r2 (1 + m2) N.B. If c2 < r2 (1 + m2) the line will intersect circle at two distinct point . If c2 > r2 (1 + m2) the will not touch or intersect the circle.