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Botkin & Keller: Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet- 8th Ed. Chapter # - Ecos!

stems: Concepts and "#ndamentals $#ided %eading &ssignment

Case St#d!: Sea 'tters( Sea )rchins( and Kelp: *ndirect E++ects o+ Species on 'ne &nother ,: -e+ine: Comm#nit! E++ect: When an animal decreases the size of a population that destroys a habitat indirectly. .: E/plain 012 the Sea 'tter is considered the Ke!stone Species in this ecos!stem. 31int: E/plain the +ood chain45 Because they eat sea urchins and sea urchins eat kelp which is home to many different marine organisms. 6: 0h! 7ere Sea 'tters endangered and ho7 did their n#m8ers re8o#nd9 They were brought almost to extinction by commercial hunting for their fur during the 18th and 19th century. e!eral small populations sur!i!ed and ha!e increased since then so today sea otters numbers are in the hundreds of thousands. .,- :he Ecos!stem: S#staining Li+e on Earth ,: -e+ine Ecos!stem Str#ct#re: "n ecosystem has two ma#or parts$ li!ing and non li!ing. %i!ing parts are known as ecological community and nonli!ing parts include physical chemical en!ironments like atmosphere$ water$ and mineral land. .: 0hat t7o main processes m#st occ#r to maintain an ecos!stem9 " cycling of chemical elements and a flow of energy. ..- Ecological Comm#nities and "ood Chains ,: 0hat is the di++erence 8et7een a +ood chain and a +ood 7e89 " food chain is showing how energy is transferred up the trophic le!el while a food web is a !isual map of feeding relationship and energy flow. .: -e+ine: :rophic Level: &onsists of all organisms in a food web that are the same number of feeding le!els away from the original energy source. 6: -e+ine: &#totrophs( 1eterotrophs( Carnivores( 1er8ivores( -ecomposeters: &#totrophs: self feeding get their food from sulight. 1eterophs: "ll other organism Carnivores: meat eaters. 1er8ivores: 'rganisms that feed off plants$ algae$ or photosynthetic bacteria. -ecomposeters: Those that feed on dead organic material.

;: E/plain the +ood 7e8 o+ 2ello7stone 1ot Springs. E/plain each trophic level 3incl#de a

1. (hotosynthetic bacteria and algae make up the spring)s first trophic le!el *. +phydrid flies make up the second ,herbi!ores- trophic le!el. .. /olichopodid fly makes up the third ,carni!ores- trophic le!el.

: E/plain a pelagic ecos!stem. E/plain each trophic level 3incl#de photos4.

0n oceans food webs in!ol!e more species and tend to ha!e more trophic le!els than they do in a terrestrial ecosystem. 1. 0n a pelagic ecosystem the first trophic le!el is microscopic singe cell plankton algae and planktonic photosynthetic bacteria. *. 1oo plankton and some fish feed on the algae and photosynthetic bacteria forming the second

trophic le!el. .. 'ther fish and in!ertebrates feed on the herbi!ores and form the third trophic le!el The great baleen whales filer seawater for food feeding on small herbi!orous zoo plankton making being part of the third tropic le!el as well. 2. ome fish and marine mammals like killer whales feed on the predatory fish and form the higher trophic le!el. & Closer Look- Land and <arine "ood 0e8s ,: Look at the terrestrial +ood 7e8. Sho#ld 7e incl#de people 7ithin this ecos!stem=s +ood 7e89 :hat 7o#ld place #s 7ithin nat#re. '% sho#ld 7e place people o#tside o+ the ecos!stem( th#s separate +rom nat#re9 We shouldn)t because any change could alter the food web and create a complete disaster. We should place people outside of the ecosystem because of this fear of creating a problem instead of a solution. .6- Ecos!stems as S!stems ,: 0h! are ecos!stems considered to 8e 'PE> s!stems9 Because energy flows into and out of them. .: -e+ine: 0atershed: an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different ri!ers$ basins$ or seas. .;- Biological Prod#ction and Ecos!stem Energ! "lo7 ,: -e+ine: Energ!: The ability to do work. .: E/plain: Ecos!stem Energ! "lo7- 0hat t7o 7a!s does energ! enter an ecos!stem9 +nergy flow is the mo!ement of energy through an ecosystem from the external en!ironment through a series of organisms and back to the external en!ironment. Two ways that energy enter an ecosystem are3 energy fixed by organisms and mo!ing through food webs within an ecosystem. :he La7s o+ :hermod!namics and the )ltimate Limit on the &8#ndance o+ Li+e ,: :he "irst La7 o+ :hermod!namics is also kno7n as 7hat9 -e+ine it. 4nown as the %aw '5 conser!ation of energy states that in any physical or chemical change energy is neither destroyed nor created but merely changed from one form to another. .: 0hat is the Second La7 o+ :hermod!namics sa!9 the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy ,such as mechanical$ electrical$ or chemical energy-$ and$ by extension$ of the relationships between all forms of energy. 6: -e+ine Entrop! 3give an e/ample4. The measure of the decrease in order. "n example could be water boiling. ;: 0hat is an intermediate s!stem9 When an ecosystem must lie between a source of usable energy and a sink for degraded energy. . - Biological Prod#ction and Biomass ,: 0hat is 8iomass9 The total amount of organic matter in any ecosystem.

.: -e+ine the +ollo7ing: ? Biological Prod#ction: The capture of usable energy from the en!ironment to produce organic matter or organic compound. ? $ross Prod#ction: The increase in stored energy before any is used. ? >et Prod#ction: The amount of newly ac6uired energy stored after some energy has been used. 6: 0hat are the 6 meas#res that are #sed +or 8iomass and 8iological prod#ction9 1. The 6uality of organic material ,biomass*. +nergy tored .. &arbon tored ;: 0hat is primar! prod#ction- 7ho carries this o#t9 (rimary production is the production of autrophs. The first le!el of a trophic le!el the self feeding organisms. : 0hat is secondar! prod#ction- 7ho is involved9 The production carried out by heterotrophs. The second le!el of trophic le!el they are all other organisms. @: 0ho are chemoa#totrophs9 E/plain- 7here are the! #s#all! +o#nd9 "utotroph bacteria that can deri!e energy from inorganic sulfur compounds. They are found in deep ocean !ents. .@- Energ! E++icienc! and :rans+er E++icienc! ,: 0hat is energ! e++icienc!9 The ratio of output to input and it is usually further defined as the amount of useful work obtained from some amount of a!ailable energy. .: 1o7 7o#ld energ! e++icienc! look 7ith a 7ol+ and moose pop#lation9 E/plain. " wolf need energy to trabel long distances and hunt so it will use as much of the energy it its food as it can. The moose would use little of the nergy it took in so storing most of it as muscle and fat which is what the wolf can eat. 6: 0hat is +ood-chain or trophic level e++icienc!9 The ratio of production of one trohic le!el to the production of the next lower trophic le!el. ;: $enerall!( ho7 m#ch energ! is lost to heat 7hen 8eing trans+erred 8et7een trophic levels9 The organisms in one trophic le!el tend to take in much less energy than the potential maximum a!ailable to them and they use more energy than they store for the next trophic le!el. .A- Ecological Sta8ilit! and S#ccession ,: 0hat is ecological s#ccession9 The gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressi!e replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established. .: Compare and contrast primar! and secondar! s#ccession- give an e/ample o+ each. (rimary3 the establishment and de!elopment of an ecosystem where one did no exist pre!iously.

+73 " 8lacier. econdary3 9eestablishment of an ecosystem after disturbance. +73 " :olcanic +ruption. 6: E/plain ho7 s#ccession 7o#ld look in a -#ne. The grass that will begin to grow puts out runners with sharp ends. The sune grass rapidly forms a cpmplet network of underground runners. "bo!e ground the green stems carry out photosynthesis and the grasses grow. The the dune grass is grown its runners stabilizes the sand gi!e other plants a change to grow. ;: E/plain ho7 s#ccession 7o#ld look in a Bog. %ooks 6uiet. They form a complex matlike network similar to that formed by dune grass. The mat becomes thicker as small shrubs and trees grow because of wind blowing particles onto it. : E/plain ho7 s#ccession 7o#ld look in an old-+ield. %ike a forest. mall plants first begin to grow as these plants become established$ other$ larger plants enter leading to large trees like sugar maple$ beech$ yellow birch$ and white pine. @: E/plain ho7 s#ccession 7o#ld look in a coral ree+. The corals settle on a solid surface and produce a hard polyp of calcium carbonate. "s these indi!iduals die that calcium carbonate becomes the surface on which new indi!iduals establish themsel!es. +!entually a large and complex structure results in!ol!ing many other species.

.B- 1o7 Species Change S#ccession ,: E/plain +acilitation in s#ccession and 7here is it most common9 5acilitation in succession change the local en!ironment in ways that make it suitable for another species that is characteristics of a later succession stage. ;ost common in dune and bog succession. .: E/plain inter+erence in s#ccession and 7hat it can lead to. 0nterference in succession refers to situations where an earlier succession species changes the local en!ironment so it is unsuitable to another species characteristic of a later succession stage. 0t can create a problem for those species that depend on that area. 6: 0hat is chronic patchiness9 0hen does this occ#r9 &hronic patchiness is characteristic of highly disturbed en!ironments and highly stressful ones in terms of temperature$ precipitation$ or chemical a!ailability. This occurs when no species interact through succession. Critical :hinking *ss#e: Sho#ld People Eat Lo7er on the "ood Chain9 ,:0h! does the energ! content decrease at each higher level o+ a +ood chain9 0hat happens to the energ! lost at each level9 "ccording the econd %aw of Thermodynamics says that e!ery time energy is transferred some is lost. 0n food chains this happens because organism use some of the energy they got from the pre!ious energy source. .: 0h! it is appropriate to #se mass to represent energ! content9 Because it shows how much of something is needed to supply energy to supthing higher up in the food

chain. 6: )sing the average o+ ., kiloCo#les o+ energ! to eD#al ,g o+ completel! dried vegetation and ass#ming that 7heat is 8EF 7ater( 7hat is the energ! content o+ the 666(EEE kg o+ 7heat sho7n in the p!ramid9 3sho7 !o#r 7ork4. ...$<<<=*1 1>$8>? k@ ;: <ake a list o+ environmental arg#ments +or and against an entirel! vegetarian diet +or people. 0hat might 8e the conseD#ences +or the )nited States agric#lt#re i+ ever!one in the co#ntr! 8egan to eat lo7er on the +ood chain9 "or: 1. 0t)ll be good to the en!ironment sa!ing natural resources. *. Aou)ll be eating healthier instead of eating processed meat. .. +ating lower on the food chain like plants is es entail to li!ing a healthier life. &gainst: 1. ;eat is a great source of protein. *. 0t)s a natural way of li!ing. .. +ating meat is #ust as healthy as eating a salad$ you get your share of nutrients. The meat production would lose money so they wouldn)t want to spend more money on making sure things are in good conditions so maybe the meat that will be bought will be old or #ust prepared unsanitary. : 1o7 lo7 do !o# eat on the +ood chain9 0o#ld !o# 8e 7illing to eat lo7er9 E/plain. 0 would eat as low as !egetables which are plants because that is what 0 eat most of. (ersonally 0 think 0 could easily sur!i!e on #ust !egetables. 0 like them and 0 know that they are so healthy and in some aspects better than eating meat. Aes you are getting a load of protein from mean but you are not getting all the natural nutrients supplied from plants. St#d! G#estions: ,: "arming has 8een descri8ed as managing land to keep it in an earl! stage o+ s#ccession. 0hat does this mean( and ho7 is it achieved9 0t means that if a piece of land was left alone for many years it would e!ol!e through natural selection starting from grasses to shrubs to trees. .: Keep track o+ the +ood !o# eat d#ring one da! and make a +ood chain linking !o#rsel+ 7ith the so#rces o+ those +oods. -etermine the 8iomass 3grams4 and energ! 3kilocalories4 !o# have eaten. )sing an average o+ KcalHg( then #sing the in+ormation on +ood packaging or ass#ming that !o#r net prod#ction is ,EF e++icient in terms o+ energ! intake( ho7 m#ch additional energ! might !o# have stored d#ring the da!9 30hat is !o#r 7eight gain +rom the +ood !o# have eaten94

Break+ast: &ereal 3 19< ;ilk3 ?< L#nch: 5ruit3 *<< -inner: alad3 .<< :otal Calorie *ntake: ?B<