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com, 2013 page 1 of 3 page



Alloys ln A ChemlsLry

1he A ChemlsLry currlculum for 2014 lncludes alloys under Lhe branch of meLalllc sollds ln 8lg ldea 2.

"#$%&'()*+ ,*-('.#/0(*1
ALoms ln pure meLal sollds are organlzed ln a regular crysLal laLLlce. 1he valence elecLrons of meLal
aLoms are noL LlghLly held, and exlsL as a sea of elecLrons occupylng Lhe lnLersLlLlal spaces (beLween
Lhe meLal cores). 1hls aLomlc sLrucLure accounLs for a meLal's conducLlvlLy and oLher properLles.
Alloys are slmllar ln sLrucLure Lo pure meLal sollds, buL conLaln more Lhan one Lype of elemenL. 8efer Lo
Lhe charL below for Lhe deflnlLlons and classlflcaLlon of alloys:


*1he dlagrams glven are represenLaLlons Lyplcal for lnLroducLory chemlsLry LexLbooks Lo demonsLraLe Lhe
concepLs of lnLersLlLlal and subsLlLuLlonal alloys. Powever, Lhese dlagrams are over-slmpllflcaLlons as Lhe
crysLal sLrucLure of an alloy cannoL be accuraLely deplcLed ln Lwo-dlmenslons.
!ennlfer k. Powell & !ennlfer lLL-Lalnsbury for www.Achemresources2014.weebly.com, 2013 page 2 of 3 page

uescrlpLlon and Lxamples of ulfferenL Alloy 1ypes

2345 (- 677(3 89#.475 :(/5;1
;)<;/0/)/0(*#7
!"#$%&'( !&%*#$
Ag 93
Cu 7
- aLomlc radll are wlLhln ~13 Lo noL affecL Lhe overall crysLal sLrucLure
1

- crysLal sLrucLure of elemenLs !+,-%. be same for leasL dlsrupLlon
- resulLlng solld remalns malleable, ducLlle, slmllar denslLy
0*/5';/0/0#7
!"##%
le >99
C <1
- lnLersLlLlal subsLlLuLed elemenLs commonly non-meLals (P, 8, C, n, C, Sl)
- resulLlng solld ls more rlgld, less malleable / ducLlle
0*/5'.5/#770$=
>?
MgZn
2

na
3
Zn
21
Cu
3
Zn
- deflnlLe proporLlons of consLlLuenL elemenLs
- crysLal laLLlce sLrucLure ls dlfferenL from any of consLlLuenL meLals
- resulLlng solld has properLles ofLen dlfferenL from consLlLuenLs
@5/5'(&5*5();
!,%.#$
b ~30
Sn ~30
- mulLlple phases / crysLal sLrucLures LhroughouL Lhe solld
(le. phase of lead only ! phase of Lln and lead* ! phase of Lln only)
3
- properLles can vary broadly
* lnLermeLalllc ls someLlmes used Lo descrlbe phases ln heLerogeneous alloys wlLh mulLlple meLals

A(B #'5 #77(3; 0*$('4('#/5+ 0*/( /@5 6C $)''0$)7).D
Alloys are llke meLals ln boLh properLles and sLrucLure. SLudenLs should be able Lo relaLe daLa abouL
consLlLuenL elemenLs Lo alloy properLles as well as undersLand Lhe dlfference ln aLomlc organlzaLlon of
subsLlLuLlonal and lnLersLlLlal alloys.
!""#$%&'( *$+,(#-.# /010/: MeLalllc sollds are good conducLors of heaL and elecLrlclLy, have a wlde range of melLlng
polnLs, and are shlny, malleable, ducLlle, and readlly alloyed.
b. MeLalllc sollds are ofLen pure subsLances, buL may also be mlxLures called alloys.
1. Some properLles of alloys can be undersLood ln Lerms of Lhe slze of Lhe componenL aLoms:
- lnLersLlLlal alloys form beLween aLoms of dlfferenL radlus, where Lhe smaller aLoms flll Lhe lnLersLlLlal spaces
beLween Lhe larger aLoms. (SLeel ls an example ln whlch carbon occuples Lhe lnLersLlces ln lron.) 1he
lnLersLlLlal aLoms make Lhe laLLlce more rlgld, decreaslng malleablllLy and ducLlllLy.
- SubsLlLuLlonal alloys form beLween aLoms of comparable radlus, where one aLom subsLlLuLes for Lhe oLher ln
Lhe laLLlce. (8rass ls an example ln whlch some copper aLoms are subsLlLuLed wlLh a dlfferenL elemenL, usually
zlnc.) 1he denslLy Lyplcally lles beLween Lhose of Lhe componenL meLals, and Lhe alloy remalns malleable and
ducLlle.
2. Alloys Lyplcally reLaln a sea of moblle elecLrons and so remaln conducLlng.
3. ln some cases, alloy formaLlon alLers Lhe chemlsLry of Lhe surface. An example ls formaLlon of a chemlcally lnerL
oxlde layer ln sLalnless sLeel.
2#'3$&$. 456#7%&8# /0/9 1he sLudenL ls able Lo compare Lhe properLles of meLal alloys wlLh Lhelr consLlLuenL elemenLs Lo
deLermlne lf an alloy has formed, ldenLlfy Lhe Lype of alloy formed, and explaln Lhe dlfferences ln properLles uslng
parLlculaLe level reasonlng.
2#'3$&$. 456#7%&8# /0/: SLudenLs can use Lhe elecLron sea model of meLalllc bondlng Lo predlcL or make clalms abouL Lhe
macroscoplc properLles of meLals or alloys.


We are unsure of how parLlculaLe level reasonlng wlll be LesLed ln Lhe absence of accuraLe 2-
dlmenslonal alloy represenLaLlons.
!ennlfer k. Powell & !ennlfer lLL-Lalnsbury for www.Achemresources2014.weebly.com, 2013 page 3 of 3 page

E#.475 F)5;/0(*;1 A ChemlsLry racLlce Lxam and noLes, lall 2013 #40, 42

G5;()'$5;:
1. ALklns, ., and u. Shrlver. lnorganlc ChemlsLry. 4
Lh
Ld. new ?ork: Cxford unlverslLy ress. 2006.
/' -'.#$($0.-0"# %#*#% "#1"2,,34 5+&6+ +0! "+$## 70(#! ,8 &'8,$90"&,' &'6%-.&'( !-2!"&"-"&,'0%4
&'"#$!"&"&0% 0'. &'"#$9#"0%%&6 0%%,:!;

2. 8uLera, 8. A., Waldeck, u. P. x-ray dlffracLlon lnvesLlgaLlon of alloys." <; =+#9; >.;4 HIIJ> 74 (1), 113
/' -'.#$($0.-0"# #17#$&9#'" &' ?@$0: .&88$06"&,' &'*#!"&(0"&'( A&@=- 0%%,:!; B063($,-'.
&'8,$90"&,' 0'. $#8#$#'6#! 7$,*&.# -!#8-% ,*#$*&#5 ,8 0%%,:!;

3. 8ell, ur. Pans and CunLer Crossman. MeLallurgy of Solderlng rocess." LMS now. 27 SepL 2012.
Web. 27 May 2013. hLLp://www.emsnow.com/npps/sLory.cfm?ld=49343
/' &'"#$#!"&'( 0$"&6%# ,' "+# 6+#9&!"$: ,8 9#"0%! 0'. 0%%,:!; C+&! 0$"&6%# &! 077$,7$&0"# 8,$ /D
!"-.#'"! ", $#0.4 0'. 6,'"0&'! #16#%%#'" 0'0%,(&#! 6,970$&'( 0%%,: !"$-6"-$#! ", 6,$'@,'@"+#@6,2;

4. C8C Pandbook of ChemlsLry and hyslcs 84
Lh
ed. C8C ress: 8oca 8aLon: 2004, pg 12-204
C02%# ,8 =,99#$6&0% E#"0%! 0'. /%%,:! 6,'"0&'! 7+:!&60% 7$,7#$"&#! ,8 6,99,' 0%%,:! &'6%-.&'(
.#'!&":4 $#!&!"&*&":4 9#%"&'( 7,&'"4 #"6;

3. Seely, Cllver. ComposlLlon and hyslcal roperLles of Alloys.F Cllver's Cfflclal ueparLmenL WebslLe.
18 AugusL 2007. Web. 27 May 2013. hLLp://www.csudh.edu/ollver/chemdaLa/alloys.hLm
=,97$#+#'!&*# .0"0 "02%# &'6%-.&'( 6,97,!&"&,'4 6,99,' '09#4 .#'!&": 0'. 9#%"&'( 7,&'" 8,$
+-'.$#.! ,8 0%%,:!; G$#0" 8,$ ,2!#$*&'( "$#'.! &' 0%%,: 7$,7#$"&#!4 0'. $#0% 5,$%. 077%&60"&,'!;