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UNIT/TOPIC: SHOGUNATE HISTORY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON JAPANESE CULTURE

Key Learning Areas: History & English LESSON TOPIC/CONTENT:


This lesson will introduce the topic using a mystery box as a discussion starter. Through handling and discussing the realia, students will understand that there are differences in culture between Japan and Australia. Students will brainstorm about Japan and Japanese culture to determine what they already know. The concept that culture is a result of historical circumstances will be introduced. The students will identify the Shogunate period using a time line. Students will be given an overview of the unit goals, including the KEY FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4.

Year Level: Grade 8

Each Lesson: 1.25hrs

LESSON PLAN: LESSON 1, MONDAY (TERM 2, WEEK 1)

How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age? What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies? What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period? Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

RATIONALE:
The goal of this first lesson is to generate student interest in the topics we are going to be covering during the term. It is likely that the students will be exuberant after the schools holidays so I would like ideally to harness this without extinguishing it! I feel that it will be important to keep the students focused on the task in hand, but that it should be active and varied enough to hold their interest. The mystery box provides a fun, hands-on activity (supporting kinesthetic learners) allowing students to start to think about the topic and engage as a group. There will be plenty of opportunity for students to raise questions, suggest ideas and talk about their existing knowledge providing the foundations for our community of learners. Students will understand that there are differences in culture between Japan and Australia. The concept that culture is a result of historical circumstances will be introduced. Students will undertake guided discussion and brainstorming about Japan and Japanese culture to determine what students already know. The majority of students have studied Japanese for a number of years, and some will have experiences of Japanese exchange student programs (KWL).
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I will relate the topic to the students lives discussing how our history and heritage makes us who we are, shaping our personal and national culture. The students will identify the Shogunate period using a time line which will tie in with their existing knowledge of the medieval period from their term 1 study. This visual activity will help students put the historical events into perspective (supporting visual learners, and providing a visual aid for memorisation). Students have completed a unit on Medieval History (European feudal system) during term 1. This lesson will reinforce and build on existing student knowledge. Learning is hierarchical, built in stages, and this unit gradually connects all the elements allowing for the development of new synaptic connections as new knowledge is connected to old (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011). This approach is underpinned by constructivist theory, focusing on connecting new knowledge to students prior experiences, and encouraging learning among learners (Koohang, Riley& Smith, 2009). As this is the students first year in high school, it cannot be assumed, even under the new national curriculum, that all students will have the same content and process knowledge. It is important to ensure that each student understands and has the procedural knowledge necessary for the set tasks. This will be assessed through careful observation of the students during the classroom activity and ongoing informal assessment of written or online tasks.

LESSON OUTCOME:
HISTORY CURRICULUM ACHHS148 Sequence historical events and periods GENERAL CAPABILITIES Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding CROSS CURRICULAR PRIORITY AREAS Asia and Australias engagement with Asia

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The learner will be able to (Procedural Knowledge): Use a timeline to show historical perspective. The learner will be able to demonstrate their understanding of (Declarative Knowledge): Students will be able to identify where a series of specific events fit along a timeline. Recognise that people live in different cultural environments, with the foundations laid for the concept of culture being a result of historical circumstances. Students will have an understanding of when the Shogunate period was in relation to other key historical events.

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LESSON STRUCTURE:
Time
As this is the first session of the unit this intro will be much longer than normal

Introduction (Set): Classroom organisation

Teaching Approaches

(20 mins)

All the desks will be moved against the walls for this lesson, with the chairs in a circle. The blank timeline will Self Assessment be mounted at eye level around the room. Consider individual students; if there are students for whom I have The mystery box will be placed in the centre of the circle in order to generate interest/suspense, while students negative expectations - create are welcomed back after the school holidays (noticing any obvious new haircuts, etc. help students feelings of positive ones. Start the unit with a belonging and value). fresh slate. Engagement Communicate Expectations Once the students are settled, the box will be passed around the group with students invited to take out and item Remind students of co-constructed and identify it if they can. Each student will be invited to stand and tell the class about their object or ask if classroom rules, re-establish anyone can help. The standing student will be leading the interaction and will either be the one speaking or classroom routine determine who can help them. I will model this with one of the more obscure items. Guided group discussion, leading to the conclusion that the items represent Japanese culture. (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011) Extension Which other items could have been included in the mystery box? If we were to create an Australian cultural mystery box, what would you include? (eg. Vegemite, boomerang, Aboriginal art) Does that mean that Australian culture is different from Japanese culture? How? Why?

Time (5 mins) (5 mins)

Main Content: I will explain to the students that the purpose of our unit of study is to look at the historical events of the Shogunate era and see what effects they had on Japanese culture.

Teaching Approaches Self Awareness Engage in equitable behaviour Support and encourage students and provide appropriate feedback

We are going to create a timeline to identify number of historical events which you may remember from last term, and some which you may be familiar with from your knowledge of Australian history. By placing these Communicate Expectations events in order we can begin to understand what was going on in the world during this time. We will then look Explicit information is provided so at the timeline and highlight the Shogunate Era. students have a clear understanding of the objectives they are working Introduce the timeline which is mounted on the wall. Show the students the timeline cards. Explain that their towards task is to try to work out the correct time period for each event. Remind students that they have seen a similar
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(10 mins)

timeline during their studies of medieval Europe. Discuss behaviour expectations, students are expected to work sensibly and discuss their ideas, but that if the noise becomes excessively loud they will have to work silently. Students will work in pairs - Taking a set of timeline cards between each pair, students will think about where the cards fit on the timeline, discuss and work together to stick their cards where they think they belong on the timeline using the blu-tack.

(Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

(10 mins)

Students who finish this task early may use the class computers to research and correct any mistakes they may have made. If this too is completed students may use blank cards to add further historical or significant personal events. Once the majority of the students have completed the task or at least attempted most of their event cards, I will allocate each student an event, and ask them to find their card representing that event on the timeline. Students will be given the correct date and asked to place their card in the correct location. Students will note whose card on the line was the closest and then remove all the other cards relating to their event. This will still leave each student with a card on the timeline which they have ownership of.

(10 mins)

A tally will be made for each pair on the whiteboard and the pair with the largest number of closest entries will get award points for the class token economy. Students can now take a seat and look around at the time line with all the events correctly shown. I will ask a student to take a highlighter pen and mark a line at the start and finish of the Shogunate period we will be studying. This period lies between c.794 and 1867 I will write this on the whiteboard ask students what c stands for and what it means, clarify if necessary. Ask students to describe what that period was like in relation to the other events shown on the timeline. (Model example This was a time before people had cars, how do you think people travelled in Japan during this time? How could we find out? Or This period was just coming to an end as Australia was being discovered by the Europeans. What do you think Australia was like at this point in time?)

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Time (10 mins)

Conclusion: I will briefly introduce our KEY FOCUS QUESTIONS, which will be shown on the interactive whiteboard (IWB). 1. 2. 3. 4. How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age? What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies? What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period? Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

We will have a question and answer session about what students think those questions mean. Students can make notes of their ideas on the IWB using a variety of coloured pens. (5) I will then recap on the ideas we have discussed in this class Different countries or peoples can have different cultures Culture or the way people are and the things they do - can be influenced by historical events This term we will be looking at the history of Shogunate Japan c.794 - 1867 We will also be discussing Japanese culture and how the events of Shoguante Japan have influenced modern day Japanese culture.

RESOURCES :
MYSTERY BOX A box covered in Japanese paper, containing realia (real life objects used to improve students' understanding of other cultures), to include any or all of the following Japanese yen Japanese school items or images of them, school slippers, bags, stationery, uniforms, Kitchen utensils used in Japanese cooking Martial arts outfit Kimono Daruma Maneki neko Otedama Kendama Image of a Japanese toilet
Koinobori
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Japanese tourist brochure for local, Gold Coast attractions Japanese newspaper Japanese childrens books Japanese tea Japanese comic Calligraphy brush

TIMELINE - A BLANK TILL ROLL , MARKED WITH DATES TIMELINE CARDS (enough sets for half the number of students in the class) without dates on cards, and a master list including dates (50-60,000 years ago) Estimated arrival of Aboriginal people in Australia (can go outside the classroom to demonstrate perspective) (8,000 years ago) The Torres Strait Islands are formed when the land bridge between Australia and New Guinea is submerged by rising seas (5,000 years ago) Dingo arrives in Australia (3-4BC) Birth of Jesus (794-1867) Shogunate Era (1086) Compilation of the Doomsday Book (1099) First Crusade (1118) Knights Templar founded (1212) Childrens crusade (1307) Knights Templar murdered (1337-1453) Hundred Years War (1350) Black Plague (1382) Bible translated into English (1455-85) War of the Roses (1760) Motor car invented (1770) Captain Cook arrived in Australia (1870) Telephone invented (1900) Federation of Australia (1928) Discovery of Penicillin (1939-45) World War II (1960) Colour television introduced in Australia (1976) I was born (1996-8) Students were born (2000) Sydney Olympics (2004) Facebook founded
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(2011) Students started high school Medieval History unit

BLANK CARDS - for students to add their own ideas and Shogunate events as the unit progresses. WHITEBOARD & MARKERS BLU-TACK KEY FOCUS QUESTIONS ON THE IWB

ASSESSMENT:
The active periods of this lesson will allow me an opportunity to observe the students. Formative assessment informal note taking to identify potential student strengths and weaknesses through observation of students at work, actively listening to their initial questions regarding the topic. On completion of this lesson, students should be able to Use a timeline to show historical perspective, demonstrated through their participation in the class activity. Students will be able to identify where a series of specific events fit along a timeline, again this will be assessed through observation and also reflected in the assessment of students managing to place their events a close as possible to the correct date on the timeline. By reviewing where students are putting their cards I can see which students have a clear understanding of historical events and which students need support. I can verify this by asking open ended or directing questions during the activity. Recognise that people live in different cultural environments, with the foundations laid for the concept of culture being a result of historical circumstances. This will be assessed during the class discussion. Students will have an understanding of when the Shogunate period was in relation to other key events which will be visually displayed around the classroom and can be referred to and added to over the course of the unit. A copy of the IWB page with the focus questions will be made and this can be revisited once students have a better understanding of the topic so we can build on our ideas further. This will serve as a record which can be compared back to at a future point, to demonstrate increased student comprehension and also to identify areas of weakness which will feedback to me as part of my reflective practice. The students ideas can also be used to enhance my focus questions if and when I teach the topic again.

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LESSON PLAN: LESSON 2, TUESDAY (TERM 2, WEEK 1)


LESSON TOPIC/CONTENT:
This lesson is essentially about showing students how to use the internet effectively to find quality information. We will discuss why it is necessary to be critically aware of the information we read. Students will build on their understanding of primary and secondary sources, to see that these have bias depending on the authors perspective. A template for analysing sources will be explained and modelled. This will be followed by a practice exercise reviewing a website and then cross referencing the information to check its validity.

RATIONALE:
As websites are becoming a common source of primary information, students must be able analyse online sources for creditability, to determine authenticity, applicability, authorship, bias, and usability. Before looking for information on the web, students should learn effective search strategies, gain background knowledge about the subject they are researching and identify key terms. This will help to maximise the number of useful search engine results. By having students take the information that they find and make conscious, educated decisions about what to use and how to structure it, they gain the higher-order thinking skills necessary for lifetime learning in an information-rich society. (Schrock, 1998) Continuing on from last lesson, will be establishing a community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1998, cited in Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011) whereby students will share ideas, strategies and information while collaborating on a series of activities and group projects over the course of the term. Students will gain cognitive skills through task-oriented interactions. Students need challenging tasks, and ideally the students will complete as much as possible independently, but I will be observing for any students who need assistance. This is to scaffold the gap between the Zone of Actual Development (ZAD) where students already possess the necessary skills and knowledge and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) where students are gaining new knowledge (Vygotsky). As described in the Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011) At the beginning of a new task, the scaffolding should be concrete, external, and visible. The AAPAAB template is the starting point for students in their process of learning to critically analyse their information sources. Over time, this will become more ingrained and less structured, with the need for the template lessened or removed altogether. At the end of this lesson students will share their ideas on how to find and analyse quality resources. Students will create a mind map which can be saved and used as a reminder or added to at a later date. Mind mapping is a particularly useful tool for students with learning disabilities. In the following lesson plans I will be implementing the use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) to support classroom activities, encouraging students to participate as much as possible in using the device as a tool for group and individual activities. IWBs have huge potential for developing an environment which facilitates learning and collaboration. This is enhanced when teachers avoid transmission style delivery and hand over control of the board to the students
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(Warwicka, Mercera, Kershnere & Staarman, 2010, cited in Northcote, Mildenhall, Marshall & Swan, 2010). Northcote, Mildenhall, Marshall & Swan (2010), documented IWB facilitation of student learning across four learning modes; active learning (discussion, idea sharing, problem solving, group work), knowledge and concept understanding (advancing learning and achievement of learning outcomes), review and reinforcement (clarification of concepts), and students attitude towards learning (enjoyment, engagement and motivation). Bell (2002) is a strong advocate for the IWBs capacity as a tool for the constructivist educator. IWBs support tactile learners, who can interact with the board, audio learners, who will absorb the group discussion and visual learners, who can follow the sequential progression of information on the board. IWBs encourage critical thinking in learners, are easy to incorporate into classroom activities, support group interaction and can be utilised with any software which is loaded onto the computer.

LESSON OUTCOME:
HISTORY CURRICULUM ACHHS151 Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources ENGLISH CURRICULUM ACELY1734 Use comprehension strategies to interpret and evaluate texts by reflecting on the validity of content and the credibility of sources, including finding evidence in the text for the authors point of view.

ACHHS154

GENERAL CAPABILITIES Critical and creative thinking

CROSS CURRICULAR PRIORITY AREAS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The learner will be able to (Procedural Knowledge): Critically analyse information in historical texts and web pages, leading towards a critical approach towards all media. Know how to evaluate websites for bias and authenticity. Be able to think carefully about their topic to select specific words which will generate useful search engine results. The learner will be able to demonstrate their understanding of (Declarative Knowledge): The presence of bias in both historical texts and the content of web pages.

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LESSON STRUCTURE:
Time Introduction (Set): Classroom organisation Teaching Approaches Self Assessment Chairs and tables can be left as per previous class and students may chose where they sit as we will spend much Consider individual students; if there are students for whom I have of the session in the computer lab. negative expectations - create Engagement positive ones Have 3 voki characters loaded on the computer and displayed on the interactive whiteboard (IWB). Communicate Expectations Remind students of co-constructed Character one In a recent footy match between the red team and the blue team, the red team were very lucky. classroom rules, re-establish The blue team players were amazing and did a great job, but the red team scored when they were offside so classroom routine their goals shouldnt have been allowed. (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011) Character two The blue team didnt play very well and were outclassed by the red team. The red team players are all much better than the blue team players. Character three On Monday, there was a game of football between the red team and the blue team. The game started at 2pm and finished at 3pm. The blue team lost by 4 goals to nil. Which statements are biased? Why do you think the 3 people had such different ideas of what happened during the game? As learners, we have to be very careful of bias, we need to know who wrote the information we are using and why they wrote it. When we look at information on the internet, we need to be fully aware of who wrote the information and why. We aim to be objective in our presentation of information, rather than subjective or biased. A good way to remember the difference between objective and subjective is Objective: sounds like the word object (something real which you can touch, verify). The facts that make up your objective statement should also be concrete, solid objects. Subjective: is just the opposite... The statement that has been coloured by the character of the speaker or
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(10 mins)

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writer. It often has a basis in reality, but reflects the perspective through which the speaker views reality. (Manisha, 2011) (10 mins) The template, (AAP, AAB) for analysing sources will then be displayed on the IWB. Going round the class ask for volunteers to expand on each category what would go in each box. Author who?, Audience for whom?, Purpose why?, Argument what did they say?, Authenticate what do other sources say?, Bias We are going to add some of these words to our class spelling list audience, authenticate, argument and bias Extension Can students think of any other indicators which could be used to assess the authenticity of a text or website? References, links, membership of professional organisations Time (5 mins) Main Content: Move to computer lab expectations of behaviour given (move quietly between classrooms to minimise disruption, consequence of loud noise or poor behaviour is returning to the classroom for textbook work sheet activity). Each student will take a blank AAPAAB template. (15 mins) Students will be directed to the http://dhmo.org/ website. This site has a drop down menu to chose the language of the site, so our ESL students may select Japanese or Chinese. Students will review the website using their template. Collaboration and discussion of their findings in this instance is discouraged for the purpose of maintaining an element of surprise for slower students. Students can be supported individually whilst others complete the activity. Group discussion So, what have students found out about dihydrogen monoxide? What can they tell me about the website and whether it represents as an authority on the subject. Do any of the students know a common name for dihydrogen monoxide? It is actually water.
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Teaching Approaches Self Awareness Engage in equitable behaviour Support and encourage students and provide appropriate feedback Communicate Expectations Explicit information is provided so students have a clear understanding of the objectives they are working towards (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

(10 mins)

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(10 mins)

Does that mean the information on the website wrong? Really? Is it wrong or BIASED? Does it use facts in a biased way to change your opinion? Why is it important to verify the information we find on one website with the information found on another? Do students have any further questions about sources and bias? Using the internet on the IWB, show students the homepage for google. Ask one of the students to take control of the IWB using the computer. So how could we use google to find more information about our topic - dihydrogen monoxide? What key words could we use? (Can anyone tell me what I mean by a key word?) Why is important to be specific in our search terms? What is dihydrogen monoxide? dihydrogen monoxide and cancer dihydrogen monoxide in milk dihydrogen monoxide in the environment Do students have any other suggestions? Students can spend the remainder of our time here in the computer lab researching dihydrogen monoxide to determine the truth of the information on the http://dhmo.org/ website

(5 mins)

Students given a 3 minute time warning prior to moving back to the classroom. Return to classroom behavioural expectations given.

Time (15 mins)

Conclusion: To recap on what students have learnt during the lesson, in a group, students can create a mind map using the IWB to detail their understanding of how to identify and locate relevant sources. If necessary I can begin the process, but ideally I would like the students to take the lead in the activity. The AAPAAB templates will be collected to review students understanding of source analysis.
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RESOURCES:
BOOK THE COMPUTER LAB WEBSITE - HTTP://DHMO.ORG/ SOURCE ANALYSIS TEMPLATE STUDENT PRINTOUTS WHITEBOARD & MARKERS INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD LAPTOP COMPUTER WITH 3 VOKI CHARACTERS PRINTED AAP AAB TEMPLATES FOR EACH STUDENT

ASSESSMENT:
I will be conscious during the session of noticing which students are coming forward with answers and which students appear to be lacking in confidence or are being overpowered by more vocal class members, ensuring that they are given equal opportunity to develop their ideas and participate in group discussions. As well as informal assessment during the classroom activity, I will review the mind map to determine students understanding of how to identify and locate relevant sources, checking for gaps in their knowledge. This exercise can be repeated at a later date to determine what progression has been made over the course of the term. The AAPAAB templates will be reviewed and constructive feedback will be given to help students better approach their ongoing research activity.

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LESSON PLAN: LESSON 3, WEDNESDAY (TERM 2, WEEK 1)


LESSON TOPIC/CONTENT:
Students will chose from a selection of key historical periods (group & topic selection should be diplomatic, with a relatively even distribution of students per topic) Heian Period (794-1185) Kamakura Shogunate (1192-1333) Kemmu Restoration (1333-1336) Ashigkaga Shogunate/Muromachi Period (1336-1573) They will research these using the focus questions What happened? Who was involved? Why did it end? What was the impact on the Japanese Feudal system? What was the impact on Japanese culture? (Gill & Ahern, 2011) Students will use the source analysis template to keep research notes, including a record of the information source.

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

RATIONALE:
This lesson is going to be the beginning of our class enquiry into the Shogunate Period. I have taken care to ensure that the student resources have sound educational value, are not pedagogically restrictive and do not trivialise important concepts. The resources will offer opportunities for social interaction allowing students to revise and reconstruct their views (Laurillard, 1995 cited in Geng, 2011), with the teacher acting as a facilitator. The Akron Global Polymer Academy (2011) asserts that teachers can support inquiry in the classroom by acting as facilitators, supplying an assortment of resources and through modelling inquiry behaviours and skills. It is important to maintain student interest; one way in which I can enhance this is through enabling students to determine which period they chose to research rather than dictating the topic to them. Boomer (1982, cited in Pendergast & Bahr, 2005) asserts that student interest and engagement can be created through negotiation of the curriculum between teacher and students. This negotiation helps students to view themselves as independent learners and active seekers of information.

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The New South Wales Department of Education and Training (2005) advocate allowing for student choice, decision-making and leadership, and the incorporation of collaborative and co-operative learning strategies. This lesson (and subsequent lessons) provides a learning challenge which is open-ended instead of constraining and develops students capacity to negotiate their own learning (Boyd, 2000).

LESSON OUTCOME:
HISTORY CURRICULUM ACHHS151 Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods Locate, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence The way of life in Shogunate Japan, including social, cultural, economic and political features (including the feudal system and the increasing power of the shogun) CROSS CURRICULAR PRIORITY AREAS Asia and Australias engagement with Asia ENGLISH CURRICULUM ACELY1734 Use comprehension strategies to interpret and evaluate texts by reflecting on the validity of content and the credibility of sources, including finding evidence in the text for the authors point of view.

ACHHS153

ACHHSEH012

GENERAL CAPABILITIES Critical and creative thinking Intercultural understanding

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The learner will be able to (Procedural Knowledge): Select and critically analyse sources to research their chosen topic. The learner will be able to demonstrate their understanding of (Declarative Knowledge): Identify where their chosen period fits on the timeline. Understand why it is important to reference sources of information.

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LESSON STRUCTURE:
Time Introduction (Set): Classroom organisation The desks will be set up in 4 groups of 6 tables. Each table will have a pile of resources, covering either all or some periods of the Shogunate Era. The class computers will be a 5th station for the rotation activity and the library and library computers will be a 6th work station. Engagement (15 mins) There will be 4 images on the IWB representing the 4 periods of the Shogunate Era. Teaching Approaches Self Assessment Consider individual students; if there are students for whom I have negative expectations - create positive ones Communicate Expectations Remind students of co-constructed classroom rules, re-establish classroom routine (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

Heian Period (794-1185)

Kamakura Shogunate (1192-1333)

Kemmu Restoration (1333-1336)

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Ashigkaga Shogunate/Muromachi Period (1336-1573) Students can select one period by writing their name next to the image on the IWB. If there is a strong imbalance between the numbers of students selecting each historical period, then students will be asked to diplomatically decide who is going to change, perhaps I will need to model a suggestion such as the students who chose to change topics now, can have the first choice in our next topic selection, but I would prefer students to work it out without guidance if possible. Spelling list words Shogunate, Era, Heian, Kamakura, Kemmu, Ashigkaga, Muromachi Time Main Content: The IWB will display the research focus questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What happened? Who was involved? Why did it end? What was the impact on the Japanese Feudal system? What was the impact on Japanese culture? (Gill & Ahern, 2011) Teaching Approaches Self Awareness Engage in equitable behaviour Support and encourage students and provide appropriate feedback Communicate Expectations Explicit information is provided so students have a clear understanding of the objectives they are working towards (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

(15 mins)

Can students think of any further questions? Using the 5 focus questions, students will research their chosen topic, taking notes. It is important that students make a note of the source that each piece of information comes from. Why do you think it is important to keep a record of your sources? 1. So you can go back and check if you need to, to verify what you have written, or if you havent had time to finish making notes from a particular source. 2. When you use information which someone else has written, it is important to give them credit. Plagiarism is .. (Does anyone know?) presenting someone elses work as your own, its a kind of
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cheating. 3. So that a teacher or someone who reads your work and wants to find out more can find the original source 4. To add authority to your work, someone who reads your work, will know where you found the information from. (40 mins) Spelling list words feudal, Medieval. plagiarism, culture, source Students will be allowed to move in groups of their choosing between the six work stations, namely 4 desk groups with text resources, the classroom computers and the library. Students will make notes in their history books, using the AAP AAB source template as a guide when working on the computer. Rotations will happen every 10 minutes with each group getting at least one opportunity to use the classroom computers or library resources. Students will be asked to make sure they use at least one original website resource found using the computers. Behaviour expectations will be given, such as working without disrupting others, being aware of other classes taking place when transitioning to the library, students who disregard this will not be allowed to use the library or computer lab resources independently but will have to remain in the classroom.

Time

Conclusion: Regroup students and ask them about the resources they have found in their internet research. What did they find were the best search words to use?

(5 mins)

Explain that we will be carrying on with this topic tomorrow and that students will be completing a review of one of their chosen sources.

RESOURCES :
A SELECTION OF HISTORY TEXT BOOKS , EG - A History of Japan, 1615-1867 by George Sansom, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present, by Andrew Gordon, Japan: Its History and Culture, by Morton, Olenik and Lewis.
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PRINTED WEB RESOURCES ON EACH PERIOD, EG The Court at Kyoto (http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/traditional/court.htm#student%20readinG ), Heian Period (7941185) (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/heia/hd_heia.htm#ixzz1Sc6XzLME) AAPAAB PRINTOUTS IWB WITH 4 IMAGES OF THE TIME PERIODS LOADED FOCUS QUESTIONS IN A WORD DOCUMENT LIBRARY CLASSROOM COMPUTERS

ASSESSMENT:
Ongoing informal assessment by reviewing notes in students history notebooks, meaningful and constructive feedback will be given. I will check specifically for students having found their own internet based sources. Where necessary, students can be given more structured guidance to enable them to gain better internet search results.

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LESSON PLAN: LESSON 4, THURSDAY (TERM 2, WEEK 1)


LESSON TOPIC/CONTENT:
The goal of this lesson is to determine whether students have understood how to critically assess their chosen sources for bias. Students will demonstrate their understanding of why it is important to be critical of their information sources, and not purely for the purposes of this unit it is intended that students will apply this philosophy whenever they are looking at websites or texts.

RATIONALE:
In describing Social Development Theory (Vygotsky), the Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011) asserts that: social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behaviour. Students will be asked to think, pair, share, in order to develop and vocalise their understandings. Social interaction has a key part in the process of cognitive development. Social strategies in which learning evolves through students participation as a learning community encourages those with learning and language difficulties to become equal partners in the group activities (Smith, 1999). By using the visual imagery of the burger students can instantly recall what is needed in terms of structure for their Point-Evidence-Conclusion Paragraph. This activity is also laying the foundations of a later task in which students will be asked to write an essay. The structure of this essay will be an extension of the PEC structure Point (introductory paragraph) Evidence (supporting paragraphs) Conclusion. This structure is also a common format for most formal writing. LESSON OUTCOMES: HISTORY CURRICULUM ACHHS154 Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources ENGLISH CURRICULUM ACHHS157 Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies

GENERAL CAPABILITIES Critical and creative thinking

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The learner will be able to (Procedural Knowledge): Use a PEC paragraph to analyse the quality of their resource. The learner will be able to demonstrate their understanding of (Declarative Knowledge): Students will be able to explain how to critically analyse their sources and why it is important to do so.
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LESSON STRUCTURE:
Time Introduction (Set): Classroom organisation (15 mins) Desks can be left as per normal classroom activities, students will have a small period of activity and most of the remainder of the lesson they will be relatively static working on their assessment task. Engagement Welcome the students. Introduce the first activity THINK PAIR SHARE Why is it important to be critical of our information sources?

Teaching Approaches Self Assessment Consider individual students; if there are students for whom I have negative expectations - create positive ones Communicate Expectations Remind students of co-constructed classroom rules, re-establish classroom routine

Think: Students have a few minutes to think quietly

Pair: they can pair up and find a spot to work, utilising the stairs and outdoor area just outside the (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011) classroom, the carpet, the computer corner or sitting at their desks. Students will compare ideas: Share: Present the best ideas by adding to a list on the regular whiteboard (using coloured markers) as they finish their think pair share activity. Teaching Approaches Self Awareness Engage in equitable behaviour Support and encourage students and provide appropriate feedback Communicate Expectations Explicit information is provided so students have a clear understanding of the objectives they are working towards (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

Time

Main Content: Using the IWB recap PEC Paragraph Structure

(10 mins)

P - Point (Topic sentence 1 - 2 sentences) E - Evidence, examples, explanation, elaboration (6 - 8 sentences) C - Conclusion/comment (1 - 2 sentences)

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(45 mins)

Students will choose one of their sources from yesterdays activity. This can be one of the resources provided or one they found using the internet or library. All sources will be made available for students if they need to recap or review the resource in a more directed way. They will then write a PEC paragraph to describe how the why this is a good source of information on their topic and how they have critically analysed the information provided. Students will be reminded to write in proper sentences, and use correct grammar and spelling. Students with learning difficulties or ESL, could write directly onto a copy of the burger layout diagram and depending on their level of literacy, may make notes rather than full sentences. Extension Students who complete the task early may resume their research task using the computers or the library.
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Time (5 mins)

Conclusion: Collect students papers for assessment. Explain that next week we be taking a look at the classroom wiki and start to develop it as a project. Students will be creating and editing their own web pages to create an information database. Have a great weekend

RESOURCES :
WHITE BOARD & COLOURED MARKERS RESOURCES FROM LESSON 3 INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD PEC PARAGRAPH BURGER TEMPLATE READY FOR THE IWB AND SOME PRINTOUTS AVAILABLE

ASSESSMENT:
Assessment of students PEC paragraphs, observing both procedural and declarative knowledge. Provision of constructive and encouraging feedback to all students, helping them to see that even if they have not met the required standard, that it is still obtainable. Analyse common errors and address them to the class as a whole, and focus on these areas when next using PEC paragraphs and when modelling the essay task. Check for literacy indicators, sentence structure, grammar and spelling. Identify any students who may need literacy support.

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LESSON PLAN: LESSON 5, MONDAY (TERM 2, WEEK 2)


LESSON TOPIC/CONTENT:
This lesson will introduce the students to wikis. We will watch a short video clip which gives an overview of how to post and edit a wiki. We will look at the class wiki and its structure, and students will be shown how and where to add information to the relevant pages of the wiki. Assignment 2 will be described explicitly.

RATIONALE:
Banduras Social Learning Theory is often regarded as bridging the gap between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories as it focuses on students attention, memory, and motivation. Bandura (1986, cited in Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011) suggests the people learn from each other, through observations, mimicking and modelling. Students will watch a Prezi presentation about wikis, incorporating a brief demonstration video and then either myself or a competent student (following verbal instructions if necessary) will model its structure, use and functions using the interactive whiteboard (IWB) (Vygotsky, n.d. cited in Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011). This way student questions can be addressed in a group to the benefit of all learners, which also provides valuable feedback for the teacher, highlighting where a clearer explanation or more readable wiki format might be used in the future. It is important that sufficient time is dedicated to students gaining skills in utilising wiki technology and explanation of its uses and best practices, including the social and academic aspects (Harsell, 2010). The wiki supports an inquiry approach to our topic, focused on discovering "how we come to know" rather than purely "what we know (Concept to Classroom, 2004). Students will be learning the history content whilst developing their information-processing and problem solving skills, through researching using the internet and editing the wiki. Enhancing knowledge through the use of ICT, middle years learners can create presentations and organise information in a variety of interesting and innovative ways, giving them skills which will continue to be useful outside the school environment. Technology is a major aspect of modern life, with many businesses using groupware; being familiar with wiki technology equips students with the skills to work as part of a team, sharing ideas in a technology framework. Researchers Honebein, 1996; Lebow, 1993; Knuth & Cunningham, 1993 (cited in Hazari, North & Mooreland, 2009) recommended constructivist theory for shared learning environments. Constructivist teaching strategies target students motivation to learn and promote authentic learning; giving students valuable life skills. Wikis fit well with constructivist learning theory as they offer a range of opportunities for students to interact, compare and review their understandings and develop their ideas both individually and as a learning community, providing opportunities for social interaction and giving students responsibility for their own learning development (Vygotsky, 1986; Bruner, 1990, cited in Hazari, North & Mooreland, 2009). During our class rotation, learners will have the opportunity for scaffolded learning using the IWB with the teacher as a facilitator. This will ensure students are beginning to understand how to use the technology and gaining confidence through giving it a go.
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It is important, when using wikis in the classroom; that their use is clearly linked to the course objectives and that clear guidelines regarding assessment and study requirements are given.

LESSON OUTCOME:
HISTORY CURRICULUM ACHHS151 Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods Locate, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence ACELY1738 ACHHS156 Develop historical texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources The way of life in Shogunate Japan, including social, cultural, economic and political features (including the feudal system and the increasing power of the shogun) ENGLISH CURRICULUM ACELY1736 Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that raise issues, report events and advance opinions, using deliberate language and textual choices, and including digital elements as appropriate Use a range of software, including word processing programs, to create, edit and publish texts imaginatively

ACHHS153

ACHHSEH012

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The learner will be able to (Procedural Knowledge): Use a wiki, and know how to post and edit entries. The learner will be able to demonstrate their understanding of (Declarative Knowledge): Students will be able to explain what a wiki is.

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LESSON STRUCTURE:
Time Introduction (Set): Classroom organisation (15 mins) The desks will be set up in 4 groups of 6 tables. A single table will have a pile of all the resources, from last weeks work. The class computers will be a 5th station for the rotation activity and the IWB area will be a 6th work station. Students may also utilise the library resources as a 7th rotation. Initially, all students should have a comfortable sitting position with a clear view of the IWB. Engagement Teaching Approaches Self Assessment Consider individual students; if there are students for whom I have negative expectations - create positive ones

Communicate Expectations Remind students of co-constructed classroom rules, re-establish When the students come in they will be asked to collect their research notes from last week and then find a seat classroom routine or a spot on the carpet, with a clear view of the IWB. The IWB will be showing the home page of the class wiki. Students will be asked whether they know what a wiki is. A wiki is a type of website that lets anyone create and change its pages. (Simple Wikipedia, 2011) Explain to the class that we will be creating our own wiki during the course of this topic STARTING TODAY! Some students may have experience in using or creating wikis. One will be called upon to model wikis during our group time. Time Main Content: A Prezi will be loaded onto the IWB including the youtube clip Wikis in plain English. Teaching Approaches (Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

(20 mins)

Self Awareness Engage in equitable behaviour We will watch the Prezi with a student volunteer controlling the whiteboard. The Prezi will model the wiki and Support and encourage students and explain its use and structure. provide appropriate feedback At the end of the presentation, it will link directly to the wiki homepage. Under direction as necessary a competent student volunteer can demonstrate how to add and edit the wiki. Explain the assessment task Communicate Expectations Explicit information is provided so students have a clear understanding of the objectives they are working towards

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These guidelines will be printed out and displayed on the class noticeboard and will also be shown on the wiki, students will be shown where to find them using the IWB Students will be required to add to and edit their own unique page on the wiki, which will be on their chosen topic from Lesson 3 1. 2. 3. 4. Heian Period (794-1185) Kamakura Shogunate (1192-1333) Kemmu Restoration (1333-1336) Ashigkaga Shogunate/Muromachi Period (1336-1573)

(Robbins & Strangeways, 2011)

The wiki page will be dedicated to answering the 5 focus questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What happened? Who was involved? Why did it end? What was the impact on the Japanese Feudal system? What was the impact on Japanese culture? (Gill & Ahern, 2011)

Students will maintain a record of all their sources of information in a list named SOURCES at the bottom of their page. Sources will be listed in alphabetical order The following template will be shown HEIAN PERIOD (794-1185) by A Student 1. What happened? 2. Who was involved? 3. Why did it end? 4. What was the impact on the Japanese Feudal system? 5. What was the impact on Japanese culture?
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SOURCES SIRNAME, INITIAL. (DATE) TITLE David, D. (2007) Shogunate Japan (At a later stage, once students have completed their own page, and become comfortable in utilising the wiki, they will team up in groups of 4 so that each historical period is represented. They will then edit each others pages by reviewing their sources.) Students will now work in groups of their choosing. Using the rotation stations, some students will continue their research using the text and printed resources, while one group can start to add to the wiki at the classroom computers and another can utilise the library resources. During this time, groups of students who would like more help to get the concept of the wiki and understand how to negotiate the web page, will be invited to come and try editing the wiki using the IWB. Any individual students who need support can be assisted and those who have struggled to understand the process will also benefit from watching others closely and listening to the discourse. This will be supported with teacher observation and informal assessment of students understandings of the process. Any common mistakes can be highlighted for the whole class, as necessary. Time (10 mins) Conclusion: Congratulate the students on how fast (or suitable descriptor) they have managed to adopt the technology. Identify how being able to use this technology is a life skill which can be used in university, the workplace and beyond. Student feedback will be sought. What do students think about wikis? How have they found it so far? Where have they struggled and where have they been inspired? Give students an overnight homework task of making at least a contribution on the discussion board of the wiki. This contribution will answer the question What is a wiki. Students may comment about the wiki project and may comment in response to each others posts, however comments must be positive and
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encouraging. Any posts with bad language will be removed and consequences for the offending student will be as per our agreed classroom rules.

RESOURCES :
WIKI HOME PAGE, INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS PAGES, STUDENT ACCESS CODES /LOGINS, SECURITY LEVELS SET , RESOURCES PAGE , DISCUSSION BOARD , ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES PAGE . PREZI INCLUDING WIKIS IN PLAIN ENGLISH YOUTUBE CLIP INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD CLASS HISTORY TEXTS AND PRINTED RESOURCES COPY OF THE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES POSTED TO THE NOTICEBOARD

ASSESSMENT:
Assessment is focused on determining the progress of skills development in addition to content understanding. Inquiry learning is concerned with in-school success, but it is equally concerned with preparation for life-long learning (Concept to Classroom, 2004). Authentic assessment aims to develop individuals who are capable of performing in the real world. To determine whether this and subsequent lessons have been successful, students will demonstrate their abilities in meaningful tasks which represent real world challenges (Mueller, 2011). As mentioned in the rationale, computers are a major aspect of modern life, being familiar with wiki technology equips students with the skills to work as part of a team, sharing ideas in a technology framework. A record of the contributions of all students will be maintained and feedback will be given to the individual students, but this will not be posted on the wiki, as this feedback would be visible to all students, and could lead to low self esteem in students with lower levels of attainment. Written feedback will be given in students homework diaries or history study books. The early stages of students pages will be checked to ascertain whether students have understood the required format for the wiki and an indication of students who are making good independent progress. Students who appear to be struggling can be given support in future lessons by offering a rotation option with teacher or teacher aide guidance. The student contribution on the discussion board will give me a good indication of any students who have not understood what a wiki is. I will then be able to clarify this either with the individual student or with the whole class if necessary.

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REFERENCES:
Akron Global Polymer Academy (2011). Inquiry Approaches. Retrieved October 13th, 2011 from http://agpa.uakron.edu/p16/btp.php?id=inquiry-approaches Bell, M. (2002). Why Use an Interactive Whiteboard? A Baker's Dozen Reasons! The Teachers Net Gazette. Retrieved 18th August, 2011, http://teachers.net/gazette/JAN02/mabell.html Boyd, J. (2000). Effective middle schooling; A manual for middle school leaders. Retrieved March 22, 2010 from http://www.vision.net.au/~globallearning/pdfs/samples/EFFECTIVE_mid_sch.pdf Concept to Classroom (2004). Inquiry based learning how does it differ from the traditional approach? Retrieved October 4th, 2011 from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index_sub1.html Geng,G. (2011). Week 1: Introduction of eLearning Gill, P. & Ahern, S. (2011). Shogunate Japan (c.794 1867). Learning by Design research and development project. Kalantzis & Cope. Retrieved August 18, 2011, http://cglearner.com/learning_element/show_both/815.html? Harsell, D. (2010). Wikis in the Classroom: Faculty and Student Perspective. University of North Dakota, USA Hazari, S., North, A., & Moreland, D. (2009). Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology. Journal of Information Systems Education. Vol 20 (2). USA Koohang, Riley& Smith, (2009). Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011). Communities of practice( Lave and Wenger). Retrieved October 11th, 2011 from http://www.learningtheories.com/communities-of-practice-lave-and-wenger.html Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2011). Social Learning Theory (Bandura). Retrieved October 12th, 2011 from http://www.learning-theories.com/sociallearning-theory-bandura.html

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Manisha, (2011). Difference between objective and subjective. Retrieved October 1st, 2011 from http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-objective-and-subjective/ Mueller, J. (2011). What is authentic assessment? North Central College, Naperville, IL. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm New South Wales Department of Education and Training (2005). Discussion starter: Developing a middle years approach. Retrieved March 23, 2010 from http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/schoolsweb/gotoschool/highschool/middleyrs/issues/midyrsapproach.pdf Northcote, Mildenhall, Marshall & Swan (2010)

Pendergast, D. & Bahr, N. (2005). Teaching middle years: Rethinking curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. Australia: Allen & Unwin. Robbins & Strangeways, (2011). ETL301 Middle schooling pedagogies: Module 2 of 3 Developing pedagogical models for middle school. Charles Darwin University, Australia Robbins, D. & Strangeways, A. (2011). ETL301 Middle schooling pedagogies: Module 3 of 3 Assessment and practice in the middle years. Charles Darwin University, Australia Robbins, D. & Strangeways, A. (2011). ETL301 Middle Schooling Pedagogies: Weekly Modules, Learning Theories - Cognitive Theory, Charles Darwin University, Australia Schrock, K. (1998). Teaching media literacy in the age of the internet The ABCs of website evaluation. Classroom Connect. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://kathyschrock.net/abceval/ABC.PDF Simple Wikipedia (2011). Wiki. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki Smith, M. K. (1999). 'The cognitive orientation to learning', The encyclopedia of informal education, Retrieved 18th August, 2011, www.infed.org/biblio/learning-cognitive
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