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digital-to-digital conversion techniques, methods which convert digital data to digital signals.

analogto-digital conversion techniques, methods which change an analog signal to a digital signal.

DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION three techniques of digital to digital conversion: line coding, block coding, and scrambling. Line coding is always needed; block coding and scrambling may or may not be needed. Line Coding Line coding is the process of converting digital data to digital signals. Line coding converts a sequence of bits to a digital signal. At the sender, digital data are encoded into a digital signal; at the receiver, the digital data are recreated by decoding the digital signal. Signal Element Versus Data Element In data communications, our goal is to send data elements. A data element is the smallest entity that can represent a piece of information: this is the bit. In digital data communications, a signal element carries data elements. A signal element is the shortest unit (timewise) of a digital signal. Data elements are being carried; signal elements are the carriers. Data Rate Versus Signal Rate The data rate defines the number of data elements (bits) sent in Is. The unit is bits per second (bps). The signal rate is the number of signal elements sent in Is. The unit is the baud. S=cN/R Baud N= data rate (bps) C=case factor S= no. of signal elements R=ratio Example A signal is carrying data in which one data element is encoded as one signal element (r = 1). If the bit rate is 100 kbps, what is the average value of the baud rate if c is between 0 and 1?

Bandwidth baud rate, not the bit rate, determines the required bandwidth for a digital signal.

bandwidth

(range

of

frequencies)

is

proportional

to

the

signal

rate

(baud rate). The minimum bandwidth can be given as Bmin=cN/r We can solve for the maximum data rate if the bandwidth of the channel is given.

Nmax=Br/c

Example The maximum data rate of a channel (see Chapter 3) is Nmax = 2 X B X log2 L (defined by the Nyquist formula). Does this agree with the previous formula for Nmax? Solution A signal with L levels actually can carry loge L bits per level. If each level corresponds to one signal element and we assume the average case (c = 2 ), then we have Nmax=2xBxlog2L Baseline Wandering In decoding a digital signal, the receiver calculates a running average of the received signal power. This average is called the baseline. The incoming signal power is evaluated against this baseline to determine the value of the data element. A long string of Os or I s can cause a drift in the baseline (baseline wandering) and make it difficult for the receiver to decode correctly. A self-synchronizing digital signal includes timing information in the data being transmitted. This can be achieved if there are transitions in the signal that alert the receiver to the beginning, middle, or end of the pulse. If the receiver's clock is out of synchronization, these points can reset the clock. Example 4.3 In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps? Solution At 1 kbps, the receiver receives 1001 bps instead of 1000 bps. 1000 bits sent 1001 bits received 1 extra bps

At 1 Mbps, the receiver receives 1,001,000 bps instead of 1,000,000 bps. 1,000 000 bits sent 1,001,000 bits received 1000 extra bps

Built-in Error Detection It is desirable to have a built-in error-detecting capability in the generated code to detect some of or all the errors that occurred during transmission. Some encoding schemes that we will discuss have this capability to some extent. Immunity to Noise and Interference Another desirable code characteristic is a code that is immune to noise and other interferences. Some encoding schemes that we will discuss have this capability. Complexity A complex scheme is more costly to implement than a simple one. For example, a scheme that uses four signal levels is more difficult to interpret than one that uses only two levels. Assignment: 1. List three techniques of digital-to-digital conversion. 2. Distinguish between a signal element and a data element. 3. Distinguish between data rate and signal rate. 4. Define baseline wandering and its effect on digital transmission. 5. Define a DC component and its effect on digital transmission. 6. Define the characteristics of a self-synchronizing signal. Problems: 1. Calculate the value of the signal rate for each case in Figure 4.2(check the ebook) if the data rate is Mbps and c = 1/2. In a digital transmission, the sender clock is 0.2 percent faster than the receiver clock. How many extra bits per second does the sender send if the data rate is 1 Mbps?