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Conversion of exposure values for gases from ppm to mg/m3 and back

1 g-mole of any substance contains the same number of molecules. Avogadro's law states: Volume of n molecules of gas 1 = Volume of n molecules of gas 2, provided that gas 1 and gas 2 have the same temperature and pressure. Volume of 1 g-mole of H2 = 22.4 l at 0 C (=273.15 K) and 1 atm (= 101.3 kPa). Since most Threshold Limit Values (TLV) are given at 25 C (= 298.15 K) and 1 atm (= 101.3 kPa) it is necessary to obtain the volume at 25 C using the formula pV/T = constant or p1V1/T1 = p2V2/T2, where p = pressure, V = volume and T = absolute temperature. Thus, at 25 C (= 298.15 K) and 1 atm (= 101.3 kPa): p1 = 101.3 kPa, V1 = 22.4 l, T1 = 273.15 K, p2 = 101.3 kPa, T2 = 298.15 K, V2 = p1V1T2/(p2T1) Volume of 1 g-mole of H2 = 101.3 * 22.4 * 298.15 / (101.3 * 273.15) = 24.45 l. In order to make the conversion from ppm to mg/m3 it is necessary to know the molecular weight (MW) of the gas. If the TLV is given at 25 C, the conversion can be calculated as follows: x ppm = x * 10-6 * MW / 24.45 g/l = x * MW / 24.45 mg/m3 or Similarly, Examples: Carbon dioxide, CO2, has a TLV = 5000 ppm. The molecular weight of CO2 is 12 + 2 * 16 or MW = 44 g/g-mole. So, 5000 ppm = 5000*44 / 24.45 mg/m3 = 9000 mg/m3, 25 C. Thus, CO2, has a TLV = 5000 ppm or 9000 mg/m3, 25 C. Benzene, C6H6, has a TLV = 30 mg/m3, 25 C. The molecular weight of C6H6 is 6 * 12 + 6 * 1 = 78 g/gmole. So, 30 mg/m3 = 30 * 24.45 / 78 = 9.4 ppm. Most standards show that benzene has a TLV = 10 ppm. x ppm = x * MW / 24.45 mg/m3, at 25 C and 1 atm. x mg/m3, 25 C = x * 24.45 / MW ppm, at 25 C and 1 atm.