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PRO JE CT RE PO RT FOR COM PL ETIO N

OF
B. TECH. IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Under West Bengal University of
Technology (U. Tech.)

Year : 2005-2006
Name of the Project : PWM based
Inverter fed Induction Motor

Submitted by –
Group Workers Roll No.
University Roll No.

Abhra Ray 12003


12716021007
Amit Nag 12004
12716021008
Arijit De 12007 12716021004
Arijit Dey 12008
12716021047
Arkendu Mitra 12010
12716021011
Ayanava Chatterjee 12012
12716021013
Kunal Pahari 12022 12716021046
Mainak Dey 12024
12716021021
Soumya Subhra Niyogi 12042
12716021031
Saurav Paul 12043
12716021048
Subrata Sinha Roy 12050
12716021051

This project is done under the guidance of Mrs. Shilpi Bhattacharya

81, Nilgunj Road


Agarpara, Pin - 700109

Acknowledgement
We, the student of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of
Technology, 81 Nilgunj Road, Kolkata – 700109, have completed our project
successfully under the guidance of Mrs. Shilpi Bhattacharya, Lecturer,
Department of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology,
Agarpara, without whose guidance, advice, interest, encouragement and also
disbursement of money for purchasing the components at proper time, our
project could not have achieved its grand success. We also express our respect
and profound sense of gratitude to Prof. Amlan Chakrabarti, Head of the
Department, Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology, Agarpara
for his moral encouragement and advisement at different stages to build up our
project.
At last, we will thankful endlessly to the respective personality,
Prof. Biswarup Basak, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bengal
Engineering & Science University, Shibpur, who spent his expensive time
to illustrate how the project circuitry can be developed.

NAME ROLL UNIVERSITY ROLL NO.

Abhra Ray 12003 12716021007


Amit Nag 12004 12716021008
Arijit De 12007 12716021004
Arijit Dey 12008 12716021047
Arkendu Mitra 12010 12716021011
Ayanava Chatterjee 12012 12716021013
Kunal Pahari 12022 12716021046
Mainak Dey 12024 12716021021
Soumya Subhra Neyogi 12042 12716021031
Saurav Paul 12043 12716021048
Subrata Sinha Roy 12050 12716021051

Contents
Topic Page No.

Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 1


1. Objective 2
2. Speed Control of Induction Motors 2
2.1 Pole Changing 2
2.2 Stator Voltage Control 4
2.3 Supply Frequency Control 4
3. Advantages of Frequency Control 5
4. Advantage and Disadvantage of PWM 6
4.1 Advantage 6
4.2 Disadvantage 6
5. Industrial Applications of PWM 6
6. Overview of the Project 7
6.1 Controlling Part 7
6.2 Power Part 7
6.3 Loading Part 7
7. Components 8
8. Tools and Instruments 9
8.1 For Testing Purpose 9
8.2 For Final Project Circuitry 9
9. Bolck Diagram of the Whole Project 10
10. Total Project Circuitry 11
11. Project Details 12
11.1 Controlling Part 12
11.2 Power Part 24
11.2.1 Supply Part 24
11.2.2 Inverter Bridge Part 24
11.3 Loading Part 25
12. Test Tools 27
13. Test Procedure 27
14. Test Results 27
15. Precautions 28
16. Inference 28

1
Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
In this technique several pulses are produced in each half – cycle but the width of the pulses
is not the same as in case of multiple – pulse width modulation, however the width of each pulse is
varied in accordance with the amplitude of the sine wave reference voltage. The width of the pulse
at the center of the half – cycle is maximum and decreases on either side. The figure 6(a) shows the
generation of the output signal by comparing a sinusoidal reference signal fr with a triangular carrier
wave of frequency fc. The carrier and reference waves are mixed in a comparator and when
sinusoidal wave of has a higher magnitude than the triangular wave the comparator output is high,
otherwise it is low. This output of comparator is used to turn on the MOSFETs in the bridge
configuration of Figure 6(b), which generates the output voltage. The reference signal frequency fr
determines the output frequency fo of the inverter, and its peak amplitude Ar, controls the
modulation index M, and thereby the rms output voltage vo. Thus varying the amplitude of the sine
wave within the range of zero to Vp, where Vp is the peak of the triangular wave, controls the output
voltage. The number of pulses in each half – cycle depends on the carrier frequency. If the ratio of
these two signals (reference and carrier) is equal to m, then the number of pulses in each half –
cycle is (m - 1).
G1 M1 G3 M3

Load
Vs

G4 M4 G2 M2

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. – 1 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation

(a) Single Phase bridge inverter (b) Gate signal voltage and (c) Output Voltage

2
1. Objective :
To vary the speed of a single phase squirrel-cage induction motor by varying supple
frequency with the help of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based Inverter.
(Note: to change the frequency we change the resistance of controlling circuit.)

2. Speed Control of Induction Motors :


Induction motors are of two types - Squirrel-cage motor and Wound-rotor motor. There are
various types of speed control methods of induction motor. These are –
(i) Pole Changing,
(ii) Stator Voltage Control,
(iii) Supply Frequency Control,
(iv) Eddy-current Coupling,
(v) Rotor Resistance Control,
(vi) Slip Power Recovery.
(i) is applicable for squirrel-cage motor, (ii) to (iv) is applicable for both wound-rotor and
squirrel-cage motor and (v) and (vi) is applicable for wound-rotor.
For squirrel-cage type motor, here pole changing, stator voltage control and supply
frequency control methods are discussed.
2.1 Pole Changing :
For a given frequency speed is inversely proportional to number of poles. Synchronous
speed, and therefore, motor speed can be changed by changing the number of poles. Provision for
changing of number of poles has to be incorporated at the manufacturing stage and such a machine
is called “pole changing motor” or “multi-speed motor”.
In squirrel cage motor the number of poles are same as the Stator winding. So there is no
provision for changing the number of poles. But for wound rotor arrangement for changing the
number of poles in rotor is required, which complicates the machine. So it is only used for Squirrel
cage induction motor.
A simple but expensive arrangement for changing number of stator poles is to use two
separate winding which are wound for two different pole numbers. An economical and common
alternative is to use single stator winding divided into few coil groups. Changing the connections of
these coil groups change number of poles. Theoretically by dividing winding into a number of coil
group and bringing out terminals of these group a number of arrangements of different pole
numbers is obtained.

Fig. – 2 Stator phase connection for 6-poles

Figure 2(a) above shows a phase winding consisting of six coils divided into two groups –
a-b consisting of odd number coils (1, 3,5) connected in series and c-d consisting even numbered
coils (2,4,6)
3
connected in series. The coils can be made to carry currents in the given directions by connecting
coil groups either in series or parallel as shown in figure B and C. With this connection machine has
six poles. If the current through the coil group a-b is reversed [Fig. 3(a)], then all coils will produce
north poles. Fluxes coming out of the north poles will now find paths through Interpol spaces for
going out consequently producing south poles in Interpol spaces. The machine will now have 12
poles. Here again the direction of current through coils can be obtained by connecting two sections
a-b and c-d either in series or parallel for both pole numbers 6 and 12.
Fig. – 3 Stator phase connection for 12-poles

Further three phases of the machine can be connected to form delta or star connection by
choosing a suitable combination of series and parallel connection between coil groups of each
phase, and star and delta connection in each phase, speed change can be obtained with constant
power or variable torque operation. Connections and speed-torque curves for these operations are
shown in Figs. 4 to 6.

Fig. – 4 Constant torque control

Fig. – 5 Constant power control

4
Fig. – 6 Variable torque control

2.2 Stator Voltage Control :


This is a slip control method with constant frequency variable voltage being supplied to the
motor stator. Obviously the voltage should only be reduced below the rated value. For a motor
operating at full load slip, if the slip is to be doubled for constant load torque then the voltage must
1
be reduced by a factor of and the corresponding current rises to 2 of the full load value. The
2
motor, therefore, tends to get overheated. The method therefore is not suitable for speed control. It
has a limited use for motor driving fan type load whose torque requirement is proportional to the
square of speed. It is a commonly used method for ceiling fans driven by single-phase induction
motors that have large standstill impedance limiting the current drawn by the stator.
2.3 Supply Frequency Control :
f
Synchronous speed N s = 120 .
P
And, motor speed, N r = (1 − s ) N s .
Now, it is evident that varying synchronous speed, which can vary by varying the supply
frequency, can vary the motor speed. Voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of
supply frequency f s and air-gap flux φm .
E = 4.44k w φm f sT ps
If stator drop is neglected, then E is equal to V. Then the supply voltage will become proportional to
f s and φm .
V = 4.44k w φm f sT ps
Any reduction in the supply frequency f s keeping the supply voltage constant causes the
increase of air-gap flux φm . Induction motors designed to operate at the knee point of the
magnetization characteristic to make a full use of magnetic material. Therefore, the increase in flux
will saturate the motor. This will increase the magnetizing current and distort the line current and
voltage, increase in core loss and stator I 2 R loss and produce a high-pitch acoustic noise. Also, a
decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of motor. Therefore, variable
frequency control below rated frequency is generally carried out at rated air gap flux by varying
V
supply voltage with frequency so as to maintain ratio constant at the rated value.
f
5
3. Advantages of Frequency Control :
The variable frequency control provide good running and transient performance due to the
following features –
(i) Speed control and breaking operation are possible from zero speed to base speed.
(ii) During transient the operation can be carried out at the maximum torque with
reduce current giving good dynamic response
(iii) Copper losses are low and the efficiency and power factor are high.
(iv) Drop speed from no load to full load is small.
The most important advantage of variable frequency control is that it allows a variable
speed drive with above mentioned good running and transient performance to be obtained from a
squirrel cage induction motor. The squirrel cage motor has a number of advantages over a DC
motor. It is cheap, rugged and long lasting. Because of absence of commutator and brushes it
requires practically no maintenance; it can be operated in an explosive and contaminated
environment, and can be designed for higher speeds, voltages and power ratings. Though the cost of
induction motor is lesser than DC motor of same power rating but still the cost of variable
frequency drive are higher in general. But because of the advantages listed above the induction
motor drives of variable frequency type is mostly preferable over DC motor drives. Because of the
above advantages we are dealing with this type of speed control for controlling induction motor that
has a large number of industrial applications as follows –
(i) It can be used for any type of underground and underwater installation.
(ii) In applications involving explosive and contaminated environment
(iii) In application in tractions, steel mills, pumps, fans, blowers, compressors, spindle
drivers etc.
6
4. Advantage and Disadvantage of PWM :
4.1 Advantage :
Load efficiency is almost always a critical factor in renewable energy systems. An
additional advantage of pulse width modulation is that the pulses are at the full supply voltage and
will produce more torque in a motor by being able to overcome the internal motor resistances more
easily. A resistive speed control will present a reduced voltage to the load, which can cause stalling
in motor applications. Finally, in a PWM circuit, common small potentiometers may be used to
control a wide variety of loads, whereas large and expensive high power variable resistors are
needed for resistive controllers.

4.2 Disadvantage :
The main disadvantages of PWM circuits are the added complexity and the possibility of
generating radio frequency interference (RFI). Locating the controller near the load, using short
leads, and in some cases, using additional filtering on the power supply leads, may minimize RFI.

5. Industrial Applications of PWM :


PWM A.C. drive is very popular in industry. By controlling the speed of the induction
motor, production can be varied as needed. The industries that use PWM drive are
1. Water plant.
2. Conveyer belt.
3. Lift.
Etc.
7
6. Overview of the Project :
Basically the speed of a “single phase permanent capacitor squirrel-cage induction motor”
which is fed from a PWM based inverter circuit, is controlled. The entire circuit is divided into three
parts,

6.1 Controlling Part :


To control the speed of the induction machine a control circuit is made. There a sinusoidal
pulse and a triangular pulse is generated separately and then compare these pulses by comparator
and get triggering pulse to trigger the PWM based inverter circuit. Here sinusoidal pulse is the
supply pulse of controlling network and triangular pulse is the carrier pulse of network. To vary the
frequency, just vary the external resistance of the sinusoidal circuit through POT.

6.2 Power Part :


For power part a D.C. supply of 220V is used. This D.C. supply is inverted to A.C. by
PWM based inverter. Though this converted A.C. is not an exact sinusoidal response by taking
consideration of harmonics we get sinusoidal pulse.
PWM based Inverter circuit (Pulse Width Modulation inverter) is used for frequency
control technique.
Inverter circuit consists of power transistors or power MOSFETs (depending upon the
rating of the machine). These power transistors or power MOSFETs are needed to be triggered and
that triggering pulse is sending from the control circuit. The variable frequency helps to vary the
timing of trigger of inverter, which varies the frequency of the supply of induction machine.

6.3 Loading Part :


In the loading part single-phase squirrel cage permanent capacitor induction motor is
loading where single-phase line enters, produce air-gap flux and help to run the motor.
8
7. Components :

Sl. No. Components Industrial Specification


Name Character in Project
1. OPAMP (741) It is the heart of the project. By using Given in data sheet.
this we produce controlling pulses
(comparing sinusoidal & triangular).
2. GATE It is used to design the comparator Given in data sheet.
(7405, 7408) circuit. 75LS05N known as Logic
inverter is used to invert the square
pulse of 50 Hz. Then 75LS08N
known as Logic AND Gate is used to
ANDing the square pulse with the
output of the OPAMP in which sine
wave and triangular carrier pulse is
compared.
3. OPTO- To isolate the triggering pulses for Given in data sheet.
COUPLER buffering and then for sending to the
(MCT2E) inverter circuit.
4. POWER We use to build inverter bridge by Given in data sheet.
MOSFET which we invert the DC voltage into
(IRF720) AC voltage by using gate pulse.
5. RESISTOR To build controlling circuit we use 
external resistor of different
specification, sometimes for getting
desired time constant and sometimes
for getting different gain for opamp
output.
5. POT It is variable resistance which is used 47.5 kΩ, 2 MΩ
to change frequency & leveling the
pulses over a base line.
6. CAPACITOR To generate sinusoidal and triangular 10 nF, 100 nF.
pulse using opamp, capacitor
charging and discharging phenomena
is used from which we get square
wave and then by using second order
low-pass filter and integrator we get
sinusoidal and triangular wave.
9
8. Tools and Instruments :
8.1 For Testing Purpose :
Sl. Description of Tools and Instruments Quantity
No. Name Use
1. Bread Board The whole circuit design is done on this board. In
this board middle holes are on vertically same 4
potential and up and down holes are on horizontally
same potential.
2. Hook up wire These wires do the whole circuit design. As required

3. Cutter To remove insulation at the ends of the wires cutter 1


is used.
4. Plus It is used to straight the wire; also remove the 1
broken wires from bread board.

8.2 For Final Project Circuitry :


Sl. Description of Tools and Instruments Quantity
No. Name Use
1. Vero Board It is used to represent the final project circuit by 4
shouldering.
2. Multi-Stripped It is used to connect the component of the circuit As required
Wire by shouldering.
3. Cutter To use wire we have to remove insulation at the 1
ends by cutter.
4. Plus It is used to straight the wire; also remove the 1
broken wires from Vero board.
5. Solder Iron and It is used to design the circuit on Vero Board 1
Solder Alloy permanently.
10
9. Block Diagram of the Whole Project :
Square wave Second order Sine Wave Inverter Inverted
(variable (variable Sine Wave
frequency) Low pass filter frequency) (variable
frequency)

Square wave Integrator Triangular


(5 kHz) Wave
(5 kHz)

Comparator Comparator

Logic Logic
AND AND

Logic
Inverter

B Pulse Pulse
L
O
C Opto- Opto-
K Isolator Isolator

D
I
A
G +
1 2 3 4
R Inverter
A
M
D.C. - -

Motor
11
10. Total Project Circuitry :
12
11. Project Details :
There are three parts in the total project circuitry, they are as follows –

11.1 Controlling Part :

At first a square wave of 50 Hz is generated by an OP-AMP. Here a POT of value 2 MΩ is


used to vary the frequency of the square wave above 50 Hz. The necessary circuit arrangement and
its output are given below –
R5

47kOhm_5%
R1
Key = a 75%
2M_LIN

U1
4

2
6
square wave
3
R3 of
7 1 5 741
100kOhm_5% variable frequency

C1 V1

100nF 12V
R2
10kOhm_5%

V3
12V

(a)

(b)
Fig. – 7 Square Wave Generator

(a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform


13
Then the square wave is filtered through a second-order low pass filter made by another
OP-AMP to generate the required sine wave of 50 Hz. To vary the frequency of sine wave, just vary
the frequency of square wave through the POT. The function of the second-order low pass filter
with an OP-AMP is describe below –
The schematic diagram of a second order low-pass filter is shown below -

-V

R
C 4
R
Square wave 2
R1 741 6
of variable Sine wave
3
frequency of variable
C 7 1 5
frequency

+V
Fig. – 8 Second order Low-pass Filter

The transfer function will be given by –


2

H ( s) =
vo
=
( RC ) 2
2
v 2  1   1 
in s + s +  
 RC   RC 
Kω02
=
ω 
s 2 +  0  s + ω02
Q
K
= 2
 s  1 s 
  +   + 1
 ω0  Q  ω0 
1
where K = 2, ω0 = , Q = 1.
RC
The second-order low pass filter with specified components and its output is given in Fig. –
14

R2
R6
200kOhm_5%
C2 1kohm
100nF U1
4
200kOhm_5% 49.9kOhm_1% U3
4
2 R1
square wave (variable) R7 R5
6 2
1kohm
3 6
R3 sine wave
7 1 5 741 3
C1 100nF 49% 7 1 5 741
50kOhm
Key = c
V2
12V

V1 R4
12V
1kohm

(a)

(b)

Fig. – 9 Second order Low-pass Filter

(a) Circuitry with specified components and (b) Output Waveform


Now with the help of another OP-AMP, an inverting amplifier (described below) is made,
which inverts the sine wave at a phase shift 180°. Here another POT of value 50 kΩ is used to
maintain the same level of two sine waves (actual and inverted).
The connection method for producing the inverted gain using OP-AMP is called inverting
amplifier. The OP-AMP makes use of single resistor (r1) and a single feedback resistor (r2). The
inverting amplifier produces a phase shift of 180° in voltage from input to output. Thus the input
and output signals of the inverting amplifier are not in phase with each other.
We know that OP-AMP gain without any feedback is very high. This means that the voltage
at the inverting terminal must be small. As a matter of fact, the input voltage at the inverting
terminal will be very nearly at the same potential as the non-inverting terminal. Now since the non-
inverting input is
15
grounded, the inverting input of an OP-AMP is also at the ground potential and is referred to as
virtual ground.
-V
r2

4
r1
Actual 2
741 6
sine wave of Inverted
3
variable frequency sine wave of
7 1 5
variable frequency

+V
Fig. – 10 Inverting Amplifier

Now recall that voltage gain (Av) of an amplifier is defined as the ratio of output voltage to
the input voltage.
Mathematically, voltage gain
output voltage vo r
Av = = =− 2
input voltage vin r1

The inverting amplifier circuit with specified components and its output is given in Fig. –
R2

1kohm

U1
4
R1

2
actual sine wave 1kohm
6
inverted sine wave
3
V1 7 1 5 741
12V

V2
12V

(a)

16

(b)

Fig. – 11 Inverting Amplifier

(a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform (inverted sine wave)

After adjusting the level of two sine waves by the POT 50 kΩ, the obtained output is as
below –
Fig. – 12 Two variable Sine Waves (actual and inverted) in a same oscilloscope

Thereafter another square wave of fixed frequency (about 5 kHz) is generated. The
necessary circuit arrangement and its output are given below –

17
R3

10kOhm_5%

U1
4

2
6
high frequency
3
R1 square wave
7 1 5
741 100kOhm_5%

V1
C1
10nF 12V
R2
10kOhm_5%

V2
12V

(a)
(b)

Fig. – 13 High Frequency Square Wave Generator

(a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform

Integrating this high frequency square wave, the triangular wave (also called carrier signal)
is generated. The description of integrator circuit with an OP-AMP is as follows –
Integrator is a circuit whose output is proportional to the area of its input waveform. The
RC circuit itself acts as a simple integrator. But the problem with such a simple circuit is that the
output voltage is not a linear triangular output as it should be. The function of the OP-AMP is to
linearize the output. It may be noted from the diagram that the inverting input to the OP-AMP is
held at virtual ground by the differential amplifier in the OP-AMP input circuit.

18

R2
-V
C
4

Square wave of R1 2
741 6
high frequency Triangular wave
3
of high frequency
7 1 5

+V
Fig. – 14 Integrator

The second-order low pass filter with specified components and its output is given in Fig. –
R2

15kOhm_5%

C1 U1
4
R1 100nF
1kohm
2
square wave
6
(high frequency) triangular wave
3
V1 (carrier signal)
12V 7 1 5 741

V2
12V

(a)

(b)

Fig. – 15 Integrator circuit with specified components

(a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform


19
Now two sine waves (actual and inverted) and the triangular wave (carrier signal) are
compared using two OP-AMPs. The comparator circuit using OP-AMP is as follows –
The comparator is a circuit that is used to compare two voltages and provide an output
indicating the relationship between two voltages. Generally speaking, comparators are used to
compare either,
(i) Two changing voltages to each other, as comparing two sine waves.
(ii) A changing voltage to a set D.C. reference voltage.
Figure shows the circuit of an OP-AMP comparator. It may be noted that there is no feedback path
in the circuit. In this circuit the sine wave (actual and inverted) is applied to the inverting input
terminal and high frequency triangular carrier signal is applied to the inverting terminal of the OP-
AMP.
-V

4
R
sine wave
2
741 6
Output after
triangular wave 3
R comparison
7 1 5

+V
Fig. – 16 Comparator

The simulation circuit and its outputs are given below –


4 U1
R1

2
actual sine wave 1kohm
6
R3 output of comparator I
3
1kohm
7 1 5
741

triangular wave
4 U2
R2

2
inverted sine wave 1kohm
6
R4 output of comparator II
3
1kohm
7 1 5
741
V1
12V

V2
12V

(a)

20
(b)

(c)

Fig. – 17 Comparator circuit with specified component

(a) Required Circuitry, (b) Output Waveform of Comparator – I


and (c) Output Waveform of Comparator – II

At last the output of the first comparator is ANDed with the square wave of variable
frequency by using chip 7408 and the output of the second comparator is ANDed with the inverted
square wave of variable frequency (inverted by using logic inverter 7404) to generate the triggering
pulse for triggering the POWER MOSFETs. The simulation circuit of ANDing and its outputs are
given in the figure below –
21
square wave
(variable frequency)
U1A
1
3
2
output pulse
comparator 74LS08N
output I

1
U2A
74LS04N

2
U1B
comparator
4
output II 5
6
output pulse
74LS08N

(a)

(b)

Fig. – 18 ANDing the output of Comparator – I and II with Variable Square Wave

(a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Pulses

The pulses are isolated trough four opto-couplers, so that each POWER MOSFET of the
inverter bridge is being triggered separately. The opto-couplers connections and the outputs of four
opto couplers, i.e., individual triggering pulses for each MOEFET are shown in Figs. below –
22
U4

output of V1 To MOSFET M1
AND (7408) 12V

pin no - 3
R4
1.0kOhm_5%

U1

V2 To MOSFET M2
12V

R3
1.0kOhm_5%

U2
To MOSFET M3
output of
V3
AND (7408) 12V
pin no - 6
R2
1.0kOhm_5%

U3
To MOSFET M4
V4
12V

R1
1.0kOhm_5%

(a)
(b)

23

(c)
(d)

(e)

Fig. – 19 Separation of Pulses with Opto-isolators

(a) Opto-isolator connection and


(b) – (e) Four separate Pulses to trigger the MOSFET 1 – MOSFET 4
24
11.2 Power Part :
To run a motor we need voltage supply. In speed variation of single phase induction motor
by varying frequency variation method we have to vary external resistance of the control part of the
control circuit to vary frequency of the supply of motor.
The power part consists of two parts,
(i) Supply Voltage Part.
(ii) Inverter Bridge Part.

11.2.1 Supply Part :


In supply part, 230 V A.C. is required for the motor. To obtain this voltage, the value of
required D.C. voltage we can obtain by the following equation –
Vac = 0.612maVdc
where, Vac = supply voltage for the induction motor.
Vsin
ma = modulation index =
Vtri
Vdc = supply D.C. voltage for inverter
Vac 230
∴ Vdc = = = 537 V
0.612ma 0.612 × 0.7
But 270 V D.C. source is available in the laboratory, so the maximum voltage can be
applied to the motor terminal is
Vac = 0.612 × 0.7 × 270 = 116 V

11.2.2 Inverter Bridge Part :


By using power MOSFET IRF720 the inverter bridge circuit is developed, as we know
inverter is used to invert DC voltage to AC voltage.
In Inverter Bridge four IRF720 MOSFETs are used. For single-phase A.C. we need two
phases, one of which is earthed. Suppose we denote the MOSFETs by M1, M2, M3, and M4. Now we
arrange the MOSFETs crosswise,
M1 M3
M4 M2
In the bridge for the source pins of M1 and M3 are shorted and the drain pins of these two are
connected to the sources of M4 and M2 respectively. Also drain pins of M4 and M2 are shorted.
Now source pins of M1 and M3 are connected with the positive side of 230V D.C. supply.
The outputs of the controlling circuit are connected to the gate pins of all MOSFETs, as we know
that, MOSFETs are automatic switches operated by gate pulse. By using same convention, we use
control circuit pulses to ON or OFF the MOSFETs of the bridge to get sinusoidal A.C. supply. The
drain pins of M4 and M2 are connected with the negative side of 230V D.C. supply. Now when M1 is
ON due to gate pulse the D.C. current flows through it, then M2 is ON and make a closed loop
through load attached in the middle of the bridge. So, the upper half of the sinusoidal pulse appears
across the load. Next, M3 is ON and D.C. current flows through it. When M4 become ON, the
current flows through the load and the

25
lower part of the sinusoidal supply appears across the load. The Inverter circuit and its output is
given in the following Figs. –
triggering pulse
from opto-coupler 3 M1
M3
output (phase)
neutral
triggering pulse
270V R1 L1
from opto-coupler 1
1.0uH
1.0kOhm_5%
triggering pulse C1 C2
M4 2.0nF 2.0nF
from opto-coupler 4 M2

triggering pulse
from opto-coupler 2

(a)

(b)

Fig. – 20 Circuitry of the total Power Part

(a) Inverter Bridge and (b) Output of the Inverter, fed to the motor

Now we get the desired A.C. supply for motor. Here every MOSFET is become ON when the
amplitude of the gate pulse is 3.8V ≅ 4V.

11.3 Loading Part :


This part mainly consists of “SINGLE PHASE PERMANENT CAPACITOR INDUCTION
MOTOR”. The load part motor is of rating,

26
1
Power = hp;
12
Current = 0.85 A;
Voltage = 230 V;
Speed = 6500 r.p.m.;
Power factor = 0.8
(a)
(b)

Fig. – 21 Loading Part

(a) The Single Phase Induction Motor and (b) Rating of the Motor

As we know that in single phase the alternating phases are absent due
to which the rotating flux is not generated; so rotation of the rotor is not
possible.
For that reason permanent split capacitor is used to generate two
balanced phases, due to which a rotating flux generated. There are several
types of single-phase motors in market but permanent capacitor type motors
are used because here two balanced phases generate rotating flux for which
the backward rotating flux is absent.
Due to which motor become more efficient and operated in better
power factor. This type of load is used in ceiling fans and table fans now a
day.
In our project, the two phases coming from Inverter Bridge is fed to
the load where any one phase is earthed; so that it acts as neutral in single-
phase supply. By this supply starting torque is generated and the motor starts
to rotate.
27
12. Test Tools :

Sl. Description of Tools Specification


No. Name Use
1. Oscilloscope To get the response of the parts of the 230 V, 20 MHz
control circuit.
2. Digital To measure the voltage, Resistances used, Resistance = upto 400 kΩ
Multimeter capacitor used, in the circuit. Also to verify Voltage = 0 to 1000 V
whether parts of the circuit is active or not. Capacitor = 0 nF to 10 uF

13. Test Procedure :


For testing the circuitry we use oscilloscope to verify the response of
the part of the circuit if the response is desirable then we proceed for the next
portion of circuit. At the begging of the project we make the total possible
circuit in MULTISIM simulation software and see the responses of every
possible part of circuit. These responses are compared with the original circuit
responses and if there is any wrong thing appear we clarify the original circuit
for better response.
To understand the speed variation we use tachometer to measure the
speed.
V
[Note: As we know that in PWM fed inverter the variation of should be
f
constant under base frequency. But here we can’t vary voltage and frequency
simultaneously so we vary frequency only over base frequency to do the
speed variation]

14. Test Results :

Type of wave Frequency Voltage (V)


Square (above) 50 Hz 11 (p-p)
Sine (above) 50 Hz 7 (p-p)
Square 5 kHz 11 (p-p)
Triangular 5 kHz 10 (p-p)
Output Pulse - 4.5
28
15. Precautions :

To do this project various types of problems appear in front of us


those are as follows with solve,
(i) First of all things, connection should be correct and perfect.
(ii) During soldering careful about burning hazards.
(iii) Use “chip base” to prevent the burning of chip due to direct
soldering.
(iv) Soldering should be done in right process otherwise there
may appear short-circuit among pins and connecting wires.
(v) Use Multi-Striped wire to prevent loose connection after
soldering.
(vi) All the open contacts should be closed to prevent shock
hazards.
(vii) Take measures to minimize the noise in the signal; like using
capacitor to block the noise.

16. Inference :

After finishing the “simulation of the circuit” by using Multisim


software, we get the specific results and wave forms when we design the
circuit part by part like “square wave generator, then second order filter, then
we get sinusoidal pulse. Again square wave generator of high frequency
pulse, then integrator and we get carrier signal triangular pulse”. But in the
case of hardware design, many difficulties will occur such as frequency is not
in the proper range, many noises in the required wave form etc. and so we use
capacitors and resistors in much more quantity than that used in software.
From all the above analysis and waveforms, we conclude that if we
vary the POT of Fig. 7(a), the frequency of the Square wave of Fig. 7(b)
changed as the time constant RC will be changed. So the frequency of the sine
wave will also vary and as well as comparison of Sine wave with the
triangular wave will vary and the frequency of the pulses which trigger the
MOSFETs will also vary and at last we will get the variable inverter output.
But, we know that, frequency control below base speed can carry out
V
by keeping ratio constant. Since there is no such option to vary the supply
f
voltage with its frequency, so the frequency as well as the speed of the motor
is varied above the base speed.

DATASHEET OF OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP) LM741
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 2) August 2000
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
(Note 7)
LM741
LM741A LM741 LM741C
Operational Amplifier
Supply Voltage ± 22V ± 22V ± 18V
General Description Power Dissipation (Note 3) output,
500 mW no latch-up 500whenmW
ceeded, as well as freedom
the common mode range is ex-
500 mW
from oscillations.
The LM741 series Differential Input Voltage
are general purpose operational ± 30V ± 30V ± 30V
The LM741C is identical to the LM741/LM741A except that
amplifi- ers which feature
Input (Note 4) performance over ± 15V
Voltageimproved ± 15V ± 15V
the LM741C has their performance guaranteed over a 0˚C to
industry stan- dards like the LM709. They are direct, plug-in
Output Short Circuit Duration Continuous
+70˚C temperatureContinuous
range, instead of −55˚C Continuous
to +125˚C.
replacements for the 709C, LM201, MC1439 and 748 in
most applications. Operating Temperature Range −55˚C to +125˚C −55˚C to +125˚C 0˚C to +70˚C
Storage
The amplifiers offer manyTemperature Range
features which −65˚C to +150˚C
make their appli- Features −65˚C to +150˚C −65˚C to +150˚C
cation nearly foolproof: overload
Junction protection on the input and
Temperature 150˚C 150˚C 100˚C
Soldering Information
Connection N-Package
Diagrams (10 seconds) 260˚C 260˚C 260˚C
J- or H-Package (10 seconds) 300˚C 300˚C 300˚C
Metal Can Package Dual-In-Line or S.O. Package
M-Package
Vapor Phase (60 seconds) 215˚C 215˚C 215˚C
Infrared (15 seconds) 215˚C 215˚C 215˚C
See AN-450 “Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability” for other methods of
soldering
surface mount devices.
ESD Tolerance (Note 8) 400V 400V 400V
00934103
Electrical Characteristics
Note 1: LM741H is available per JM38510/10101
00934102
(Note 5) Order Number LM741J, LM741J/883, LM741CN
Order Number LM741H, LM741H/883 (Note 1), See NS Package Number J08A, M08A or N08E
Parameter Conditions LM741A LM741 LM741C Units
LM741AH/883 or LM741CH
Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max
See NS Package Number H08C
Input Offset Voltage TA = 25˚C
Ceramic Flatpak
RS ≤ 10 kΩ 1.0 5.0 2.0 6.0 mV
RS ≤ 50Ω 0.8 3.0 mV
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX
RS ≤ 50Ω 4.0 mV
RS ≤ 10 kΩ 6.0 7.5 mV
00934106
Average Input Offset 15 µV/˚C
Order Number LM741W/883
Voltage Drift
See NS Package Number W10A
Input Offset Voltage TA = 25˚C, VS = ± 20V ± 10 ± 15 ± 15 mV
Adjustment Range
Typical Application
Input Offset Current TA = 25˚C 3.0 30 20 200 20 200 nA
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX
Offset Nulling Circuit 70 85 500 300 nA
Average Input Offset 0.5 nA/˚C
Current Drift
Input Bias Current TA = 25˚C 30 80 80 500 80 500 nA
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX 0.210 1.5 0.8 µA
Input Resistance TA = 25˚C, VS = ± 20V 1.0 6.0 0.3 2.0 0.3 2.0 MΩ
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX, 0.5 MΩ
VS = ± 20V
00934107
Input Voltage Range TA = 25˚C ± 12 ± 13 V
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX ± 12 ± 13 V

© 2004
www.national.com
National Semiconductor Corporation DS009341 2 www.national.com
Electrical Characteristics (Note 5) (Continued)

Parameter Conditions LM741A LM741 LM741C Units


Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max
Large Signal Voltage Gain TA = 25˚C, RL ≥ 2 kΩ
VS = ± 20V, VO = ± 15V 50 V/mV
VS = ± 15V, VO = ± 10V 50 200 20 200 V/mV
TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX,
RL ≥ 2 kΩ,
VS = ± 20V, VO = ± 15V 32 V/mV
VS = ± 15V, VO = ± 10V 25 15 V/mV
VS = ± 5V, VO = ± 2V 10 V/mV
Output Voltage Swing VS = ± 20V
RL ≥ 10 kΩ ± 16 V
RL ≥ 2 kΩ ± 15 V
VS = ± 15V
RL ≥ 10 kΩ ± 12 ± 14 ± 12 ± 14 V
RL ≥ 2 kΩ ± 10 ± 13 ± 10 ± 13 V
Output Short Circuit TA = 25˚C 10 25 35 25 25 mA
Current TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX 10 40 mA
Common-Mode TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX
Rejection Ratio RS ≤ 10 kΩ, VCM = ± 12V 70 90 70 90 dB
RS ≤ 50Ω, VCM = ± 12V 80 95 dB
Supply Voltage Rejection TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX,
Ratio VS = ± 20V to VS = ± 5V
RS ≤ 50Ω 86 96 dB
RS ≤ 10 kΩ 77 96 77 96 dB
Transient Response TA = 25˚C, Unity Gain
Rise Time 0.25 0.8 0.3 0.3 µs
Overshoot 6.0 20 5 5 %
Bandwidth (Note 6) TA = 25˚C 0.437 1.5 MHz
Slew Rate TA = 25˚C, Unity Gain 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.5 V/µs
Supply Current TA = 25˚C 1.7 2.8 1.7 2.8 mA
Power Consumption TA = 25˚C
VS = ± 20V 80 150 mW
VS = ± 15V 50 85 50 85 mW
LM741A VS = ± 20V
TA = TAMIN 165 mW
TA = TAMAX 135 mW
LM741 VS = ± 15V
TA = TAMIN 60 100 mW

Note 2: “Absolute Maximum Ratings” indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is
functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits.

3 www.national.com
Electrical Characteristics (Note 5) (Continued)
Note 3: For operation at elevated temperatures, these devices must be derated based on thermal resistance, and Tj max. (listed under “Absolute Maximum
Ratings”). Tj = TA + (θjA PD).

Thermal Resistance Cerdip (J) DIP (N) HO8 (H) SO-8 (M)
θjA (Junction to Ambient) 100˚C/W 100˚C/W 170˚C/W 195˚C/W
θjC (Junction to Case) N/A N/A 25˚C/W N/A

Note 4: For supply voltages less than ± 15V, the absolute maximum input voltage is equal to the supply voltage.
Note 5: Unless otherwise specified, these specifications apply for VS = ± 15V, −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C (LM741/LM741A). For the LM741C/LM741E, these
specifications are limited to 0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C.
Note 6: Calculated value from: BW (MHz) = 0.35/Rise Time(µs).
Note 7: For military specifications see RETS741X for LM741 and RETS741AX for LM741A.
Note 8: Human body model, 1.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF.

Schematic Diagram

00934101

www.national.com 4
DATASHEET OF LOGIC INVERTER
SN7405
November 1988
Revised February 2005

74AC08 • 74ACT08
Quad 2-Input AND Gate
General Description Features
The AC/ACT08 contains four, 2-input AND gates. ICC reduced by 50% on 74AC only
Outputs source/sink 24 mA

DATASHEET OF LOGIC AND GATE


Ordering Code:
Order Number
74AC08 Package
Package Description
Number
74AC08SC M14A 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC), JEDEC MS-012, 0.150" Narrow
74AC08SJ M14D Pb-Free 14-Lead Small Outline Package (SOP), EIAJ TYPE II, 5.3mm Wide
74AC08MTC MTC14 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP), JEDEC MO-153, 4.4mm Wide
74AC08MTCX_NL MTC14 Pb-Free 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP), JEDEC MO-153, 4.4mm
(Note 1) Wide
74AC08PC N14A 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP), JEDEC MS-001, 0.300" Wide
74AC08PC_NL N14A Pb-Free 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP), JEDEC MS-001, 0.300" Wide
(Note 1)
74ACT08SC M14A 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC), JEDEC MS-012, 0.150" Narrow
74ACT08SCX_NL M14A Pb-Free 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC), JEDEC MS-012, 0.150" Narrow
(Note 1)
74ACT08MTC MTC14 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP), JEDEC MO-153, 4.4mm Wide
74ACT08MTCX_NL MTC14 Pb-Free 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP), JEDEC MO-153, 4.4mm
(Note 1) Wide
74ACT08PC N14A 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP), JEDEC MS-001, 0.300" Wide
74ACT08PC_NL N14A Pb-Free 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP), JEDEC MS-001, 0.300" Wide
(Note 1)
Device also available in Tape and Reel. Specify by appending suffix letter “X” to the ordering code. (PC not available in Tape and Reel.)
Pb-Free package per JEDEC J-STD-020B.
Note 1: “_NL” indicates Pb-Free package (per JEDEC J-STD-020B). Use this number to order device.

Logic Symbol Connection Diagram


IEEE/IEC

Pin Descriptions
Pin Names Description
An , Bn Inputs
On Outputs

FACT ¥ is a trademark of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation.

© 2005 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation DS009914 www.fairchildsemi.com


Absolute Maximum Ratings(Note 2) Recommended Operating
Supply Voltage (VCC) 0.5V to 7.0V Conditions
DC Input Diode Current (IIK) Supply Voltage (VCC)
VI 0.5V 20 mA AC 2.0V to 6.0V
VI VCC 0.5V 20 mA ACT 4.5V to 5.5V
DC Input Voltage (VI) 0.5V to VCC 0.5V Input Voltage (VI) 0V to VCC
DC Output Diode Current (IOK) Output Voltage (VO) 0V to VCC
VO 0.5V 20 mA Operating Temperature (TA) 40qC to 85qC
VO VCC 0.5V 20 mA Minimum Input Edge Rate ('V/'t)
DC Output Voltage (VO) 0.5V to VCC 0.5V AC Devices
DC Output Source VIN from 30% to 70% of VCC
or Sink Current (IO ) r50 mA VCC @ 3.3V, 4.5V, 5.5V 125 mV/ns
DC VCC or Ground Current Minimum Input Edge Rate ('V/'t)
per Output Pin (ICC or IGND) r50 mA ACT Devices
Storage Temperature (TSTG) 65qC to 150qC VIN from 0.8V to 2.0V
Junction Temperature (TJ) VCC @ 4.5V, 5.5V 125 mV/ns
PDIP 140qC Note 2: Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which damage
to the device may occur. The databook specifications should be met, with-
out exception, to ensure that the system design is reliable over its
power supply, temperature, and output/input loading variables. Fairchild
does not recommend operation of FACT¥ circuits outside databook

DC Electrical Characteristics for AC


VCC TA 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC
Symbol Parameter Units Conditions
(V) Typ Guaranteed Limits
VIH Minimum HIGH Level 3.0 1.5 2.1 2.1 VOUT 0.1V
Input Voltage 4.5 2.25 3.15 3.15 V or VCC 0.1V
5.5 2.75 3.85 3.85
VIL Maximum LOW Level 3.0 1.5 0.9 0.9 VOUT
0.1V Input Voltage 4.5 2.25 1.35 1.35 V or VCC 0.1V
5.5 2.75 1.65 1.65
VOH Minimum HIGH Level 3.0 2.99 2.9 2.9
Output Voltage 4.5 4.49 4.4 4.4 V IOUT 50 PA
5.5 5.49 5.4 5.4
VIN VIL or VIH
3.0 2.56 2.46 IOH 12 mA
4.5 3.86 3.76 V IOH 24 mA
5.5 4.86 4.76 IOH 24 mA (Note 3)
VOL Maximum LOW Level 3.0 0.002 0.1 0.1
Output Voltage 4.5 0.001 0.1 0.1 V IOUT 50 PA
5.5 0.001 0.1 0.1
VIN VIL or VIH
3.0 0.36 0.44 IOL 12 mA
4.5 0.36 0.44 V IOL 24 mA
5.5 0.36 0.44 IOL 24 mA (Note 3)
IIN Maximum Input 5.5 r0.1 r1.0 PA VI VCC, GND
(Note 5) Leakage Current
IOLD Minimum Dynamic 5.5 75 mA VOLD 1.65V Max
IOHD Output Current (Note 4) 5.5 75 mA VOHD 3.85V Min
ICC Maximum Quiescent 5.5 2.0 20.0 PA VIN VCC
(Note 5) Supply Current or GND
Note 3: All outputs loaded; thresholds on input associated with output under test.
Note 4: Maximum test duration 2.0 ms, one output loaded at a time.
Note 5: IIN and ICC @ 3.0V are guaranteed to be less than or equal to the respective limit @ 5.5V VCC.

www.fairchildsemi.com 2
DC Electrical Characteristics for ACT
VCC TA 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC
Symbol Parameter Units Conditions
(V) Typ Guaranteed Limits
VIH Minimum HIGH Level 4.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 VOUT 0.1V
V
Input Voltage 5.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 or VCC 0.1V
VIL Maximum LOW Level 4.5 1.5 0.8 0.8 VOUT 0.1V
V
Input Voltage 5.5 1.5 0.8 0.8 or VCC 0.1V
VOH Minimum HIGH Level 4.5 4.49 4.4 4.4
V IOUT 50 PA
Output Voltage 5.5 5.49 5.4 5.4
VIN VIL or VIH
4.5 3.86 3.76 IOH 24 mA
5.5 4.86 4.76 V IOH 24 mA (Note 6)
VOL Maximum LOW Level 4.5 0.001 0.1 0.1
V IOUT 50 PA
Output Voltage 5.5 0.001 0.1 0.1
VIN VIL or VIH
4.5 0.36 0.44 IOL 24 mA
5.5 0.36 0.44 V IOL 24 mA (Note 6)
IIN Maximum Input Leakage Current 5.5 r0.1 r1.0 PA VI VCC, GND
ICCT Maximum ICC/Input 5.5 0.6 1.5 mA VI VCC 2.1V
IOLD Minimum Dynamic Output Current 5.5 75 mA VOLD 1.65V Max
IOHD (Note 7) 5.5 75 mA VOHD 3.85V Min
ICC Maximum Quiescent VIN VCC
5.5 4.0 40.0 PA
Supply Current or GND
Note 6: All outputs loaded; thresholds on input associated with output under test.
Note 7: Maximum test duration 2.0 ms, one output loaded at a time.

AC Electrical Characteristics for AC


VCC TA 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC
Symbol Parameter (V) CL 50 pF CL 50 pF Units
(Note 8) Min Typ Max Min Max
tPLH Propagation Delay 3.3 1.5 7.5 9.5 1.0 10.0
ns
5.0 1.5 5.5 7.5 1.0 8.5
tPHL Propagation Delay 3.3 1.5 7.0 8.5 1.0 9.0
ns
5.0 1.5 5.5 7.0 1.0 7.5
Note 8: Voltage Range 3.3 is 3.3V r 0.3V
Voltage Range 5.0 is 5.0V r 0.5V

AC Electrical Characteristics for ACT


VCC TA 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC
Symbol Parameter (V) CL 50 pF CL 50 pF Units
(Note 9) Min Typ Max Min Max
tPLH Propagation Delay 5.0 1.0 6.5 9.0 1.0 10.0 ns
tPHL Propagation Delay 5.0 1.0 6.5 9.0 1.0 10.0 ns
Note 9: Voltage Range 5.0 is 5.0V r 0.5V

Capacitance
Symbol Parameter Typ Units Conditions
CIN Input Capacitance 4.5 pF VCC OPEN
CPD Power Dissipation Capacitance 20.0 pF VCC 5.0V

3 www.fairchildsemi.com
DATASHEET OF OPTOCOUPLER
MCT2E
DATASHEET OF POWER MOSFET
IRF720
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alok Jain – “Power Electronics and Its Applications”, Second
Edition, Penram International Publishing (India) Pvt. Ltd.

2. William H. Hayt, Jr., Jack E. Kemmerly, Steven M. Durbin –


“Engineering Circuit Analysis”, Sixth Edition, Tata McGraw-
Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.

3. A. Chakrabarti – “Circuit Theory (Analysis and Synthesis)”,


Dhanpat Rai & Co. (Pvt.) Ltd.

4. Muhammad H. Rashid – “Power Electronics Circuits, Devices,


and Applications”, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private
Limited.

5. D. Roy Choudhury, Shalil B. Jain – “Linear Integrated


Circuits”, Second Edition, New Age International (P) Limited,
Publishers.

6. Nisit K. De, Prasanta K. Sen – “Electric Drives”, Prentice-Hall


of India Private Limited.

7. M. Morris Mano – “Digital Logic and Computer Design”,


Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.

8. Dr. P. S. Bimbhra – “Generalized Theory of Electrical


Machines”, Khanna Publishers.

9. Gopal K. Dubey – “Fundamentals of Electrical Drives”, Second


Edition, Narosa Publishing House.

10. M. C. Sharma – “41 Projects Using 741 I.C.”, BPB


Publications.