Anda di halaman 1dari 53

P.

GOPALA KRISHNA
ADE/400KV/APTRANSCO
Power Systems Protection -Introduction
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power Evacuation Substation


Transmission Substation

Switching Substation

Distribution Substation
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System Components


1. Generators
2. Transformers
3. Transmission Lines
4. Feeders
5. Motors
6. Capacitor Banks
7. Bus Bars
8. Reactors
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Why we need the Protection ?


¾ To detect abnormalities (faults).
¾ To eliminate such abnormality by
isolating smallest portion of the system
in a shortest period of time.
¾ To prevent injury to personnel.
¾ To prevent damage to Equipment.
¾ Enable Continuous service in
undamaged part of the network.
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Protective Relay – What should it do ?


¾ Monitor system parameters continuously
(V, I, P, F)
¾ Operate quickly when necessary
(Dependability)
¾ Should not operate wrongly
(stability, discrimination)

To trip or not to trip ?


Power Systems Protection -Introduction
Protective System – What are the Requirements?
¾ Speed
The relay must operate at the required speed. It should neither be too slow which
may result in damage to the equipment nor should it be too fast which may result
in undesired operation. Damage can be Minimised.
¾ Sensitivity
The relaying equipment must be sufficiently sensitive so that it operates reliably
when required under the actual conditions that produces least operating tendency
and to detect all possible Shunt and series Faults.
¾ Selectivity
The relay must be able to discriminate (select) between those conditions for which
prompt operation is required and those for which no operation, or time delayed
operation is required. Isolate only Faulty Section without disturbing Healthy
Section.
¾ Reliability
The most important requisite of protective relay is reliability since they supervise
the circuit for a long time before a fault occurs; if a fault then occurs, the relays
must respond instantly and correctly. The Operation Capability of the Protection
System is summerised in “ reliability”, which includes both the security in fault
clearance and the security against undesired clearances. The security in fault
clearance is called dependability and the security against undesired clearances
is called Security.
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Protective Relay Scheme – What is it ?


¾ A Protective Relay
¾ CT / CVT / PT(EMVT)
¾ Auxiliary Power Supply (24 V to 240 V AC/ DC)
¾ Switching Device ( Breaker/ Isolator / Contactor)
¾ Trip Coil
¾ Alarm / Trip contact
¾ Control Wiring
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System - Faults


Current Voltage Frequency
Over Load Over Voltage Over Frequency
Over Current Under Voltage Under Frequency
Earth Fault Voltage Unbalance dF/dT
Current Unbalance Neutral shift
Dir. Over Current Control/Management
Dir. Earth Fault Synchronising
Computed
Load sharing
Power Over fluxing
Islanding
Active power Loss of field
Load shedding
Reactive power Differential
Over power Over Current
Under power Restricted E/F DC Relays
Reverse power Under Impedance
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Protection – ANSI Codes

Code numbers
Used to denote
Protections
On a SLD
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System – Fault Handling

Trip & Isolate Control & Regulate


Breaker is not tripped
Breaker is tripped on fault
Corrective actions
Faulty section is isolated Generated on line
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Relay operation when a fault occurs

¾ Each Relay should Protect a specific


Zone in the System.

¾ If fault is inside its Zone, Relay should


operate and isolate the faulted Zone.

¾ If fault is outside zone, Relay should


not operate,

Some other Relay should operate and


isolate
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

What happens when a fault occurs

¾ Fault current flows through number of


Relays.

¾ Some of these Relays will start to


operate.

¾ Only one Relay related to particular fault


should trip and interrupt the fault
current.

¾ Remaining Relays will reset after above.


Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Protection Relays – Inputs / Out puts

Inputs
Outputs
Current CTs
Voltage PTs
Trip Contact
Frequency PTs
Power CTs + PTs
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Protection Relays – Settings

Pick up setting Low set % of CT


Highset Rating

Time delay setting Definite time TMS


Setting
Inverse time
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System – Trip time characteristics

1.3 or
3.0 sec

1.4 10
I/Is
LS
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Power System – Trip time characteristics

1.3 or
3.0 sec

50 msec

1.4 6 10
I/Is
LS HS
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Typical Inverse Time Delays


TIME MULTIPLIER SETTING – TMS : 1.00
I/Is=2 I/Is=4 I/Is=6 I/Is=8 I/Is=10 I/Is=15 I/Is=20
Normal Inv 3 sec 10.13 5.03 3.87 3.33 3.00 2.54 2.29
Normal Inv 1.3 sec 04.39 2.18 1.68 1.44 1.30 1.10 0.99

Very Inverse 1.5 sec 13.50 4.50 2.70 1.93 1.50 0.96 0.71
Extremely Inverse 26.66 5.33 2.28 1.27 0.81 0.36 0.20
Power Systems Protection -Introduction

Things you should know


Application
SLD representation
Front panel Controls
Back Panel terminations
Inputs / Outputs / Ratings
Settings (Inside)
Settings (on front panel)
Installation & wiring
Commissioning
Testing (Front panel)
Testing (SCITS)
Cat . No.
EVALUATION
OF
PROTECTIVE
RELAYS
PREPARED BY
GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU
ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)
1 ST GENERATION
FIRST GENERATION RELAYS :
THESE ARE ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS
IN THIS NO OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS PROVIDED FOR ARRIVING
A SPECIFIC FUNCTION i.e EACH FUNCTION OF THE SCHEME HAVING A
SEPARATE RELAY. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION
FUNCTION. NO OF RELAYS ARE MORE AND SPACE OCUPATION IS
MORE AND INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM IS MORE.
DISADVANTAGES: ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS HAVE A LOT OF
MECHANICAL PARTS, WHICH MAY BECOME CLOGGED WITH DIRT OR
CORRODED DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, AFFECTING BOTH
OPERATION, CALIBRATION AND MOVEMENT OF THE DISKS. IT
REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND ADJUSTMENT.
1 ST GENERATION
NEXT MODIFICATION :
ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS WITH STATIC COMPONENTS
IN THIS SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC
COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. IN THIS QUANTITY OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS ARE REDUCED. COMBINING ALL IS
CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. QUANTITY OF RELAYS ARE
REDUCED AND SPACE OCUPATION IS REDUCED SOME WHAT.
DISADVANTAGES: THE PCBs ARE MADE WITH TRANSISTORS AND ARE
BROUGHTOUT ITEMS WITH DIFFERENT MAKE. AFTER SOME TIME
THESE ARE TO BE REPLACED FOR CORRECT OPERATION WITHOUT
DRIFT. THE PCBs & COMPONENTS PERFORMANCE MAY BE AFFECTED
DUE TO DIST & DIRT. IT REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND
ADJUSTMENT.
2 ND GENERATION
SECOND GENERATION RELAYS :
STATIC RELAYS WITH TRANSISTORS
In this all of the functions are derived from static components provided on the
PCB. In this initially each function is derived with separate static relay.
Quantity of static relays are more but space occupation is less. Combining all
is called one protection function. Inter connection wiring diagram is still not
reduced.
DISADVANTAGES: Static relays generally employ a lot of electronic
components made by other manufacturers. If these electronic components are
not tested with rigorous quality control, the chances of failure of components
during the relay life time may exist. A reliable DC power source within the
relay, to electronically measure circuits has to be generated from available
external power sources. Most of the static relays employ series, shunt, or
switched mode power supply designs. For a variety of reasons, if these power
supplies fail, the measuring circuits are inoperative and the relay is dead for
any measurements. No protection is available to the network. Most of the static
relays in use do not have the means to detect the failure of power supply and
initiate an alarm. It requires periodical Maintenance.
2 ND GENERATION
NEXT MODIFICATION :
STATIC RELAYS ON SINGLE PCB
IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC
COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. IN THIS ALL STATIC RELAYS
ARE TAKEN TO ONE MASTER PCB AND EACH FUNCTION PCB WILL BE
ADD ON CARD TYPE. SO TOTAL RELAY IS ONE BUT FOR EVERY
FUNCTION IS PCB IS AVAILABLE AND CONNECTED TO MAIN PCB.
SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE
PROTECTION FUNCTION. NO INTER CONECTION WIRING. THIS IS PART
OF MAIN PCB.
DISADVANTAGES:
DISADVANTAGES ARE SAME AS ABOVE.
3 ND GENERATION
THIRD GENERATION RELAYS :
STATIC RELAYS WITH ICs
IN THIS NO OF COMPONENTS ARE REDUCED AND BROUGHT OR BUILT
IN ONE INTEGRATED CHIP. DUE TO THIS THE RELAY SIZE IS REDUCED
AND SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ALSO TAKEN IN TO ONE INTEGRATED
CHIP. THIS ALSO BUILT IN ONE PCB. ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE
DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. IN THIS
ONLY MASTER PCB IS AVAILABLE, NO SEPARATE PCB FOR EACH
FUNCTION , ALL ARE INTEGRATED IN ONE PCB. PROBLEMS ARE SOME
WHAT REDUCED. SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. ONE PROTECTION
FUNCTION ONLY ONE RELAY AND ALL FUNCTIONS ARE INTEGRATED.
NO INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM.
3 ND GENERATION

NEXT MODIFICATION :
SEMI NUMERIC RELAYS
IN THIS SOME FUNCTIONS ARE CAN BE PROGRAMMABLE AND
INTERFACE THROUGH PC. SOME ICs ARE HAVING THE FACILITY
TO INTERACT THROUGH COMMUNICATION PORT. IT IS SOME
WHAT MODIFICATION TO IC BASED RELAYS. IN THIS SOME
FUNCTION CAN BE ENABLED AND DISABLED, BASED ON THE
REQUIREMENT.
4 ND GENERATION
MICROPROCESSOR BASED NUMERICAL RELAYS
¾ IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE BROUGHT ON
ONE IC. THE FOURTH GENERATION PROCESSOR-
BASED RELAYS, DO HAVE THE WATCHDOG FEATURE,
WHICH FACILITATES THE CHECKING OF POWER
SUPPLY FAILS, CLOCK FREQUENCIES, AND OTHER
PATTERNS. MOST OF THESE RELAYS HAVE AUTO TEST
FEATURES WHICH TEST THE ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT
FUNCTIONS AT REGULAR INTERVALS &
AUTOMATICALLY.
MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS

¾ BACK GROUND WORK

¾ ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

¾ OPERATIONS & ALGORITHMS IN


MICROPROCESSOR

¾ FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS & OTHER HARDWARE OF


MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAY

¾ FILTERING TECHNIQUES

¾ TESTING OF MICROPROCESSOR RELAYS


MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS - BACKGROUND WORK

1960s
¾ A FEW CONCEPTS WERE PROPOSED

¾ HARDWARE WAS VERY EXPENSIVE

¾ BENEFITS OF MICROPROCESSORS FOR RELAYS


WERE NOT CLEAR

¾ IEEE ARTICLE “FAULT PROTECTION WITH A


DIGITAL COMPUTER” OUTLINED THE
FEASIBILITY & PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED IN S/S
PROTECTION WHEN A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS
USED.
MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS - BACKGROUND WORK
1970s
¾ TWO PAPERS WERE PUBLISHED
“DIGITAL CALCULATION OF IMPEDANCE FOR TRANSMISSION
LINE PROTECTION”
“ 3 PH TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION WITH A DIGITAL
COMPUTER”
¾ PROMINENT MANUFACTURERS LIKE WESTINGHOUSE, IBM
STARTED INVESTIGATING S/S COMPUTER SYSTEMS
¾ PHILADELPHIA ELECTRIC & GE INITIATED PROJECTS ON
DIGITAL TECHNIQUES FOR PROTECTION
¾ VARIOUS ALGORITHMS WERE DERIVED FOR DIGITAL
CALCULATION OF PROTECTION PARAMETRS
¾ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS WERE BUILT BY GE &
WESTINGHOUSE TO CHECK ALGORITHMS
¾ FIRST GENERATION OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS
BUILT
MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS - BACKGROUND WORK

1980s
¾ MAJOR MANUFACTURERS LIKE ABB, GE, GEC , TOSHIBA,
SIEMENS START DESIGN & SALES OF BROAD RANGE OF
PRODUCTS FOR POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
¾ MICROPROCESSOR IMPROVES PERFORMANCE SPECS FOR
OPERATION IN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT
¾ MANY PLC BASED SYSTEMS ARE COMMISSIONED IN INDIA BY
L&T, SIEMENS, ECIL ETC.
¾ MANY ELECTRICITY BOARDS & PROCESS PLANTS IN INDIA
START USING MICROPROCESSOR BASED INSTRUMENTS

¾ THE WORD SCADA GETS POPULAR IN INDIA

¾ PGCIL GOES IN FOR MICROPROCESSOR BASED DISTANCE


RELAYS IN INDIA
MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS - BACKGROUND WORK
1990s
¾ ABB & GEC ALSTOM INTRODUCED RANGE OF
MICROPROCESSOR BASED RELAYS FOR ALL UNIT
PROTECTIONS
¾ MAJOR MANUFACTURERS LIKE ABB, GE, GEC , TOSHIBA
STARTS DESIGN & SALES OF BROAD RANGE OF PRODUCTS
FOR POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

¾ MANY ELECTRICITY BOARDS & PROCESS PLANTS IN INDIA


START USING MICROPROCESSOR BASED INSTRUMENTS

¾ PGCIL GOES IN FOR MICROPROCESSOR BASED DISTANCE


RELAYS IN INDIA

¾ MICROCONTROLLERS / DSPs ARE INTRODUCED IN LATE 90s


BY HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS WHICH HAVE IMPROVED
THE SPEED OF OPERATION.
ADVANTAGES OF NUMERIC RELAYS

PARAMETER NUMERIC CONVENTIONAL

ACCURACY 1% 5% / 7.5%
BURDEN < 0.5 VA > 5 VA
SETTING RANGES WIDE LIMITED
MULTI FUNCTIONALITY YES NO
SIZE SMALL LARGE
FIELD PROGRAMMABILITY YES NO
PARAMETER DISPLAY YES NO
SYSTEM FLEXILBILITY YES NO
CO-ORDINATION TOOLS MANY TWO
COMMUNICATION YES NO
REMOTE CONTROL YES NO
SPECIAL ALGORITHMS MANY LIMITED
SPECIAL PROTECTIONS YES NO
SELF DIAGNOSTICS YES NO
DIS-ADVANTAGES OF NUMERIC RELAYS

SOFTWARE INTENSIVE

OBSOLESENCE RATE

EMI / EMC PROBLEMS

SERIAL NATURE
PROTECTION ALGORITHM

MEASUREMENMT METHOD

TRIP TIME CALCULATION

GOOD FILTERING CHARACTERISTIC


(HARMONICS, NOISE, DC SHIFT)

FAST TRIP DECISION


FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS OF A NUMERIC RELAY

ANALOG D RAM
INPUT S
SU-SYSTEM P ROM
MICRO EPROM
PROCESSOR FLASH
DIGITAL
INPUT
SUB-SYSTEM DIGITAL
OUTPUT
SUB-SYSTEM

POWER SUPPLY COMMUNICATION


INTERFACE
ANALOG INPUT SUB SYSTEM

SURGE ANALOG
CT SUPPRESSION FILTER

A/D MICRO
MUX
CONVERTER PROCESSOR

SURGE ANALOG
PT SUPPRESSION FILTER
MICROPROCESSORS Vs MICRO CONTROLERS

Microprocessor Micro controller

Address Register
Address Register
C C
O O
N Data Register N Data Register
T T
R Arithmetic Logic R Arithmetic Logic
O Unit O Unit
L L
Accumulator Accumulator

ROM Timers
I/O RAM Counters
EPROM UART
RELAY HARDWARE

16 / 32 BIT

PC
MODEM

IRIG-B
RE/CC

NORMALLY 400KV RELAYS SUPPLIED WITH FOLLOWING


CONFIGUARATION/HARDWARE
1. MIN 4Nos MAX 8Nos COMMAND/TRIP OUTPUTS
2. MIN 24Nos SIGNAL OUTPUTS
3. MIN 14 LED INDICATIONS
4. MIN 24 BINARY INPUTS
SELF DIAGNOSTICS - TECHNIQUES USED
RAM Checked by computing a checksum of memory contents
and comparing it against a stored factory value.

RAM Checked by periodically writing a specific data and


reading back the memory contents

A/D Checked by inputing a known value of + / - voltage.


Any off set at a given time, is software corrected.

SETTINGS Checked by checksums or CRC values can be stored


and compared. Often, 2 or 3 copies of settings are stored
and compared.

POWER Checked by monitoring power supply voltage values


SUPPLY from A / D converter.
TYPES OF SIGNALS REQUIRED FOR PROPER PROTECTION

Current, Voltage and Distance Relays :


Require fundamental frequency component signals.
All other signals will interfere with protection process.

Harmonic Restraint Relays :


Require both the fundamental & the Harmonic components ,
each value separately, for decision making process.
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 1ST DEVELOPMENT:
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS APPLICATION BASED
RELAYS i.e EACH PROTECTION FUNCTION HAVING
SEPARATE SOFTWARE & HARDWARE.

¾ Example:
1. LINE PROTECTION,
2. TRANSFORMER PROTECTION,
3. BUSBAR PROTECTION,
4. GENERATOR PROTECTION
5. MOTOR PROTECTION
6. REACTOR PROTECTION
7. CAPACITOR PROTECTION
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 2ND DEVELOPMENT:
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS SOME GROUP BASED
RELAYS i.e SOME PROTECTION FUNCTIONS ARE
TAKEN IN TO ONE FLATFORM AND PROVIDED
COMMON SOFTWARE.
FROM THIS INBUILT FACILITY OF EVENT RECORDER
AND DISTURBANCE RECORDER IS DEVELOPED.

¾ Example:
ABB: 1. REX 5xx SERIES FLATFORM
2. REX 316 SERIES FLATFORM
3. REX 670 SERIES FLATFORM
4. RED 500 SERIES FLATFORM
5. RED 600 SERIES FLATFORM
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 3RD DEVELOPMENT:
UNIVERSAL SOFTWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS
FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER. i.e. ONE
SOFTWARE ONE MANUFACTURER.

¾ Example:
1. SIEMENS: SIPROTEC SERIES – DIGSI
2. GE MULTILIN: ENERVISTA
3. AREVA : MICOM S1
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 4TH DEVELOPMENT:
UNIVERSAL HARDWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS
FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER. ONE HARDWARE
FOR ONE MANUFACTURER.
BUT IT IS MODULAR DESIGN.
RELAY IS COMMON HARDWARE BASED ON
PROTECTION FUNCTION, PARTICULAR CARD IS
ADDED.

¾ Example:
1. GE MULTILIN: UR SERIES & SR SERIES
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 5TH DEVELOPMENT:
EACH MANUFACTURER ADOPTING THEIR
PROPERITIERY BASED PROTOCOL FOR
COMMUNICATION, INTERFACING, NETWORKING AND
AUTOMATION. SOME UTILTIES ARE REQUESTED
MANUFACTURERS TO SUIT THEIR ADOPTED
PROTOCOL.
¾ Example:
1. UCA – Utility communication architecture
2. LON
3. SPA
4. PROFIBUS
5. MODBUS
6. DNP
7. FIELDBUS
8. MVB
9. IEC 60870
4 ND GENERATION
¾ 6TH DEVELOPMENT:
BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE WITH DIFFERENT
PROTOCOLS, NEED FOR UNIFORMITY AND KNOW –
HOW FOR GLOBAL CONSIDERATION
ONE WORLD
ONE TECHNOLOGY
ONE STANDARD
A UNIVERSAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNICATION,
INTERFACING AND NETWORKING IS DEVELOPED.
ALL MANUFACTURERS ARE FORM A GROUP AND
PROTOCOLS ARE STANDARDIZED. ANY RELAY CAN BE
COMMUNICATED FOR COMMON COMMUNICATION
PROTOCOL, i.e INTEROPERATABULITY. THIS IS
SPECIAL FOR AUTOMATION OF STATIONS.
Example:
1. IEC 61850
BENIFITS OF UNIVERSAL PROTOCOL
One Protocol ETHERNET & TCP/IP
¾ for all the needs in the substation ¾Adopted worldwide
¾Scalable technology
¾ flexible configuration
¾Common use of infrastructure
¾ no gateways required

Quicker project execution Separation from Application &


¾ comprehensive data model Communication
¾ clear, standardised project- ¾data and application stay secure
and equipment description ¾independent from communication
systems
¾ Configuration of substation in XML ¾unconstrained further development of
the technology
Efficient maintenance Innovation & Expansion
¾ robust data modelling ¾firm rules for the description of new
¾ self-descriptive equipment data- objects and functions
¾ automation-configuration in XML ¾Interoperability is maintained
INTEROPERATABULITY WITH ABB, AREVA & SIEMENS
TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION
SUBJECT ELECTROMECHANICAL STATIC NUMERICAL
Measuring Induction Discs, Discrete R L C, Microprocessors,
Elements & Electromagnets, Transistors, Digital ICs, Digital
Hardware Induction cups etc Analogue ICs, Signal Processors
Comparators
Measuring Electrical Quantities Level Detectors Analogue to Digital
Method converted into Comparison with Conversion,
Mechanical Force & Reference Value in Numerical
Torque Analogue Algorithms,
Comparators Techniques,
Evaluation Trip
Criteria
Timing Function Mechanical Clock Static Timers Counters
works, Dashpot
Visual Indication Flags, Targets LEDs LEDs & LCD
Display
Trip Command Additional Trip Additional Trip Trip Relays are
Relay Required Relay Required Inbuilt
Contacts & Fixed Fixed Freely Configurable
Assignments
TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION
SUBJECT ELECTROMECHANICAL STATIC NUMERICAL
Sequence of Not Possible Not Possible Available
Events
Hardware Size Bulky Modular, Compact Most Compact
Parameter Plug Setting, Dial Thumb Wheel, Human Machine
Setting Setting Potentiometers, DIP Interface, Softwares
Switches
Binary Input & Not Available Not Available Available & Freely
Output Configurable
Self Supervision Not Available Partially Available Available
Calibration Frequently Required Required as settings Not required as
as settings drift due drift due to ageing settings are stored
to ageing permanently in
Memory in Digital
Format
Multiple Not Possible Not Possible Possible
Characteristics
Multiple Not Possible Not Possible Possible
Integrated
Protection func
TECHNOLOGY COMPARISION
SUBJECT ELECTROMECHANICAL STATIC NUMERICAL
Range of Limited Moderate Wide
Settings
Service value Not Possible Not Possible Possible
Indication
Disturbance External Hardware External Hardware Inbuilt
Recording
Communication Not Possible Not Possible Available
facility
Burden on CTs, Higher Lower Than Lower
PTs & CVTs Electromechanical &
Moderate
Protection Only Protection Protection & Protection Control &
Control & Monitoring Monitoring
Monitoring
Solution Fixed Fixed Extension and New
development
Possible and Open
Architecture
Fault History Not possible Not Possible Stored In Memory
Relay ANSI Numbers (IEEE C37.2)
NUMBER DEVICE NUMBER DEVICE
2 Time delay relay 61 Density Switch or Sensor
3 Interlocking relay 63 Pressure Switch
21 Distance Relay 64 Restricted Earth Fault Relay
24 Volts per Hertz Relay 67 Directional Over Current Relay
25 Synchronism Check Relay 68 Blocking/Locking Relay
27 Under Voltage Relay 72 DC Circuit Breaker
29 Isolating Contactor 74 Alarm Relay
30 Annunciation relay 76 DC Over-Current Relay
32 Directional Power Relay 78 Phase Angle measuring or out of step Relay
37 Under Current / Power Relay 79 AC Auto Reclosure Relay
40 Field failure (loss of excitation) 81 Frequency Relay
46 Negative phase sequence Relay 83 Automatic selective control or Transfer Relay
49 M/C or T/F Thermal Relay 84 Operating Mechanism
50 Inst Over-Current Relay 85 Carrier or Pilot wire Receive Relay
51 AC IDMT Over-Current Relay 86 Lockout/Tripping Relay
52 AC Circuit Breaker 87 Differential Relay
53 Exciter or DC Generator Relay 89 Isolator or Disconnector
55 Power Factor Relay 91 Voltage Directional Relay
56 Field Application Relay 92 Voltage or Directional Power Relay
59 Over-Voltage Relay 95 Trip circuit supervision Relay
60 Voltage / Current balance Relay 99 Over-Flux Relay