Anda di halaman 1dari 54

# ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL THREE : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION Question 1.
A single Phase 50kVA, 2400/240V, 60Hz distribution transformer is used as a step down transformer at the load end of a 2400V feeder whose series impedance is (1.0 + j2.0) ohms. The equivalent series impedance of the transformer is (1.0 + j2.5) ohms referred to the high voltage (i.e. primary) side. The transformer is delivering rated total power at 0.8 power factor lagging, and at rated secondary voltage. Neglecting the transformer excitation current, determine: (a) The voltage at the transformer primary terminals, (b) The voltage at the sending end of the feeder, (c) The real and reactive power delivered to the sending end of the feeder. Work in the Per Unit System, using the transformer ratings as base quantities. Answer : First Determine the base quantities. Sbase = 50kVA Vbase1 = 2400V Vbase2 = 240V Therefore:
I base1 = S base 50,000 = = 20.833 A Vbase1 2400

## I base2 = Z base1 = Z base 2 =

Sbase 50,000 = = 208.333 A Vbase2 240 Vbase1 2400 = = 115.2 I base1 20.8333 Vbase 2 240 = = 1.152 I base 2 208.333

Z1 _ eqpu =
Z line _ pu =

Z1 _ eq Z base1

## Now the load power is given by:

Sload = 50kVA cos1 (0.8) = 50kVA 36.90

Or:
Sload = 50kVA cos 1 (0.8) = 1.0 p.u. 36.90

ELEC 4100

1.0

## The load current is then:

I load = 208.333 A 36.90

(a) The voltage at the transformer primary terminals is then given by:
V1 _ pu = V2 _ pu + I load _ pu Z1 _ eqpu V1 _ pu = 1.000 + 1.0 36.90 (0.00868 + j 0.0217 )
V1 _ pu = 1.020.690 p.u

V1 = 2448V 0.690

## (b) The supply voltage is given by:

VS _ pu = V2 _ pu + I load _ pu Z1 _ eqpu + Z line _ pu

## VS _ pu = 1.000 + 1.0 36.90 (0.001736 + j 0.03906 )

VS _ pu = 1.0371.150 p.u

## The supply voltage is then:

VS = 2489 V 1.150

(c) The supply real and reactive power is then given by:
S S = VS I load S S = 1.0371.150 1.036.90

)(

P = 40.845kW

Q = 31.936kVar

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL THREE : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION

Question 2.
Three zones of a single phase distribution level circuit are identified in figure 1. The zones are connected by transformers T1 and T2, whose ratings are also shown. Using base values of 3MVA and 11kV in zone 1, draw the per unit circuit and determine the per-unit impedances and the perunit source voltage. Then calculate the load current both in per-unit and in amperes. Transformer winding resistances and shunt admittance branches are neglected.

Zone 1 Vs = 13 kV

Zone 2

## Zone 3 Rload = 5.2

Xline = j0.2 T1 3MVA 11 kV/6.6 k V Xeq = 0.1 p.u. T2 2MVA 7.2 kV /3.3 kV Xeq = 0.12 p.u.

Figure 1 : Three Zone Distribution System for question 2. Answer : Choose Bases: Sbase = 3MVA Vbase1 = 11kV Vbase2 = 6.6kV
Vbase3 =

## (6.6kV )(3.3kV ) = 3.025kV

7.2kV

This requires:
I base1 = I base 2 = I base3 = Sbase = 272.727 A Vbase1 Sbase = 454.545 A Vbase 2 Sbase = 991.736 A Vbase3

Similarly:

## V Z base1 = base1 = 40.333 Sbase

Z base 2 = Vbase 2 = 14.520 Sbase
2

Z base3 =

3

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL THREE : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION

Z load = (1.075 + j 0.9508) p.u. Z base3

Z eq _ T 1 pu = j 0.1 p.u.
Z line _ pu = Z line = j 0.01377 p.u. Z base 2
Vrate ZT 2 _ rate V base 2
2

Z eq _ T 2 pu =

Sbase S rate

= 0.2142 p.u.

## The per unit supply voltage is then:

Vs _ pu = 13kV = 1.182 p.u. 11kV

## The per unit equivalent circuit is then given by:

Zone 1 Vs = 1.182 p.u. Zone 2 Zone 3 Rload p.u. = 1.705 p.u. XT1eq p.u. = j0.1 p.u. Xline p.u. = j0.01377pu XT2eq = j0.2142 p.u. Xload p.u. = j0.9508 p.u

## The load current is then given by: I load _ pu =

X T 1 _ pu

Vs _ pu + X line _ pu + X T 2 _ pu + Z load _ pu

## 1.18200 1.18200 = j (0.1 + 0.2142 + 0.01377 + 0.9508) + 1.705 2.13136.87 0

I load _ pu = 0.5546 36.87 0 p.u. So the load current is : I load = 550.0 A 36.87 0

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL THREE : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION

Question 3.
A balanced Y-connected voltage source with Eab = 4800 V is applied to a balanced load with Z = 3040 ohms. The line impedance between the source and the load is ZL = 185 p.u. for each phase. Calculate the per-unit and actual current in phase a of the line using Sbase3 = 100kVA and VbaseLL = 600V. Answer: Define the base quantities as: Sbase3 = 100kVA
Sbase1 = 33.333kVA

VbaseLL = 600V
VbaseLN =
Z base =

600 V = 346.412V 3

I base = So :

Sbase3 3VbaseLL

= 96.225 A

Eab _ pu =
Z _ pu =
ZY _ pu =

## 48000 = 0.8 p.u.00 600

30400 = 8.333 p.u.400 3.6
Z _ pu 3 = 2.7778 p.u.400

and

Z line _ pu =

## 1850 = 0.2778 p.u.850 3.6

So the total impedance seen by the source is: Z tot _ pu = ZY _ pu + Z line _ pu = 2.9807 p.u.43.780 Therefore the supply current is given by:
I a _ pu = Va _ pu Z tot _ pu = 0.8 p.u. 300 = 0.2684 73.780 p.u. 0 2.9807 p.u.43.78

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL THREE : PER UNIT SYSTEM - SOLUTION

Question 4.
A balanced Y-connected voltage source with Eag = 2770 V is applied to a balanced Y load in parallel with a balanced load, where ZY = 30 + j10 ohms and Z = 45 j25 ohms. The Y load is solidly grounded. Using base values of Sbase1 = 10kVA and VbaseLN = 277 V, calculate the source current Ia in per-unit and in amperes. Answer : Define the base quantities as: Sbase3 = 30kVA
Sbase1 = 10kVA

## VbaseLN = 277V VbaseLL = 3VbaseLN = 479.77V

Z base = I base = VbaseLL = 7.6729 3Sbase3 Sbase3 3VbaseLL = 36.101A
2

## So the per unit impedance values are given by:

Z _ pu = 45 j 25 = 6.709 p.u. 29.0550 7.6729

ZY _ pu =

## 30 + j10 = 4.121 p.u.18.4350 7.6729

Z _ pu 3

Now the delta load can be converted to an equivalent star load as:
Z toY _ pu = = 2.2364 p.u. 29.0550

## The total per-phase impedance is then given by:

Z tot _ pu = Z toY _ pu // ZY _ pu

Z tot _ pu =

## Z toY _ pu ZY _ pu = 1.5705 12.740 Z toY _ pu + ZY _ pu

The per unit source current is then given by: I a _ pu = So the source current is :
I a = 22.99 A 12.740

ELEC 4100

## ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 4 : TRANSFORMERS SOLUTIONS. Question 1.

C1 A1 B1 C1 A2 A2 a1 B2 b1 C2 c1 b2 a2 a2 a3 b2 b3 c2 c3 b4 a4 a4 b4 c4 a3 b3 c4 b3 a3 c3 c3 a1 b1 c2 b1 c1 c1 a1 A1 B1 C2 B1 B2 C1 A1

(a)
C1 A1 B1 C1 A2 A2 a1 B2 b1 C2 c1 b2 a2 b2 b3 a1 b1 a2 a3 c2 c3 b4 a4 a4 a5 b4 b5 c4 c5 b6 a6 a6 b6 c6 a5 b5 c6 b3 c6 a4 a3 c5 b4 a6 b5 a5 c5 a3 b3 c4 b6 c4 c3 c3 c2 b1 a1 c1 A1 B1 C2 B1 c1 B2 C1 A1

(b) 1

ELEC 4100
A1 B1 C1 B2 A2 A2 a1 B2 b1 C2 c1 a2 a2 a3 b2 b3 c2 c3 b4 a4 a4 a5 b4 b5 c4 c5 b6 a6 a6 b6 c6 a5 b5 a3 b3 a1 b1 A1 B1

## TUTORIAL FOUR : THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS

C1

A1 C1 C2

B1 c1

b2

c1

c2

a1

b1 c3 c3 c4 a5 b5 c5 b6 a4 a3

c4 a6

c5

b4 c6 b3

c6

(c)

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL FOUR : THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Question 2.
Consider the single line diagram of the power system shown below. The equipment ratings are as follows: Generator 1 : 750MVA, 18kV, Xeq = 0.2 p.u. Generator 2 : 750 MVA, 18kV, Xeq = 0.2 p.u Synchronous Motor 3 : 1500MVA, 20kV, Xeq = 0.2 p.u. 3 Phase Transformers, T1 to T4 : 750MVA, 500kV Y/20kV , Xeq = 0.1 p.u. 3 Phase Transformer T5 : 1500MVA, 500kV Y/20kV Y, Xeq = 0.1 p.u.

Neglecting winding resistances, transformer phase shifts, and the excitation phenomena, draw the equivalent per unit reactance diagram. Use a base of 100MVA and 500kV for the 40 transmission line. Determine all per unit reactances.

T1
Bus 1 j40 ohm

T2
Bus 2

1
j25 ohm j25 ohm

T3

T5
Bus 3

T4

3
Answer: The equivalent per phase, per unit circuit diagram is shown below:
Bus 1

XT1
j0.0133pu j0.0133pu

Xline1
j0.016pu j0.01pu j0.01pu

XT2
j0.0133pu j0.0133pu

Bus 2

EG2 XG2
j0.0216pu

EG1

XG1
j0.0216pu

XT3

Xline2
j0.00666pu

Xline3 XT5
Bus 3

XT4

j0.01333pu

XM3 EM3

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL FOUR : THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS

The impedance values in the circuit diagram are calculated as will be detailed below: Sbase = 100 MVA

Vbase _ HV = 500kV
Vbase _ LV = 20kV

Z base _ LV

(V =

base _ HV

Sbase

) = (500kV )
2

100 MVA

= 2500

I base _ LV =

## So the generator per unit impedances are:

X G1
18kV 100 MVA = 0.2 = 0.0216 20kV 750 MVA
2

p.u.

X G 2 = 0.2

p.u.

X M 3 = 0.2

## 100 MVA = 0.01333 p.u. 1500 MVA

100 MVA = 0.01333 p.u. 750 MVA

## The transformer per unit impedances are:

X T 1 = X T 2 = X T 3 = X T 4 = 0.1 X T 5 = 0.1

X line1 =

## 40 = 0.016 p.u. 2500

25 = 0.01 p.u. 2500

X line 2 = X line3 =

Question 3.
For the power system discussed in question 2, consider the case where the motor absorbs 1200MW at 0.8p.f. leading with the Bus 3 voltage at 18kV. Determine the Bus 1 and Bus 2 voltages in kV. Assume that generators 1 and 2 deliver equal real powers and equal reactive powers. Also assume a balanced three-phase system with positive-sequence sources. Answer : The bus 3 voltage is given by:
V3 pu = 18kV00 = 0.900 p.u. 20kV

I3 =

## TUTORIAL FOUR : THREE PHASE TRANSFORMERS

P 3 (VLL )( p. f .)

cos 1

( p. f .) =

## The motor current in per unit:

I 3 _ pu = Due to symmetry:

## 48.11kA36.87 0 = 16.6736.87 0 p.u. 2.887 kA

I 3 _ pu 2

V1 _ pu = V2 _ pu = V3 _ pu + I 3 _ pu X T 5 _ pu +

(X

T 3 _ pu

+ X line 2 )

## V1 _ pu = V2 _ pu = 0.900 + 16.6736.87 0 ( j 0.00666 ) + 16.6736.870 ( j 0.01 + j 0.01333) 2

V1 _ pu = V2 _ pu = 0.757218.830 p.u. So the bus 1 and bus 2 voltages are: V1 = V2 = 15.14kV 18.830

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL FIVE : LOAD FLOW - SOLUTION

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 5 : LOAD FLOW SOLUTION. Question 1.
Answer : (a) For sinusoidal time varying voltage and current waveforms, define:
v(x, t ) = V (x )e jt

i(x, t ) = I (x )e jt

## Then substituting into the partial differential equations gives:

e jt e jt dV (x ) = [ rI (x ) jLI (x )]e jt = zI (x )e jt dx dI (x ) = [ GV (x ) jCV (x )]e jt = yV (x )e jt dx

## These expressions can be simplified as:

dV (x ) = zI (x ) dx dI (x ) = yV (x ) dx

## Differentiating with respect to x:

d 2V (x ) dx
2

= z = y

dI (x ) = zyV (x ) dx dV (x ) = zyI (x ) dx

d 2 I (x ) dx 2

These expressions are separate, second order linear differential equations involving one spatial variable only. (b) From the -section model it can be shown that:
Vr = Vs

(I s VsY2 )
Y1

Rearranging:
Vr = Vs 1 +

Y2 I s Y1 Y1

Comparing this expression with the general transmission line solutions provided gives:
Y1 =

1 Z C sinh ( d )

Using this value and again comparing with the general transmission line solutions gives:
Y2 =

1

## ELEC 4100 Now :

I r = I s Y2Vs Y3Vr = I s Y2Vs Y3 Vs

## TUTORIAL FIVE : LOAD FLOW - SOLUTION

(I s Y2Vs )
Y1

Ir = Is 1+

Y3 Y VsY3 1 + Y2 + 2 Y1 Y1

Equating this expression with the general transmission line solutions gives:
Y3 = Y1 [cosh ( d ) 1] =

## [cosh ( d ) 1] = 1 tanh d = Y2 Z C sinh ( d ) Z C 2

(b) The -section model of a transmission line is used in load flow analysis since load flow is interested only in the steady state characteristics at the voltage buses in the network. Hence it is only necessary to consider the behaviour at the terminating ends of the transmission line, not in the middle of the line. A lumped element model is sufficient to provide this information. Furthermore the full distributed model is used to predict dynamic characteristics along the line, but since this information is irrelevant for load flow it is not necessary to utilise the full model.

Question 2.
Answer : (a) The diagonal elements are the self admittances at each node of the network, and are the sum of all admittances connected to that node. The off-diagonal elements are the mutual admittances between two nodes of a network, and are the negative values of the admittances linking the two nodes in question. The YBUS matrix is square since the network consists of N buses, and for the ith bus there are N-1 potential mutual connections, and 1 self admittance hence the matrix is square. The matrix is symmetric since the mutual connections between buses i and k are the same as the connections between buses k and i. The matrix is sparse since in power systems there is generally a low level of connectivity between the nodes, with couplings only between a few adjacent couplings. Hence the bulk of the mutual couplings are zero, and so the matrix is sparse. (b) The complex conjugate of the apparent power at bus i can be written as:
Si = Vi I i
Si = Pi jQi = Vi

y V
k =1

ik k

Where the yik are the elements of the admittance bus. (c) The apparent power is given by:
Si = Pi jQi = Vi
Pi jQi Vi
n

y V
k =1

ik k

y V
k =1 k i

ik k

+ yiiVi

## ELEC 4100 Rearranging gives:

1 Pi jQi Vi = yikVk yii Vi k =1

k i

Vi
p +1

( )

k i

## The Gauss-Seidel implementation of a voltage calculation is:

Vi p +1 =
P p jQi p 1 p +1 p i y V y V ik k ik k yii V p k =1 k = i +1 i

( )

i 1

Since the Gauss-Seidel method uses the most recently available iteration data it generally shows a faster convergence rate than the Gauss method. Furthermore the Gauss method must store the pth and (p+1)th bus data, whereas the Gauss-Seidel discards the previous data as soon as the new data has become available. This results in a memory allocation and storage requirement advantage for the Gauss-Seidel approach, and furthermore programming the Gauss-Seidel method is simpler. (d) The apparent power is given by:
Si = Pi jQi = Vi

y V
k =1

ik k

Define:
Vi = Vi i yik = yik ik

Then :
Si = Pi jQi =

y
k =1

ik

Vi Vk ( k i + ik )

Or:
Pi =

k =1

yik Vi Vk cos( k i + ik ) =

y
k =1

ik

Vi Vk cos( i k ik ) Vi Vk sin ( i k ik )

Qi =

k =1

yik Vi Vk sin ( k i + ik ) =

y
k =1

ik

ELEC 4100 (e) Define the power flow mismatches at bus i as:
f i = Pi = PGi PLi

## TUTORIAL FIVE : LOAD FLOW - SOLUTION

k =1
n

yik Vi Vk cos( i k ik ) = Pi

y
k =1
n k =1

ik

Vi Vk cos( i k ik ) Vi Vk sin ( i k ik )

g i = Qi = QGi QLi

y
k =1

ik

Vi Vk sin ( i k ik ) = Qi

ik

## So applying the Newton-Raphson method:

p +1 p +1 V f p p g

= V

V g V

P p p Q

p p = p + p V V

## Alternatively this can be expressed as:

P p p Q

f g

f V g V

p p V

J p
1

J 2 p p
p J4p V

J 3

Where P p are the real power mismatches at all PQ and PV buses, Q p are the reactive power mismatches at all PQ buses, p are the voltage angle corrections for all PQ and PV buses, and V p are the voltage magnitude corrections for all PQ buses. The Jacobian matrix is defined by:

J1p =

f 2 2 f 3 2 f n 2

f 2 3 f 3 3 f n 3

L L L

f 2 n f 3 n
f n n

J 2p =

f 2 Vm +1 f 3 Vm +1 f n Vm +1

f 2 Vm + 2 f 3 Vm + 2 f n Vm + 2

L L L L L L

f 2 Vn f 3 Vn

f n Vn

J3p =

g m +1 2 g m + 2 2 g n 2

g m +1 3 g m + 2 3 g n 3

L L L

g m +1 n g m + 2 n
g n n

J 4p =

g m +1 Vm +1 g m + 2 Vm +1 g n Vm +1

g m +1 Vm + 2 g m+2 Vm + 2 g n Vm + 2

g m +1 Vn g m+2 Vn
g n Vn

The Swing bus is bus 1, while buses 2 to m are the PV buses, and buses m+1 to n are the PQ buses. The 8 derivatives in the Jacobian matrices are given by:
f i = yik Vi Vk sin ( i k ik ), k ik

f i = yik Vi Vk sin ( i k ik ) i k =1

k i

ELEC 4100
f i = yik Vi cos( i k ik ), Vk ik

f i = Vi

y
k =1

ik

## Vk cos( i k ik ) + yii Vi cos( ik )

k i

g i = yik Vi Vk cos( i k ik ), k

g i = i

y
k =1 k i

ik

Vi Vk cos( i k ik )

g i = yik Vi sin ( i k ik ), Vk
g i = Vi

k i

y
k =1

ik

## Vk sin ( i k ik ) yii Vi sin ( ii )

(f)

Since the Newton Raphson method uses a first order Taylor series approximation of the non-linear power flow equations to iteratively find a solution, it has a much faster convergence rate than the Gauss or Gauss Seidel methods. These latter methods are limited by the sparsity of the admittance bus matrix, which limits the rate that corrective terms can propagate through the solution. The Swing Bus is needed to condition the YBUS admittance matrix so as to make solutions to the power flow problem possible. Without conditioning it may be possible to have many solutions to the load flow problem which satisfy the constraints. Hence by fixing one bus with respect to earth potential one of these many solution cases is selected. The Swing Bus also serves the purpose of carrying the slack or net power from the rest of the network.

(g)

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL SEVEN : SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS - SOLUTIONS

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 7 : SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS - SOLUTIONS Question 1.
Determine the symmetrical components of the following line currents : (a) Ia = 5900, Ib = 53400, Ic = 52000, and (b) Ia = 50, Ia = j50, Ic = 0. Answer (a) The symmetrical component currents are given by:
I0 I1 I 2
I0 I1 I 2

1 1 1 3 1
1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2
1 e j120

1 I a a 2 Ib = a
I c

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2
j 90 0

0 a 2 5e j 340 j 200 0 a 5 e

1 5e j 90

e j 120

I 0 I1 I 2
I0 I1 I 2

+ +

( ( (

) ) )

## (b) The symmetrical component currents are given by:

I 0 I1 I 2
I0 I1 I 2 I0 I1 I 2 I0 I1 I 2

1 1 1 = 1 a 3 1 a 2

a2 Ib a Ic

1 I a

1 1 1 = 1 a 3 1 a 2

50 0 a 2 50e j 90 0 a

1 1 0 1 = 1 e j120 3 0 1 e j 120
50 1 + e j 90 3 0 50 1 + e j 210 3 0 50 1 + e j 30 3

0 0

( ( (

) ) )

( (

) )

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL SEVEN : SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS - SOLUTIONS

Question 2.
One line of a three phase generator is open circuited, while the other two are short-circuited to ground. The line currents are Ia = 0, Ib = 1000A900, and Ic = 1000A-300. Find the symmetrical components of these currents. Also find the current into ground. Answer The symmetrical component currents are given by:
I0 I1 I 2 1 1 1 = 1 a 3 1 a 2 a2 Ib a Ic

1 Ia

1 1 1 = 1 a 3 1 a 2

0 0 a 2 1000e j 90 j 30 0 a 1000e

I 0 I1 I 2
I0 I1 I 2 I0 I1 I 2

1 1 0 1 = 1 e j120 3 0 1 e j 120

0 0 0

( (

) )

## 333.3 A 30 0 666.7 A 150 0 333.3 A 30 0

The ground current is the sum of the b and c phase currents and is given by:
I gnd = I b + I c =
I 0 I1 I 2

## = 1000 e j 90 + e j 30 = (866 + j 500 )A = 1000 A 300

0 0

Question 3.
Given the line to ground voltages Vag = 280V00, Vbg = 290V-1300, and Vcg = 260V1100, calculate (a) the sequence components of the line to ground voltages, denoted VLg0, VLg1, and VLg2. (b) the line to line voltages Vab, Vbc, Vca. (c) The sequence components of the line to line voltages VLL0, VLL1, and VLL2. Also verify the following general relation : VLL0 = 0, VLL1 = 3VLLg1300 , and

VLL1 = 3VLLg 2 300 . Answer (a) The symmetrical components of the line to ground voltages are given by:

ELEC 4100
VLg 0 V Lg1 V Lg 2
VLg 0 V Lg1 V Lg 2 VLg 0 V Lg1 V Lg 2

## TUTORIAL SEVEN : SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS - SOLUTIONS

1 Vag =
0 a 2 290e j130 j110 0 a 260e
0

1 1 1 3 1
1 1 1 3 1

1 a a
2

a 2 Vbg a Vcg

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2

1 280e j 0

1 e j120
0

e j 120

## (b) The line to line voltages are calculated according to:

Vab Vbc V ca Vag V bg V cg

Vbg
Vag

Vcg =

280e j 0 290e j130 0 0 290e j130 260e j110 j1100 j 00 260e 280e
0 0

## 516.613V 25.47 0 476.550 V 101.80 0 442.491V 146.49 0

(c) The symmetrical components of the line to line voltages are given by:
VLL 0 VLL1 V LL 2
VLL 0 VLL1 V LL 2

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a
2

1 Vag a 2 Vbg = a
V cg

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2

## j101.80 0 2 a 476.550 e j146.49 0 a 442 . 491 e

1 516.613 e j 25.47

## 0V 0 477.57 V 23.37 43.07 V 49.430

So :
VLL1 477.57 V 23.370 = = 1.7321300 = 3300 VLg1 275.73V 6.630
VLL 2 43.07 V 49.430 = = 1.7321 300 = 3 300 VLg 2 24.87 V 79.430

Question 4.
The voltages given in question 3 are applied to a balanced Y load consisting of (12+j16) ohms per phase. The load neutral is solidly grounded. Draw the sequence networks and calculate I0, I1, and I2, the sequence components of the line currents. Then calculate the line currents Ia, Ib, and Ic from the sequence components, and compare with the line currents calculated directly from the network equations.

ELEC 4100

## Answer The sequence networks are shown below:

IL1 VLg1 Positive Sequence IL2 VLg2 Negative Sequence IL0 VLg0 Zero Sequence 12+j16 12+j16

12+j16

## The three sequence currents can be calculated as:

I L0 I L1 I L2 VLg 0 Z0 VLg1 Z 1 VLg 2 Z2 7.55V 78.110 12 + j16 275.73V 6.630 12 + j16 0 24.87 V 79.43 12 + j16 0.378 A 24.980 13.787 A 59.76 0 1.243 A 26.30 0

## The line currents are then given by:

I a Ib I c I a Ib I c

1 1 1

1 a2 a

1 I L0 a I L1 =
a2 I L2

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0

## From the network equations directly:

I a Ib Ic Vag Z V bg Z V cg Z 280 V 0 0 12 + j16 290 V 130 0 12 + j16 260 V 110 0 12 + j16 14.0 A 53.130 14.5 A 176.87 0 13.0 A 56.87 0

This matches the result calculated using the symmetrical component model.

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL SEVEN : SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS - SOLUTIONS

Question 5.
As shown in figure 1, a balanced three-phase, positive sequence source with VAB = 480V00 is applied to an unbalanced load. Note that one leg of the is open. Determine (a) the load currents IAB and IBC. (b) the line currents IA, IB, IC, which feed the load. (c) the zero, positive, and negative sequence components of the line currents.

Ea Ec Eb Ic

## Iab Ib Ibc (18+j10)

Figure 1: Network for Question 5. Answer (a) The load currents are given by:
I ab I bc I ca Vab Z Vbc Z 0 4800 0 18 + j10 480 120 0 18 + j10 0 23.311 A 29.050 23.311 A 149.050 0

## (b) The line currents are given by:

Ia Ib I c

I ab I bc I ab I bc

## (c) The sequence currents are given by:

I0 I1 I 2 I0 I1 I 2

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a
2

a2 Ib a Ic

1 I a =

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2

## a 2 40.376 A 179.050 23.311 A 30.950 a

1 23.311 A 29.050

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL EIGHT : THREE PHASE FAULTS - SOLUTION

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 8 : THREE PHASE FAULTS - SOLUTION Question 1.
Equipment ratings for the 4-bus system shown in figure 1 are as follows: Generator G1 : 500MVA, 13.8kV, X = 0.20 p.u. Generator G2 : 750MVA, 18.0kV, X = 0.18 p.u. Generator G3 : 1000MVA, 20.0kV, X = 0.17p.u. Transformer T1 : 500MVA, 13.8kV delta/500kV star, X = 0.12 p.u. Transformer T2 : 750MVA, 18kV delta/500kV star, X = 0.10 p.u. Transformer T3 : 1000MVA, 20kV delta/500kV star, X = 0.10 p.u. Each transmission line : X = 50 ohms. A three phase short circuit occurs at bus 1, where the pre-fault voltage is 525kV. Pre-fault load current is negligible. Draw the positive sequence reactance diagram in per unit on a 1000MVA base, 20kV base in the zone of generator G3. Determine: (a) (b) (c) The Thevenin reactance in per unit at the fault : [0.2670] The transient fault current in per unit and kA : [-j3.933, -j4.541kA] Contributions to the fault current from G1 and from line 1-2. [-j1.896, -j2.647kA]
Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3

1 T3

## j50 ohm j50 ohm Bus 4

j50 ohm

3 T3

T2 2
Figure 1 : Four Bus Power System. Answer: The positive sequence per unit network is shown below. The per unit values are determined as follows: Sbase = 1000 MVA Vbase3 = 20kV
Vbase 4 = 500kV 20kV = 500kV 20kV

Vbase 2 =

## 18kV 500kV = 18kV 500kV

1

Zone of Generator 2.

ELEC 4100

TUTORIAL EIGHT : THREE PHASE FAULTS - SOLUTION 13.8kV 500kV = 13.8kV 500kV

Vbase1 =

Zone of Generator 1.

Z base 4 =

(Vbase 4 )2 = (500kV )2
Sbase

1000MVA

= 250

I base 4 =

## Sbase 1000 MVA = = 1.155kA 3Vbase 4 3 (500kV )

Bus 1 Bus 2 j0.2pu

j0.4pu

j0.24 pu

j0.2pu

EG3

EG1

XG1

XT1

X12
j0.2pu

X23 X24
Bus 4

XT3

XG3

j0.133pu

j0.24pu

X G1 = (0.2 )
1000 = 0. 4 500

p.u. p.u.

X G 2 = (0.18)

## X G 3 = 0.17 p.u. Similarly for the transformers:

X T 1 = (0.12 ) X T 2 = (0.1)
1000 = 0.24 500

p.u.

## X T 3 = 0.1 p.u. For the transmission lines:

X 12 = X 23 = X 24 = 50 = 0.2 p.u. 250

## TUTORIAL EIGHT : THREE PHASE FAULTS - SOLUTION

The Thevenin equivalent impedance of the network when viewed from voltage bus 1 is: X Th = ( X G1 + X T 1 ) //[X 12 + ( X 24 + X T 2 + X G 2 ) // ( X 23 + X T 3 + X G 3 )] X Th = ( j 0.24 + j 0.4 ) //[ j 0.2 + ( j 0.2 + j 0.1 + j 0.17 ) // ( j 0.2 + j 0.1333 + j 0.24 )] X Th = ( j 0.64) // ( j 0.4583) X Th = j 0.2670 p.u. Part (b) The pre-fault voltage, neglecting pre-fault currents is:
VF = 525kV00 = 1.0500 p.u. 500kV

So the fault current is: VF 1.0500 p.u. IF = = = j 3.933 p.u. ZTh j 0.2670

## I F = j 4.541kA Part (c) Using the current divider rule:

I G1 = I F
j 0.4583 = j1.641 p.u. j 0.4583 + j 0.64

I G1 = j1.896 kA IG 2 = I F
j 0.64 = j 2.292 p.u. j 0.4583 + j 0.64

I G1 = j 2.647 kA

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL EIGHT : THREE PHASE FAULTS - SOLUTION

Question 2.
For the above described power system, consider the case where a balanced 3-phase short circuit occurs at bus 2 where the pre-fault voltage is 525kV (neglect the pre-fault current). Determine (a) (b) (c) The Thevenin equivalent impedance of the network viewed from the fault location : [0.1975 p.u.] The fault current in per unit and in kA [-j5.3155 p.u., -j6.138kA] The contribution to the fault from lines 1-2, 2-3 and 2-4. [-j1.44, -j2.58, -j2.21 kA]

Answer: Part (a) For faults on bus 2, the Thevenin equivalent impedance is given by: X Th = ( X G1 + X T 1 + X 12 ) // ( X 24 + X T 2 + X G 2 ) // ( X 23 + X T 3 + X G 3 ) X Th = ( j 0.24 + j 0.4 + j 0.2) // ( j 0.2 + j 0.1 + j 0.17 ) // ( j 0.2 + j 0.1333 + j 0.24 ) X Th = ( j 0.84 ) // ( j 0.47 ) // ( j 0.5733) X Th = j 0.1975 p.u. Part (b) The pre-fault voltage, neglecting pre-fault currents is: VF = 525kV00 = 1.0500 p.u. 500kV VF 1.0500 p.u. = = j 5.3155 p.u. ZTh j 0.1975

## So the fault current is: IF =

I F = j 6.1379 kA

Part (c) The contribution to the fault from line 12 is given by: 1.0500 I12 = j1.25 p.u. = j1.443 kA j 0.84 1.0500 I 23 = j 2.234 p.u. = j 2.580 kA j 0.47 I 24 = 1.0500 j1.8315 p.u. = j 2.115 kA j 0.5733

ELEC 4100

## ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 9 : FAULT STUDIES Question 1.

The single-line diagram and equipment ratings of a three phase electrical system are given below. The inductor connected to the neutral of generator 3 has a reactance of 0.05 p.u. using the ratings of generator 3 as a base. Draw the positive, negative and zero sequence network diagrams for the system using a 1000MVA base, and a 765kV base in the zone of line 1-2. Neglect the effects of -Y transformer phase shifts.
Bus 1 Line 1 - 3 Bus 2 Line 1 - 2 Line 2 - 3 Bus 3

T3 3

1 T1 T2 2
Transformers: T1 : 1000MVA, T2 : 1000MVA, T3 : 500MVA, T4 : 750MVA, Transmission Lines :

4 T4

## X = 0.1 p.u. X = 0.1 p.u. X = 0.12 p.u. X = 0.11 p.u.

1-2 : 765 kV, X1 = 50 , 1-3 : 765 kV, X1 = 40 , 2-3 : 765 kV, X1 = 40 , Synchronous Generators : G1 : 1000MVA, G2 : 1000MVA, G3 : 500MVA, G4 : 750MVA, 15 kV, 15 kV, 13.8 kV, 13.8 kV,

X0 = 150 . X0 = 100 . X0 = 100 . X1 = X2 = 0.18 p.u., X0 = 0.07 p.u. X1 = X2 = 0.20 p.u., X0 = 0.10 p.u. X1 = X2 = 0.15 p.u., X0 = 0.05 p.u. X1 = 0.30 p.u. X2 = 0.40 p.u., X0 = 0.10 p.u.

Answer: The three sequence networks for the system are shown below. The per unit impedance values are calculated as follows: Sbase = 1000 MVA VbaseHV = 765kV VbaseLV = 15kV Zone of Transmission Lines. Zone Generators.

ELEC 4100
2 2 765kV ) VbaseHV ) ( ( = =

Z baseHV

Sbase

1000 MVA

= 585.23

I baseHV =

## Sbase 1000 MVA = = 0.7547 kA 3VbaseHV 3 (765kV )

The per unit sequence impedances of the generators are then given by: X G1 _ 1 = 0.18 p.u. X G1 _ 2 = 0.18 p.u. X G1 _ 0 = 0.07 p.u.
X G 2 _ 1 = 0.20 p.u. X G 2 _ 2 = 0.20 p.u.
2

X G 2 _ 0 = 0.10 p.u.

X G 3 _ 1 = (0.15)

## 13.8 1000 = 0.2539 p.u. 15 500

X G 3 _ 2 = (0.15)

## 13.8 1000 = 0.2539 p.u. 15 500

13.8 1000 +3 15 500
2

X G 2 _ 0 = (0.05)

(0.05)

## = 0.08464 p.u. + 0.2539 p.u. = 0.3385 p.u. X G 4 _ 1 = (0.3)

13.8 1000 = 0.3386 p.u. 15 750
2

X G 4 _ 2 = (0.40)

2

XG4 _ 0 = (

13.8 0.1 15

## (750) = 0.1129 p.u.

The per unit sequence impedances of the transformers are then given by: X T 1 = 0.1 p.u.

X T 2 = 0.1 p.u.
XT 3
15 1000 = 0.12 = 0.24 p.u. 15 500
15 1000 = 0.11 = 0.1467 p.u. 15 750
2 2

XT 4

The per unit sequence impedances of the transmission lines are then given by: 50 150 X 12 _ 1 = X 12 _ 2 = = 0.08544 p.u. X 12 _ 0 = = 0.2563 p.u. 585.23 585.23 40 100 X 13 _ 1 = X 13 _ 2 = = 0.06835 p.u. X 13 _ 0 = = 0.1709 p.u. 585.23 585.23 40 100 X 23 _ 1 = X 23 _ 2 = = 0.06835 p.u. X 23 _ 0 = = 0.1709 p.u. 585.23 585.23

ELEC 4100
Bus 1 j0.18pu j0.1 pu j0.06835pu

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Bus 3 j0.24pu j0.254pu

X13_1
j0.08544 pu j0.06835pu

EG3

EG1

XG1_1

XT1

XG3_1

X12_1
j0.1pu

X23_1
Bus 2

XG4_1
j0.339pu

EG4
j0.20pu

## Positive Sequence Network.

Bus 1 j0.18pu j0.1 pu j0.06835pu Bus 3 j0.24pu j0.254pu

X13_2
j0.08544 pu j0.06835pu

XG1_2

XT2

XG3_2

X12_2
j0.1pu

X23_2
Bus 2

XT2 XG2_2

XG4_2 j0.451pu

j0.20pu

## Negative Sequence Network.

Bus 1 j0.07pu j0.1 pu j0.1709pu Bus 3 j0.24pu j0.339pu

X13_0
j0.2563 pu j0.1709pu

XG1_0

XT1

XG3_0

X12_0
j0.1pu

X23_0
Bus 2

XT2 XG4_0
j0.113pu

XG2_0
j0.10pu

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 2.
Faults at bus 1 in question 1 are of interest. Determine the Thevenin equivalent impedance of each sequence network as viewed from the fault bus. The pre-fault voltage is 1.0 p.u. Pre-fault load currents and -Y transformer phase shifts are neglected. Answer: The first step towards obtaining the Thevenin equivalent networks for the sequence networks above is to simplify the networks using a Y- transformation. Recall that the Y- transformation is of the form:

ZA
ZCA ZAB

ZB ZC
ZBC

ZA = ZB = ZC =

Z AB Z CA Z AB + Z BC + Z CA Z AB Z BC Z AB + Z BC + Z CA Z CA Z BC Z AB + Z BC + Z CA

Z AB = Z BC = Z CA =

Z AZ B + Z B ZC + Z C Z A ZC Z A Z B + Z B ZC + Z C Z A ZA Z A Z B + Z B ZC + ZC Z A ZB
Bus 1 Bus 3 j0.4939pu j0.1733 pu

## So the three sequence networks can be simplified to the form:

Bus 1 j0.28pu j0.06835pu Bus 3 j0.4939pu j0.08544 pu j0.06835pu

j0.06835pu

EG3

j0.28pu

EG3

EG1

EG1
j0.7605pu j0.6083pu
j0.4860pu

Bus 2 j0.30pu

j0.4860pu

EG2

EG4

EG2

EG4

Positive Sequence.
Bus 1 j0.28pu j0.08544 pu j0.06835pu j0.7605pu Bus 2 j0.30pu j0.5981pu j0.6083pu j0.5981pu j0.06835pu Bus 3 j0.4939pu Bus 1 j0.28pu j0.1733 pu j0.06835pu Bus 3 j0.4939pu

Negative Sequence. 4

ELEC 4100
Bus 1 j0.07pu j0.1 pu j0.2563 pu j0.1709pu j0.09116pu j0.1709pu Bus 3 j0.339pu j0.07pu j0.1 pu

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Bus 1 j0.1709pu Bus 3 j0.339pu j0.8652pu j0.09116pu

## Bus 2 j0.1pu j0.5063pu j0.3376pu

Zero Sequence. So from these simplified networks, the Thevenin equivalent impedances can be derived looking in at bus 1, as:
ZTH _ 1 = ( j 0.28 ) // j 0.7605 // ({ j 0.06835 // j 0.1733} + { j 0.4939 // j 0.4860 // j 0.6083} ) ZTH _ 1 = j 0.1069

And:
ZTH _ 2 = ( j 0.28 ) // j 0.7605 // ({ j 0.06835 // j 0.1733} + { j 0.4939 // j 0.5981// j 0.6083})

## ZTH _ 2 = j 0.1097 And:

ZTH _ 0 = ( j 0.1) // j 0.5063 // ({ j 0.1709 // j 0.8652} + { j 0.3376 // j 0.09116} )

ZTH _ 0 = j 0.0601

Question 3.
For a bolted three phase fault, the fault current is given by: I0 = I2 = 0 , I1 = Similarly : VF 100 = = 9.355 p.u. 900 ZTH _1 j 0.1069

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 4.
For a single line to ground fault the sequence networks are connected in series as:
I1 VF Positive Sequence I2 ZTh1 V1

ZTh2 V2

Negative Sequence I0

ZTh0 V0

Zero Sequence

## Hence the sequence currents are:

I 0 = I1 = I 2 = VF ZTH _1 + ZTH _ 2 + ZTH _ 0 = 100 = 3.614 p.u. 900 j 0.2767

## And: Ib = Ic = 0 I a = 3I1 = 10.84 p.u. 900 In amperes.

I a = 8.183 kA. 900

## The sequence voltages are:

V0 V1 V2 V0 V1 V2 0 ZTH _ 0 VF 0 0 0

0 ZTH _ 1 0

I0 0 I1 I ZTH _ 2 2

0 j 0.0601 j 00 1.0 e 0 0 0

0 j 0.1069 0

## j 90 3.614e j 90 0 0 3.614e j 90 0 j 0.1097 3.614e

ELEC 4100
0.2172e j 0 0 0.6137e j 0 0.3965e j 0 0
0

V0 V1 V2

## Hence the phase to ground voltages are given by:

Va Vb Vc 1 1 1

1 a2 a

1 V0 a V1 = a2 V2

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0

## j0 0.2172e 0 0 e j120 0.6137e j 0 j120 0 j 00 e 0.3965e

Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc

0 0 j1200 0.2172 + 0.6137e 0.3965e j120 j1200 j1200 0 . 2172 + 0 . 6137 e 0 . 3965 e 0 0.3258 0.3258 +
j 0.8749 j 0.8749

## 0 0 0.9336 p.u. 110.4 0 0.9336 p.u.110.4

Question 5.
The fault impedance in per unit is:
ZF = 30 = 0.0513 585.23

## The connection of the sequence networks is then as shown below:

I1 VF Positive Sequence I2 ZTh1 V1

ZTh2 V2

3ZF

Negative Sequence I0

ZTh0 V0

Zero Sequence

ELEC 4100 So for a single line to ground fault through this impedance: I 0 = I1 = I 2 = And: Ib = Ic = 0
I a = 3I1 = 6.967 p.u. 900

## In amperes. I a = 5.258 kA. 900 The sequence voltages are:

V0 V1 V2 V0 V1 V2 0 ZTH _ 0 = VF 0 0 0

0 ZTH _ 1 0

I0 0 I1 I ZTH _ 2 2

0 j 0.0601 0 = 1.0 e j 0 0 0 0
0.1396e j 0 0 0.7518e j 0 0.2547e j 0 0
0

0 j 0.1069 0

V0 V1 V2

## Hence the phase to ground voltages are given by:

Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc 1 1 1

1 a2 a

1 V0 a V1 = a2 V2

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0
0

## j0 0.1396e j 00 j1200 0.7518e e 0 0.2547e j 0 0 e j120

0.3575e j 0 0 0 0.1396 + 0.7518e j120 0.2547e j120 0.1396 + 0.7518e j120 0 0.2547e j1200 0.3575e j 0 0.3882 j 0.8717 0.3882 + j 0.8717
0

0

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 6.
For a bolted line to line fault the sequence networks are connected as shown below:

I1 VF

ZTh1 V1

Positive Sequence I2

ZTh2 V2

Negative Sequence I0

ZTh0 V0

Zero Sequence
The sequence currents are therefore: I0 = 0
I1 = I 2 = VF 100 = = 4.617 p.u. 900 ZTH _1 + ZTH _ 2 j 0.2166

And:
Ia Ib Ic Ia Ib Ic 1 1 1

1 a2 a

a I1 a2 I2

1 I0 =

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0

0

## 0 7.997 p.u. 7 . 997 p . u .

In amperes:
Ia Ib Ic

0 6.035 kA 6 . 035 kA

## The sequence voltages are:

ELEC 4100
V0 V1 V2 V0 V1 V2 0 ZTH _ 0 VF 0 0 0

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES 0 ZTH _ 1 0

I0 0 I1 I ZTH _ 2 2

0 j 0.0601 j 00 1.0 e 0 0 0
0 1 0.4936 0 . 5064

0 j 0.1069 0

## 0 0 0 4.617e j 90 j 90 0 j 0.1097 4.617e

V0 V1 V2

0 0.5064 0 . 5064

## Hence the phase to ground voltages are given by:

Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc 1 1 1

1 a2 a

a V1 a2 V2

1 V0 =

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0

0

( (

) )

10

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 7.
Recall that for a bolted double line to ground fault, the sequence networks are connected together as shown below:
I1 VF Positive Sequence I2 ZTh1 V1

ZTh2 V2

Negative Sequence I0

ZTh0 V0

Zero Sequence

## Therefore the positive sequence fault current is given by:

I1 = VF ZTH _ 1 + ZTH _ 2 // ZTH _ 0 = 1.0 j 0.1069 + j 0.1097 // j 0.0601

I1 =

## 1.000 = 6.862 p.u. 900 j 0.1457

The negative and zero sequence currents can be determined by current divider rule, as: I 2 = I1 ZTH _ 0 ZTH _ 0 + ZTH _ 2 = 6.862 900 j 0.0601 j 0.0601 + j 0.1097

## I 2 = 2.429 p.u. 900 Similarly:

I 0 = I1 ZTH _ 2 ZTH _ 0 + ZTH _ 2 = 6.862 900 j 0.1097 j 0.0601 + j 0.1097

## I 0 = 4.433 p.u. 900 The phase currents are therefore:

11

ELEC 4100
0 a 6.862e j 90 j 90 0 2 a 2.429e

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES 1 4.433e j 90

0

Ia Ib Ic

1 1 1

1 a2 a

Ia Ib Ic Ia Ib Ic

4.433 + 6.862 2.429 0 0 0 = e j 90 4.433 + 6.862e j120 2.429e j120 0 j120 0 2.429e j120 4.433 + 6.862e 0 6.65 6.65 +
j8.046 j8.046

= e j 90

= e j 90

10.44 10.44

0

So in amperes:
Ia Ib Ic

## The sequence voltages are:

V0 V1 V2 V0 V1 V2 0 ZTH _ 0 VF 0 0 0

0 ZTH _ 1 0

I0 0 I1 I ZTH _ 2 2

0 j 0.0601 j 00 1.0 e 0 0 0
0.2664 00 1 0.7335 0.2664 00

0 j 0.1069 0 p.u. 00
p.u. 0 p.u. 00
0

V0 V1 V2

Va Vb Vc 1 1 1

1 a2 a

a V1 a2 V2

1 V0 =

1 1 1

1 e j120 e j120
0

## 0.2664 0 e j120 0.2664 0 e j120 0 . 2664

12

ELEC 4100
Va Vb Vc 0.7993 p.u. 00 0 0

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 8.
The phase voltages and phase fault currents in the above cases are: Three Phase Fault.

Va Vb Vc

## 0 0 0.9336 p.u. 110.4 0 0 . 9336 p . u . 110 . 4

0.3575 p.u. 00 0.9542 p.u. 1140 0.9542 p.u.1140

Va Vb Vc

Ia Ib Ic

Va Vb Vc

Ia Ib Ic

## 0 0 10.44 p.u. 140.4 0 10 . 44 p . u . 39 . 6

Va Vb Vc

0.7993 p.u. 00 0 0

## The following observations apply:

The Double Line to Ground Fault leads to the worst case fault current. Line to Line voltages lead to an increase in the un-faulted phase voltage.

13

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL NINE : FAULT STUDIES

Question 9.
Now since:
Ia Ib Ic 1 1 1

1 a2 a

1 I0 a I1 a2 I2

Then:
I a = [I 0 + I1 + I 2 ] = 0 : Then via KCL, the three sequence currents must form a node.

And:
I a ' = [I 0 '+ I1 '+ I 2 '] = 0 : Then via KCL, the three sequence currents must form a node.

Similarly:
V00' V11' V22 ' 1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2

Vcc '

1 1 1 3 1

1 a a2

1 Vaa ' a2 0 a

I0'

I1'

I2'

14

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TEN : TRANSIENT STABILITY SOLUTIONS

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 10 : TRANSIENT STABILITY - SOLUTIONS Question 1.
The pre-fault electrical power delivered to the infinite bus is given by:

Pe _ prefault =
Pe _ prefault =

EV sin X d + X t + X L _ EQ

## Pe _ prefault = 2.462 sin

During the fault, a star-delta transform can be applied to simplify the circuit as shown below:

X 13

## ( 0.3 + 0.1) 0.2 + ( 0.3 + 0.1) 0.1 + 0.1( 0.2 )

0.1

X EQ = 1.4

So the faulted electrical power delivered to the infinite bus is given by:

Pe _ fault =
Pe _ fault =

EV sin X EQ

(1.28)(1.0 ) sin
1.4

## Pe _ fault = 0.9143 sin

The post-fault electrical power delivered to the infinite bus is given by:

Pe _ postfault =
Pe _ postfault =

EV sin X d + X t + X L _ EQ

(1.28)(1.0 )
0.3 + 0.1 + 0.2

sin

ELEC 4100
Pe _ prefault = 2.133sin

## TUTORIAL TEN : TRANSIENT STABILITY SOLUTIONS

To apply the equal area criterion, it is necessary to determine the maximum possible swing angle, and the initial operating angle. This is done as follows:
Pe _ prefault = 2.462 sin 0 = Pm = 1.0

## 1.0 0 = sin 1 2.462

0 = 23.960

Similarly:
Pe _ prefault = 2.133sin (1800 m ) = Pm = 1.0

m = 1520

1

## (1.0 0.9143 sin ) d =

( 2.133sin 1.0 ) d

## ( m 0 ) + 2.133cos m 0.9143cos 0 = ( 2.133 0.9143) cos 1

0.4835 = 1.219 cos 1
0.4835 1 = cos 1 1.219
1 = 113.40

## This is the critical clearing angle.

Question 2.
Again apply the equal angle criterion, but with:
1 = 51.20

1 0

1

max

## ( max 0 ) + 0.9143cos 1 0.9143cos 0 = 2.133cos max + 2.133cos 1

max + 2.133cos max = 0 + ( 2.133 0.9143) cos 1 + 0.9143cos 0
max + 2.133cos max = 2.017

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TEN : TRANSIENT STABILITY SOLUTIONS

This is a non-linear equation, which can be solved iteratively using the Newton-Raphson method. Recall that the NR method approximates a solution using the local gradient of the function as:

x
So:

p +1

y f ( x p ) =x + p f '( x )
p

## p p max p +1 = max p + (1 2.133sin max p ) 2.017 max 2.133cos max

Solving Iteratively:
max1 = 1.0 , max 5 = 1.1545 , max 2 = 1.1704 , max 6 = 1.1545 , max 3 = 1.1546 , max 7 = 1.1545 max 4 = 1.1545 , max 8 = 1.1545

## So after 8 iterations the solution is:

max = 66.150

Since this rotor angle is well below the maximum possible stable rotor angle, the generator can remain synchronised to the infinite bus.

Question 3.
Substituting in the system parameters. 1.0 = 0.03183 Or: d 2 d 31.42 = 2 + 0.3142 + 77.35sin dt dt Now consider small deviations in the rotor angle. If the rotor angle changes from 0 to 0 + , then:
sin ( 0 + ) = sin ( 0 ) cos ( ) + cos ( 0 ) sin ( ) = sin ( 0 ) + cos ( 0 )

d 2 d + 0.01 + 2.462sin 2 dt dt

## So: 31.42 = Changes to:

31.42 = d 2 ( 0 + ) d ( 0 + ) + 0.3142 + 77.35 2 sin ( 0 ) + cos ( 0 ) dt dt

d 2 0 d + 0.3142 0 + 77.35sin 0 2 dt dt

ELEC 4100

0=

## Taking the Laplace transform:

2 0 = (s) s + 0.3142 s + 77.35 cos ( 0 )

## Solving for the roots of the quadratic equation:

s1 , s2 = 0.3142 0.0987 309.4 cos ( 0 ) 2

## For the system to be stable, it is necessary that:

0.3142 + 0.0987 309.4 cos ( 0 ) < 0 0.0987 309.4 cos ( 0 ) < 0.3142

## 0.0987 309.4 cos ( 0 ) < 0.0987 309.4 cos ( 0 ) > 0

For cos ( 0 ) > 0 , it is necessary to have 900 < 0 < +900 . This is the small signal stability constraint on the system.

ELEC 4100

## ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 11 : PROTECTION - SOLUTIONS Question 1.

The input current to a Westinghouse CO-8 relay is 10A. Determine the relay operating time for the following current tap settings (CTS) and time dial settings (TDS). (a) CTS = 1.0, TDS = 0.5. (b) CTS = 2.0, TDS = 1.5. (c) CTS = 2.0, TDS = 7. (d) CTS = 3.0, TDS = 7. (e) CTS = 12.0, TDS = 1. Answer: From the inverse time curves : (a) Time to operate : 0.1s. (b) Time to operate : 0.55s. (c) Time to operate : 3.0s. (d) Time to operate : 5.2s. (e) The breaker can not operate the current is less than the pick-up current.

Question 2.
For the system shown in figure 1, directional over-current relays are used at breakers B12, B21, B23, B32, B34 and B43. Over-current relays alone are used at B1 and B4. (a) For a fault at P1, which breakers do not operate? Which breakers should be coordinated? Repeat (a) for a fault at (b) P2, (c) P3. (d) Explain how the system is protected against bus faults.
Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4

B1

B12 P3

B21

B23 P2

B32

B34 P1

B43

B4

L1

L2
Figure 1

L3

L4

Answer : (a) For a fault at P1, only B34 and B43 should operate. If B34 fails to operate, then B23, B12 and B1 would operate as a backup. So B23, B12 and B1 must coordinate with B34 in the sequence (B34 B23 B12 B1). If B43 fails to operate, B4 would operate as a backup, so B4 must coordinate with B43 in the sequence (B43 B4). (b) For a fault at P2, only B23 and B32 should operate. As backup protection, B12 and B1 should coordinate with B23 in the sequence (B23 B12 B1), and B43 and B4 should coordinate with B32 in the sequence (B32 B43 B4).

## TUTORIAL ELEVEN : PROTECTION SOLUTIONS

For a fault at P3, only B12 and B21 should operate. As backup protection, B1 should coordinate with B12 in the sequence (B12 B1), and B32, B43 and B4 should coordinate with B21 in the sequence (B21 B32 B43 B4). Fault at Bus 1 : Breakers B1 and B21 should open. Fault at Bus 2 : Breakers B12 and B32 should open. Fault at Bus 3 : Breakers B23 and B43 should open. Fault at Bus 4 : Breakers B34 and B4 should open.

(d)

Question 3.
(a) Draw the protective zones for the power system shown in figure 2. (b) Which circuit breakers should open for a fault at (i) P1, (ii) P2, (iii) P3? (c) For case (i), if circuit breaker B21a failed to operate, which circuit breakers would open as back-up?
Bus 1 B12a B12b B1 B13

P1

Bus 2 B24a

## Bus 4 B42a B46

P3
B31 Bus 3 B3 B32

B24b

B42b

P2

Figure 2 Answer : (a) The figure below shows the protective zones of the system in figure 2.
Zone 2 Bus 1 B12a B12b B1 Zone 1 Zone 5 B31 Bus 3 B3 Zone 7 Zone 8 B13

P1

Zone 10 Zone 3 Bus 4 Bus 2 B21a B21b B32 B24a B42a B46 Zone 13

Zone 4

P3
B32 Zone 6

B24b

B42b Zone 12

P2

Zone 11 Zone 9

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL ELEVEN : PROTECTION SOLUTIONS

(b i) For a fault at P1, breakers in Zone 3 should operate i.e. B12a and B21a. (b ii) For a fault at P2, breakers in Zone 9 should operate i.e. B21a, B21b, B23, B24a and B24b. (b iii) For a fault at P3, breakers in both Zone 6 and Zone 9 should operate i.e. B21a, B21b, B23, B32, B24a and B24b. (c) If in case b(i), B21a did not operate, then back-up protection would be achieved by opening the breakers in Zone 9 i.e. B21b, B23, B24a and B24b.

Question 4.
Three-zone mho relays are used for transmission line protection of the power system shown in figure 3. Positive sequence line impedances are given as follows: Line 1-2 : Z12_1 = (6+j60) Line 2-3 : Z23_1 = (5+j50) Line 2-4 : Z24_1 = (4+j40)

Rated voltage for the high voltage buses is 500kV. Assume a 1500:5 CT ratio and a 4500:1 VT ratio at B12. (a) Determine the zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 settings Zr1, Zr2 and Zr3 for the mho relay at B12 if zone 1 is set for 80% reach of line 1-2, zone 2 is set for 120% reach of line 1-2, and zone 3 is set to cover 120% of adjacent lines. (b) Maximum current for line 1-2 under emergency loading conditions is 1400A at 0.9 p.f. lagging. Verify that B12 does not trip during emergency loading conditions.
Bus 1 B1 Bus 2 B21 B23 line 1-2 B24 line 2-4 B42 Bus 4 B4 line 2-3 Bus 3 B32 B3 B12

Figure 3. Answer: Part (a): The impedance seen by the mho relay at B12 is:

Z'= Z'=

## VLN ' VLN ( 4500 /1) = IL ' I L (1500 / 5 ) VLN 1 Z = I L 15 15

Set the B12 relay zone 1 Zr1 setting for 80% reach of line 1-2, as:

ELEC 4100
6 +

## TUTORIAL ELEVEN : PROTECTION SOLUTIONS

j 60 = ( 0.32 + j 3.2 ) 15

Z r1 = 0.8

secondary

Set the B12 relay zone 2 Zr2 setting for 120% reach of line 1-2, as:
Z r1 = 1.2
6 +

j 60 = ( 0.48 + j 4.8 ) 15

secondary

Set the B12 relay zone 3 Zr3 setting for 100% reach of line 1-2, and 120% reach of line 2-3, as:
Z r1 =
6 +

## j 60 5 + j 50 + 1.2 = 0.8 + j8.0 ) ( 15 15

secondary

Part (b) The secondary impedance viewed by B12 during emergency loading is:

500 0 0 ' V 1 3 ' = LN = Z = 13.725.80 1 1.4 cos 0.9 15 IL ' This value is well in excess of the zone 3 impedance setting, so the impedance seen by B12 during emergency loading will not trip the three zone mho relay.

Question 5.
Line impedances for the power system shown in figure 4 are Z12 = Z23 = (3+j40) , and Z24 = (6+j80). Reach for the zone 3 B12 impedance relay is set for 100% of line 1-2 plus 120% of line 2-4. (a) for a bolted three phase fault at bus 4, show that the apparent primary impedance seen by the B12 relay is:
Z apparent = Z12 + Z 24 +

I 32

I12

Z 24

Where ( I 32 I12 ) is the line 2-3 to line 1-2 fault current ratio. (b) if I 32 I12 > 0.2 , does the B12 relay see the fault at bus 4?

NOTE: This problem illustrates the infeed effect. Fault currents from line 2-3 can cause the zone 3 B12 relay to under-reach. As such, remote backup of line 2-4 at B12 is ineffective.
Bus 1 B1 Bus 2 I12 line 1-2 B24 B24 B21 B23 I32 line 2-3 I24 Bus 4 B42 Bus 3 B32 B3

B12

Figure 4.
4

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL ELEVEN : PROTECTION SOLUTIONS

For the bolted three phase fault at bus 4 the system of figure 4 can be reduced to:

I12 Z12 V1 V2

## The primary impedance seen by the B12 relay is then:

Z apparent = V1 ' V1 ' V2 ' V2 ' V ' = + = Z12 + 2 I12 ' I12 ' I12 ' I12 '

Z apparent = Z12 +

## Z 24 ( I12 '+ I 32 ' ) I12 '

Z apparent = Z12 + Z 24 + Z 24

I 32 I12

Part (b): The apparent secondary impedance seen by B12 for the bolted three phase fault at bus 4 is:
Z apparent ' =

( NV

Z apparent

NI )

Where NV and NI are the turns ratios of the potential and current transformers for B12. Z apparent ' =
Z apparent ' =

(9 + 6 ( I

32

## I12 ) ) + j (120 + 80 ( I 32 I12 ) )

( NV

NI )

Also the zone 3 relay for B12 is set for 100% reach of line 1-2, and 120% of line 2-4. So: Zr3 =

## ( 3 + j 40 ) + 1.2 ( 6 + j80 ) = 10.2 + j136 ( NV N I ) ( NV N I )

Comparing this expression with the case for the balanced three phase fault when I 32 I12 > 0.2 shows that:

## Z apparent ' >

10.2 + j136 ( NV N I )

So the apparent impedance for the three phase fault is greater than the zone 3 set point, and B12 will not trip in this case. Remote backup in this case is not effective.
5

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TWELVE : TRANSMISSION LINES - SOLUTIONS

ELEC 4100 ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 12 : TRANSMISSION LINES SOLUTIONS Question 1.
A single phase transmission line of 1p.u. length with distributed parameters R, L, C and G has a step voltage E applied to the sending end of the line. The general solutions to the transmission line partial differential equations is given by:

V ( x, s ) = k1e x + k2 e x

and

I ( x, s ) =

1 k1e x k2 e x Z0

Where:

( R + sL )( G + sC )

Z0 =

( R + sL ) ( G + sC )

a) For the case determine the and current. b) For the case determine the and current.

where the receiving end of the transmission line is short circuited constants k1 and k2, and derive simplified expressions for the voltage where the receiving end of the transmission line is open circuited constants k1 and k2, and derive simplified expressions for the voltage

The boundary conditions are :

V ( 0, s ) = E ,

V (1, s ) = 0

## Substituting these constraints into the general solutions gives:

V ( 0, s ) = k1 + k2 = E
V (1, s ) = k1e + k2 e = 0 From the second equation:
k1 = k2 e 2

## Substituting this expression into the first equation gives:

k2 (1 e2 ) = E or k2 = So:
k1 = k2 e 2 = e E 2sinh ( )

E e E e E = = (1 e2 ) ( e e ) 2sinh ( )

The voltage expression for the transmission line is then given by:

V ( x, s ) =

E e (1 x ) e (1 x ) 2sinh ( )

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TWELVE : TRANSMISSION LINES - SOLUTIONS

V ( x, s ) = E

sinh ( (1 x ) ) sinh ( )

The current expression for the transmission line is then given by:

I ( x, s ) =
I ( x, s ) =

1 E e (1 x ) + e (1 x ) Z 0 2sinh ( )
E cosh ( (1 x ) ) sinh ( ) Z0

## Part (b) The boundary conditions are :

V ( 0, s ) = E ,

I (1, s ) = 0

Substituting these constraints into the above expressions for the voltage and current reveals:

V ( 0, s ) = k1 + k2 = E
I (1, s ) = 1 k1e k2 e =0 Z0

From the second expression involving the current at the receiving end of the line:

k1 = k2 e 2
Substituting into the expression for the voltage at the sending end of the line: k2 (1 + e 2 ) = E And so: k1 = Hence: e 2 E e E e E = = 1 + e 2 e + e 2 cosh ( ) or k2 = E e E e E = = 1 + e 2 e + e 2 cosh ( )

V ( x, s ) =

e E e E e x + e x 2 cosh ( ) 2 cosh ( )
cosh ( (1 x ) ) cosh ( )

V ( x, s ) = E Similarly

1 I ( x, s ) = Z0

e E e E x e e x 2 cosh ( ) 2 cosh ( )

I ( x, s ) =

E sinh ( (1 x ) ) cosh ( ) Z0
2

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TWELVE : TRANSMISSION LINES - SOLUTIONS

Question 2.
A single phase lossless transmission line of 150m length has an inductance and shunt capacitance per unit length of L = 1H/m and C = 11.111 pF/m. The line is terminated by a 600 resistance. The transmission line is struck by lightning through an effective 100 impedance at the sending end of the line, creating a surge voltage of 30kV peak and 50s duration.

a) Determine the characteristic impedance, travelling wave propagation velocity and the one-way transit time for the transmission line. b) Draw the equivalent circuit of the transmission line under the surge voltage conditions, and calculate the reflection coefficients at each end of the transmission line. c) Plot the voltages at the sending and receiving ends of the line for the first 5s. Answer: Part (a)
The characteristic impedance is given by:

Z0 =

v0 =

1 = LC

## 1 = 3 108 ms 1 12 6 (11.11110 )(110 )

This is the speed of light in free space. The one-way transit time for the transmission line is then:

## (150m ) = 5 107 s = 0.5 s d = v0 ( 3 108 ms 1 )

Part (b)

100

Z0 = 300

= 0.5s
v(0,t) 30kV
The reflection coefficients at the sending and receiving ends of the line are then:

v(d,t)

ZL= 600

R = L =

## Z L Z 0 600 300 1 = = Z L + Z 0 600 + 300 3 Z S Z 0 100 300 1 = = Z S + Z 0 100 + 300 2

The initial surge voltage on the line is then: v(0, 0) = 30kV 300 (100 + 300 ) = 22.5kV Part (c): The Bewley lattice diagram can be developed as shown below: 3

ELEC 4100
x=0

## TUTORIAL TWELVE : TRANSMISSION LINES - SOLUTIONS

x=d 22.5 kV = 0.5s 7.5 kV -3.750 kV -1.25 kV 0.625 kV 0.2083 kV 6 = 3.0s -0.1042 kV 7 = 3.5s -0.0347 kV 0.0174 kV 0.0058 kV -0.0029 kV 8 = 4.0s 9 = 4.5s 10 = 5.0s 4 = 2.0s 5 = 2.5s 2 = 1.0s 3 = 1.5s

From the lattice diagram the sending and receiving end voltages can be developed as shown below:
v(d,t) 30kV 25kV 25.83kV 25.69kV 25.72kV

t 0.5s v(0,t) 22.5kV 26.25kV 25.63kV 25.73kV 25.71kV 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s 2.5s 3.0s 3.5s 4.0s 4.5s 5.0s

t 0.5s 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s 2.5s 3.0s 3.5s 4.0s 4.5s 5.0s

ELEC 4100

## TUTORIAL TWELVE : TRANSMISSION LINES - SOLUTIONS

Question 3.
Figure 1 below shows a single phase lossless transmission line composed of two different sections of underground cable. The first section has a characteristic impedance 100 and a one-way propagation time of 0.1ms, while the second section has a characteristic impedance 400 and a one-way propagation time of 0.1ms. A surge voltage of 20kV is applied to the line through a 100 impedance, and the line is terminated with a 800 load impedance. Plot the voltages at the transmission line junction, and the sending and receiving ends of the total line for the first 0.6ms.

## ZS 100 20kV v(0,t)

= 0.1ms Z1=100

= 0.1ms Z2=400
ZL=800

v(d1,t)

v(d1+d2,t)

Figure 1 : Single Phase lossless transmission line. Answer: The reflection coefficient at the sending end of the transmission line is: S = Z S Z1 100 100 = =0 Z S + Z1 100 + 100 Z 2 Z1 400 100 3 = = Z 2 + Z1 400 + 100 5
2 ( 400 ) 2Z 2 8 = = Z1 + Z 2 400 + 100 5

The reflection and refraction coefficients on the sending side of the junction are:

12 =

12 =

The reflection and refraction coefficients on the receiving side of the junction are:

21 =

## Z1 Z 2 100 400 3 = = Z 2 + Z1 400 + 100 5

2 (100 ) 2 Z1 2 = = Z1 + Z 2 400 + 100 5

21 =

The reflection coefficient at the receiving end of the transmission line is:

R =

v ( 0, 0 ) =

ELEC 4100
x=0 10kV 6kV

x = d1 x = d1+d2

16kV 5.33kV

2.133kV -1.067kV

-0.427kV 0.213kV

## 0.640kV 0.6ms 0.7ms

From this lattice diagram it is possible to plot the three relevant voltage profiles as shown below:
v(d1+d2,t) 21.33kV 17.06kV 17.92kV

18.13kV

17.71kV

t 2 3 4 5 6 7