Anda di halaman 1dari 16

1

Table of Contents

1. Abstract………………………………………………………………………
……………..2

2. Introduction…………………………………………………………………
…………….2

3. Components…………………………………………………………………
……………..3
a. Transformer
4
b. Bridge Rectifier
5
c. Transistor as a switch
6
d. Battery
6
e. Load 6
2

4. Working………………………………………………………………………
………………7

5. Applications…………………………………………………………………
……………..12

6. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………
……………..13

7. References…………………………………………………………………
………………14

220 to 12 V D.C POWER SUPPLY &


STORAGE

1. Abstract:

This project is to create a 220 A.C to 12V DC power supply that can also store the
power for a long time. The circuit used is an efficient one and has brought many
improvements into current D.C power supplies such as voltage regulation and
removal of ripples in output.
The 220 A.C voltage is first converted into 12 V A.C by a step down transformer,
then a full wave rectifier bridge (based on wheat stone bridge) is used to convert
the A.C into D.C. Then this output is filtered twice by two mechanisms.
i. In order to remove the ripples in the waveform of the bridge circuit.
3

ii. Create a regulated and efficient power supply.


A NPN transistor with a base connected to the Zener diode is also used as a switch
in the circuit. Then 12 V is received as output voltage. The circuit s and waveforms
are created using PSpice. Due to the voltage regulation and removal of ripples in
the output this power supply can also be used as a “battery eliminator” [6] which
provides constant and efficient output to the load without the need for a battery.

2. Introduction:

The need of D.C Power supply is always there in the field of electrical engineering.
The main advantages these D.C power supplies bring are portability and cost
effectiveness as compared to A.C power supplies but sometimes the cheapness of
these D.C power supplies results in the lack in efficiency of the output. That is the
output of most of the D.C power supplies present in the market has ripples in it and
is not pure D.C. Moreover the output voltage is not exact due to losses in the
circuit.
To remove these draw backs in D.C power supplies we have made an efficient
circuit that not only removes the ripples in the output voltage to make a pure D.C
signal but also regulates the voltage to a constant and desired value. This is
achieved by using a filter circuit and transistor which is used as a switch. We have
used a bridge rectifier instead of two diode rectifier (which also produces full wave
rectification) because the bridge rectifier does not require a high “peak inverse
voltage” as it utilizes most of the windings of the transformer. We have also used a
simple transformer instead of center tap because it is cheaper and produces
compact and cheaper power transmission. The use of a RL circuit as a filter has
improved the efficiency of the circuit by removing the ripples in the D.C that is
rectified by the bridge. The use of transistor as a switch has brought the other
improvement in the circuit I.e. it has regulated the voltage to a constant value that
has saved our load from voltage fluctuation damages. Rechargeable Nickel Metal
Hydride batteries are used, which are being used extensively in consumer
electronics these days. These also have lower charging time and are very long
lasting. Due to the efficient combination of the values of the circuit elements a
4

variety of loads can be attached to the output circuit i.e., any circuit element having
voltage 12 V and resistance greater than 10 Ωs.

(The Circuit Diagram is placed on the next page)


5
6

3. Components:

a. Transformer[2]:
This is a step down transformer that converts 220 V A.C into 12 V A.C. A
maximum current of 1200mA can flow through it and it works on a
frequency of 50 Hz and it is easily available in market in low cost. It is not a
center tap transformer and it is easy to connect it into the circuits to get
actual and desired results, as required.
S te p D o w n T ra n s f o rm e r

2 2 0 -1 2 V
7

The relation between number of turns and voltages of input and output coils
is:

Vs/Vp =Ns/Np

We have Vs= 12 Vrms and Vp= 220 Vrms


Then
Ns/Np=.054
The principle of the transformer is mutual induction. [2] The output of the
transformer is pure 12 V A.C in this project.

b. Bridge Rectifier:
The rectification is conversion of A.C into D.C with the help of Diodes.
There are two types of rectifications
a. Half wave rectification
b. Full wave rectification

We use Full wave rectification by using bridge rectifier. This rectifier


consists of four diodes (D1, D2, D3, and D4) connecting each other as shown
in figure:

D 5
1

4 - + 2
3

The advantage of bridge rectifier over two diode rectifier is that:


8

1. Peak inverse voltage of bridge rectifier is very low as compared to the two
diode rectifier.
2. Power dissipation of bridge rectifier is lower.
3. The output of bridge rectifier is very efficient than two diode rectifier.

Due to these advantages we have used bridge rectifier in our circuit.

Principle of bridge rectifier is based on wheat stone bridge. The output of


bridge rectifier is pure D.C (+12 v). That can be shown by connecting a
resistance at its output terminals. This D.C output has ripples which are not a
pure D.C (Figure.3). These ripples can be removed by connecting a capacitor
which acts as a filter.

c. Transistor as a switch[3]:
The transistor, having a Zener diode at its base is used in this circuit as a
switch. The transistor works in an active region that is its base-emitter
junction is in forward bias and collector-base junction in reverse bias. The
transistor used in our circuit is shown in the figure:
2N 2222A

Zener

13 V

d. Battery:
We have used Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable cells in this
project instead of a 12 V battery as it is very cheap. Each cell has 1.2 Volts
so we have added 10 cells in series to make 12 V storage.

V= V1+V2+V3+V4+V5+V6+V7+V8+V9+V10
V= 1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2+1.2
V=12 volts
9

e. Load:
The loads connected in the circuit can have resistance greater than 10 Ω. As
our transformer has maximum current rating of 1200mA and our Voltage is
12 V so by Ωs law:

R=V/I
R=12/1200m
R=10 Ω

4. Working:
The process of the getting a 12 V D.C from 165 V to 285 V A.C
Is divided into following steps:
1. A step down Transformer is used to convert 220 V A.C into 12 V A.C.
This is done by mutual induction phenomena in the transformer.
The 220 v A.C input waveform is shown below:
10

(Figure.1)

The 12 V A.C stepped down output waveform of transformer is shown:


11

(Figure.2)

2. In this step the full wave rectification is done. That is conversion of 12 V


A.C into D.C. Bridge rectifier is used for this purpose. When the positive
half cycle of A.C wave form reaches the upper terminal of the bridge
rectifier this terminal becomes +12 V and lower terminal becomes -12 V
with respect to upper terminal. Then diodes D3 and D2 become forward
biased and conduct while D1 and D4 become reverse biased. The current
flows from this path ( D2 to D3). This + half cycle is observed at the
output of bridge rectifier. Now when Negative half cycle reaches the
upper terminal of bridge rectifier the lower terminal becomes positive
with respect to upper terminal and diode D1 and D4 conduct and current
flows through this path (D1 and D4) while diode D3 and D2 are switched
12

off. This Negative half cycle is converted to positive half cycle at the
output as shown below (by red wave):

(Figure.3)

3. In the previous step the D.C waveform is not pure because it has ripples
which are not suitable for our circuit. So these ripples can be removed by
connecting a filter circuit at the output of bridge rectifier. This filter
contains a capacitor in parallel with a resistor. This capacitor has a
suitable value that can be calculated by some mathematics which is very
important in calculating the time constant of the capacitor (T).

T=RC
T=2.13k X 4.7u
T=10ms
13

Capacitor is charged after 5 time constants. So the ripples are removed by


using this kind of capacitor. The output of the filter circuit is shown in red
waveform where green is input of bridge:

(Figure.4)

4. Up till now we have 12 V D.C waveform. Now the enhancement we have


brought in this circuit is the use of transistor having a Zener
Diodeconnected to its base. It is used as a switch as well as 12 volts
regulator. The biasing of the transistor is the major issue which could be
solved by connecting D.C batteries but we solved this problem by using a
resistor as a potential divider to avoid the use of batteries (an additional
component of the circuit). Now the collector has voltage 12 volts and
base has the voltage of 2.59 volts this makes the collector-base junction
reverse biased. Initially the bypass capacitor connected at emitter is
uncharged so the potential at emitter terminal of transistor is 0 volts.
14

While the Zener Diode connected at base regulates 12 volts across itself
so base-emitter junction becomes forward biased and capacitor begins to
charge. This operation is called “switching of transistor”. After 5 time
constants that can be calculated by (T=RC) capacitor becomes fully
charged. When the capacitor is fully charged base-emitter junction
becomes reverse biased and transistor goes to cut off state. And all the
voltage is observed at this capacitor. The output wave form is shown
below:

(Figure.5)

5. This capacitor is now connected to our rechargeable battery. This battery


is charged in approximately 120 minutes. The power stored in the battery
is calculated as follows:
6.
P=VI
15

P=12 X 1200m
P=14.4Watt

The maximum load is connected to this battery is calculated (as in section


2.5). So the maximum load which can be connected to this circuit is
greater than 10 Ω.

5. Applications:
This circuit has many applications:
[6] i.e
a. The circuit can be used as a “battery eliminator” . as it provides
constant regulated voltage and ripple free output. It can be used to
give output directly to a load instead of a battery first. This reduces
the cost of battery.
b. It can be used as Battery charger. This can be detached from the
circuit and then used to supply power to a variety of electronic
devices.
c. It can be used as a D.C voltage regulator which is capable of
providing ripple free voltage.
[5]
d. To recharge an electric vehicle (EV) battery pack .

e. To recharge a fuel vehicle's starter battery, where a modular charger is


used [5].

6. Conclusions:
We have made a storing power supply. Which takes a 220 volts A.C input
and steps down and rectifies it into 12 volts D.C output and stores a
power of 14.4 watt in the rechargeable battery which can be stored for as
many days as you want? It has some major advantages over common
power supplies e.g., it uses a step down transformer instead of center
tape, bridge rectifier instead of two diode rectifier is used and most
16

important is transistor followed by a Zener diode at its base acting as


switch which prevents damages due to false input as well as any fault in
output voltages. The power can be stored in battery for many days and
Load should be greater than 10Ω.

7. References:

1. Microelectronic Circuit by Sedra-Smith


2. Power Electronics by McKenzie
3. Awais Haider (eleshah86@gmail.com)
4. www.pspice.com
5. www.wikipedia.org
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_eliminator