Anda di halaman 1dari 56

Li ni u

Cc h thng truyn thng v tuyn ang pht trin bng n trn th gii v c
Vit Nam. Trc yu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi s dng dch v thng tin di ng v
cht lng, dung lng v tnh a dng ca dch v. c bit l cc dch v truyn d
liu tc cao v a phng tin. Qua vic nghin cu v p dng cc cng ngh k
thut tin tin p ng c nhu cu ny l mt i hi cp thit.
Mt trong cc k thut l k thut vi ba s. Vi ba s l h thng truyn dn s
dng tn s siu cao tn, vi bc sng cc ngn, vi kh nng ng dng rng ri v
thch nghi tt vi mi trng. K thut vi ba s ang dn c s dng ph bin trong
cc tuyn truyn dn.
L sinh vin chuyn nghnh in t vin thng, chng em cn i vo tm hiu h
thng vi ba s v nm vng cc bc thit k tuyn vi ba. l hnh trang cho chng em
tip cn h thng vin thng ni chung v h thng vi ba ni ring.
Xut pht t nhng yu cu trn, chng em chn ti THIT K TUYN VI
BA S H NI BC NINH. Tuyn truyn dn m bo truyn thng thoi v d liu
gia 2 khu vc. Trong ni dung hn hp ch a ra nhng phn k thut s lc nht
thit k cho 1 tuyn vi ba s.
n ny c chia lm 4 chng nh sau:
Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng vi ba.
Chng 2: L thuyt thit k tuyn.
Chng 3: Thit k tuyn viba H Ni Bc Ninh.
Chng 4: Tnh ton bng phn mm chuyn dng Pathloss.
Vic tip tc nghin cu v ng dng cc tuyn truyn dn vi ba s s mang li
nhng hiu qu to ln cho cc h thng v tuyn v dung lng cng nh cht lng dch
v ca h thng.

Trong qu trnh lm n, d c rt nhiu c gng song chng em vn c nhiu


thiu st. Chng em rt mong nhn c s ng gp t pha thy c v cc bn. Cui
cng, chng em xin gi li cm n ti thy TS Nguyn L Cng ng gp kin v
gip nhm hon thnh n.
Nhm xin chn thnh cm n!

MC LC
Li ni u ...................................................................................................................... 1
Chng I ......................................................................................................................... 1
TNG QUAN V H THNG VI BA S ................................................................... 1
1.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Vi ba s l g? ................................................................................................ 1
1.1.2 Cu trc mt tuyn vi ba s ........................................................................... 1
1.1.3 Vi ba s im ni im .................................................................................. 2
1.1.4 Viba s im a im ................................................................................. 2
1.2 c im ca Viba s ......................................................................................... 3
1.3

C s v sng v fading. ................................................................................... 4

1.3.1 Khi nim v sng v tuyn fading ............................................................ 4


1.3.2 Cc nhn t nh hng n s lan truyn ca sng v tuyn ....................... 5
1.4 Hin tng fading trong viba s .......................................................................... 9
1.4.1 Phn tp theo khng gian ............................................................................... 9
1.4.2 Phn tp theo tn s ..................................................................................... 10
Chng II ...................................................................................................................... 11
L THUYT THIT K TUYN VI BA S ............................................................ 11
2.1 Gii thiu chung .................................................................................................. 11
2.2 Nghin cu dung lng i hi ........................................................................ 11
2.3 Chn bng tn s v tuyn s dng, s sp xp cc knh RF ............................ 12
2.3.1 Chn bng tn s v tuyn s dng. ............................................................. 12
2.3.2 S sp xp cc knh v tuyn ....................................................................... 13
2.4 Tm trm trn bn v kho st v tr ............................................................... 15
2.4.1 Xc nh tuyn trn bn v kho st v tr t trm ................................. 15

2.4.2 To nn cc bn v mt ct nghing ca tuyn. ........................................... 15


2.5 Dng mt ct ng truyn v tnh cc thng s lin quan............................... 16
2.5.1 Dng mt ct ng truyn cho tng tuyn ................................................. 16
2.5.2 Tnh khong cch tia truyn pha trn vt chn ............................................ 17
2.6 Xc nh cao anten ......................................................................................... 18
2.7 Tnh ton ng truyn ....................................................................................... 20
2.7.1 Cc tn hao ................................................................................................... 20
2.7.2 li ............................................................................................................ 22
2.7.3 Tnh ton cc tham s cht lng tuyn. ...................................................... 23
Chng III .................................................................................................................... 24
THIT K TUYN VI BA H NI BC NINH .................................................... 24
3.1 Nghin cu dung lng i hi .......................................................................... 24
3.2 Chn bng tn v tuyn s dng ......................................................................... 25
3.3 Tm trm trn bn v kho st v tr t trm ................................................. 25
3.4 Dng mt ct ng truyn cho tng hop .......................................................... 27
3.4.1 Thng s ca tuyn. ...................................................................................... 27
3.4.2 Kim tra tnh truyn dn ............................................................................... 27
3.5 Xc nh cao anten ......................................................................................... 31
3.6 Tnh ton cc tham s ng truyn ................................................................... 32
3.6.1 Tnh ton suy hao ng truyn ................................................................... 32
3.6.2 Tnh cng sut thu thc t............................................................................. 33
3.6.3 Tnh d tr Fading thc t ....................................................................... 33
3.6.4 Tnh d tr Fading yu cu...................................................................... 34
3.7 Lp t v kim th............................................................................................. 36
3.8 nh gi, kim tra cht lng truyn dn ........................................................... 36

3.9 Gii thiu thit b ................................................................................................ 37


3.9.1 Gii thiu cc thit b s dng ...................................................................... 37
3.9.2 La chn thit b ........................................................................................... 40
3.9.2.1 Tng quan v h thng Mini-link E ....................................................... 41
CHNG IV: TNH TON BNG PHN MM PATHLOSS ................................ 46
4.1 Gii thu v phn mm pathloss. ........................................................................ 46
4.2 Tnh ton. ............................................................................................................ 46
KT LUN .................................................................................................................. 51

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

Chng I
TNG QUAN V H THNG VI BA S
1.1 Gii thiu chung
Cng vi s pht trin nh v bo ca cng ngh vin thng, i hi nhng ngi
lm ch mng li phi nm vng nhng kin thc c bn v cng ngh vin thng hin
i, trong c vi ba s.
chng ny chng em s gii thiu cc khi nim v c im chung ca h thng
vi ba s, phn loi h thng vi ba s, u v nhc im ca h thng vi ba s, cc mng
vi ba s im im, im a im ng thi cng cho thy cc c s v sng v
tuyn fading.
1.1.1 Vi ba s l g?
Vi ba s l h thng thng tin chuyn tip mt t s dng sng in t tn s
GHz truyn dn thng tin s.
Lng thng tin c truyn dn bi h thng vi ba thng l kh ln ( v d: cc
lung E1, E3, STM1)
Vi ba s thuc nhm cc h thng thng tin nhiu knh.
1.1.2 Cu trc mt tuyn vi ba s

Hnh 1.1: Tuyn vi ba n gin nht gm 2 trm u cui

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

1.1.3 Vi ba s im ni im
Mng vi ba s im ni im hin nay c s dng ph bin. Trong cc mng
ng di thng dung cp si quang cn cc quy m nh hn t tnh n cc huyn
hoc cc nghnh kinh t khc ngi ta thng s dng vi ba im im dung lng trung
bnh hoc cao nhm tha mn nhu cu v c bit l dch v truyn s liu. Ngoi ra,
trong mt s trng hp vi ba dung lng thp l gii php hp dn cung cp trung k
cho cc mng ni ht, mng thng tin di ng.

Hnh 1.2: H thng Viba im im


1.1.4 Viba s im a im
Mng vi ba s ny tr thnh ph bin trong mt s vng ngoi v nng thn.
Mng bao gm mt trm trung tm pht thng tin trn mt an ten ng hng phc v
cho mt s trm ngoi vi bao quanh. Nu cc trm ngoi vi ny nm trong phm vi (bn
knh) truyn dn cho php th khng cn dng cc trm lp, nu khong cch xa hn th
s s dng cc trm lp a tn hiu n cc trm ngoi vi. T y, thng tin s c
truyn n cc thu bao. Thit b vi ba trm ngoi vi c th t ngoi tri, trn ct.v.v...
mi trm ngoi vi c th c lp t thit b cho nhiu trung k. Khi mt cao c th
b sung thm thit b, c thit k hot ng trong cc bng tn 1,5GHz -1,8GHz v
2,4GHz s dng mt sng mang cho h thng hon chnh.

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

Hnh 1.3: H thng Viba im a im

1.2 c im ca Viba s
Thng tin viba s l mt trong ba phng tin thng tin ph bin hin nay bn cnh
thng tin v tinh v thng tin quang. H thng viba s s dng sng v tuyn v bin i
cc c tnh ca sng mang v tuyn bng nhng bin i gin on v truyn trong
khng trung. Sng mang v tuyn c truyn i c tnh nh hng rt cao nh cc
anten nh hng. H thng viba s l h thng thng tin v tuyn s c s dng trong
cc ng truyn dn s gia cc phn t khc nhau ca mng v tuyn. H thng viba
s c th c s dng lm:
-

Cc ng trung k s ni gia cc tng i s.

Cc ng truyn dn ni cc thu bao vi cc tng i chnh hoc cc tng i


v tinh.

Cc ng truyn dn ni cc tng i chnh n cc tng i v tinh.

Cc b tp trung thu bao v tuyn.

Cc ng truyn dn trong cc h thng thng tin di ng kt ni cc my


di ng vi mng vin thng.

So vi cc h thng truyn dn khc, h thng truyn dn vi ba s c rt nhiu hn


ch do mi trng truyn dn l mi trung h v bng tn hn hp. Truyn dn vi ba s
c thc hin di tn t 1 GHz n vi chc GHz, trong khi truyn dn quang c
thc hin tn s vo khong 2.106 GHz (nu coi =1500 nm) v th bng tn truyn dn
vi ba s rt hp so vi quang.
Vi nhng c im trn ta c th thy u v nhc im ca h thng vi ba nh
sau:
3

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

u im:
Do lm vic di sng siu cao tn nn m bo truyn c nhng tn hiu di
rng.
rng di tn siu cao do nhiu i c th lm vic ng thi.
H thng c kh nng linh hot, nhanh chng p ng phc v thng tin cho
khch hng mi lc mi ni v dch v.
Vic trin khai hay tho g h thng truyn dn rt c ng, khi khng cn thit
c th nhanh chng chuyn sang lp t v tr khc ca mng vin thng.
Gi c h thng v u t ban u thp. u im ny cho php cc nh khai thc
pht trin mng vin thng nhanh chng cc vng c s h tng vin thng cha
pht trin vi vn u t thp nht.
Nhc im:
Di tn s SCT c nhc im l ch truyn c trong phm vi nhn thng c ly
di 70Km (tu thuc vo bng tn cng tc). V vy mun truyn thng tin i xa
cn thc hin chuyn tip nhiu ln.
C tc nh hn nhiu so vi h thng cp quang, v hin nay ng chc ch
cn s dng nhng khu vc cha ko c cp quang do a hnh phc tp.
Cht lng tn hiu khi truyn dn viba chu tc ng rt ln ca cc iu kin kh
hu, thi tit nh ma, gi, my m, bo, tuytv.v
Suy hao cng sut tn hiu kh ln trong mi trng truyn dn. Chu s can nhiu
ln nhau gia cc knh thng tin v tuyn v cc h thng thng tin khc nhau.

1.3 C s v sng v fading.


1.3.1 Khi nim v sng v tuyn fading
Sng v tuyn l sng in t c tn s t 30KHz n 300GHz v c chia ra cc
bng tn LF, HF, VHF, UHF v bng tn cao dng cho thng tin v tinh.
Cc sng v tuyn c th lan truyn theo cc phng khc nhau c biu din nh
sau:

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

Sng tri(tng in li)

Sng t

Sng b mt

Sng khng gian

Sng truyn
trc tip

Sng phn x t
tng i lu

Sng phn x
t mt t

Hnh 1.3: Cc phng thc truyn sng v tuyn.


1.3.2 Cc nhn t nh hng n s lan truyn ca sng v tuyn
Thng tin vi ba truyn sng qua khng gian nn chu nh hng nhiu ca mi
trng truyn sng. Bao gm cc nh hng sau:
a) Suy hao khi truyn lan trong khng gian t do.
Khong khng m trong cc sng v tuyn truyn lan khng b cn tr gi l
khng gian t do. Mc suy hao ca sng v tuyn c pht i t anten trong khng gian

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

t do t l vi bnh phng khong cch. Mc suy hao ny gi l suy hao kh quyn trong
khng gian t do. N t l nghch vi di bc sng.

Pr: Cng sut tn hiu ti Anten thu

: Bc sng ca sng in t
Pt: Cng sut tn hiu ti anten pht
d: Khong cch gia 2 anten
c: Vn tc nh sng ( 3 x 108 m/s)
Suy hao trong khng gian t do
LdB = 10log

= 20 log(

Pt
4d
= 20log(
) = -20log + 20 logd + 21.98dB
Pr

4fd
) = 20log(f) + 20log(d) 147.56dB
c

Nu khong cch l Km, tn s tnh theo Ghz th suy hao trong khng gian t do
tnh theo dB l:
LdB = 92,4 + 20log + 20 logd

(dB)

b) Suy hao do nh hng ca fading.


Trong thng tin v tuyn, khi sng v tuyn truyn lan trong khng gian, n chu
tc ng ca kh quyn hoc tng in ly. Hin tng cng in trng ti im thu
thay i theo thi gian do mt s nguyn nhn trong khng gian truyn lan ca sng v
tuyn c gi l fading.
S hp th ca kh quyn:
Ch yu l s hp th ca nc. Mc hp th ca nc ph thuc vo iu kin
c th v n tng dn khi lng nc trong khng kh tng ln. c bit, khi tri ma rt
to c th lm gy gin on thng tin.
S khc x:

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

Khng kh cng ln cao cng long (chit sut gim), nn sng in t c xu hng b
cong v mt t. Do , c th gy ra hin tng fading nhiu ng.

Hnh 1.3.2.1: S khc x


Hiu ng ng dn:
Hiu ng ng dn xut hin khi sng in t ri vo vng khng kh c nm
gia hai vng khng kh long. Gy ra hin tng phn x ton phn v sng in t
khng ti c anten thu.

Hnh 1.3.2.2: Hiu ng ng dn


c) Suy hao do ma
Sng in t b suy hao do ma, c bit l nhng sng c bc sng nh ( < 10cm).
Mc suy hao ph thuc vo cng ma v tn s ca sng. V d tn s 2GHz:
nu ma to th suy hao vo c (0,22 0.4 dB/Km), nu ma rt to th suy hao vo c
1,2dB/Km.

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

d) nh hng ca a hnh
S phn x t mt t

Hnh 1.3.2.3 : S phn x ca mt t


Mt phn nng ln in t dn mt t, phn x tr li khng gian v c
th ti c anten thu. iu ny gy ra hin tng fading nhiu ng.
Cc min Fresnel
Min Fresnel sch l khu vc ti thiu khng c vt chn sng in t c th
truyn qua. Hin tng phn x hoc suy hao vt chn xy ra nu min Fresnel khng
sch. Khi vt chn nm ngoi min Fresnel, nng lng phn x v anten thu l b so vi
nng lng trc tip. hin tng fading l khng ng k.
Khi vt chn nm ngay trn ng bin min fresnel, nng lng phn x v anten thu l
ln v ngc pha vi nng lng trc tip. Dn n hin tng fading nhiu ng xy
ra.

Hnh1.3.2.4 : min Fresnel sch

Hnh1.3.2.5 : min Fresnel khng sch

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

1.4 Hin tng fading trong viba s


Hin tng fading l hn tng bin thin nng lng in t ti anten thu do mi
trng truyn sng gy ra.
Fading phng: lm thay i tn hiu sng mang trong mt di tn s ( thay i ging
nhau i vi cc tn s trong di).
Fading la chn tn s:lm thay i tn hiu sng mang vi mc thay i ph thuc
vo tn s, fading ny nh hng ln n tuyn vi ba s dung lng cao.
Hai li fading c th xut hin c lp hay ng thi. V vy dn n gin on thng
tin. S thay i tn hiu ti anten thu do phn x nhiu tia gi l fading nhiu tia.
Cc k thut c s dng lm gim cc nh hng ca fading phng v fading
la chn tn s nhiu tia l dng bin php phn tp khng gian v phn tp tn s
nng cao cht lng ca tn hiu thu.
Phn tp theo khng gian cng vi cc anten t cch nhau theo chiu dc kt hp vi
cc b kh giao thoa phn cc giao thoa nhau. Hiu qu ca k thut ny m bo khng
lm gin on thng tin, thng c biu th bng mt h s nng cao. Nh p dng k
thut phn tp theo khng gian v theo tn s thi gian gin on thng gim nh hn so
vi thi gian yu cu h thng t c ch tiu cht lng ra.
1.4.1 Phn tp theo khng gian

Hnh 1.4.1: Phn tp theo khng gian


S dng 1 anten pht, 1 my pht v 2 anten thu, hai may thu. Hai anten thu t
cch nhau mt khong ln v cao. Nu hin tng fading la chn tn s ch xy ra
ti mt anten th khng xy ra ti anten cn li.
9

Chng I: Tng quan v h thng vi ba s

1.4.2 Phn tp theo tn s

Hnh 1.4.2: Phn tp theo tn s


S dng 1 anten pht, 2 my pht 2 tn s khc nhau vi 1 anten thu, 2 may thu
2 tn s . Hai tn s cch nhau 1 khong ln. nu hin tng fading la chn tn
s xy ra 1 tn s th khng xy ra tn s cn li.

10

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Chng II
L THUYT THIT K TUYN VI BA S
2.1 Gii thiu chung
thit k mt h thng viba im ni im trc x gm cc bc c bn sau y:
Bc 1:Nghin cu dung lng i hi
Bc 2: Chn bng tn s dng, thit b s dng, sp xp cc knh RF.
Bc 3: Tm trm trn bn , kho st v tr t trm.
Bc 4: Dng mt ct ng truyn v tnh cc thng s lin quan.
Bc 5: Xc nh cao anten.
Bc 6: Tnh ton ng truyn.
Bc 7: Cc ch tiu k thut.
Bc 8: nh gi cht lng tuyn.

2.2 Nghin cu dung lng i hi


Trong vc thit k tuyn lin lc im ni im vic tm hiu k v dung lng l rt
quan trng. N l nn tng cho cc quyt nh phn sau:
Phi ch dung lng s pht trin trong vng 10 -15 nm ti cng nh dung
lng cn thit hin ti. vic d on ny da vo mt s c im sau:
Da vo c im pht trin dn s.
c im vng ( thnh ph, nng thn)
T l pht trn cc hot ng kinh t.
Tc ci thin iu kin sng trong tng lai.
H thng c thit k cho php c th m rng thm trong tng lai.

11

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Tuy nhin cc nc ang pht trin (nh nc ta) thng kh d on chnh


xc dung lng cn thit trong khong thi gian di. Do , khng nn lp t cc h
thng c dung lng qu ln. Ta c th s dng h thng c dung lng nh giai on
u tin sau c th thay bi 1 h thng c dung lng ln hn.

2.3 Chn bng tn s v tuyn s dng, s sp xp cc knh RF


2.3.1 Chn bng tn s v tuyn s dng.
i vi cc ng dng ca k thut Viba, bng tn hot ng nm trong khong t
1GHz n 15GHz. Trong cc tn s v tuyn c cp pht cho cc dch v xc nh
c qui nh bi cc lut v tuyn. Lut v tuyn m t lut cm di tn t 800MHz 6425MHz v 7900MHz - 8100MHz ca h thng trm mt t s dng cc bng tn s
ny, v chng chia bng tn vi dch v lin lc v tinh. Trong trng hp ny cng sut
bc x hiu dng ca my pht v anten trong h thng L/S khng vt qu 55 dBw hoc
cng sut a n anten khng c vt qu 13dBw.
Cc yu t quan trng khc trong vic gn nh tn s bao gm dung sai tn s v
bng thng pht x. Lut v tuyn khng c tiu chun bt buc v bng thng. Tuy
nhin dung sai tn s ca my pht hot ng trong vng sng Viba nn l 300x10-6 cho
my pht c cng sut di 100W v 100x10-6 cho my pht c cng sut trn 100W.
Hin nay tn s v tuyn s dng trong h thng lin lc Viba thay i t 1GHz 15 GHz. Cc gi tr tng i ca tn s RF ph thuc vo nhiu yu t.
cc tn s thp th kch thc thit b ln cng sut my d dng thc hin,
li anten ln, tn hao phi nh, tn tht khng gian v dy dn tn khc ch yu s dng
cho cc ng trung k ngn hoc ng trung k ph.
Dung lng cng ng vai tr quan trng trong vic chn bng tn hot ng cho
h thng, bng sau cho ta cc tham kho v bng tn chn v dung lng.

12

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Bng 2.1. Cc bng tn s cp pht ca FCC cho cc h thng vi ba s


Bng tn

Bng thng cho php Dung lng cc tiu ca cc knh


( MHZ)

thoi c m ha

1495 - 1535

30

2110 - 2130

3,5

96

2160 - 2180

3,5

96

3700 - 4200

20

1152

5925 - 6425

30

1152

10700 - 11700

40

1152

( MHz)

2.3.2 S sp xp cc knh v tuyn


Vic sp xp cc knh v tuyn l vic rt quan trng trong khi thit k h thng, c
bit l h thng v tuyn chuyn tip. Tn hiu v tuyn ti ng vo v ra ca trm lp
thay i t 60 80dB nn nu ta s dng cng mt tn s v tuyn gia hai ng th s
gy hin tng dao ng do phn hi. Trong viba chuyn tip, ta thng s dng k
hoch hai tn s hoc k hoch bn tn s trnh hin tng trn.
Trn thc t, k hoch bn tn s t c s dng rng ri v l do kinh t. N cn hai
tn s cho mt knh v tuyn. Thng thng, bn anten s dng cho mt trm lp t (k
c vi k hoch hai tn s, cc anten ny cng c th s dng cho hai hoc nhiu hn cc
knh v tuyn song cng trn cng mt ng.

13

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

K hoch 4 tn s i hi t l trc sau (front to back) ca mu bc x anten (v mi


anten hot ng mt tn s khc nhau.

S sp xp cc knh v tuyn

Bng sau lit k s sp xp cc knh v tuyn theo khuyn ngh ca CCIR cho h v
tuyn chuyn tip quc t
Bng 2.2: S sp xp cc knh v tuyn theo khuyn ngh ca CCIR
CCIR Rec

S knh thoi ti a Tn s trung tm rng bng RF


cho 1 knh RF

(MHz)

(MHz)

238 - 1

60/120

1808,2000,2203

200

385

60/120/300

7575

300

1903,2101,4003

400

1800

6475

500

960/2700

6770

680

300/960

8350

300

960

1120

1000

279 - 1, 382 - 300/1800


1
383 - 1
384 - 1
386 - 1
387

14

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Cc h thng ph i hi cc knh phc v c th kt hp trong cng mt bng


tn v tuyn nh l mt h thng chnh. Nu c c iu kin thun li ny th cc
anten c th s dng chung cho c 2 h thng.
i vi cc h thng viba im im, do khng c cu hnh trm lp nn s sp
xp cc knh v tuyn s n gin hn rt nhiu. Khi , ta cn quan tm n mt s
im sau:

Cc tn s viba khc c th s dng trong cc vng lin quan

Cc trm viba c th gy giao thoa ti h thng

Vic thit k mt h thng viba mi khng gy nhiu cho cc h thng ang tn ti


v khng b nh hng ngc li bi cc h thng ny.

2.4 Tm trm trn bn v kho st v tr


2.4.1 Xc nh tuyn trn bn v kho st v tr t trm
Vic tm v tr t trm sao cho ph hp v mt k thut v tim li cho vic xy dng.
x inh v tr t trm ta cn c:
Bn t nhin cho bit cao so vi mc nc bin ca vng c tuyn i
qua.
S phn b dn c ca vng ang kho st.
Xc nh nhng i ni , m t, ta nh cao tng trong khu vc tuyn.
Chn trong cc v tr va xc nh trn, mt v tr thch hp t thp anten.
V tr dt trm c cao ng k(c th khng phi l cao nht), gn trung tm
giao dch thun tin cho vic ko feeder.
2.4.2 To nn cc bn v mt ct nghing ca tuyn.
T nhng yu cu thc t ca tuyn viba bao gm: v tr, khong cch trm, dung
lng truyn dn, a hnh tuyn i qua ta tin hnh nh du hai u cui ca trm
trn bn ca S o c xc nh chnh xc kinh , v ca mi trm. Cc thng
s ta ny c s dng iu chnh cc anten mi trm trong giai on lp t
thit b.

15

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Hnh 2.4.2 : Mt ct nghing gia hai trm A v B.


Mc d mt t c cong nhng n gin trong tnh ton ngi ta thng v
mt ct nghing ng vi h s bn knh hiu dng ca tri t k=4/3.
Phng trnh sau cho ta xc nh ch li ca mt t:
E = (4/51)d1d2/k [m]
K l h s bn knh tri t.
D1,d2[km] ln lt l khong cch t trm A v trm B n im ang xt li
ca mt t.
Nh vy trn mt ct nghing ny th hin c b mt ca a hnh. Ngoi ra n
cng biu din c c cao ca cy ci v cc vt chn trn ng truyn ni 2 trm A
v B chng hn nh cc g, i, cc nh cao tngi vi khong cch truyn dn di,
cong ca mt t ln th cn phi tnh n nng v tr ca trm.

2.5 Dng mt ct ng truyn v tnh cc thng s lin quan


2.5.1 Dng mt ct ng truyn cho tng tuyn
V mt ct ng truyn cho tng tuyn
Kt ni hai trm ca tng tuyn, ta c cc giao im vi cc ng ng mc.
Da vo cao ca cc ng ng mc v t l bn , ta xc nh cao v
khong cch ca tng im.
16

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Ni cc giao im vi nhau, ta c mt ct a hnh.

Hnh 2.5.1: V mt ct ng truyn cho tng tuyn


2.5.2 Tnh khong cch tia truyn pha trn vt chn
Sau khi chn c tn s lm vic cho tuyn, ta tnh min fressnel th nht. l
min c dng hnh elip t anten pht ti anten thu, l mi trng vy quanh tia truyn
thng. ng bin ca min Fresnel th nht to nn qu o sao cho bt k tn iu no
n anten thu qua ng ny s di hn so vi ng trc tp 1 na bc sng ca tn s
sng mang. Min bn trong ca min elip th nht g l min Fresnel th nht. Nu trong
min ny c tn ti vt cn th sng phn x s ln suy gim sng trc tip., mc suy
gim s ty thuc bin sng phn x. Bn knh min fresnel th nht tnh theo cng
thc sau:

F1=

d1d 2
dd
= 17,32 1 2 [m]
d
df

D1,d2 ln lt l khaongr cch t trm A v trm B n im bn knh min


fresnel c tnh ton.
D[km] l khong cch gia hai trm d = d1 + d2
F l tn s sng mang

17

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Trong thc t, thng gp ng truyn i qua nhng a hnh khc nhau c th chn
min Fresnel th nht gy nn tn hao trn ng truyn, cc loi a hnh ny c th
c vt chn hnh nm trn ng truyn v cc loi chng ngi khc. Trong hnh di
ch ra m hnh vt chn trn ng truyn dn, trong F1 l bn knh min frsnel th
nht, F l khong h thc: l khong cch gia tia trc tip v vt chn hnh nm ti
im tnh ton min Fresnel th nht.
Theo cc tu chun thit k v khong ht n truyn c khuyn ngh th cao
ti thiu ca anten m bo sao cho tn hiu khng b nhiu x bi vt cahwns nm trong
min fressnel th nht l F=0,6 F1

Hnh 2.5.2 :Mt ct nghing ng truyn v min Fresnel th nht

2.6 Xc nh cao anten


C 2 loi thp anten l: thp t v thp dy no.
tnh c cao a thp anten th ta ph xc nh c o cao ca tia v tuyn
truyn gia hai trm. tren c s cao ca tia c tnh cao ti thiu ca thp
anten thu c tn hiu.
Vic tnh ton cao ca tia v tuyn cng phi dng n s mt ct nghing
ng ni hai trm, trong c xt n d cao ca vt chn (O), cao ca cy ci (T)

18

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

gia tuyn v bn knh ca min Fresnel th nht(F1). Biu thc x nh cao ca tia v
tuyn nh sau:
4 d1 d 2

51

B = E + (O + T) + C.F1 =
+ (O +T) + C.F1 [m]
k

Vi C=1
Thng thng cao ca tia B c tnh ton ti im c vt chn cao nht nm gia
tuyn.

Hnh 2.6.1 : Xc nh cao tia B lm h 1 vt chn


bc kho st nh v tr trm, ta xc nh c cao ca hai v tr t trm so
vi mt nc bin tng ng l h1 h2. Hai thng s ny kt hp v cao B ca tia nh
tnh trn s tnh c cao ca ct anten cn li khi bit trc cao ca mt ct
anten.
Ha1 = h2 + ha2 +[ B - (h2 + ha2)](d/d2) h1 [m]
Ha2 = h1 + ha1 +[ B - (h1 + ha1)](d/d1) h2 [m]
ha2, ha1 l cao ca ct anen v d1, d2 [km] l khong cachstuwf mi trm n v tr
d tnh ton cao ca tia B.
19

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

Hnh 2.6.2:Biu minh ha cao ca mt anten khi bit cao anten kia.
Tuy nhin nh cp phn trc, m bo h thng hot ng khng chu
nh hng ca cc yu t trong tng lai th cao anten phi s dng mootjkhoangr d
phng, ph thc vo ngi thit k.

2.7 Tnh ton ng truyn


2.7.1 Cc tn hao
a) Tn hao ng tuyn dn ca khng gian t do
Loi tn tht ny c cp trong phn truyn sng trong khng gian. N ph
thuc vo tn s sng mang v di ng truyn v c tnh bng cng thc sau:
A0 = 92,5 + 20logf(GHz) + 20lgd(Km)
A0: l tn tht ng truyn ca khng gian t do (dB).
F: tn s trung tm ca sng mang (GHz).
d: di ng truyn (Km)
b) Tn hao phi
y l tn hao thit b( ng dn sng) truyn dn sng gia anten v my pht/
my thu. Khi tnh ton suy hao ny th phi cn c vo mc suy hao chun c cho
trc bi nh cung cp thit b.
c) Tn hao r nhnh
Tn hao r nhnh c coi l cc tn hao trong b lc RF( my pht v my thu)
cc b lc xoay vng v cc b lc RF bn ngoi c th, chng cho php mt h thng
song cng ch s dng 1 anten cho cc mc ch thu v pht hoc vi h thng ni n 1
anten. Khong gi tr tn hao r nhnh thng l 2-8 dB.

20

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

d)Tn hao cc b phi hp v cc b u ni.


Chng l tn hao trong cc chuyn tip ng dn sng, cc b phi hp, h thng
nn ng dn sng v phn feeder i cng cc b ni. Chng ph thuc vo nhieuf yu t
khc nhau nh: cu hnh h thng, cch kt ni trm, cc loi ng dn sng v cc loi
u ni c s dng cho trm.
Vi cc h thng phc tp th n c gi tr t 0,8 1 dB.
Vi cc h thng nh th n c gi tr khong 0,5- 0,7 dB.
e)Tn hao ca b suy hao hoc cc vt chn.
Tn hao ca b suy hao: tn hao na ch xut hin khi c b suy hao trong h
thng cc b suy hao c s dng trong cc trn hp nh l: cng sut pht ra qu ln
c th gy giao thoa cho cc tuyn ln cn hoc v tinh lc ny b suy hao c s dng
gim cng sut pht t anten, khi mc tn hiu ra vo cc b phn trong trm khng
haonf ton ph hp vi nhau gy ra mo dng tn hiu ng ra. Do ,cn gim cc tn
hiu sao cho ph hp bng cch s dng b suy hao
Tn tht do vt chn: n xut hin khi tuyn thit k khng tha mn tm nhn
thng hay cc vt chn ct min Fresnel th nht.
f) Tn hao do hp th kh quyn
Thng th hp th ca kh quyn nn khng gin co mt tn hao c trng a
dB/Km. Nn khi tnh ton cho 1 ng truyn c th di d Km th tn hao ny s bng
a*d dB. Loi tn hao ny tng theo tn s v c nhiu t bin bt thng khi tn s thay
i.
Phng trnh cn bng cng sut trong tnh ton ng truyn:
Pr = Pt + G + At [dB]
Tr0ng : Pt l cng sut pht
At l tng tn hao
G l li
Pr l cng sut ti u vo my thu. N l tham s quan trng nht khi thit k ng
truyn vi ba, tham s ny l mt ch tiu quyt nh xem tuyn c hot ng c hay
khng khi em so snh n vi ngng thu ca my thu.

21

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

2.7.2 li
a) li ca anten
li ca anten l cng sut bc x theo mt hng so vi cng sut bc x theo
mt hng bt k bng anten ng hng.
li ca anten ph thuc vo hnh dng v kch thc ca anten.
y l tng cc li ca anten mi mt u cui ca tuyn. l ca anten
ph thuc vo ng knh ca anten, tn s lm vic, gc m hiu dng ca anten v
c biu din bng cng thc:
G= 20lgD 20lg + 10lg n + 9,943 dB
Trong : D l ng knh a anten(m)

l bc sng tn s trung tm (m)


n l gc m hiu dng ca anten
b) li my pht
y l cng sut u ra ca chnh my pht khng phi sau bt k mt mch lc r
nhnh hay b lc no. N c o bng dB.
c) Tng tn hao
y l t s cung cp u ra ca my pht trc cc mch r nhnh v cng sut
a ln my thu tng ng sau cc mch r nhnh, trong diu kin lan truyn v cc hot
ng ca h thng thc. N l hiu dB ca cc tn hao tr i tng cc li ca anten v
c k hiu l A1.
d)Mc u vo ca my thu
N bng cng sut a ra my pht Pt tr i tng tiu hao A1 tnh c biu
din bng cng thc sau:
Pr = Pt A1 (dBm)
f)Cc ngng thu c
Rxa v Rxb l hai gi tr mc ngng thu. Thc t n tng ng vi cc t l li bit
10-3 v 10-6 tng ng. Mc ngng 10-3 a vo my tnh ton suy gim l thuyt, t
s sng mang trn tp m to ra mt lng giao thoa gia cc k hiu khng th chp
nhn v mc 10-6 c a vo tnh ton suy gim t s C/N to ra mc tiu cc
khc suy gim cht lng.

22

Chng II: L thuyt thit k tuyn vi ba s

2.7.3 Tnh ton cc tham s cht lng tuyn.


V cht lng ng truyn c nh gi da trn tye s BER, cc t s BER khc
nhau s cho mt mc ngng tng ng v cng c d tr fading khc nhau. Cc t
s BER thng c su dng trong viba s l 10-3 v 10-6 tng ng vi hai mc
ngng Rxa v Rxb.
d tr fading
ng vi Rxa v Rxb l FMa v FMb c tnh theo cng thc:
FMa= Pr Rxa vi BER = 10-3
FMb = Pr RXb vi BER = 10-6
Xc sut fading phng nhiu tia (P0) l mt h s th hin kh nng xut hin fading
nhiu tia c xc nh theo cng thc sau:
P0 = KQ.fB.dC
Trong KQ =1,4.10-8 ; B =1 ; C=3,5 l cc tham s lin quan n iu kin
truyn lan v kh hu v a hnh ca sng v tuyn v cc gi tr c s dng theo
khuyn ngh ca CCIR.
Xc sut t n ngng thu RXa; RXb
Gi Pa;Pb l xc sut t ti cc gi tr ngng thu tng ng RXav RXb c
tnh nh sau:
Pa = 10

FMa
10

Pb = 10

FMb
10

Vi FMa v FMb l d tr fading tnh trn.


Khong thi gian fading

23

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Chng III
THIT K TUYN VI BA H NI BC NINH
3.1 Nghin cu dung lng i hi
Tnh Bc Ninh
a hnh
Bc Ninh l tnh thuc vng ng bng Bc b, nm gn trong chu th sng
Hng, lin k vi th H Ni. Bc Ninh nm trong vng kinh t trng im: tam gic
tng trng H Ni - Hi Phng - Qung Ninh, khu vc c mc tng trng kinh t cao,
giao lu kinh t mnh.
a hnh Bc Ninh tng i bng phng. Tuy dc t bc xung nam v t ty
sang ng, nhng dc khng ln. Vng ng bng chim gn ht din tch t nhin
ton tnh, c cao ph bin 3 - 7m so vi mt bin. Do c bi p bi cc sng ln
nh sng ung, sng Cu, sng Thi Bnh nn vng ng bng ch yu l t ph sa
mu m. Vng g i trung du ch chim 0,5% din tch t nhin v phn ln l i ni
thp, cao nht l ni Hm Long 171m.
Kh hu
Kh hu c trng ca tnh l nhit i gi ma, ma h nng nng nhit trung
bnh 30 - 36C, ma ng lnh, t 15 - 20C. Lng ma trung bnh trong nm 1.800
mm, s gi nng khong 1.700 gi/nm, thch hp cho trng la v cc cy cng nghip,
cy thc phm khc.
Dn s
Nm 2010, dn s Bc Ninh l 1.038.229 ngi, ch chim 1,21% dn s c nc
v ng th 39/64 tnh, thnh ph, trong nam 511,7 nghn ngi v n 526,5 nghn
ngi; khu vc thnh th 268,5 nghn ngi, chim 25,9% dn s ton tnh v khu vc
nng thn 769,7 nghn ngi, chim 74,1%. Tnh ra, mt dn s Bc Ninh nm 2010
ln ti 1,262 ngi/km2, gn gp 5 ln mt dn s bnh qun ca c nc v l a

24

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

phng c mt dn s cao th 3 trong s 64 tnh, thnh ph, ch thp hn mt dn


s ca H Ni v ca thnh ph H Ch Minh.
H Ni
Dn s
H Ni th ca c nc, Nm gia ng bng sng Hng tr ph, ni y
sm tr thnh mt trung tm chnh tr v tn gio ngay t nhng bui u ca lch s
Vit Nam. Din tch 3.345,0 km 2 . Dn s 6.561.900 ngi (nm 2010). T l tng dn
s t nhin tnh n 2010 l 1,2%.
Kh hu
H Ni nm trong vng kh hu nhit i gi ma. Nhit trung bnh hng nm
240C. m trung bnh 80 82%, lng ma trung bnh hng nm 1.660 mm/nm.
a hnh
Vng ng bng H Ni c cao trung bnh l t 4 10 m.
Sau khi nghin cu v c m ca 2 vng, em chn lung 2Mbit/s tng ng vi 30
knh truyn p ng yu cu cho s dng hin ti v d phng cho thi gian 1015 nm.

3.2 Chn bng tn v tuyn s dng


Cn c vo s cho php ca tng cc tn s, cn c vo cc thit b mua sn, cn c
vo cc h thng thu pht lm vic khu vc ln cn v cc thit b ca ngi dn s
dng cc dch v khc.
Ta chn tn s lm vic: f = 8 (Ghz)

3.3 Tm trm trn bn v kho st v tr t trm


Da vo bn v phn mm h tr Google Earth v google map em o c
di tuyn l 35,8Km.

25

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Hnh 3.3a : Bn tuyn H Ni Bc Ninh.

Hnh 3.3b: Bn a hnh tuyn H Ni- Bc Ninh.


Trn bn ta c th thy tuyn truyn thng phn ln i qua khu vc khu dn c v
di ca tuyn l 35,8Km. Nh vy ch cn thit k 1 hop cho tuyn H Ni-Bc Ninh.
Da vo bn a hnh v cao ta thy rng, trong ton tuyn H Ni-Bc Ninh, a
hnh kh g gh im c vt chn cao nht l im c cao 17,9m so vi mc nc
bim v cch trm A 6,9Km.

26

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Hnh 3.4c: a hnh tuyn H Ni-Bc Ninh.


Ti H Ni t trm ti Bu in Thng Long, s 5 Phm Hng, M nh,
H Ni (Trm A). t trn to nh 10 tng cao 30m.
Ti Bc Ninh t ti Trung Tm Vin Thng Bc Ninh, s 64 Ng Gia T,
p.V Ninh, tp Bc Ninh, Bc Ninh (Trm B). t trn ta nh 5 tng cao
15m.
Nh vy vic tm trm hon thnh v p ng y yu cu ca mt tuyn
truyn dn viba nu trn.

3.4 Dng mt ct ng truyn cho tng hop


3.4.1 Thng s ca tuyn.
di tuyn AB: 35,8km (H Ni Bc Ninh).
Nhit trung bnh hng nm 230C.
Lng ma trung bnh hng nm: 1500mm.

Trm A

TrmB

Khong cch t im cao nht

d1= 6,9km

d2=28,9 km

cao so vi mc nc bin

h1=12,3 m

h2= 22,5m

Chn cao ct anten

ha1=50m

Cn tnh

3.4.2 Kim tra tnh truyn dn


xc nh trng thi ng truyn cn phi v mt ct ng truyn. cong ca
cc ng truyn cho php v ng cong ca ng truyn chnh xc nh l mt ng
thng. Da vo h s hiu dng bn knh tri t l K.
27

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Trong iu kin a hnh v thi tit nc ta kh hu nhit i gi ma nn ta chn


K= 2/3. T y ta xy dng mt ct nghing ca ng truyn.
Ta c cng thc xc nh li thc ca mt t ti im ang xt l:
E=

(m)

(3.1)

Trong :
d1, d2: Ln lt l khong cch gia cc trm ti im ang xt li ca
mt t (km).
E: li ca mt t (m).
d dng cho vic tnh ton v v mt ct nghing ng truyn ta lp bn gi
tr ca X cc im khc nhau trn ng truyn.
ng truyn c 1 hop AB di 35,8 km. Ta c bng tnh nh sau:
d1(km) d2(km) E(m)
1

34.8

4.094118

33.8

7.952941

32.8

11.57647

31.8

14.96471

30.8

18.11765

29.8

21.03529

28.8

23.71765

27.8

26.16471

26.8

28.37647

10

25.8

30.35294

11

24.8

32.09412

12

23.8

33.6

13

22.8

34.87059

14

21.8

35.90588

15

20.8

36.70588

16

19.8

37.27059

28

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

17

18.8

37.6

18

17.8

37.69412

19

16.8

37.55294

20

15.8

37.17647

21

14.8

36.56471

22

13.8

35.71765

23

12.8

34.63529

24

11.8

33.31765

25

10.8

31.76471

26

9.8

29.97647

27

8.8

27.95294

28

7.8

25.69412

29

6.8

23.2

30

5.8

20.47059

31

4.8

17.50588

32

3.8

14.30588

33

2.8

10.87059

34

1.8

7.2

35

0.8

3.294118

Da vo bng tnh ton trn ta c th nhn thy rng cc im li c cao khng


qu 37,9m so vi mc nc bin.
li ca mt t ti im c vt chn cch trm A 6,9 km, trm B 28,9km l 23,46 m.

29

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

(
0,6F
17.9 +15 m
42.3

37,5 m

Trm B
Trm A
28.9 km

6,9 km

Hnh 3.4: Mt ct nghing ng truyn.


Tip n l tnh ton min Fresnel sch:
Bn knh ca i cu bt k thi im no gia hai v tr c th tnh bi cng
thc:

F =

(3.2)

Vi:
F: Bn knh ca min Fresnel
f: Tn s sng in t
d= d1 + d2: Khong cch hai trm
Trong :
d1= 6,9 km: Khong cch t trm A (M nh) n im c vt chn cao nht..
d2= 28,9 km: Khong cch t im c vt chn cao nht n trm B (Bc Ninh).
d= d1+ d2= 35,8 Km.
f= 8 GHz.
T cng thc (3.5.2b) v cc s liu trn ta tnh c bn knh min Fresnel l:
F1=

= 14,43 (m)
30

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Khong h an ton l 0,6 x F1= 0,6 x 4,3 = 8,66 m.


Vy 8,66 l khong cch m bo min Fresnel sch.

3.5 Xc nh cao anten


xc nh cao ca thp anten th trc tin ta phi xc nh c d cao ca
tia v tuyn truyn gia 2 trm, trn c s ca cao ca tia c tnh cao ti thiu
ca thp anten thu c tn hiu.
Vic tnh ton cao ca tia v tuyn cng phi dng n s mt ct ngang
gia 2 trm trong c xt n cao vt chn O gia tuyn v bn knh min Fresnel
th nht(F1). Biu thc tnh cao ca tia v tuyn:
Bi= Ei + (Ti + Oi) + C.F1 (m) (3.5)
Vi:
C: h s h, C=0,6.
O: ca a hnh.
T: cao vt chn.

B c tnh ton ti im c vt chn cao nht nm trn tuyn l im c cao


cch trm A 6,9km v cch trm B 28,9 km vi cao ta nh l 45m.
Thay s vo cng thc 3.5 ta c:
B =23,46 + (17,9 + 45) + 8,66 = 95,02 (m)
Nh vy ta c cao ca tuyn theo tnh ton trn, by gi ta i tnh cao ca
anten trm A khng gy can nhiu ti ng truyn v tuyn.
31

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

trn ta xc dnh c cao ca trm A s vi mc nc bin l 12,3 m. ti


trm A ta chn thp ca ct anten l 50m. cao ca thp anten trm B c tnh
theo cng thc:
ha2= h1 + ha1 + [B (h1 + ha1) h2(m)
ha2= 42,3 + 50 + [92,05 (42,3 + 50)]

(3.4)
-37.5

ha2= 53,5 m.
Thc t ta phi cng thm vo gi tr tnh ton mt khong d phng, ta chn
khong d phng l 5 m. Vy cao ct anten :
Trm A ( H Ni) 50 + 5= 55m
Trm B ( Bc Ninh) 53,5 + 5= 58,5m

3.6 Tnh ton cc tham s ng truyn


3.6.1 Tnh ton suy hao ng truyn
a. Suy hao trong khng gian t do
Suy hao trong khng gian t do c tnh theo cng thc:
A0 = 20 lg

4d

= 92,5 + 20.lg(f) + 20.lg(d)

(dB)

(3.5)

Vi f= 8 GHz, d= 35,8 Km.

Ao= 92,5 + 20lg8 + 20 lg35,8= 141,64 (dB)


b. Suy hao r nhnh
Suy hao r nhnh l suy hao xy ra ti b phn nhnh thu pht, v thng c
cho bi nh cung cp thit b. Trong tuyn ny s dng thit b c suy hao 0,5 dB. Do vy
tng suy hao do mng lc phn nhnh c hai trm ca tuyn l:
Lb = 2 x 0,5 = 1 (dB)
c. Suy hao do feeder

32

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Suy hao do feeder l suy hao m ng dn sng truyn sng gia anten v my
pht/my thu. Gi s thit b c ni trc tip t my pht v anten khng cn ng dn
sng. V vy suy hao feeder trong tuyn l Lf = 0 dB.
d. Suy hao hp th kh quyn.
Da theo tiu chun ca CCIR v suy hao trong kh quyn th ng vi tn s
8Ghz ta c suy hao l 0.01 dB/km.
Vy suy hao hp th kh quyn trn ton tuyn l:
Lsp = Lsp0 x d = 0.01 x 35,8= 0.358 dB.
e. Tng suy hao v tng ch
Tng suy hao v tng ch ca tuyn truyn l:
L = A0 + Lb + Lf +Lsp Gt Gr = 141,64 +1 + 0 +0,358 2x36,6 = 69,798 dB.
3.6.2 Tnh cng sut thu thc t
Cng sut thu ti my thi c tnh bng cng thc:
Pr= Pt L
Trong :
Pr: Cng sut thu ca my thu (dBm).
Pt: Cng sut ca my pht (dBm).
L : Tng suy hao v tng ch (dB).
Thay s vo cng thc (3.7.2) ta c cng sut thc t ca my thu l:
Pr= 26 69,798 = -43,798 (dBm)
3.6.3 Tnh d tr Fading thc t
Ta chn my thu c ngng thu l Pth = -88dBm.
d tr fading l lng chnh lch gia cng sut thu c v ngng thu ca
my thu, trong cng sut thu c ln hn ngng thu ca my thu.

33

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Vit tt l FMtt = Pr Pth =-43,798 (-88) = 44,202 dB.


3.6.4 Tnh d tr Fading yu cu
d tr fading yu cu ca tuyn c tnh theo biu thc sau:
7

PF 7.10 .c. f .d .10


B

FM
10

Trong :
PF l xc sut hin tng Fading vt qu tr Fading yu cu (FM) gy
gin on thng tin trong thng xu nhtv PF = 0,1%.
c: H s a hnh v kh hu:
c= 4: Vng bin hoc ven bin.
c=1: Vng trung du, kh hu n ho, khng phi ven bin.
c=1/4: Vng ni, kh hu n ha.
f: tn s sng mang.
B: 0,85 B 1,5, thng ly B=1.
d: Khong cch hop (km).
C: 2 C 3,5 :thng ly C=3.
Do kh hu tuyn H Ni vnh phc l nhit i nn chn c=1.
T cng thc (3.7.4) ta suy ra d tr Fading yu cu l:
FMyc= -10log

(3.8)

= -10 log
= 24,1 dBm
T kt qu tnh ton d tr Fading thc t ( FMtt= 44,077 dBm) v d tr
Fading yu cu ( FMyc= 24,1 dBm) ta thy : FMtt>FMyc Hop tho mn.
Sau khi tnh ton ta c bng tm tt kt qu
Tn s lm vic f

8 Ghz

Khong cch gia 2 trm d

35,8 km

34

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

cao ca 2 trm so vi mc nc bin


Trm A:

42,3 m

Trm B:

37,5 m

Chiu cao ca cc thp anten:


Trm A:

25 m

Trm B:

43,9 m

cao ln nht ca vt chn trn ng 66.7 m


truyn
ng knh mi anten D

2,4 m

Suy hao mi b lc phn nhnh

0,5 dB

Cng sut pht Pt

26 dBm

Ngng thu ca my thu Pth

-88 dBm

Suy hao trong khng gian t do Lfs

141,76 dB

Suy hao do ng dn sng (feeder) Lf

0 dB

Suy hao hp th kh quyn

0,358 dB

li ca mi anten G

36,6 dB

Tng suy hao v tng ch L

69,798 dB

Mc u vo ca my thu Pr

- 43,798 dBm

d tr Fading thc t FMtt

44,202 dBm

d tr Fading yu cu FMyc

24.1dBm

35

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

3.7 Lp t v kim th
Tin hnh kho st v o c lp Anten ti cc trm sao cho tha mn vi yu
cu tnh ton trn.
Ti H Ni ni t trm v lp t Anten ti cc trm anten sao cho tha mn vi
yu cu tnh ton trn.
Ti h ni ni t trm v lp t anten l bu in Thng Long, 5 Phm Hng, M
nh ta s tin hnh o c lp t anten c cao 25 m trn ta nh 10 tng cao 30m,
iu chnh gc ngng ca anten theo hng ng truyn.
Ti Bc Ninh ni t trm l trung tm vin thng Bc Ninh, s 64 Ng Gia T,
p.V Ninh, tp Bc Ninh, Bc Ninh. cao thp anten l 37m.

3.8 nh gi, kim tra cht lng truyn dn


y l bc c tin hnh sau khi tnh ton c kh nng lm vic ca tuyn
v th xong cc tham s cn thit thit lp tuyn c ngha l trn tnh ton thit k th
tuyn hot ng. Tuy nhin vn cn nhiu vn tn ti s tc ng ln tuyn v c
th lm cho kh nng lm vic ca tuyn khng nh mong mun ca ngi thit k.
a. d tr fading
Nh tnh ton trn ta thy FMtt > FMyc nn tha mn hop truyn.
b. Cc ngng mc my thu
Do d = 35,8 km (d<280 km) nn BER < 0,0006% thng bt k
Xc sut fading nhiu tia c tnh theo cng thc
Po = KQ.fb.dc(3.9)
Vi KQ= 1,4.10-8, B=1, C=3,5 (theo kin ngh).
=> P0= 1,4.10-8.81.35,83,5= 30,74.10-3 .
c. Xc sut ti ngng
Xc sut t ti ngng Pa= 10

Fma
10

= 3,74.10-3 .

d. Thi gian fading


Fm

Thi gian fading l Ta = C2.10

10

.f
36

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Vi C2= 10,3.d, = = -0.5 ly theo khuyn ngh. Thay cc gi tr vo ta c:


Ta= 10,3 x 35.8x 10-2,2 x 8-0,5= 0,82 s.
e. Xc sut fading phng di hn 60s
Vi t l li BER = 10-6 th ta xt xc sut li xut hin ln hn 60s l:
P(t>60) = P(60) = 0,5.(1- erf . Za)= 0,5 . erf . Za.
Vi Za= 0,548.ln(10/Ta)= 1,37

erf(t) =

ta dng phng php gn ng tnh ra c

erf(t = 60) = 0,157299.


Vy xc sut xut hin li vi BER=10-6 trong khong thi gian trn 60s l
P(t>60)= 0,5 . 0,157299 . 1,37=0,79.
f. Kh nng s dng tuyn truyn Av
Av= (1-Pu).100%
Trong : Pu l xc sut mch tr ln khng s dng c v tnh bng cng thc
sau:
Pu = Po. Pa.P(60)
Pu= 30,74.10-3 . 3,74.10-3 . 0,79= 9. 10-5
Av= (1 9.10-5).100%= 99,9909 %

3.9 Gii thiu thit b


3.9.1 Gii thiu cc thit b s dng
a, MicroStar l gii php hon ho cho nhu cu truy nhp v tuyn im im ca
Harris

37

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

u im:
-

S dng cng ngh s mi nht v cung cp cc giao thc qun l mng m gip
khch hng c th tch hp thit b mt cch thun li vo mng hin c ca mnh

C hiu sut cao, kh nng truyn ti dch v nhanh chng vi chi ph thp nht

Kh nng qun l v iu khin c lp trnh hon ton bng phn mm tng


linh hot v gim chi ph d phng ti a.

Di tn hot ng rng 7 38 Ghz, dung lng t 2 16 E1/T1.

H tr card PCMCIA cho cc knh ph(knh nghip v, RS-232 RTU,) cho


php ti a linh hot v gim chi ph.

C cng Ethernet 10 BASE T dnh cho qun l mng, FTP.

Nhc im:
-

Ch truyn cu hnh im im

H tr ch bo v 1+1.

ng dng: Mng truyn dn im im, chi ph u t thp


b, Pasolink ca NEC: l thit b truy nhp c li ngn cung cp dung lng truyn dn
tc cao, hot ng ti nhiu di bng tn s v tuyn tri rng t 4 48 Ghz vi dung
lng t 2x8 2x 155Mbps.

38

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

u im:
-

S dng ODU chun gn nh , s nng cp dung lng h thng hoc phng


php iu ch c th tin hnh d dng

Lp t thun tin, truyn ti dch v nhanh chng v l cc gii php kinh t nha
nh i vi c nhu cu truyn dn dung lng cao cng nh trong cc tnh hung
khn cp.

H tr nhiu cu hnh h thng (1+0, 1+1(HS), 1+1(HS/SD), 1+1(FD), 2+0 )

khuch i h thng cao v hiu sut ph cao

C giao din Ethernet tc cao 10/100 BASE T

iu khin cng sut pht t ng.

Qun l v gim st mng t xa bng phn mm my PC.

Nhc im:
-

Truyn dn c ly ngn

Chi ph u t cao.

ng dng: Mng trc trong mng di ng.


c, Mini-link ca ERICSSON: l thit b truyn dn vi ba ni ting nht th gii ca
ERICSSON,c dung ph bin trong cc mng thng tin di ng.

39

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

u im:
-

Thit k gn nh, cng sut tiu th thp, dung lng ln t E1 STM-1, s dng
di tn rng t 7 38 Ghz.
H tr cu hnh im im, im a im, vng ring, hnh sao, hnh cy, h tr
nh tuyn.

Cc phng php iu ch: C-QPSK, 64-QAM, 128-QAM .

Cu hnh v qun l ti ch hoc t xa bng phn mm my PC.

Cung cp cng giao din Ethernet tc cao.

Nhc im:
-

Cu hnh v qun l phc tp.

ng dng: H thng im im ca Mini-link c th c s dng trong cc cu hnh


vng ring, sao, cy v kh nng nh tuyn c tch hp bn trong thit b. Ph hp vi
nhu cu m rng mng ln mng th h tip theo nh mng in thoi di ng 3G.
3.9.2 La chn thit b
Da vo nhu cu thc t cng nh kh nng m rng trong tng lai. trong
tuyn thit k ny chng em chn thit b Mini-link E c th h tr cc cu hnh nh
vng ring, hnh sao, hnh cy v c bit vi kh nng nh tuyn c tch hp bn
trong thit b.

40

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

3.9.2.1 Tng quan v h thng Mini-link E


Mini link E l thit b gm 1 modun truy nhp trong nh v mt khi v tuyn
ngoi tri c anten c lp cng vi h thng thng tin di ng.

Hnh 3.2.2.1: H thng Mini-link E


a, Khi v tuyn ngoi tri
RAU:
Khi v tuyn bao gm cc b i tn ln xung, b khuych i cng sut cao HPA
cho ng ln, b khuch i tp m thp LNA cho ng xung khi ny c lp vi
dung lng ng truyn. Khi ny c ni vi khi trong nh bng cp RF.

Hnh 3.2.2.2: Thit b RAU

41

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Hnh 3.2.2.3: Giao din giao tip ca RAU


nten:

Hnh 3.2.2.4: Khi anten v cc kiu gn anten vi RAU


Cc loi ng knh anten: 0.2 m, 0.3 m, 0.6 m.
b, Khi trong nh

AMM: Modem truy nhp(AMM- Access Module Magazine): L khung cha cc


module khc. C 3 loi:
-

AMM 1U: C th cha 1 MMU

AMM 2U: C 3 loi


+ AMM 2U-1 c th cha 2MMu + 1SAU.
+ AMM 2U-2 c th cha 2MMu + 1SMU.
+ AMM 2U-3 c th cha 2MMU + 1SMU + 1SAU.
42

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

AMM 4U c th cha 2MMU + 1SAU

Hnh 3.2.2.5: Cc loi MMU


MMU: Chc nng iu ch v gii iu ch cc tn hiu bng gc t cc lung truyn
dn n, u vo l cc lung truyn dn, u ra l cc tn hiu c iu ch v
truyn ln RAU thng qua cp RF.

C 4 loi MMU:

43

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Khi SMU- Switch Multiplexer Unit: Khi ny ch dng vi cu hnh 1+1. chuyn
mch v ghp tch knh cc lung 2Mbps.

Giao din giao tip ca SMU:

SAU:

44

Chng III: Thit k tuyn thc t

Giao din giao tip ca SAU:

45

Chng IV: Tinh ton bng phn mm pathloss

CHNG IV: TNH TON BNG PHN MM PATHLOSS


4.1 Gii thu v phn mm pathloss.
Chng trnh pathloss l mt cng c thit k ton din cho cc tuyn v tuyn
hot ng trong di tn s t 30MHz n 100GHz. Chng trnh c tch hp vi tm
module thit k v mt module v cc ng dn v phn tch vng phhur sng. Chng
trnh pathloss c s dng rt ph bin trong vic thit k cng nh tnh ton cc tuyn
v tuyn c bit l viba. Pathloss l phn mm kh n gin.
4.2 Tnh ton.
s dng trong phn mm pathloss th ta cn bit ta v tr ca im t trm.
Chng ta s dng phn mm google earth tm ta v tr ca im t trm.

Nhp kinh v vo phn mm pathloss

46

Chng IV: Tinh ton bng phn mm pathloss

Nhp ta v tr cc trm vo phn mm.


Khi nhp cc thng s ta v tr s cho ta bit c khong cch tm
nhn thng gia 2 trm. Nh trn hnh ta c th thy khong cch gia 2 trm l
35.8km. Cc gc phng v ca trm H Ni v Bc Ninh ln lt l 60 v 240.

Tuyn H Ni nhn dng 2D.


Tip n ta xy dng mt ct ng truyn. Ta vo phn Module terrain data
operations generate profile generate ok.

47

Chng IV: Tinh ton bng phn mm pathloss

Add thm chiu cao vt chn khong 18m (ty thc t nh th no). Vo Structure
> Range of structure. Minh ha:

Chnh cao anten thch hp (ty vo thc t), Pathloss s t tnh gc phng v, bn
knh min Freshnel, cao nh trm so vi mc nc bin. Vo mc module> print
profile s c nh hnh:

48

Chng IV: Tinh ton bng phn mm pathloss

By gi n phn thit k tuyn: vo mc module=>worksheet.Pathloss h tr


thit k tt c cc loi viba nh DM1000, CTR,NERA, Mini Link, Pasolonk NEC,
NEO, 3000S, y, ta v du cho loi viba Minilink E, nhp cc thng s nh tn
s: pht 7725 MHz, thu 8500MHz. Cng sut pht 26dBm, dung lng 2E1 l
dung cho 2G, 3G v DSLAM(ADSL), tng i, kiu iu ch 16QAM, suy hao do
ma ng vi tn s 15Ghz theo qui chun ITUT l 45.23dB, ng knh anten l
2,4m vi Gain ca anten l 36dBi Tng kt nh hnh :

49

Chng IV: Tinh ton bng phn mm pathloss

Sau khi la chn cc thng s nh trn, phn mm s a ra kt qu tnh ton nh


hnh trn .
So snh vi kt qu nh tnh chng 3, ta thy s chnh lch khng nhiu
trong khong chp nhn c. C th:
Tnh ton bng tay

Tnh ton bng phn mm

69,798 dB

68.77 dB

Pr

-43,798dBm

-42,77 dBm

FMtt

40,93 dBm

45,23 dBm

Tng suy hao v tng ch

50

KT LUN
Viba s c mi trng truyn dn l v tuyn nn n d b nh hng ca mi trng
xung quanh, cht lng truyn dn khng tt bng cp hu tuyn nh l cp ng, cp
quang. Nhng vic thit k v tnh ton n gin vi chi ph thp v vi vic truyn trong
c ly ngn th vn m bo cht lng truyn dn tt.
Qua vic thc hin 9 bc ca n nhm thc hin hc hi c nhiu kin thc
v kinh nghim qu bu v ngh nghip tng lai. Hiu c kh khn khi bt tay vao
mt lnh vc.
Qua bi n : Thit k tuyn Vi ba s thc t em hiu thm c cc bc
thit k mt tuyn Vi ba, cch la chn thit b vi ba sao cho ph hp vi tuyn truyn
dn, nu chn thit b c dung lng truyn ln s gy lng ph, khng c tnh kinh t,
bn cnh thit b c chn phi ph hp vi bng tn v tuyn v cc knh RF.

51