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Cellular Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis

AP Biology

2007-2008

Whats the point?

The point is to make

ATP!

ATP
AP Biology
2007-2008

Glycolysis
Breaking down glucose

glyco lysis (splitting sugar)

glucose pyruvate 2x 3C 6C

In the cytosol? Why does that make evolutionary sense?

ancient pathway which harvests energy


where energy transfer first evolved transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP still is starting point for all cellular respiration

but its inefficient


generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose

occurs in cytosol

AP Biology

Evolutionary perspective
Prokaryotes

first cells had no organelles life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2

Anaerobic atmosphere

Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors


of all modern life

ALL cells still utilize glycolysis


You mean were related? Do I have to invite them over for the holidays?

AP Biology

Overview
10 reactions

glucose C-C-C-C-C-C
enzyme enzyme

2 ATP 2 ADP

convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P enzyme enzyme 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme DHAP G3P produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P 2H consumes: 2Pi enzyme 2 ATP enzyme net: 2Pi enzyme 2 ATP & 2 NADH
DHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate AP Biology G3P = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

2 NAD+ 2

4 ADP
4 ATP

pyruvate C-C-C

Glycolysis summary
ENERGY INVESTMENT

endergonic invest some ATP

ENERGY PAYOFF

G3P C-C-C-P

4ATP

exergonic harvest a little ATP & a little NADH


like $$ in the bank

NET YIELD

AP Biology

yield 2 ATP 2 NADH

1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions)


Glucose priming

Glucose 1 ATP hexokinase ADP Glucose 6-phosphate 2 phosphoglucose isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate ATP ADP 3 phosphofructokinase P O CH2 O CH2 O P CH2 O O P CH2OH CH2OH O

get glucose ready to split


phosphorylate

CH2 O O

glucose molecular rearrangement

split destabilized glucose


P O CH2 C

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
4,5 aldolase isomerase Glyceraldehyde 3 -phosphate (G3P) H C O CHOH CH2 O O O P

O Dihydroxyacetone CH2OH phosphate NAD+

AP Biology

Pi NAD+ Pi 6 glyceraldehyde NADH NADH 3-phosphate P dehydrogenase 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG)

CHOH CH2 O

2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions)


Energy Harvest
NAD+ Pi

G3P C-C-C-P
Pi

NADH production
G3P donates H oxidize sugar reduce NAD+

NAD+ NADH

NADH ADP ATP 7 phosphoglycerate kinase

ADP ATP

OC CHOH CH2 OC O H C O CH2OH OP O P

3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG)

3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG)

NAD+

NADH

8 phosphoglyceromutase 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) H2O 9 enolase 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) H2O

ATP production
G3P pyruvate PEP sugar donates P

ADP ATP

C C CH2 OC

O O

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) ADP ATP

AP Biology

Payola! Finally some ATP!

ADP

10 pyruvate kinase Pyruvate Pyruvate

ATP

C O CH3

Substrate-level Phosphorylation
In the last steps of glycolysis, where did
the P come from to make ATP?

9 the sugar substrate (PEP) enolase HO


2

OH2O C C CH2 OC ATP O O O

P is transferred from PEP to ADP kinase enzyme ADP ATP

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) ADP ATP Pyruvate

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) ADP

10 pyruvate kinase Pyruvate

C O CH3

ATP

AP Biology

I get it! The PO4 came directly from the substrate!

Energy accounting of glycolysis


2 ATP 2 ADP

glucose pyruvate 2x 3C 6C

4 ADP

4 ATP

Net gain = 2 ATP

All that work! And thats all I get?

some energy investment (-2 ATP) small energy return (+4 ATP)

1 6C sugar 2 3C sugars
AP Biology

Is that all there is? Not a lot of energy

for 1 billon years+ this is how life on Earth survived


no O2= slow growth, slow reproduction only harvest 3.5% of energy stored in glucose more carbons to strip off = more energy to harvest

O2

O2 O2

glucose pyruvate 2x 3C 6C
Hard way to make a living!

O2
AP Biology

O2

We cant stop there!

DHAP
NAD+ NADH 1,3-BPG Pi Pi

G3P
NAD+

NADH
1,3-BPG

Glycolysis
glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2 NAD+ 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH

Going to run out of NAD+


without regenerating NAD+, energy production would stop! another molecule must accept H from NADH AP Biology

recycle NADH

How is NADH recycled to NAD+?


Another molecule must accept H from NADH
H2O O2 with oxygen without oxygen

aerobic respiration
pyruvate NAD+ NADH acetyl-CoA NADH NAD+

anaerobic respiration
fermentation CO2 acetaldehyde NADH NAD+

recycle NADH

lactate (lactic acid)

which path you use depends on AP Biology who you are

Krebs cycle

ethanol

Fermentation (anaerobic) Bacteria, yeast


pyruvate ethanol + CO2
3C
NADH

2C
NAD+

1C

beer, wine, bread

to glycolysis

Animals, some fungi


pyruvate lactic acid
3C
NADH

3C
NAD+ to glycolysis

AP Biology

cheese, anaerobic exercise (no O2)

Alcohol Fermentation
pyruvate ethanol + CO2
3C
NADH

bacteria yeast

2C
NAD+

1C

Dead end process


at ~12% ethanol, kills yeast cant reverse the reaction
Count the carbons!

AP Biology

animals

Lactic Acid Fermentation


pyruvate lactic acid
3C
NADH NAD+

O2

Reversible process
once O2 is available, lactate is converted back to pyruvate by the liver
Count the carbons!
AP Biology

3C

Pyruvate is a branching point


Pyruvate O2 fermentation anaerobic respiration mitochondria Krebs cycle aerobic respiration
AP Biology

O2

Whats the point?

The point is to make

ATP!

ATP
AP Biology
2007-2008

H+

And how do we do that? H ATP synthase


set up a H+ gradient allow H+ to flow through ATP synthase powers bonding of Pi to ADP

H+
H+

H+
H+

H+
H+

ADP + P ATP
H+

ADP + Pi ATP
AP Biology But Have we done that yet?

NO! Theres still more to my story! Any Questions?

AP Biology

2007-2008