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AKUNTANSI KEPERILAKUAN (BEHAVIORAL ACCOUNTING)

Supriyadi Jurusan Akuntansi Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

Apakah Akuntansi?
Akuntansi adalah suatu sistem yang berfungsi mengidentifikasi

mencatat

relevan

Informasi keuangan yang

mengkomunikasikan

handal untuk membantu para pemakaianya mengambil keputusan (ekonomik) yang lebih baik

berdayabanding

Siapa Pemakai Informasi Akuntansi?


Pemakai Internal Managemen Bag. SDM Kantor Pajak Investor

SPI Bag. Keuangan

Bag. Pemasaran Pelanggan Bapepam

Kreditur

Pemakai Eksternal

The Ideal Decision-making Process


STEP 1 Define the problem
STEP 2 Determine the requirements that the solution to the problem must meet

STEP 3 Establish goals that solving the problem should accomplish

STEP 4 Identify alternatives that will solve the problem

STEP 5 Develop valuation criteria based on the goals

STEP 6 Select a decisionmaking Tool

STEP 7 Apply the tool to select a preferred alternative

STEP 8 Check the answer to make sure it solves the problem

The Decision-making Process (adapted from Baker et al, 2001)

Masalah dalam Pengambilan Keputusan


Pengetahuan pengambil keputusan yang belum memadai Tidak lengkapnya informasi relevan yang tersedia Terbatasnya rasionalitas pengambil keputusan (bounded rationality)

Apakah Kita Rasional?


Bounded rationality: suatu kondisi bahwa dalam pengambilan keputusan, individu mempunyai keterbatasan informasi, kemampuan kognitif, dan waktu. Cognitive Bias: pola penyimpangan dalam pengambilan keputusan pada situasi tertentu karena distorsi persepsi, ketidakakuratan prediksi, interpretasi yang tidak logis, atau tidak rasional.

Heuristics Bounded rationality Cognitive Bias Heuristics


Heuristics: individu menggunakan strategi (taktik) sederhana atau rules of thumb dalam pembuatan keputusan (Tversky dan Kahneman, 1973)

Heuristics
The Availability Heuristics
Contoh: Manakah yang menyebabkan kematian lebih banyak di AS: (a) Kanker perut, atau (b) Kecelakaan kendaraan

The Representativeness Heuristics


Contoh: Kasus kelahiran bayi di rumah sakit besar dan kecil

Anchoring and Adjustment


Contoh: Kasus referent point

Akuntansi Keperilakuan
Studi terkait dengan perilaku individu Studi perilaku individu dalam konteks akuntansi. Studi tentang perilaku individual akuntan atau non-akuntan karena pengaruh informasi dan atau fungsi akuntansi.
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Jenis Informasi dan atau Fungsi Akuntansi


Akuntansi Keuangan (Financial Accounting) Pengauditan (Auditing) Akuntansi Managerial (Managerial Accounting) Perpajakan (Taxation) Isitem Infomasi (Information systems)
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Perilaku Siapa yang Dievaluasi?


Akuntansi Keuangan (Financial)
Investors (e.g., response to good/bad news, format of reports) Analysts (e.g., forecasts, recommendations) Creditors & credit rating agencies (risk assessment)

Pengauditan (Auditing)
Auditors (risk of misstatement, going concern, judgment)

Akuntansi Managerial (Managerial Accounting)


Managers (e.g., compensation (options) and benefits, reporting choices) Employees, customers, suppliers, competitors

Perpajakan (Taxation)
Management, taxing authorities, investors

Sistem Informasi (Information systems)


Users Developers
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Adakah Teorinya?
Berdasar pada hasil penelitian dan teori di bidang psikologi. Hasil penelitian psikologi:
Bounded rationality Heuristics Metoda eksperimental

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Teori Psikologi pada Bias kognitif


Referent point effect Prospect theory (framing effect) The conjunction fallacy: the tendency to assume that specific conditions are more probable than general ones. Hindsight vs Foresight Bias Data Fixation Order effect: primary vs. recency effect Anchoring and adjustment Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Referent Point
A newly hired engineer for a computer firm in the Boston metropolitan area has four years of experience and good all-around qualifications. When asked to estimate the starting salary for this employee, my scretary (knowing very little about the profession or the industry) guessed an annual salary of $23,000. What is your estimate: $ _____________ per year

The importance of framing


Imagine that you have just learned that the sole supplier of a crucial component is going to raise prices. The price increase is expected to cost the company $6,000,000. Two alternative plans have been formulated to counter the effect of the price increase. The anticipated consequences of these plans are as follows: (Check the one you would adopt)
If plan A is adopted, the company will save $2,000,000. If plan B is adopted, there is a 1/3 probability that $6,000,000 will be saved and 2/3 probability that nothing will be saved. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------o If plan A is adopted, the company will lose $4,000,000. o If plan B is adopted, there is a 1/3 probability that there will be no loss, and a 2/3 probability that the company will lose $6,000,000.
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The importance of framing


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Save
0% 17% 83% 100%

Plan A Plan B

Lose
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The conjunction fallacy


Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Check the most likely alternative.
Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.
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The conjunction fallacy


70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bank teller Bank teller + feminist
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37% 63%

Appreciating sample size


A certain town is served by two hospitals. In the larger hospital about 45 babies are born each day. In the smaller hospital about 15 babies are born each day. Overall, about 50% of all babies born are boys. However, the exact percentage varies from day to day. Sometimes it may be higher than 50%, sometimes lower. For a period of one year, each hospital recorded the days on which more than 60% of the babies born were boys. Which hospital do you think recorded more such days?
The larger hospital. The smaller hospital. About the same
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Appreciating sample size (2)


An investor is looking to invest some money in the stock market. Each week for six straight weeks the investor receives a prediction about a particular index fund's performance from a stock broker. Each week the stock broker correctly predicts whether the fund will go up or down over the ensuing week. What do you think the probability is that the investor would be willing to pay for the broker's seventh prediction?
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