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Eng. Rashid Sher Mohd, M.

Sc

INTRODUCING OF ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Lecture Contents
Introduction
Reservoir Engineering Aspects in IOR and EOR Immiscible Flooding (Waterflooding)

Miscible Flooding
Chemical Flooding Thermal Injection Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) Guidelines for Selecting IOR and EOR Methods Design and Implementation of EOR Method
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Lecture Evaluation
Attending = 10 %

Home Works
Presentation

= 10 %
= 05 %

Mid Test
Final Test

= 25 %
= 50 %

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References

Latil M, Bardon C, Burger J, Soureau P., Enhanced Oil Recovery, Graham Trotman Ltd, London, 1980.

Van Poolen,H.K., Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Penn Well Books Division of Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1980.

National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, (NIPER) Enhanced Oil Recovery Information.

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Eng. Rashid Sher Mohd, M.Sc

INTRODUCTION

HOW IF THE OIL PRODUCTION FROM THE WELL OR FIELD WAS DECREASES ?

The definition of EOR

A method that use to recover the oil content when the general oil production method no longer efficient

OIL RECOVERY PHASES


Primary Recovery NATURAL FLOW ARTIFICIAL LIFT

WATER DRIVE

DEPLETION DRIVE

GAS CAP DRIVE

GRAVITY DRIVE

COMBINATION DRIVE

PUMP

GAS LIFT

SECONDARY RECOVERY

TERTIARY RECOVERY

WATER FLOODING

IMMISCIBLE GAS FLOOD

MISCIBLE GAS FLOOD

CHEMICAL FLOODING

THERMAL INJECTION

MICROBIAL EOR

PRESSURE MAINTENANCE

FLOODING

-CO2 FLOOD - N2 FLOOD - INERT GAS - RICH GAS

- ALKALINE - SURFACTANT - POLYMER - MICELLAR POLYMER - ASP

- HOT WATER - STEAM FLOOD - INSITU COMBUSTION

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Natural or Primary Recovery Drives


Solution gas drive Gas cap drive Water drive Gravity drainage Combination drive
Gas Oil Water

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Secondary Recovery
Waterfloods and Immiscible gas floods No compositional or temperature changes take place in the reservoir except pressure and displacement Suitable for light oil, low viscosity oil and low pressure reservoirs

Injector

Producer

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Enhanced Oil Recovery

Cause physical, chemical, compositional and thermal changes in the reservoir rock and fluids Improve recovery beyond secondary level Appropriate selection and design are important Producer Injector

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Typical Recovery Factors


Natural or Primary Methods
Heavy oil
Light oil: solution gas drive water drive, gas cap gravity drainage

5 - 15 %
10 - 25% 20 - 40% 30 - 45%

Secondary Methods
Waterflood Immiscible Gas flood 20 - 45 % 15 - 40 %

Tertiary or EOR Methods


Laboratory tests Field applications 70 - 90 % 45 - 75 %
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Incremental Recovery Factor

Qo, BOPD

Incremental Secondary Recovery

Incremental Tertiary / EOR Extrapolated secondary

Extrapolated primary

Primary phase

Secondary phase

EOR phase

Time or Cum. Production


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ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)


The main objective of EOR is to recover as much as possible oil in reservoir / well
Aim at increasing the oil recovery over its primary and secondary potential.

EOR methods involve injection of substances which cause changes in compositions, temperature and rock-fluid interactions in the reservoir. In some cases, EOR Methods could be applied after Primary or even at discovery.
Sometimes called Tertiary Recovery Methods. This does not mean that EOR Methods have to be applied after Secondary Recovery.
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IOR AND EOR MECHANISMS

Waterflood

Thermal

Chemical

Miscible Gas

Maintains reservoir pressure & physically displaces oil with water moving through the reservoir from injector to producer.

Reduces Sorw by steam distillation and reduces oil viscosity.

Reduces Sorw by lowering water-oil interfacial tension, and increases volumetric sweep efficiency by reducing the water-oil mobility ratio.

Reduces Sorw by developing miscibility with the oil through a vaporizing or condensing gas drive process.

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FACTOR AFFECTING EOR


Reservoir Depth. Reservoir Heterogeneity. Remaining Reserves (RR). Rock Properties. Fluid Properties. Reservoir Drive Mechanisms.

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IOR AND EOR MAIN OBJECTIVES


Goal of IOR and EOR processes is to mobilize remaining oil reserves
Achieved by enhancing oil displacement and volumetric sweep efficiencies
- Oil displacement efficiency is improved by reducing oil viscosity (e.g., thermal floods) or by reducing capillary forces or interfacial tension (e.g., miscible floods)

- Volumetric sweep efficiency is improved by developing more favorable mobility ratio between injectant and remaining oil reserves (e.g., chemical floods, WAG processes)

Important to identify remaining oil reserves and mechanisms necessary to improve recovery before implementing IOR and EOR

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EOR IMPLEMENTATION STEPS


RESERVOIR

GEOLOGY DATA

RESERVOIR DATA

PRODUCTION DATA

Type of Rock Migration Direction Bulk Volume (Vb)

Rock Properties

Fluid Properties

Reservoir Condition

Reservoir Drive Mechanism

Porosity Permeability Saturation Wettability Capillary Pressure

Oil Properties Water Properties

Oil Cut Water Cut Remaining Reserve

Res. Pressure Res. Temperature

Screening Criteria

Selecting EOR Methods

Laboratory Study Evaluation

Simulation Study
Pilot Project Monitoring and Evaluation Full Scale

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