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Achieving Quick Changeover through SMED implementation at Laguna Clothing Pvt. Ltd., Kanakapura

A dissertation submitted in partial Fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Degree in Bachelor of Fashion Technology- Apparel Production

Submitted by Saurabh Suman

Under the Guidance of Ms. Sweta Jain Asst. Prof., DFT, NIFT Bangalore

Department of Fashion Technology (2009-13) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, BANGALORE January-May 2013


In the 1980s the garment industry was led by fashion and retailing and the emphasis was on technologies in the demand-related parts of the supply chain. India ranks among the top target countries for any company sourcing textiles and apparel. Indeed, apart from China, no other country can match the size, spread, depth, and competitiveness of the Indian textile and apparel industry. Moreover, the global elimination of quotas at the end of 2004 has greatly enhanced the opportunities for sourcing from India. India supplies over US$13 billion worth of textiles and apparel to the world markets. And exports are growing rapidly as more and more buyers around the world turn to India as an alternative to China. In 2005 spurred by the global elimination of quotas shipments to the EU soared by 30% and those to the USA shot up by 34%. These increases are remarkable, given that EU imports from all sources rose by only 8% while US import growth was just 6%. Consumer spending is slowing down all over the world. Retailers are looking for real innovation from their suppliers. They want really new garments made from new fabrics and yarns. They want new services to offer their customers. Competition in the late 1990s will be based on the capabilities and core competences of textile and clothing companies and on the building of long-term supply relationships. There are many opportunities to be addressed. Textile and clothing machinery will continue to be improved but the most interesting technologies for the 2000s are in the areas of fibres, fabrics, measurement, control and multimedia. We can say a garment industry is an independent industry from the basic requirement of raw material to final products, with huge value addition at every stage of processing, Apparel industry is largest foreign exchange earning sector contributing 15% of the total country export. In this scenario, the Indian garment industries have witnessed substantial improvements in recent years. But the unnecessary capital investment is not going to solve the problem entirely; moderately this will turn out the waste in long run. The implementation of lean manufacturing is greatly recommended, in order to identify the waste and to eliminate them. (Ravikumar Marudhamuthu, 2011)

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1.1 Project Brief

This project is all about identifying and eliminating or simplifying major problem creating areas for the factory whenever there is a style change in its lines. This project would even encompass streamlining the pre-production activities carried out in the organisation so that the losses during changeovers can be reduced.

1.2 Project Locale

LAGUNA CLOTHING PVT. LTD. #143/2, Seegekote Village, Sathnur Road, Kanakpura (Taluk), Ramanagara District, Karnataka.

1.3 Project Title

Achieving Quick Changeover through SMED implementation at Laguna Clothing Pvt. Ltd., Kanakpura

1.4 Objectives
The objectives of the project are as follows: Reduction in changeover time to approximately 25% of the current changeover time through implementation of SMED concepts Streamline activities related to style changeover

1.5 Significance of the Project

Most of the factories in India still follow the traditional ways of changeover in that they do not segregate their internal and external activities, maintain high inventory levels, having large lot sizes, etc. But this generates lots of problems and leads to under-utilisation of
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resources and time. This is a major loss for the organisation, as in the current situations where there is an increasing demand in the product variety, smaller lot sizes, unpredictable market trends and very tight profit margins, every penny saved is a penny profited for the organisation. And this cannot be done by following earlier methods of setup and inventory management. The next step for organisations catering to high variety low volume orders is quick changeover, without which the company is liable to lose a lot. And the sooner they realise this, the better.

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The core idea of lean manufacturing is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste. Simply, lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources. A lean organization understands customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously increase it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste. To accomplish this, lean thinking changes the focus of management from optimizing separate technologies, assets, and vertical departments to optimizing the flow of products and services through entire value streams that flow horizontally across technologies, assets, and departments to customers. Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Also, information management becomes much simpler and more accurate. (Unknown, What is Lean, 2013)

2.1.1 A Brief History of Lean Manufacturing

Henry Ford was one of the first people to develop the ideas behind lean manufacturing. He used the idea of "continuous flow" on the assembly line for his Model T automobile, where he kept production standards extremely tight, so each stage of the process fitted together with each other stage, perfectly. This resulted in little waste. But Ford's process wasn't flexible. His assembly lines produced the same thing, again and again, and the process didn't easily allow for any modifications or changes to the end product a Model T assembly line produced only the Model T. It was also a "push" process, where Ford set the level of production, instead of a "pull" process led by consumer demand. This led to large inventories of unsold automobiles, ultimately resulting in lots of wasted money. Other manufacturers began to use Ford's ideas, but many realized that the inflexibility of his system was a problem. Taiichi Ohno of Toyota then developed the Toyota Production System (TPS), which used Just In Time manufacturing methods to increase efficiency. As Womack reported in his book, Toyota used this process successfully and, as a result, eventually emerged as one the most profitable manufacturing companies in the world.

2.1.2 Lean Manufacturing Basics

Lean manufacturing is based on finding efficiencies and removing wasteful steps that don't add value to the end product. There's no need to reduce quality with lean manufacturing the cuts are a result of finding better, more efficient ways of accomplishing the same tasks.
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To find the efficiencies, lean manufacturing adopts a customer-value focus, asking "What is the customer willing to pay for?" Customers want value, and they'll pay only if their needs are met. They shouldn't pay for defects, or for the extra cost of having large inventories. In other words, they shouldn't pay for waste. Waste is anything that doesn't add value to the end product. In lean manufacturing, there are eight categories of waste that should be monitor: Overproduction Is the production more than consumers demand? Waiting How much lag time is there between production steps? Inventory (work in progress) Are the supply levels and work in progress inventories too high? Transportation Are the materials moved efficiently? Over-processing Do the organisation work on the product too many times, or otherwise work inefficiently? Motion Do people and equipment move between tasks efficiently? Defects How much time is spent finding and fixing production mistakes? Workforce Are the workers skill efficiently utilised?

Lean manufacturing gives priority to simple, small, and continuous improvement such as changing the placement of a tool, or putting two workstations closer together. As these small improvements are added together, they can lead to a higher level of efficiency throughout the whole system. (Note that this emphasis on small improvements doesn't mean that larger improvements cannot be made if they are required!)

2.1.3 Lean Manufacturing Process

The lean manufacturing process has three key stages: Stage 1 Identify waste According to the lean manufacturing philosophy, waste always exists, and no matter how good the process is right now, it can always be better. Lean manufacturing relies on this fundamental philosophy of continuous improvement, known as Kaizen. One of the key tools used to find this waste is a Value Stream Map (VSM). This shows how materials and processes flow through the organization to bring the product or service to the consumer. It looks at how actions and departments are connected, and it highlights the waste. As the VSM is analysed, the processes that add value and those that don't can be seen. Then a "future state" VSM is created that includes as few non-value-adding activities as possible. Stage 2 Analyze the waste, and find the root cause For each waste identified in the first stage, figure out what's causing it by using Root Cause Analysis. If a machine is constantly breaking down, one might think the problem is mechanical and decide to purchase a new machine. But Root Cause Analysis could show
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that the real problem is poorly trained operators who don't use the machine properly. Other effective tools for finding a root cause include Brainstorming and Cause and Effect Diagrams. Stage 3 Solve the root cause, and repeat the cycle Using an appropriate problem-solving process, decide what must be done to fix the issue to create more efficiency.

2.1.4 Tools to Reduce Waste

Once wastes have been identified using the three key stages above, the following set of tools can be made use of to help reduce waste further: Just in Time This is the core idea of lean manufacturing and is based on the "pull" model. To minimize stock and resources, one only purchases materials, and produces and distributes products when required. One also produces small, continuous batches of products to help production run smoothly and efficiently. By reducing batch size, one can also monitor quality and correct any defects as they go. This reduces the likelihood of quality being poor in future batches. (In manufacturing, a key way of doing this is to use Kanban, given below.) Kanban This is one of the key ways to involve people in the lean manufacturing process. Here, one supports the Just In Time model by developing cues in the system to signal that there is a need to replace, order, or locate something. The focus is on reducing overproduction, so that one has what they need, only when they need it. Zero Defects This system focuses on getting the product right the first time, rather than spending extra time and money fixing poor-quality products. By using the Zero Defects system, one will reinforce the notion that no defect is acceptable, and encourage people to do things right the first time that they do something. Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) This helps an organisation build flexibility into their production. For example, in the automotive industry, it could take days to change a line to produce a different car model. With SMED, the assembly process and machinery are designed to support quick and efficient changeovers. (Here, a "die" is a tool used to shape an object or material.) The 5S Philosophy Lean manufacturing depends on standardization. One wants their tools, processes, and workplace arrangements to be as simple and as standard as possible. This creates fewer places for things to go wrong, and reduces the inventory of replacement parts that one needs to hold. To accomplish a good level of standardization, the 5S System is used.

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Lean manufacturing focuses on optimizing the processes and eliminating waste. This helps cut costs and deliver what the customer wants and is willing to pay for. With a lean philosophy, one can enjoy the benefit of continuous improvement. So, rather than making rapid, irregular changes that are disruptive to the workplace, one makes small and sustainable changes that the people who actually work with the processes, equipment, and materials will take forward. This systematic and simple approach is very effective across all types of industries. What's more, ultimately, a process without waste is much more sustainable. (, 2013)
(Textileking, 2013)

Figure 1: Lean Tools


2.2.1 Introduction
SMED: Its not just about setting up dies. Dies were the first improvement target and the reason SMED came to be, but the thinking carries over into many other areas. SMED has to do with every kind of changeover setup, from high volume, low mix (HVLM) to mass production to the job shops high mix, low volume (HMLV) manufacturing process. It can be used in tool and die making where each tool, die or fixture is different. Dr. Shigeo Shingos book, A Revolution In Manufacturing: The SMED System, is a key reference for SMED activities, and a sort of cookbook for implementing such a system in a plant.
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Currently most manufacturers who havent implemented SMED still use EOQ (economic order quantity) to determine production-run batch sizes. For many years, it was believed that optimum inventory levels should be calculated by spreading the setup for changeover across as large a batch as possible, within the production requirements of the plant. This is why inventory levels grew and grew. New, larger storage areas and warehouses became the rule. Industrial engineers reasoned that they will never have product outages if they carried enough inventory. Shingo, often referred to as Japans Edison, developed the SMED system in 1959 while working as a consultant for Toyo Industries. Taiichi Ohno, vice president of manufacturing, assigned him the task of matching a German companys die-changeover speed of an astounding two hours for an entire tandem press line. The companys previous time had been 10 hours or more. To meet the challenge, Shingo first targeted the Germans two-hour mark, then realized that by the time he achieved that goal, the Germans would be even faster. He decided to set his own goal of less than 10 minutes, leapfrogging the competition. The single minute part of SMED refers to a single-digit time limit -- nine minutes or less, not a single, 60-second minute (although small dies are regularly changed in less time that that). Shingo and his team discovered that if setup time was greatly reduced, batch sizes could shrink proportionately. Today, inventory is the enemy of production efficiency and effectiveness. More than 50 years ago, Shingo realized that inventory costs more than originally thought. Materials on the shelf have to be bought and paid for much sooner, and so does the labor used to make and store finished and work-in-process goods. The cost of floor space and new warehouses is considerable, as is the cost of insuring those facilities and the products they contain. (Gathen, 2004)

2.2.2 Changeover Concepts

A changeover is the complete process of change that takes place between the manufacturing of one style to the manufacturing of an alternative style to the point of meeting specified production and quality parameters. The total time elapsed in changeover consists of three phases The Run-Down Phase The Set-Up Phase The Run-Up Phase.

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Figure 2: Distinguishing the phases of changeovers

Run-down phase: This phase is the interval when production of old style is complete but set-up for new style cannot be started as some of the pieces of old product are still in line for alterations or waiting for some parts or trims, for example a damaged placket, a missing collar, etc. In this phase feeding is ceased and production of old style is finished on most of the work stations. Run down typically stretches till all the pieces of old style are out from the line. Set-up phase: It is the phase in which no manufacturing occurs. In this phase, machines and equipments are adjusted as per the requirements of new style. In this phase there is no output from the line.

Run-up phase: This phase starts when production for the new style is commenced and continues until consistent output at full capacity occurs. Run-up period extends till each operation (including new operations) reaches the specified production and quality rates consistently.

2.2.3 Goals of SMED

Following are the goals of implementing SMED in a factory: Reduce inventory Reduce batch sizes Reduce changeover time Reduce impact on equipment utilization
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Improve quality after changeover Improve repeatability Improve throughput Improve flexibility

2.2.4 Benefits of SMED

The aim of SMED is to reduce the setup time to enable smaller batches to be run enabling Just In Time Manufacturing (JIT) and Kanban. The benefits of this are many fold: Reduction in the amount of cash tied up in stock Reduction in the amount of handling and handling equipment required Reduced floor space required for stock Reduced lead times through the company Increase in flexibility to produce a variety of products Increase in Capacity Improvement in our quality Reduced scrap levels Reduction in the level of operator skills required Reduced costs and improved profits

2.2.5 Internal And External Activities In Changeover Process

Close analysis of changeover process reveals that the process comprises of two sets of activities, namely the internal activities and the external activities.

The internal activities are performed when the sewing machines in the line are stopped, and no product is being manufactured in the line. These are activities performed for sewing machines that are already in line, example gauge set, SPI change, folder adjustment or any other similar operation, as per the requirement of new style. The time taken to complete all the internal activities constitutes the set-up phase.

Figure 3: Traditional style changeover process

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The external activities are performed outside the line without disturbing the production inline. For example, pre-setting of a sewing machine for new style or early loading of cut parts without disturbing the production of running style.

While the internal activities need to be carried out in the set-up phase when the machine is stopped, the external activities can be carried out during run-down phase and/or during the run-up phase.

2.2.6 Implementing Single Minute Exchange Of Die

Figure 4: SMED changeover process, identifying internal and external activities

Quick changeover is not an isolated process, where specially trained work force carries out the changeover activities. It requires focus on Organizational improvement and design improvement. Following are the six techniques that should be considered while implementing SMED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Segregate or set apart the internal from external setup operations (tasks) Convert internal to external set-up tasks Standardize functions Adopt parallel operations Improve design of machine equipment

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6. Use functional clamps or eliminate fasteners and adjustments.

(Unknown, Stitch World - Single Minute Exchange Of Dies improving Style Changeover Performance, 2013)

It is quite evident that limited scope of design improvement makes SMED implementation in apparel industry to rely mainly on organizational improvement.

Organizational Improvement Needed

Since developing quick style changeover capability needs cultural change, initiating organizational changes becomes essential. And since the organizational changes are basically people and procedure based, it mainly deals with manpower allocation/reallocation and task modification but not with equipment or product, which is dealt in design improvement. Organizational improvement is highly dependent on training and motivation. Following are few examples for initiating organizational improvement in apparel industry: Identifying Internal And External Activities: Machine plan should be prepared by comparing operation bulletin of old and new style. Machine plan should identify following parameters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Operation type Machine type (segregated as internal/ external) Machine number Stitches per inch (SPI) Required Settings

Operations of old style and new style should be compared for segregation of internal and external elements. If operation for new style is already being performed in old style then the element is internal, thus the machine type should be filled as internal element. But if a machine has to be arranged from outside or a machine from the old style will become idle but can be utilized at some other operation in the new style, then that should also be filled as external element. Along with machine type attachment details should also be filled by referring to operation bulletin. (Unknown, Stitch World - Single Minute Exchange Of Dies improving Style
Changeover Performance, 2013)

Convert Internal Task to External: Since reallocating task by converting internal activities to external activities significantly reduces set-up time, opportunities for such conversions should be identified. Example, loading of parts before the end of old style or template preparation in advance. Investigate the use of Automates/Work Stations: Like continuous bottom hemming machine for knits Tee/Polo shirts (internal to external elements) or the use of fusing machine in cutting section rather than in sewing line.
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External Machine Setting: External machines should be set-up by the mechanic according to the machine plan in advance (in run-down phase). Typically machine setting should include machine parameters like gauge change, folder/presser foot change, needle change/ removal, SPI adjustment, programming, etc. as per the requirement of new style. Machine setting should be approved for quality by the quality supervisor and machine marked with Setting OK tag. Adopt Parallel Operations: Set-up parallel operations example, set-up of operations in different sections simultaneously (front and back sections). Note that the tasks must not be dependent upon each other. Usually, the creation of parallel tasks requires more manpower, so increased personnel must be considered. Eliminate Waiting Time: Concentrate on efforts to eliminate waiting time during changeover process. A simple reallocation or reorganization of group tasks may help reduce this waiting time. For example, performing bottom hem operation before waistband attach in a denim for starting few bundles, as setup of waistband operation consumes more time. Training and Development: Traditional changeover procedure can be modified by broadening the scope of a technicians abilities through training programs. This will allow a technician to perform tasks that he or she was not previously allowed to do and thus remove dependency on another technician for completion of a task. Minimize Trials and Controls: Trials and controls can be minimized by formalizing procedures and utilizing standards. Checklists can be used, and technicians can be held accountable for key procedures by signing off on the checklists. Standardize Functions: Formalize standardized operation instructions for changeover process. Examples develop standard operating procedures defining responsibility and accountability.

Design Improvement
Following are few examples of design improvement in apparel industry: Improve Design of Manufacturing Machine and Equipment: Investigate use of clamps instead of fasteners wherever feasible, for example use magnetic edge guides in place of screw fastener type. Improve Design of Manufactured Products: Exercise the scope of changes in product construction parameters in consultation with buyer to facilitate reduction in set-up time. For example, margin for strip matching at sleeve joint for yard dyed knits, increasing/ decreasing SPI by a unit as the specified SPI cannot be produced on some machines or to increase the width of J-Stitch so that it can be easily performed on J-Stitch machine. However since such changes require buyers consent, which often is a time consuming process, they have limited application. (Unknown, Stitch
World - Single Minute Exchange Of Dies improving Style Changeover Performance, 2013)

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It is observed that in comparison to design improvement, organizational improvement is cheaper, easy to implement, and produces significant reductions in changeover time.

Administer Functional Controls

While implementing SMED, it should be guarded that the saving in changeover time is not negated by poor functional controls like, non-availability or shortage of fabric/trims after commencing production, non-adherence to PPM schedules, poor style clarity among production supervisors and many more such small irritants but with a major implication.

Figure 5: Phases of SMED

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3.1 Methodology The project is being carried out in five phases: Define Measure Analyse Implement Control

Define: This phase is all about defining the objectives, the scope, the areas to be worked on and the goals of the project. Familiarisation with the factorys ways of working is also a part of this phase. Measure: The main objective of this phase is to measure the following: Changeover time Breakup of the changeover time with causes

To achieve this, some new formats, matrices and reports in the form of graphs and paretos were developed along with several reports already being prepared. The usefulness of this step is that a record of the style changeovers is being maintained which will later help in monitoring the progress and also in identifying the areas of concern. And, since the charts and paretos would be displayed for each line and each section separately, this would also provide visibility to the problems being faced in the factory, which would in turn create more ideas for improvements in the form of kaizens. Analyse: This phase is about making deductions from the earlier phase about areas of concern and future plan of action. For this, the use of charts and graphs and discussions with concerned people is to be done. The activities carried out in this step are as follows: Video Analysis SOS Preparation Conversion of internal activities to external SOS preparation Style Preparation Streamlining Pre Production activities This step is the most critical step of the project, since a wrong analysis would cause all the earlier steps to go wrong and a lot of time and energy would be wasted. Its usefulness lies in the fact that the critical area identification depends solely on this step where each and every

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cause is analysed and decision taken as to which problem to eliminate first, and how, and why? And if improvements are noticed, then what is the measurement of the improvement. Implement: In this phase, problem areas defined earlier are to be focused on and plan action determined earlier is to be carried out with proper inputs from concerned people. Steps to be carried out in this phase are as follows: New Method testing Revision Operator training Trial runs

Control: This phase is about improving and standardising and making the improved processes an integral part of the changeover process and ensuring that the process is maintained properly. It is all about putting proper checks in places to ensure that everyone in the organisation follows the practices.






Figure 6: Methodology

3.2 Data Collection 3.2.1 Primary Data Primary data is collected using the following methods: Observation and study on the production floor Interviews with concerned people Reports generated in the company

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3.2.2 Secondary Data Secondary data has been derived from the following sources: Websites Journals Periodicals Books

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4. Data Analysis Understanding the concept of changeover: Data regarding changeover time, techniques developed by Shigeo Shingo to carry out changeover was gathered from different research papers to understand the concept of changeover. Case studies related to SMED implementation in different companies were also analysed to get a rough idea of various problems faced during changeover and to relate them to the company in study.

4.1 Define: A major problem faced by Laguna Clothing during style changeover is the start-up loss which is a major loss for the lines affecting planning and meeting deadlines. So, the project focus will be on analysing and reducing this start-up loss.

4.2 Measure: In this phase, two style changeovers were studied and time study done using Style Changeover Analysis Sheet for these styles for measuring the current style changeover time in the lines.

Style change 1: This style changeover was from style Jaron (Hugo Boss) to Black Label (Thomas Pink). The analysis of the changeover time is given below:

Changeover Analysis For Jaron to Black Label

Operator waiting time Operator learning 31.75% Machine setting Technical Issues Wrong template issued 54.57% 6.45% Thread Change Run Up Period



3.94% 2.47%

Figure 7: Changeover analysis for a new style before implementation (in %)

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Operator waiting time Operator learning Machine setting Technical Issues Wrong template issued Thread Change Run Up Period Total

12:13:00 02:29:00 01:31:00 00:57:00 00:14:00 00:05:00 21:00:00 38:29:00

Style change 2: This style changeover was from style Arlington (Verweij) to Maine and Royal Plus (Verweij). The analysis of the changeover time is given below:

Changeover Analysis for Arlington to Maine and Royal Plus

Run Up Period 25.64% Thread Change 0.33% Label Sorting 2.50% Machine setting 19.46%

Operator waiting time 23.47%

Less Operator Efficiency 28.60%

Figure 8: Style changeover analysis for a repeat order before implementation (in %)

Operator waiting time Less Operator Efficiency Machine setting Label Sorting Thread Change Run Up Period Total

05:57:00 07:15:00 04:56:00 00:38:00 00:05:00 06:30:00 25:21:00 Page | 19

Problems Identified: The style changes in the company were observed to be of two types: Changeover for a new style Changeover for a repeat style

The following problems were identified for a changeover for a new style: Machine setup Quality problem Batch setting Loading problem Operator problem Communication gap

The following problems were identified for changeover for a repeat style: Loading problem Machine setup Operator problem Batch setting Communication gap

Machine Setup: This is the most frequent and the biggest problem faced during a style changeover. This problem is faced during the setup and the run period. External machine setup: This is the least commonly used method of preparing a machine for use in the lines. In this method, the idle machines are prepared by attaching the necessary work aids, attachments, getting the machine settings ready, etc. for incoming styles so that the running machines can be exchanged with an already prepared machine, reducing the impact of setup time on production. However, this concept can be used only in scenarios where idle machines are available for setup. Another way of doing this is by setting up the inline machines while no production activities are running in the line, for example during lunch time, or after work hours. Internal machine setup: This is the most commonly used way of setting up a machine for an incoming style in most factories. The running machines are stopped, and prepared by attaching and setting the various workaids, guides, attachments, etc., and checking the output for quality issues. It results in a major loss of production as a lot of time is used up in creating the correct settings for the incoming style and no production is coming during this setup time. The main aim of the SMED concept is to reduce
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changeover time by externalising these internal machine setup times so that impact on production is always a bare minimum.

Quality Problem: There are several quality related problems during a style changeover like: Rework at the start of the batch setting: Rework at the start of batch setting is a very commonly faced problem during style changeover. The reason for this can be many: machine was not setup properly or the operator is not skilled enough or the quality requirements were not fully communicated to the concerned people on time. This creates a lot of problem at the start of the style changeover, increasing the run up period to a maximum and also raising quality concerns for the order if the order quantity is too less. Clearing of alteration pieces at the end of the current style: This is another major quality problem faced during a style changeover. The alteration pieces for the previous style are not cleared on time and are left pending to be done at last. This increases the run down period two fold as the alteration pieces need to be first brought back to the original state and then altered. Also this means that the machine setting for the new style cannot be done until the alteration bundles are cleared, again resulting in a high changeover time for the factory. Quality issues in case of new operations for a new style: Whenever a new style with some new operations are loaded in the line, there are quality concerns related to that operation and they almost always turn out to be true with quality issues surfacing for them, increasing the changeover time.

Batch Setting: batch setting involves activities necessary to prepare a line for an incoming style. It includes activities such as Machinery Planning, Capacity Planning, Operator Allocation, Line Balancing and Skill Development for new styles. For new styles this causes major problems, especially for styles having some new operations. The reason is that sufficient attention is not paid to the batch setting task in terms of skill development and skill mapping. As a result, the new operation often becomes a bottleneck right from the start, increasing the startup time for the line. Also, when sufficient numbers of required machines are not available to be shifted into the lines, batch setting becomes a problem and attaining the peak production often needs more time than is anticipated.

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Loading Problem: Quite often delayed loading of cut parts and/or trims in the line increase the changeover time because, quite simply, the operator does no productive work for the time he/she has no feeding. This situation is not good for any factory. The reasons for delayed loading could be several: like cut parts not ready on time, trims not inhouse on time, absenteeism of feeding helper, rigid mentality that the loading should be taken only after the last pieces of the previous style are clear, etc.. Sometimes, it also happens that the trims loaded are wrong or insufficient quantities are issued. Another concern sometimes occurring is that the pattern for the cut parts received are wrong, either due to the mistake of the cutting department or the pattern making department. Even imbalance in the parts section leading to an improper matching for assembly section increases the run up period for an incoming style.

Operator Problem: Often it is seen that an operator allocated at an operation is not properly skilled in that operation. Inline training is then given to the operator to increase their efficiency. During this time several issues of quality related problems also might come up which would need attending to. This would result in a higher changeover time. Even absenteeism is a major problem related to the operators which if occurring in sufficiently large numbers can cause serious damage to the factorys production for the day. Sometimes, the operator attitudes also have a negative impact on the production activities for a factory. The attitude can be of any of the following types: This operation is not my job. I will not do it. I will do this job only if I am allowed to do the operation on only this machine. I will not learn a new operation. I am comfortable doing this operation. I dont care what happens, I will do only this operation. Even if I know some more operations, what is the use of telling them.

Sometimes, some personal problems also seriously hamper a good operators working, and if this happens to be on a day of a style changeover, it is bound to create problems for everybody. Sometimes it is also seen that the required number of maintenance personnel are not available at the required place at the right time. This is also an area of concern for the factory if this keeps happening at regular intervals.

Communication Gap: It has often been seen in a factory that there is a lack of proper communication among the various departments. This seriously affects the production activities of the factory, especially so at the start and end of the production activities, for if proper communication is not passed on to the right person at the right time, he cannot make arrangements to make sure that the exact requirements are met at the
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right time. For example, if the IED does not pass on the information on to the maintenance department about the types and number of attachments required for a particular style, the maintenance department cannot be expected to be prepared beforehand with the required attachments and workaids and the required personnel.

4.3 Analyze In this section detailed analysis of changeover of each style was done, by differentiating the internal and the external activities, and making a note of which activities can be done externally. Examples of the style changeovers mentioned earlier are given below. 4.3.1 Style Change 1 Jaron to Black Label Firstly, the activities leading to the style change were observed and based on their nature classified as below:
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Activity Machine Plan Layout Plan Cut parts check Style Analysis Requisites planning Requisites status check Machine setting Operator allocation Quality requirements communication Skill mapping Skill development Scenario before Implementation Internal Internal Internal Done only by IE Manager Not done Not done Internal Internal External/internal External Not done Actual Nature External External Internal External External External Internal/External External External/Internal External External

Bone patch iron Bone patch attach Run collar Collar raw edge trimming Collar turning Collar blocking Top stitch collar Collar bottom cutting

Internal setting Collar Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

External setting

Can be done

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Hem band Dummy stitch Insert collar Pick turn, trim and iron Top stitch band Double top/design Trim base Notch & mark collar Btn hole on neck band Btn st. On neck band

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Front Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Back Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Sleeve Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Cuff Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Prepare left plkt Prepare right hem Inspect plkt Neck trim Button hole front Button sew front 1 extra buttons Tack label on side seam Split yoke Split yoke iron Set main label Set secondary label Set yoke Yoke o/l Trim the back Sew small plkt Crow foot tack and trim Press slv plkt Set big placket (square) Trim the edges Make sleeve pleats Buttonhole slv plkt Buttonstitch slv plkt Cuff hem Run cuff Cuff raw edge trimming Cuff notching turning Iron the cuff T/s cuff fused edge

Can be done

Can be done

Can be done

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Buttonhole cuff Buttonhole cuff

Yes Yes Assembly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Join shoulder Set collar Finish collar Sleeve attach Sleeve t/s Serge at bottom Bottom hem with panels Side seam foa Set cuff Gusset iron Gusset ready Gusset attach

Can be done Can be done

4.3.2 Style Changeover 2 Arlington to Maine and Royal Plus Firstly, the activities leading to the style change were observed and based on their nature classified as below:
S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Activity Machine Plan Layout Plan Cut parts check Style Analysis Requisites planning Requisites status check Machine setting Operator allocation Quality requirements communication Skill mapping Skill development Scenario before Implementation Internal Internal Internal Done only by IE Manager Not done Not done Internal Internal External/internal External Not done Actual Nature External External Internal External External External Internal/External External External/Internal External External

Run collar Collar raw edge trimming

Internal setting Collar Yes Yes

External setting

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Collar turning/blocking Collar pointing Collar bottom cutting Collar bottom stitch Hem band with tape Neck band raw edge cutting Insert collar Pick turn/ iron Top stitch band Trim base Notch & mark collar Button down Bth hole neckband Btn stitch neckband

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Front Yes Yes Yes Yes

Can be done

Can be done

Prepare left plkt Prepare right plkt Piping attach Inspect placket Neck trim Tack label Crease pocket Hem pocket Set pocket Button hole front Button sew front Sew extra botton

Can be done Can be done Can be done

Can be done Can be done Yes Yes Yes Yes Back Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Can be done

Patch iron Attach main label Attach main label Attach sec label Sew back pleat Loop ready Loop attach Set yoke Trim extra back

Can be done Yes Yes Sleeve Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Page | 26

Sew sleev placket Crow foot tacking Press sleeve placket Set big placket Sew pleats on sleeve Trim the edges

B/h slv placket B/s slv placket

Yes Yes Cuff Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Assembly Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Iron the cuff hem Hem cuff Run cuff fused Cuff raw edge trimming Cuff turning Iron the cuff Bluff stitchcuff Button hole cuff Button sew front Join shoulder Set collar Finish collar Set sleeve Sleeve top stitch Sleeve arm hole pressing Close side seam Set cuff Serge bottom Hem bottom

Can be done

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5. Implement/Reduce Step 1: Video Analysis of different changeover operations Purpose: The main objective behind doing the video analysis of the changeover operations was threefold: To find out and eliminate Non-Value Added Activities (NVAA) or Muda To create Standard Operating Sequences (SOS) for repetitive standard activities To set a Standard Target Time in which to complete the desired activities

Justification: This step was necessary for a variety of reasons, like: A video analysis of several mechanical operations carried out during style change is necessary to identify waste and non-value added activities being performed during the style change. And once these have been identified, measure the time lost in such activities and eliminate them, or reduce their effects to the minimum, if elimination is not possible. Video analysis of changeover activities help arrive at some of the best practices and techniques that could be achieved for these activities. This would help in making a process simpler and more standardised. This in turn would effectively help make the process of style changeover become more process dependant than person dependant, increasing operational flexibility. Also, video analysis could be used for training of the people involved in the activities studied, bringing higher awareness and some degree of uniformity throughout the organisation. Creation of a SOS would lead to setting of time limit within which the activity has to be completed. This would very much help gauge operator skill level and also reduce a lot off standard time that is otherwise being lost in doing useless things.

Number of observations: 8 How it was done: The process of video analysis for various style changeover activities by following these steps: Videos of the changeover process were taken Each activity, like die change, machine setting, etc., were separated These videos were then studied using the principles of time motion study Waste and NVAAs were then identified Remaining activities were then classified into internal and external activities

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Based on these calculations, the time taken for each activity was found out atleast five times each If the method of working showed a regular pattern, which could easily be standardised, it was standardised with average timings from the various readings taken and a target was set

Outcome: The outcomes of this step were the following: Creation of SOS for Collar and Cuff die change Setting of target for Collar and Cuff die change at 25 minutes

Figure 9: Changeover analysis example 1

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Figure 10: SOS example 1 (Collar Die Change)

Improvement Done: Time taken for die change before target setting: 45 minutes approx. Time taken for die change after target setting: 28 minutes approx. Time saving done: (45 28) minutes = 17 minutes

Step 2: Development of matrices and formats for changeover time study Purpose: The purpose of this step was to develop and standardise a set of matrices, checklists, display charts and cards for ease in monitoring the process of style changeover and maintaining the records. These charts, matrices and formats would also help in standardizing the processes and ensuring that the methods are followed diligently. Justification: The process of style changeover needs to be constantly mapped and timed to evaluate the level of maturity achieved by the company in terms of style changeover. It also helps the company keep track of the various changeovers
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happening in the production lines. To do so, some standard formats, charts and matrices are needed for ease in measuring the deliverables. The nature of these charts, matrices, etc. should be such that it can be understood and used by anybody and everybody, and filling them up should not take too much of time. Outcome: The outcome was the development of the following: A matric for calculation of changeover time A checklist to be filled before style changeover An End of Line (EOL) chart for style changeover A checklist for documenting machine setup and layout change time

Benefits: The companys goal of measuring and maintaining a visual display of changeover time for one week along with its paretos was achieved by developing a standard matrix for automatic calculation of run up and run down period of each style changeover. This meant that the measurement of run up and run down period was very much systematic and error free, giving much reliable results than doing the same work manually. And a visual display for this in the form of end of line (EoL) charts has been prepared which also updates automatically based on the inputs provided by the user. Some other formats were also developed, like, a format for monitoring the machine availability, machine setting, raw material availability, etc. was developed for use during a style changeover. These would help monitor the plants performance levels after each style changeover and take necessary actions wherever necessary.

Figure 11: Machine setup and layout change time monitor format

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Figure 12: Checklist for style changeover for collar section

Figure 13: Style changeover calculation matrix

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Figure 14: Chart data for end of line chart

Step 3: Formation of a changeover team Purpose: A changeover team was required in the factory for making sure that the planning done by the planning department is followed as closely as possible Justification: The planning department makes a production plan keeping in mind the capacity of the plant. But if the plant loses production due to frequent style changes, all the planning goes to waste and requires extra planning again and again. But if there is a dedicated team who will cater to the needs of the factory of keeping track of the upcoming changes and preparing the factory for these changes, this loss can be minimised, even if not eliminated. Outcome: A changeover team comprising people from IE, training, maintenance, production and quality departments was formed. The team members included IE executives, the QCs of respective lines, maintenance supervisors and trainers. This team is headed by the Factory Manager. The main task of this team is to make sure that every style changeover in the factory happens only after their scrutiny. These people make sure that all the prerequisites to the new style being loaded have been completed and all the necessary resources are in place. In case the style is seen to be lacking in something, it can be stopped from being loaded in the lines after consultation with the factory manager.

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Step 4: Style Preparation for the factory Purpose: The purpose of this step was to prepare the factory for upcoming styles in terms of Quality requirements, IE requirements and maintenance requirements Justification: The factory is provided inputs from the merchandising team about the various orders coming its way for production in its lines. But without proper inputs from them and the various other departments, who are subsequently dependant on merchandising team for information, the changeover process becomes a major area for concern with problems occurring everywhere. For example, the IE and the Training department are often unaware of the bottleneck operations in a particular style. So no planning is done ahead of its loading in the lines for optimal production. And as soon as the pieces reach the critical operation, problems start creeping up, increasing the changeover time considerably. Another example. A new style is loaded in the lines, but the trims are not yet in house. Since no one has been following it up, no one knows that the required trims are not yet available until the pieces reach the operation where the trim has to be used. The pieces can now no longer move for want of trims. The purpose of this step is to stop such types of occurrences from happening in the factory. Outcome: A very novel approach has been adopted in the factory for this purpose. The IE team is informed beforehand about the upcoming styles for the next two months. The team starts taking follow-ups on these styles from all the required departments. They check when the patterns are in house, what are the major bottlenecks in the style based on the samples given to them, they conduct meetings with merchandisers, maintenance, production and quality people at least two weeks before the style is being loaded in the lines for discussions on the styles, its critical areas, counter measures on how to get maximum productivity, get the OBs, technical sheets, and every other follow up and actions found necessary to make sure that the style does not become a headache after it has been loaded in the lines. This team checks for the folder availability, machinery requirements, and analyses each style and keeps the information in a format known as the Single Sheet Information System. With the help of this sheet they are able to tell which style requires what and whether the factory is ready to load the particular style in the line at any point of time. Benefits: The benefits of this step are enormous. Although it required a lot of changes in the organisational level and in the mindsets of the people, this step was very much successful in solving major critical problems for the factory. The benefits are manifold: The factory is well prepared to take on any style that comes its way with people well aware of its requirements beforehand The problem of untrained operators handling new and critical operations leading to bottlenecks has been minimised The availability of machines, attachments and trims are checked beforehand so that availability of resources is not an issue any longer Style wise analysis done beforehand gives the factory people a fair idea of what to expect and where all they need to have checkpoints to ensure that everything

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moves smoothly, so they are prepared for it every time a new style is loaded in the lines Each department of the factory is informed and made ready for the different styles coming their way which increases participation, innovation and information circulation among the different departments, which makes sure that almost every aspect of the style has been discussed and appropriately reviewed for problems and it has been troubleshot

Figure 15: A section of SSS sheet for De Fursac

Step 5: Simplification of tool design for machine setting Purpose: The purpose of this step is to simplify the tools used for change in machine settings and for attachment fixing to reduce machine setup time during a style changeover Justification: The process of machine setup is an area which is hardly looked at in the garment industry. It is considered that there is no scope for improvement in this field. But that is not the case. For example, pressure foot change is never considered for simplification. But, the process can be simplified and made to be process driven rather than maintenance people driven. For most of the time, even pressure foot change is done by the maintenance Page | 35

people, and in case they are not free, time is lost waiting for the machine to set up. But if a simple tool was to made which could make sure that there are no screws to opened and closed, and the pressure foot can be changed with a single touch, this waiting time could be eliminated, giving maintenance people more freedom to work and reduce machine setup time, even further. Outcome: The outcome of this step was the purchase of a simple device from an oversee vendor for quick pressure foot change in the machines. The tool is a simple device allowing operators to change the pressure foot at just a touch of their fingers. Benefits: The major benefit of this tool is that it eliminates the need to wait for the maintenance people to come and fix the pressure foot. This ensures that manpower is always available at more pressing operations where maintenance personnel are required to the needful. Also, time saving is done, for a normal pressure foot change sometimes can take two minutes or more. But this tool gets the same work done in a matter of seconds.

Figure 16: Attachment for quick pressure foot change

Step 6: Application development for consolidation of data and line preparation Purpose: The purpose of this application is to have a central database for all the attachments in the form of folders, guides and gauges and style details in terms of attachments requirement

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of upcoming styles, for proper communication between the IE and the Maintenance departments. Justification: The need for such an application was felt because of the following reasons: The maintenance team had no proper record of their assets with which anyone could identify the different attachments and check their availability prior to a style being loaded in the line Proper communication flow for the requirements of maintenance team could not be seen in the factory due to a lack of proper asset database. This application would bridge the gap by having a central database accessible by IED and the maintenance team simultaneously It was sometimes seen that when a style was loaded in the lines, its attachments would be unavailable or there would be a shortage, for it was in use in some other line and could not be used for the production of the given style. This application would check the availability of the folders, guides and gauges for different combinations of styles that could be loaded in the lines at any given point of time

Outcome: An application was prepared on VB.NET with a central database on the companys local server. It is easily accessible by all through a front end that can be installed on any computer. It displays and stores information related to the number and kinds of attachments, different buyers, different styles and their folder requirements. It is very user friendly and can be used by anyone in the company. Benefits: The application has brought about the following changes in the process of style changeover: The communication gap between the IED and the Maintenance departments has effectively been bridged, even if there is no direct interaction between them The maintenance department now has a record of each and every attachment in its possession and is now answerable for any discrepancies The IED has also been made accountable for the number of attachments and machinery details that would be required for given style Unavailability of attachments would also no longer be an issue during the style changeover, since it has already been checked for availability

STATUS AFTER IMPLEMENTATION: The current status of the changeover process of the factory is summarised below in the table: S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Activity Machine Plan Layout Plan Cut parts check Style Analysis Scenario before Implementation Internal Internal Internal Done only by IE Manager Actual Nature External External Internal External Current Status External Internal Internal External Implemented through -NA-NAStep 4 Page | 37

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Requisites planning Requisites status check Machine setting Operator allocation Quality requirements communication Skill mapping Skill development

Not done Not done Internal Internal External/internal

External External Internal/Exte rnal External External/Inte rnal External External

External External External/Inter nal External External

Step 4, Step 6 Step 4, Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 4, Step 2

10. 11.

External Not done

External External

-NAStep 4

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6. Results and Discussions

6.1 Reduction in Changeover Time: Readings for changeover time for various styles were taken after implementation of the SMED concepts in the factory. Two such readings are discussed below:


Style changeover from Gerald to Gale (HB)

Readings were taken for style changeover from style Gerald to style Gale. The readings and the corresponding chart are given below:

Style Changeover Analysis for Gerald to Gale

Run Up Period 28% Operator meeting 2%

Operator waiting time 22%

Thread Change 1%

Operator learning 10%

Machine setting 29% Low operator efficiency 5%

Quality specs clarification 3%

Figure 17: Style Changeover Analysis for Old style After Implementation

Operator waiting time Thread Change Machine setting Low operator efficiency Quality specs clarification Operator learning Operator meeting Run Up Period Total

02:30:00 00:05:00 03:21:00 00:35:00 00:21:00 01:07:00 00:16:00 03:15:00 11:30:00

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Style changeover from M&S 0994K to Dressmann D268 Readings were taken for style changeover from M&S 0994K to Dressmann D268. The readings and corresponding chart are given below:

Style Changeover from M&S 0994K to Dressmann D268

Run Up Period 22% Quality issues 3% Line Disturbance 6%

Operator waiting time 20%

Thread Change 1%

Machine setting 48%

Figure 18: Style changeover for an old style after implementation

Operator waiting time Thread Change Machine setting Line Disturbance Quality issues Run Up Period Total

01:12:00 00:05:00 02:54:00 00:20:00 00:10:00 01:20:00 6:01:00


Project impact on changeover time of the factory:

The changeover time of the factory has been majorly impacted with the help of this project. The end results in terms of changeover time reduction are given below:

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Table 1: Changeover Analysis before implementation




Lin e

Machin e setting time (hrs) 5.15

Waitin g time (hrs)

Thread Chang e (hrs)

Operato r learning (hrs)

Other element s (hrs)

Total Time

Color Plus Verweij

CPFP D218 Maine & Royal Plus CH 6026 Gordo n Men26 0 Men 409 CPFP D215 Black Label Men 412 Men 251 X







Planned 3 Unplanned 3 Planned Planned Planned Unplanned Planned 4 Unplanned Planned 1 2 4 2 1 3





7.88 25.36

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Lacost e Hugo Boss CTC CTC Color Plus Thoma s Pink CTC CTC

4.21 4.14 3.63 2.2 7.81 1.5 2.5 4.12

8.51 2.21 1.56 1.79 2.73 12.5 0.45 1.85

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

9.87 2.5 1.75 2.62 5.92 21 2 5.5

2.75 0 0 0 3.17 2.5 0 0

4.08 29.5 1.24 0.9 0.4 2.04 0.95 38.53 0.97 1.95 6 13.5 10.17 7.92 7.09 21.75


40.21 4.02

47.75 4.78

0.8 0.08

72.4 6 7.25

12.32 1.23

25.27 2.53

198.8 1 19.88

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Table 2: Changeover time analysis after implementation

STYLE DETAILS CHANGEOVER TIME STUDY SUMMARY Time study (hrs) Run up + Run Down Period (hrs) 1.33 2.45 0.67 1.4 3.2 2.7 5.92 18.33 3.25 9.95 49.2 4.92 1.8 2.5 1.2 5.75 13.2 1.47






Machine setting time (hrs)

Waiting time (hrs)

Thread Change (hrs)

Operator learning (hrs)

Other elements (hrs)

Total Time

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Dressmann CTC CTC CTC De Fursac Carrefour De Fursac Antonio Laverda Hugo Boss Thomas Pink

D268 Men 851 Men 200 Men 190T H3Vong I513598 H3NAGC AT 141 Gale Haly stripe TOTAL AVERAGE

Planned Planned Planned Planned Unplanned Planned Unplanned Planned Unplanned Planned

1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4

2.9 3.15 2.19 2.75 3.95 3.16 3.25 6.45 3.35 5.67 36.82 3.68

1.2 2.1 1.68 2.21 3.13 1.42 1.38 8.6 2.5 3.75 27.97 2.80

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.8 0.08

0 0 0 1.5 0.45

0.5 1.15 0.95 1.46 1.3 1.1 2.04 0.95 1.12 1.95 12.52 1.25

6.01 8.93 5.57 9.4 12.11 8.46 14.47 36.91 11.5 27.15 140.51 14.05

Table 3: Figures for Improvements made

4.02 Average After Implementation Difference Difference (in %) 3.68 0.34 8.43%

4.78 2.80 1.98 41.42%

0.08 0.08 0.00 0.00%

7.25 4.92 2.33 32.10%

1.23 1.47 -0.23 -19.05%

2.53 1.25 1.28 50.46%

19.88 14.05 5.83 29.32%

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Analysis of improvements done





7.25 4.78 2.80 0.34 1.98 0.08 0.08 -0.23 (hrs) Waiting time (hrs) Thread Change (hrs) Run up + Run Down Period (hrs) Operator learning (hrs) Other elements Total Time 4.92 2.33 2.53 1.23 1.47 1.25 1.28 5.83


4.02 3.68

time (hrs) setting



Average Before Implementation

Average After Implementation


Figure 19: Analysis of Improvements done

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7. Limitations of the project The project carried out, like all other things, has limitations of its own. The project although carried out successfully at present, needs to be sustained in the long run to be of any major benefit to the organisation. And that is where the major problem comes. For sustaining a project of this magnitude, which involves so many additional activities to be carried out and the involvement of so many people, a lot of will power, right guidance and right approach is needed which can be had only if the employees are motivated enough and the management approach is supportive of the changes this project brings about. Another limitation is the part for continuous improvement. There is always a scope for continuous improvement, no doubt, but finding that out and making sure that the improvements are carried out is in itself a big task which too requires that the management be supportive and the employees motivated to do that extra mile to make continuous improvement an integral part of the project. Also, for a factory facing style changeovers practically every day, ensuring that the methods used are effectively and efficiently carried out all the time, may not always be possible. It should however not discourage employees from following these procedures devoutly. Only by making them an integral part of the system can it be ensured that such an event does not occur.

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This is to certify that this Project Report titled Achieving Quick Changeover through SMED implementation at Laguna Clothing Pvt. Ltd., Kanakpura by SAURABH SUMAN is based on the original project work, conducted under the guidance of Ms. Sweta Jain towards partial fulfilment of the requirement for award ofthe Bachelors Degree in Fashion Technology (Apparel Production), of the National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore. No part of this work has been copied from any other source. Material, wherever borrowed has been duly acknowledged.

Saurabh Suman

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If I honestly reflect how I got this opportunity, how I could complete my graduation project so well, I discover debts to many who span this written history. So I believe its appropriate to acknowledge all those who helped me in some way or the other in the successful compilation of this report. First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my college mentor Ms. Shweta Jain (CC, B.F.Tech, NIFT Bangalore) for providing his whole hearted supervision by guiding me at every stage. Her suggestions and comments proved to be a great help. I am also indebted to my Industry Mentor Mr. Hrishikesh Dayal, (IE Head, Laguna Clothing), Mr. Manish Sinha, (Factory Manager, Kanakpura Unit) and Mr. Rajesh Kumar (Operations Head), Mr. Rohit Singh (IE Executive), Ms. Anupriya Pawar (IE Asst. Manager) and Mr. Muthuram Barathy (Factory Manager, Jigani Unit) for their valuable guidance and motivation that made the graduation project a great learning experience. I would also express my heartfelt thanks to all the faculties of my department for providing me with the knowledge and insight that made me capable of doing this graduation project in the best possible way. I owe my gratitude to all the people in Laguna Clothing Pvt Ltd., with whom I have interacted in the due course of my graduation project, for helping me out of tight corners, helping me understand the ways and working of the industry, clearing my doubts and who all have contributed significantly for the successful completion of the project and rendered with to build a platform to enhance my expertise. A lot of thanks with lots of gratitude to my fellow friends who interned with me at Laguna Clothing for making the graduation project period fun, for the endless discussions on various topics and simply for being there when needed. Last, but not the least, I would thank my parents and friends who have been with me and have offered immense emotional and moral support.

-- Saurabh Suman

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Table of Contents

Certificate Acknowledgement Table of Contents List Of Figures And Tables

i ii iii iv

Chapter 1 Project Overview -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. Project Brief 1 1.3. Project Locale 2 1.4. Project Title 2 1.5. Objectives 2 1.6. Significance Of The Project 2 Chapter 2 Review of Literature ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2.1. Lean Manufacturing 3-6 2.1.1. A Brief History Of Lean Manufacturing 3 2.1.2. Lean Manufacturing Basics 3 2.1.3. Lean Manufacturing Process 4 2.1.4. Tools To Reduce Waste 5 2.2. Single Minute Exchange of Die 6-13 2.2.1. Introduction 6 2.2.2. Changeover Concepts 7 2.2.3. Goals of SMED 8 2.2.4. Benefits of SMED 9 2.2.5. Internal And External Activities In Changeover Process 9 2.2.6. Implementing Single Minute Exchange of Die 10 Chapter 3 Methodology -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3.1. Methodology 14 3.2. Data Collection 15-16 3.2.1. Primary Data 15 3.2.2. Secondary Data 16

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Chapter 4 Data Analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4.1. Define 17 4.2. Measure 17-23 4.3. Analyze 23-27 Chapter 5 Implement/Reduce ------------------------------------------------------------------------------5.1. Implementation 28-38 Chapter 6 Result and Discussions --------------------------------------------------------------------------6.1. Reduction in changeover time 39-43 Chapter 7 Limitations of the Project ----------------------------------------------------------------------7.1. Limitations 44 Annexure vii

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List of Figures and Tables

Figure 1: Lean Tools .. Figure 2: Distinguishing the phases of changeovers . Figure 3: Traditional style changeover process Figure 4: SMED changeover process, identifying internal and external activities .. Figure 5: Phases of SMED Figure 6: Methodology .. Figure 7: Changeover analysis for a new style before implementation (in %) .. Figure 8: Style changeover analysis for a repeat order before implementation (in %) Figure 9: Changeover analysis example 1 .. Figure 10: SOS example 1 (Collar Die Change) Figure 11: Machine setup and layout change time monitor format .. Figure 12: Checklist for style changeover .. Figure 13: Style changeover calculation matric . Figure 14: Chart data for end of line chart . Figure 15: A section of SSS sheet for De Fursac . Figure 16: Attachment for quick pressure foot change .. Figure 17: Style Changeover Analysis for Old style After Implementation Figure 18: Style changeover for an old style after implementation .. Figure 19: Analysis of Improvements done .

6 8 9 10 13 15 18 19 29 18 19 19 19 20 21 36 39 40 43

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Table 1: Changeover Analysis before implementation Table 2: Changeover time analysis after implementation Table 3: Figures for Improvements made

41 42 43

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Gathen, G. (2004, July). What can SMED do for you? IMPO, pp. 10-12. (2013, March 16). Lean Manufacturing - Strategy tools from Retrieved from Ravikumar Marudhamuthu, M. K. (2011). The Development and Implementation of Lean Manufacturing. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 527-532. Textileking. (2013, March 16). Lean Manufacturing in Apparel Industry - Top Textile Review - kReview Top Revie. Retrieved from kReview Top Revie: Unknown. (2013, March). Stitch World - Single Minute Exchange Of Dies improving Style Changeover Performance. Retrieved from Stitch World - Technology and Management in the sewn product industry: Unknown. (2013, March 16). What is Lean. Retrieved from Lean Enterprise Institute:

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