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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering

Topic: Consolidation

MODULE- 46B
Consolidation
consolidation settlement of the clay layer due to placing of fill material will be 1. The time for a clay layer to achieve 85% consolidation is 10 years. If the layer was half as thick, 10 times more permeable and 4 times more compressible then the time that would be required to achieve the same degree of consolidation is (A) 1 year (B) 5 years (C) 12 years (D) 16 years 2. A double draining clay layer, 6m thick, settles by 30mm in three years under the influence of a certain loads. Its final consolidation settlement has been estimated to be 120 mm. If a thin layer of sand having negligible thickness is introduced at a depth of 1.5m below the top surface, the final consolidation settlement of clay layer will be (a) 60 mm (b) 120 mm (c) 240 mm (d) None of these A double draining clay layer, 6m thick, settles by 30mm in three years under the influence of a certain loads. Its final consolidation settlement has been estimated to be 120 mm. If a thin layer of sand having negligible thickness is introduced at a depth of 1.5m below the top surface, the final consolidated settlement of clay layer will be (a) 60 mm (b) 120mm (c) 240 mm (d) None of these At a reclamation site for which the soil strata is shown in figure, a 3m thick layer of a fill material is to be laid instantaneously on the top surface. If the coefficient of volume compressibility, mv for clay is 2.2 x 10-4 m2/kN, the 5. (a) 69.5 mm (c) 228 mm (b) (d) 139 mm 278 mm

A 6m thick clay layer undergoes 90% consolidation four times faster under twoway drainage as compared to onedrainage. In an identical clay layer of 15 m thickness, two-way drainage will be faster as compared to one-way drainage by (a) 8 times (b) 4 times (c) 2.5 times (d) 2 times Root time method is used to determine (a) T, time factor (b) cv' coefficient of consolidation (c) av' coefficient of compressibility (d) mv' coefficient of volume compressibility The average effective overburden pressure on 10 m thick homogeneous saturated clay layer is 150 kPa. Consolidation test on undisturbed soil sample taken from the clay layer showed that the void ratio decreased from 0.6 to 0.5 by increasing the stress intensity from 100 kPa to 300 kPa. (G=2.65) A) The initial void ratio of the clay layer is (a) 0.209 (b) 0.563 (c) 0.746 (d) 1.000

6.

3.

7.

4.

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering


B) The total consolidation settlement of the clay layer due to the construction of a structure imposing an additional stress intensity of 200 kPa is (a) 0.10 m (b) 0.25 m (c) 0.35 m (d) 0.50 m 8. A saturated clay stratum draining both at the top and bottom undergoes 50 percent consolidation in 16 years under an applied load. If an additional drainage layer were present at the middle of the clay stratum, 50 percent consolidation would occur in (A) 2 years (B) 4 years (C) 8 years (D) 16 years The e-log p curve shown in the figure is representative of

Topic: Consolidation

9.

(A) 2.25 months (B) 4.5 months (C) 9 months (D) 36 months
11. A layer of normally consolidated, saturated silty clay of 1 m thickness is subjected to one dimensional consolidation under a pressure increment of 20 kPa. The properties of the soil are: specific gravity = 2.7, natural moisture content = 45%, compression index = 0.45, and recompression index = 0.05. The initial average effective stress within the layer is 100 kPa. Assuming Terzaghis theory to be applicable, the primary consolidation settlement (rounded off to the nearest mm) is (A) 2 mm (B) 9 mm (C) 14 mm (D) 16 mm 12. The natural void ratio of a saturated clay strata, 3m thick is 0.90. The final void ratio of the clay at the end of consolidation is expected to be 0.71. The total consolidation settlement of the clay strata is (a)30 cm (c)20 cm (b)25 cm (d)15 cm

(A) Normally consolidated clay (B) Over consolidated clay (C) Under consolidated clay log p (D) Normally consolidated clayey sand 10. Identical surcharges are placed at ground surface at sites X and Y, with soil conditions shown below and water table at ground surface. The silty clay layers at X and Yare identical. The thin sand layer at Y is continuous and free-draining with a very large discharge capacity. If primary consolidation at X is estimated to complete in 36 months, what would be the corresponding time for completion of primary consolidation at Y?

13. The identical clay samples of the same size, designated as A and B subjected to consolidation test under identical loading conditions. Drainage takes place through one face in sample A and through both the faces in sample B. 50% consolidation of sample A occurs in 10 minutes. The time required for 50% consolidation to occur in sample B will be (a) 40 minutes (b) 10 minutes (b) 5 minutes (d) 2.5 minutes

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering

Topic: Consolidation
18. Which one of the following soils has stress- strain response similar to that of dense sand? (OCR stands for over consolidation ratio) (a) Over consolidated clays having high OCR (b) consolidated clays having low OCR (c)Normally consolidated clays (d)Unconsolidated clays 19. Terzaghis consolidation theory is applicable to one-dimensional consolidation test (a)for small load increment ratios (b)for large load increment ratios (c)for a load increment ration of nearly one (d)in situations where there is no excess pore pressure

14. A clay layer 5 m thick in field takes 300 days to attain 50% consolidation with condition of double drainage. If the same clay layer is underlain by hard rock then the time taken to attain 50% consolidation will be (a)300 days (c)900 days (b)600 days (d)1200 days

15. The change that take place during the process consolidation of a saturated clay would include (a) An increase in pore water pressure and an increase in effective pressure (b) An increase in pore water pressure and a decrease in effective pressure (c) A decrease in pore water pressure and a decrease in effective pressure (d) A decrease in pore water pressure and an increase in effective pressure

20. Consider the following statements: 1. The degree of a saturated soil mass subjected to pressure remains unchanged during the process of consolidation. 2. Secondary consolidation is due to the plastic deformation of the soil when the pore fluid is not subjected to any excess pressure. 3. Primary consolidation is independent of the coefficient of permeability of the soil but depends on the decrease in void volume due to air escape. Which of these statements are correct? (a)1 and 2 (b)1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d)1,2 and 3

16. Match List-I (Property) with List-II (Slope of the curve) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists. ListI A. Coefficient of compressibility B.Compression index C. Coefficient of sub grade modulus List-II 1. Stress- deformation 2. Stress-void ratio 3. Volume pressure 4. Log stress-void ratio Codes: A B C a) 4 2 1 b) 4 3 2 c) 2 4 1 d) 3 4 1 17. The initial and final void ratios of a clay sample in a consolidation test are 1 and 0.5, respectively. If initial thickness of the sample is 2.4 cm, then its final thickness will be (a)1.3 cm (c)1.9 cm (b)1.8 cm (d)2.2 cm

21. Assertion (A): For a fully saturated soil, the pore pressure parameter is equal to zero. Reason(R): The compressibility of water is much smaller than the coefficient of volume compressibility. Codes: a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. b) Both A and R are true but R is not a Correct explanation of A. c) A is true but R is false. d) A is false but R is true.

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering

Topic: Consolidation

12. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists (notations have their usual meaning): List-I List-II A. Coefficient of 1. mv compressibility B. Compression index 2. Cvt/H2 C. Time factor D. Coefficient of volume compressibility 3. aV 4. Cc

16. A saturated clay layer with double drainage takes 5 years to attain 90% degree of consolidation under a structure. If the same layer were to be single drained, what would be the time (in years) required to attain the same consolidation under the same loading conditions? (a)10 (b)15 (c)20 (d)25

17. Which one of the following statements regarding coefficient of consolidation CV is correct? (a) (b) (c) (d)

Codes: A a) b) c) d) 3 1 1 3 2 2 4 4 B 4 4 2 2 C D 1 3 3 1

13. Reduction in volume of soil primary due to squeezing out of water from the voids is called (a) primary consolidation (b) plastic flow (c) creep (d) secondary consolidation 14. The settlement analysis for a clay layer draining from top and bottom shows a settlement of 2.5 cm in 4 years and an ultimate settlement of 10 cm. However detailed subsurface investigation reveals that there is no drainage at the bottom. The ultimate settlement in this condition will be (a)2.5 cm (b)5 cm (c)10 cm (d)20 cm

18. A wooden bridge in Assam failed and was observed to have arched up in the middle after the earthquake. The right abutment settled 40 cm and left abutment 30 cm. The bridge was supported on wooden piles, which floated up during the earthquake. The most probable cause of failure is (a) shear failure of soil below abutments. (b) Excessive settlement below abutments due to increased forces. (c) Liquefaction of foundation soil below abutments and piles. (d) Failure of abutments due to dynamic earth pressure behind abutments. 19. Consider the following statements: Theory of consolidation predicts settlement due to primary consolidation; it cannot include settlement due to initial compression nor due to secondary consolidation. This happens because of the following assumptions made by the theory: 1. Soil grains and water are incompressible. 2. Soil is fully saturated. 3. Compression takes place in vertical direction only. 4. Time lag in consolidation is entirely due to low permeability of soil. Which of these statements are correct? (a)1, 2 and 3 (c)3 and 4 (b)2 and 3 (d)1, 2 and 4

15. In soil consolidation process, the following events take place after loading: 1. Decrease in excess pore pressure. 2. Increase in total stress. 3. Development of excess pore pressure. 4. Increase in effective stress. The correct sequence of these events is (a)3, 2, 1, 4 (b)2, 3, 1, 4 (c)2, 3, 4, 1 (d)3, 2, 4, 1

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering


20. The one dimensional theory of consolidation proposed by Terzaghi derives its name due to the fact that (a) only vertical dimension of the soil sample is used for consolidation test and lateral dimensions are neglected (b) water in the soil sample in conventional consolidometer escapes in the lateral directions resulting into settlements only in vertical direction (c) normal stress on the sample is applied in only in (vertical ) direction (d) lateral movements of soil grains are not permitted across any vertical settlements to account for the decrease in volume due to escape of water from soil sample 21. For a certain loading condition, a saturated clay layer undergoes 40% consolidation in a period of 178 days. What would be the additional time required for further 20% consolidation to occur? (a)89 days (c)329.5 days (b)222.5 days (d)400.5 days

Topic: Consolidation
D. Coefficient of consolidation, Cv List-II 1. Slope of the e-p curve defined as / (1+e0) 2. Slope of e- log p curve given by [- / (logp)] 3. Term defined as k/(mv, ) 4. Slope of the e-p curve defined as - / Codes: A B C D a) 2 1 4 3 b) 4 3 2 1 c) 2 3 4 1 d) 4 1 2 3 25. A clay layer 3 m deep is sandwiched by a pervious material. The soil reaches 90% consolidation in 3 years. At another site, the same clay layer is bounded by impervious boundary at the bottom and sand at the top. What is the time taken by this layer to reach 90% settlement? (a) 9 years (b) 12 years (c) 15 years (d) 21 years

22. If the time required for 60% consolidation of a re moulded soil sample of clay with single drainage is t, then what is the time required to consolidate the same sample of clay with the same degree of consolidation but with double drainage? (a)4t (b)2t (c)t/2 (d)t/4

26. In a consolidation test void ratio decreased from 0.80 to 0.70 when the load was changed from 40 KN/m2 to 80 KN/m2. What is the compression index? (a) 0.14 (b) 0.16 (c) 0.33 (d) 0.66 27. In a consolidation test the sample tested has height H; water constant is W; specific gravity of solids G. After increasing the loading by an increment , the height decrease is . Which one of the following expresses the corresponding change in void ratio ? ( ) (a) (b) ( )

23. If is increment of pressure on a normally consolidated saturated soil mass, as per Terzaghis theory at the instant of application of pressure increment i.e., when time t = 0, what is the pore pressure development in the soil mass? (a)Zero (b)Very much less than (c)Equal to (d)Greater than

(c)

(d)

24. Match List-I (Term) with List-II (Definition) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists (where e is void ratio, p is effective vertical stress, k is permeability and is unit weight of water): List-I A. Compression index, Cc B. Coefficient of compressibility, a v C. Coefficient of volume change, mv

28. Consider the following statements: 1. Coefficients of consolidation normally increases with decreasing liquid limit of clay. 2. The larger the value of coefficient of consolidation, the longer it takes for full consolidation to occur. Which of these statements is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering


29. During the consolidation of a clay layer, if instead of double drainage, the drainage is allowed at single face only, the rate of compression will be (a)4 times slower (b)4 times faster

Topic: Consolidation
35. Settlement due to creep in soils is contingent on (a) Primary consolidation (b) Secondary consolidation (c) Initial consolidation

(c)2 times slower (d)2 times faster (d) Compaction settlement 36. Consider the following statements: 1. mathematically speaking, the time taken for 100% consolidation is infinite. 2. The time factor for a particular average degree of consolidation depends upon the distribution of initial excess hydrostatic pressure. 3. Secondary consolidation obeys Terzaghis one-dimensional theory of consolidation. Which of these statements are correct? (a)1, 2 and 3 (b)1 and 2 only (c)2 and 3 only (d)1 and 3 only

30. A clay sample, originally 26 mm thick at a void ratio of 1.22, was subjected to a compressive load. After the clay sample was completely consolidated, its thickness was measured to be 24 mm. What is the final void ratio? (a)1.322 (b)1.421 (c)1.311 (d)1.050 31. A 1 m thick layer of saturated clay, drained at both faces by 10 cm in one year. If a thin layer of pervious soil introduced in the middle of this layer, then what will be the period during which the settlement of 10 cm will be completed? (a)4 years (b)0.5 years (c)0.25 years (d)2 years 32. Considerable loss of shear strength due to shock or disturbance is exhibited by (a) under-consolidated clays (b) normally consolidated clays (c) over-consolidated clays (d) organic soil 33. During consolidation process of clayey soils, indicate the sequence of occurrence of the following events in the order from first to last 1. Load being taken up by the pore-water 2. Load being taken up by the soil grains 3. Drainage of water from the pores of the soil (a)1, 2 and 3 (c) 1, 3 and 2 (b)2, 3 and 1 (d) 2, 1 and 3

37. Consider the following statements: 1. Consolidation time increases with increasing compressibility. 2. Consolidation time decreases with increasing permeability. 3. Consolidation time is dependent on the magnitude of stress increase. Which of these statements are correct? (a)1, 2 and 3 (b)1 and 2 only (c)2 and 3 only (d)1 and 3 only

34. If, instead of single drainage, the number of drainage faces is increased to two in responding soils, the rate of compression will be (a)4 times slower (c) 4 times faster (b)2 times slower (d) 2 times faster

38. The coefficient of consolidation is used for a) Establishing the duration of primary consolidation b) Establishing the amount of settlement for a load increment c) Determining the depth to which the soil is stressed when loads are applied on the surface of a soil deposit d) Determining the pre-consolidation pressure for soil deposits known to be over-consolidated. 39. A standard Oedometer test in the laboratory indicated that 0.02 m thick clay specimen took 0.5 day to undergo 90% primary consolidation. How many days will a 2m thick layer of identical clay

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Sub: Geotechnical Engineering


sandwiched between sand layers and subjected to an identical stress increment take to undergo the same? 40. The slope of the e-log P curve for a soil mass gives a) Co-efficient of permeability b) Coefficient of consolidation c) Compression index d) Coefficient of volume compressibility 41. A settlement analysis carried out proposed structure indicates that 9 cm of settlement will occur in 5 years and the final settlement will occur in 50 year and final settlement will be 45 cm based on double drainage exists. Estimate the settlement at the end of 5 years for the changed condition. 42. In the laboratory test on a clay sample of thickness 25mm drained at top only, 50% consolidation occurred in 11 minutes. Find the time required for the corresponding clay layer in the field 3m thick and drained at top and bottom, to undergo 70% consolidation. Assume c)

Topic: Consolidation
Is a function of the pore water pressure d) Is a function of the total stress 46. A building is constructed on the ground surface beneath which there is a 2m thick saturated clay layer sand witched between two highly pervious layers. The building starts setting with time if =2.5 cm/s. in how many days will the building reach half of its final settlement?

47. In an Oedometer test, a specimen of saturated clay 19 mm reaches 50% consolidation in 20 minutes. How long it would take a layer of this clay 5m thick to reach the same degree of consolidation under the same stress and drainage conditions? How long would it take for the clay layer to reach 30% consolidation? 48. A normally consolidated clay layer settled by 20 mm when the effective stress was increased from 25 KN/ to 50 KN/ . What will be the settlement when the effective stress is increased from 50 KN/ to 100 KN/ 49. Certain clay has a thickness of 5 m. after 1 year when the clay was 50% consolidated, 8cm of settlement had occurred. For similar clay and loading conditions, how much settlement would occur at the end of 1 year and 4 years respectively, if the thickness of this new layer were 25 m. 50. On a reclamination site where the water table is at the ground surface, a layer of silty sand, 4 m thick, over lies a layer of soft clay, 10m thick underlying the clay layer is sandy gravel. A 3 m thick layer of fill is to be laid over the site. Unit wt of fill =21 KN/ , of silty sand=20 KN/ , of clay=18 KN/ . of clay= 2.2 /KN. of the clay= 0.8 year. Calculate the consolidation settlement of the clay layer due to the placing of the fill

43. A clay layer 8m thick is subjected to a pressure of 70 KN/ . If the layer has a double drainage and undergoes 50% consolidation ( ) in one year. Determine the coefficient of consolidation? If the K is 0.04 m/year find settlement in one year. Use KN/ 44. The time for a clay layer to achieve 90% consolidation is 15 years. The time required to achieve 90% consolidation, if the layer were twice as thick, 3 times more permeable and 4 times more compressible would be a) 70 years b) 75 years c) 80 years d) 85 years 45. Consolidation in soils a) Is a function of effective stress b) Does not depend on the present stress

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