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Name: ____________________________________________________ Bate: _______________________

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1. Which of the following evolutionaiy piocesses is !"# baseu on ianuom factois.
a. Natuial selection
b. Nutation
c. uene flow
u. Bottlenecks (the bottleneck effect)

2. Which of the following is !"# a sexually selecteu tiait.
a. Fiuit fly wing coloi
b. A lion's mane
c. The biiu calls of the lyie biiu
u. The uancing of the blue-footeu boobies (biiu)

S. An auaptation
a. Cannot be alteieu
b. Evolves because it specifically impioves an inuiviuual's mating success
c. Affects the fitness of an oiganism if it is alteieu
u. Can be ueleteiious oi fatal to an oiganism

4. Which of the following is !"# a iequiiement foi natuial selection to occui.
a. vaiiation between inuiviuuals
b. Beiitability of the tiait being selecteu
c. Sexual iepiouuction
u. Biffeiences in iepiouuctive success among inuiviuuals
e. Suivival of the fittest

S. A population of fiogs consists of 9% with speckles (the iecessive conuition) anu 91% without
speckles. What aie the fiequencies of the p anu q alleles if this population is in Baiuy-Weinbeig
a. p=u.49, q=u.S1
b. p=u.6u, q=u.4u
c. p=u.7u, q=u.Su
u. p=u.49, q=u.Su
e. p=u.49, q=u.u9

6. The Baiuy-Weinbeig foimula is useu to estimate the fiequency of caiiieis of alleles that cause
genetic uisoiueis anu tiaits. In consiueiing the Baiuy-Weinbeig equilibiium equation
a. p iepiesents the numbei of uominant inuiviuuals
b. q iepiesents the numbei of iecessive inuiviuuals
c. p
+ 2pq iepiesents the peicent of inuiviuuals expiessing the uominant phenotype
u. q
iepiesents the numbei of iecessive alleles

7. All of the following aie piezygotic (pie-iepiouuctive) isolating mechanisms %&'%()
a. Tempoial isolation
b. Bybiiu steiility
c. uamete incompatibility
u. Behavioial isolation

8. The differences in cricket calls among sympatric species of crickets is an example of
________________________ isolation.
a. Habitat
b. Temporal
c. Physiological
d. Behavioral
e. Geographic

9. In a population that is in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, the frequency of a recessive allele for a certain
hereditary trait is 0.20. What percentage of the individuals would be expected to show the dominant
a. 8%
b. 16%
c. 32%
d. 64%
e. 96%

10. The appearance of a fertile, polyploidy individual within a population of diploid organisms is a possible
source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population, scientists
would consider this to be an example of:
a. Allopatric speciation
b. Sympatric speciation
c. Polygenic inheritance
d. Genetic drift
e. Gene equilibrium

11. Which of the following statements best expresses the concept of punctuated equilibrium?
a. Small variations gradually accumulate in evolving lineages over periods of millions of years.
b. Random mating ensures that the proportions of genotypes in a population remain unchanged
from generation to generation.
c. Stability is achieved when selection favors the heterozygotic while both types of homozygotes
are at a disadvantage.
d. Evolutionary changes consist of rapid bursts of speciation alternating with long periods in which
species remain essentially unmodified.
e. Under competition for identical resources one of the two competing species will be eliminated or

In the forests of the southeastern United States can be found several closely related frog species of the genus
Rana. The species boundaries are maintained by reproductive isolating mechanisms. In each case, match the
various descriptions of frogs with the appropriate reproductive isolating mechanisms given. There is only one
correct response for each item, but some mechanisms may be used more than once; others not at all. Place your
answer on the line (just writing the letter is fine).

12. Males of one species sing only during rainy conditions; males of another
species sing only when it is not raining.
13. One species lives only in tree holes; another species lives only in
14. Females of one species choose mates based on song quality; another
species chooses mates based on size.
A. Behavioral
B. Gametic
C. Habitat (ecological)
D. Temporal
E. Mechanical

A moths color is controlled by two alleles, G and g, at a single locus. G (gray) is dominant to g (white). A
large population of moths was studied and the frequency of the G allele in the population over time was
documented, as shown in the figure below. In 1980 a random sample of 2,000 pupae was collected and moths
were allowed to emerge.

15. During which of the
following time periods could
the population have been in

I. 1960 1964
II. 1965 1972
III. 1973 1980

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and III only
e. I, II, and III

16. Assuming that the population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for the G locus, what percentage of
the moths in the natural population was white in 1962?
a. 2%
b. 4%
c. 8%
d. 20%
e. 64%

17. Assuming the population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for the G locus, what percentage of the
gray moths that emerged in 1980 was heterozygous?
a. 0%
b. 33%
c. 50%
d. 67%
e. 100%

18. Assuming the population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for the G locus, what was the frequency
of allele G in the gray moths that emerged in the 1980s?
a. 0.33
b. 0.50
c. 0.67
d. 0.75
e. 1.00

19. Which of the following is the most likely reason for the observed differences in the frequency of the G
allele between 1965 and 1972?
a. Emigration of white moths from the population
b. Chance
c. Selection against gray phenotypes
d. Speciation
e. Mutation
2u. 0.'12'(3 The allele foi the ability to ioll one's tongue is uominant ovei the allele foi the lack of this
ability. In a population of 1,uuu inuiviuuals, 2S% show the iecessive phenotype. Bow many
*!+*,*+-./0 woulu you expect to be homozygous uominant foi this tiait.

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