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Apa Itu Penyelidikan ?

Menjalankan penyelidikan bermaksud mencari maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai sesuatu perkara ,
menyelami lebih lanjut, menjalankan kajian menyeluruh atau menyiasat dengan lebih mendalam.

Penyelidikan di definasikan sebagai penyiasatan yang penuh berhati-hati, mendalam, secara


bijak dan meluas mengenai sesuatu perkara atau subjek spesifik, dengan bertujuan
meningkatkan dan meluaskan ilmu pengetahuan manusia sejagat. (Manheim, 1977, mukasurat
4)

Penyelidikan adalah aktiviti penyelesaian masalah yang membawa kepada pengetahuan dan
penemuan baru dengan mengunakan kaedah mengenalpasti dan persoalan yang sedang
digunapakai oleh sarjana-sarjana didalam bidang tersebut. (Helmstadter, 1970, mukasurat 5)

Penyelidikan adalah suatu penyiasatan atau ujikaji yang bertujuan menemukan dan
mengintrepretasikan fakta-fakta, mengulang semula teori yang diterima didalam penemuan baru
atau amalan penggunaan teori atau undang undang dan peraturan baru atau yang digunapakai
semula. (Woolf, 1975 mukasurat 984)

Penyelidikan adalah persoalan berhati-hati atau pengujian bertujuan mendapatkan atau


menemukan maklumat atau perhubungan dan mengembangkan dan mengesahkan pengetahuan
tersedia (Rummel dan Ballaine – Research and Methodology in Business)

Penyelidikan Saintifik adalah kaedah penyelidikan bersistematik dan diperhalusi dengan


mengunakan peralatan dan prosedur tertentu bagi mendapatkan penyelesaian bermakna bagi
sesuatu masaalah dari pengunaan kaedah yang tidak membawa makna (Rummel dan Ballaine –
Research and Methodology in Business)

Kerjasama adalah dipohon dari peserta kursus untuk memperbetulkan terjemahan-


terjemahan berikut , petikan diambil dari nota Hj Kamudin. Rasional permintaan ini adalah
untuk melihat sejauh mana peserta memberi kerjasama dan membuktikan :

Ho : peserta kursus metodologi adalah kumpulan yang hanya mementingkan diri sendiri ;

Ha : peserta kursus metodologi adalah kumpulan yang tidak mementingkan diri sendiri;

Mari kita sama-sama tunggu dan lihat beberapa ramai dari peserta yang akan membantu
menterjemahkan perkara ini. Tetapi saya yakin ramai akan buat tak peduli sahaja.

Ciri-Ciri Penyelidikan

• Ia bermula dengan satu persoalan didalam pemikiran seorang penyelidik


• Ia memerlukan satu perancangan
• Ia menuntut kenyataan yang jelas mengenai sesuatu masaalah
• Ia melibatkan permasaalahan utama dengan permasalaahan berkaitan
• Ia mencari tuju arah melalui hipotesis berkenaan
• Ia melibatkan fakta dan makna fakta
• Ia adalah berhubungkait Menghimpun dan Menganalisa Data (Prinsip 4A)
• Availability (Sumber Tersedia) ia adalah agak sukar untuk mendapatkan data dari
menentukan jenis data yang diperlukan
• Authenticity (Perakuan) penyelidik mestilah memastikan ketepatan data
• Adequacy (Mencukupi) merujuk kepada perolehan data samada mencukupi bagi
membolehkan kesimpulan sah dinyatakan
• Validity (Kesahan) penyelidik hendaklah memastikan data dan maklumat adalah
tepat dan sah
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Jenis-Jenis Penyelidikan

Sejarah (Historical)

Membina semula perkara yang selepas secara sistematik dengan mengumpul, menilai,
mengesah dan sintesiskan fakta bagi menemukan rumusan yang dipertahankan.

e.g. Kajian Asal-Usul Agama Islam di Malaysia

bergantung kepada data sekunder yang diperhatikan atau pengamatan;


mestilah mantap, bersistematik dan banyak serta bercambah;
bergantung kepada data primer, dimana penulis memerhatikan kejadian yang direkodkan;
kritikan asas mengambil kira nilai data dalam bentuk kritikan luaran yang mempersoalkan
kesahan dokumen dan kritikan dalaman yang mempersoalkan ketepatan dan kerelevanan data;
menyelidik informasi dari sumber yang banyak termasuk bahan-bahan lama dan yang tidak
diterbitkan.

Petikan (Descriptive)

Menerangkan populasi atau kehendak minat secara sistematik dan tepat

e.g. Kajian dan definisi keatas bilangan jawatan didalam Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam
Kajian keatas petani-petani Malaysia

berteraskan perasaan untuk menerangkan keadaan


pengumpulan rumusan data yang bercirikan petikan

Kajian Tindakan

Membentuk kaedah baru dan jalan menyelesaikan masaalah dengan aplikasi terus dengan
kehendak dunia pekerjaan

menghubung terus keadaan sebenar dengan perubahan orgnisasi


menyediakan rangkakerja teratur bagi menyelesaikan masaalah
fleksibel dan digunapakai
pengstrukturan semula dengan insuran

Kajian Tinjauan (Exploratory)

Mengkaji sesuatu masaalah, fenomena atau hal baru dalam aturan bertujuan mengetahui,
menganalisa atau memperakui masalaah, fenomena atau hal yang dikaji. Dijalankan bagi
membolehkan kajian dijalankan atau dijalankan kemudiannya

Kajian tinjauan berusaha untuk mendapatkan jawapan bagi soalan-soalan berikut : samada
masaalah itu benar-benar wujud, apakah jenis masaalah yang dihadapi, berapa beratkah
masaalah tersebut, patutkah kita menumpukan dan memberi perhatian kepada masaalah
tersebut.

Bergantung kepada tahap liputan kajian


Melibatkan pelbagai disiplin
Bergantung kepada objektif kajian eg. Kajian pengesanan awal

Kajian Hubungan (Casual Relationship)

Kajian ini mencuba untuk menwujudkan hubungkait pembolehubah. Kajian ini bermaksud
sesuatu perkara atau hal adalah factor penyebab atau penentu kepada hasilan perkara atau hal
yang dikaji.
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Bergantung kepada penentuan pembolehubah dependent atau independent
Bergantung kepada ketepatan data yang dikumpul
Bergantung kepada kekuatan hubungkait

e.g hubungkait diantara program latihan dengan produktiviti

Kajian Eksperimen

Kajian ini adalah untuk membuktikan atau memastikan sesuatu keputusan melalui ujian yang
dijalankan mengikut sesuatu prosedur atau kaedah sebelum sesuatu rumusan di nyatakan

Bergantung kepada kaedah atau teknik ujian dijalankan


Bergantung kepada bilangan /unit ujian yang digunakan
Bergantung kepada kesahan dan kepbolehpercayaan data dalaman

References

What Is a Research
What Is A Survey
A Guide To Writing A Research Paper
Social Science Research Network
American Educational Research Journal
American Journal of Education
American Journal for Vocational Education Research
British Educational Research Journal
British Educational Research Journal
Australian Educational Research Journal
Statistics Research Educational Journal
Proses Penyelidikan

Proses Merancang dan Merekabentuk Penyelidikan

Tentukan masalaah sebenar/spesifik penyelidikan (Define)


Mulakan dengan menumpukan permasaalahan sebenar (Initiate)
Nyatakan alasan sebenar tujuan menjalankan penyelidikan (Justify)
Nyatakan objektif menjalankan penyelidikan (Objective)
Kaji semula maklumat asal (Literature review)
Sejarah masaalah penyelidikan (History)
Membuat jangkaan peluang kejayaan (Estimating)
Konsep masaalah penyelidikan
Pandangan mengenai kajian semula maklumat asal
Kerangka teori masaalah penyelidikan
Soalan-Soalan Penyelidikan
Hipotesis yang akan dijalankan
Populasi yang akan dikaji
Memilih dan menentukan kaedah penyelidikan
Kaedah penganalisaan yang akan dijalankan
Data yang akan dikumpulkan
Kaedah pengumpulan data
Memilih dan menentukan alat pengumpulan data
Menulis laporan
Mengurus dan mentadbir penyelidikan

Ciri-Ciri Proses Penyelidikan

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Masaalah dinyatakan dengan jelas
Hipotesis dinyatakan dengan jelas
Masaalah adalah bermakna (significant)
Anggapan yang dibuat hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas
Batasan kajian dinyatakan (Limitations)
Isitilah/makna sesuatu perkara hendaklah dinyatakan (terms)
Hubungkait permasaalahan dengan penyelidikan sebelumnya hendaklah jelas dam nyata
Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah dinyatakan sepenuhnya
Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah sesuai dengan penyelesaian permasaalahan
Rekabentuk kajian hendaklah bebas dari sebarang kelemahan
Populasi dan sampel kajian mestilah dinyatakan
Kaedah persampelan adalah sesuai
Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah dinyatakan
Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah sesuai dengan penyelesaian
permasaalahan
Kaedah pengumpulan data atau prosedur hendaklah digunakan dengan tepat dan betul
Kesahan (validity) dan kebolehpercayaan (realibility) bukti dan fakta kajian dikumpul dan di
adakan
Kaedah yang sesuai digunakan untuk penganalisaan data
Kaedah penganalisaan data hendaklah digunakan dengan betul
Keputusan analisa hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas dan benar
Rumusan hendaklah dinyatakan dengan jelas
Rumusan hendaklah disokong dengan penemuan bukti yang diperolehi
Rumusan dan kesimpulan kajian hendaklah terbatas kepada populasi dari mana sampel
diperolehi
Laporan hendaklah ditulis dengan jelas dan teratur
Laporan hendaklah di atur dan disusun secara logic
Nada laporan hendaklah adil, saksama, tidak berat sebelah dan saintifik

METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN 2004


(Untuk Kajian Biasa)
Rumuskan
Masaalah
Asal

Rumuskan
Hipotesis

Jalankan Temuan METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN


Rumusan 2004
Penyelidikan Permasaalahan Semula
Awal Berlainan Permasaalahan

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Jalankan (Untuk Kegunaan Kaedah Saintifik/Akademik) Rumusan
Penyelidikan Semula
Sebenar Hipotesis
Data Asal

Analisa Penemuan Rumusan


Pendapat (Estimation)
Penyelidikan Hasilan
Kenal Pasti Masaalah Ubah Hipotesis

Teori
Cadangan
Hipotesis
Tolak Hipotesis
Model
Kajian Awal

Pengumpulan Data

Analisa Data

Ujian Hipotesis

Penerimaan Hipotesis

Penemuan

Rumusan

Cadangan

Panduan Pembentukkan Hipotesis Kajian dan Mengenalpasti Permasaalahan

Sebelum kita meneruskan, disertakan sedikit keterangan mengenai hipotesis.


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Menurut Fraenkel (1993) menyatakan hipotesis ialah merupakan suatu ramalan terhadap
kemungkinan dapatan di dalam penyelidikan. Menurut Ahmad Mahdzan Ayob (1992)
menyatakan bahawa hipotesis ialah merupakan saranan sementara tentang hubungan antara
dua angkubah (atau lebih) yang didapati melalui deduksi. Menurut Maleske (1995) menyatakan
bahawa hipotesis ialah merupakan peramalan terhadap apa yang akan berlaku pada masa
hadapan. Ianya berbeza dengan teori yang merupakan penerangan tentatif berkaitan kenapa
sesuatu tingkah laku itu berlaku.

Jenis – jenis Hipotesis

Di dalam membentuk hoptesis terdapat dua jenis yang utama (Mohd Majid,1998). Antaranya
ialah :

1. Hipotesis Induktif. Di dalam hipotesis ini ianya dibentuk melalui proses cerapan. Di
dalam hipotesis ini penyelidik akan menentukan susur galur dan kemungkinan hubungan
antara pemboleh ubah yang dikaji.

2. Hipotesis deduksi. Di dalam hipotesis ini ianya dibentuk daripada teori. Ianya akan
memandu penyelidikan ke arah sistem pengetahuan yang lebih umum.

Kelebihan menggunakan Hipotesis

Menurut Fraenkel (1993) menyatakan kelebihan menggunakan hipotesis di dalam penyelidikan


ialah :

1. Penyelidikan boleh dilakukan dengan lebih mendalam.


2. Dengan memulakan dengan hipotesis ianya melibatkan falsafah sains.
3. Dengan menggunakan hipotesis ianya dapat mengesan atau tidak hubungan antara
perkara yang dikaji.
4. Mengetahui perkara yang ingin dikaji.

Ciri – Ciri hipotesis

Di dalam membentuk hipotesis yang baik terdapat beberapa ciri hipotesis yang baik. Antaranya
ialah :

1. Menduga hubungan antara dua atau lebih pemboleh ubah. Dengan kata lain ianya cuba
untuk mengkaji sama ada kedua – dua hubungan tersebut mempunyai hubungan
ataupun tidak (mampu diuji).

2. Hipotesis tersebut seharusnya dinyatakan secara logik, jelas dan terang. Dengan kata
lain ianya harus seragam dan tepat terhadap apa yang ingin diukur.

3. Selain itu ianya berupaya untuk diuji sama ada hipotesis itu ditolak atau disahkan. Ianya
cuba untuk mengenal pasti apakah hubungan antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah
tersebut. Ini bermaksud bahawa ianya cuba untuk membandingkan sama ada terdapat
perkaitan atau tidak pada bab hasil dan perbincangan.

4. Hipotesis itu juga seharusnya bersifat khusus dan bukannya bersifat umum. Jelasnya
hipotesis yang dibentuk adalah khusus kepada sesuatu perkara yang ingin diukur. Ianya
tidak boleh melebihi daripada apa yang seharusnya dan bersifat umum. Jelasnya ia
perlu mengukur pemboleh ubah – pemboleh ubah yang dikaji sahaja.
5. Hipotesis yang dibentuk juga seharusnya berbentuk khusus agar ianya berupaya
dijadikan panduan. Jika hipotesis tersebut adalah khusus, secara tidak langsung ianya

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akan memudahkan proses untuk memastikan terdapat hubungan / perkaitan atau
perbezan antara pemboleh ubah - pemboleh ubah tersebut.
6. Sesuatu hipotesis tidak seharusnya mempunyai pertimbangan nilai, moral atau etika iaitu
saranan yang menyatakan sesuatu itu baik atau buruk (Ahmad Mahdzan Ayob, 1992).
7. Hipotesis yang dijalankan seharusnya dinyatakan secara konsepsi sahaja dan tidak
dinyatakan dengan operasional (Ahamd Mahdzan Ayob,1992).
8. Mempunyai hubungan antara teori yang ingin dikaji (Sharma et al, 1988).
9. Perlu spesifik terhadap perkara yang ingin dikaji.

Pembentukan Hipotesis berasaskan Tanggapan

Di dalam menentukan hipotesis kajian, penyelidik berhadapan dengan realiti dua tahap yang
penting bagi memastikan pengukuran kajian dapat dijalankan. Dua tahap tersebut ialah :

1. Tahap Operasional. Bagi tahap opersional penyelidik seharusnya mentakrifkan


fenomena - fenomena di dalam istilah yang boleh diperhatikan dan diuji. Ianya hampir
sama dengan definisi operasional.

2. Tahap Konseptual. Bagi tahap konseptual penyelidik seharusnya mentakrifkan


fenomena - fenomena dalam istilah yang asas (dasar) bersama dengan kejadian lain.
Konsep sedemikian sememangnya sukar untuk diukur. Ini kerana ianya melibatkan
definisi yang luas. Ianya hampir sama dengan definisi konseptual. Jelasnya penyelidik
perlu menggunakan definisi operasional di dalam proses pengukuran.

Pengujian Hipotesis

Pengujian hipotesis ialah satu proses untuk memastikan sama ada sesuatu andaian saintifik
yang dilakukan itu diterima atau sebaliknya. Tujuan utamanya ialah untuk menentukan probabiliti
(kemungkinan) yang sesuatu itu adalah benar dan dapat disokong oleh fakta.

Daripada sini hipotesis kajian boleh dibentuk sama ada hipotesis tersebut berarah atau tidak
berarah. Hipotesis yang berarah ialah merupakan hipotesis yang menentukan arah jangkaan
jawapan kajian dan sebaliknya bagi hipotesis tidak berarah.

Pernyataan Hipotesis

Di dalam membentuk hipotesis terdapat dua jenis hipotesis yang sering digunakan. Antaranya
ialah :

1. Hipotesis Nul (kosong)

Hipotesis ini adalah merupakan hipotesis sementara yang tidak pincang (Mohd Majid, 1998).
Ianya adalah merupakan hipotesis negatif atau menunjukkan tiada perbezaan / tiada terdapat
persamaan / tiada perhubungan / tiada terdapat perkaitan antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah
(sama ada berarah atau tidak berarah).

2. Hipotesis Alternatif / penyelidikan

Ianya biasa dibentuk pada peringkat awal sesuatu penyelidikan (Mohd Majid, 1998). Hipotesis ini
digunakan sebelum data dicerapkan. Ianya adalah merupakan versi hipotesis positif atau
menunjukkan terdapat hubungan / terdapat persamaan / terdapat perbezaan / terdapat perkaitan
antara kedua – dua pemboleh ubah (sama ada berarah atau tidak berarah).

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Selalunya di dalam penulisan kedua – dua hipotesis nul dan alternatif ditulis sekali. Walau
bagaimanapun terdapat juga hanya hipotesis nul sahaja yang ditulis. Ianya banyak bergantung
kepada penyelidik. Ini tidak bermaksud hipotesis alternatif tidak wujud ; ianya tetap wujud.

Walau bagaimanapun hipotesis nul adalah amat diperlukan kerana ianya mampu untuk membuat
interpretasi terhadap tujuan hipotesis dan interpretasi. Ini terutama jika ianya diterima atau
ditolak. Cumanya jika hipotesis nul ditolak maka pilihannya adalah hipotesis alternatif.

Beberapa perkara perlu diambil kira dalam menjalankan pembentukan hipotesis dan
mengenalpasti permasaalahan. Di antaranya adalah kita perlu tahu akan :

1. sebab dan akibat/kesan


2. objektif – pencapaian, ruang diantara perancangan dan kejadian kemungkinan
3. pencapaian dan polisi atau dasar
4. rangkakerja polisi iaitu pelaksanaannya
5. kajian awal
6. penyelidikan/kajian sedia ada
7. sejarah atau latar belakang
8. kaedah membuat penilaian
9. penjelasan
10. komen , komplen
11. trend semasa
12. perubahan pada persekitaran
13. ruangan diantara kejadian sebenar dan perancangan
14. laporan dan kejadian sebenar
Pengunaan Pembolehubah bagi Pembinaan Hipotesis

Pembolehubah (variables) adalah satu bahan yang berlainan bentuk. Ia adalah simbol bagi
pernomboran atau nilai yang dinyatakan e.g jantina, pendapatan, kelas sosial dan sbgnya.
Pembolehubah yang di waikil oleh X boleh dimasukkan sebagao sebarang nilai set e.g. dalam
kes kepandaian kita memberi nilai sebagai contoh rendah hingga tinggi atau 50 hingga 100.
Pembolehubah juga boleh mempunyai hanya dua nilai seperti jantina (lelaki, perempuan).

Jenis-Jenis Pembolehubah

1 Pembolehubah bebas (independent) adalah pembolehubah yang menjadi penyebab


sesuatu perkara kejadian
2 Pembolehubah bersandar (dependent) adalah pembolehubah yang dihasilkan oleh kesan
pembolehubah bebas
3 Pembolehubah aktif adalah pembolehubah yang boleh dimanupulasi seperti cara
pemakanan, kepercayaan politik
4 Pembolehubah penyumbang (attributes) adalah pembolehubah yang boleh dimanupulasi
tetapi boleh di ukur seperti sikap manusia, kebolehan
5 Pembolehubah discrete adalah pembolehubah yang boleh diukur secara unit menyeluruh
seperti bilangan anak didalam keluarga
6 Pembolehubah berterusan (continous) adalah pembolehubah yang boleh mewakili nilai
diantara dua nilai yang diberi seperti tumbesaran kanak-kanak
7 Pembolehubah terkawala dalah sama dengan pembolehubah berterusan
8 Pembolehubah tidak terkawal adalah pembolehubah yang dihasilkanmelalui sesuatu
perkara yang berpunca dari perkara yang lain
9 Pembolehubah kualitatif adalah pembolehubah seperti keadaan rumah, keadaan kesihatan

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10 Pembolehubah discrete dichotomous adalah pembolehubah yang mempunyai hanya dua
kelas atau gred seperti Ya atau Tidak, Mati atau Hidup
11 11 Pembolehubah Kategori Terhad adalah pembolehubah discrete yang mempunyai 3
hingga enam gred seperti taraf perkahwinan -> bujang, bertunangm berkahwin, janda,
duda
12 12 Pembolehubah Kaetgori pelbagao adalah pembolehubah yang mempunyai enam
hingga 20 gred seperti gred sekolah
13 13 Pembolehubah Random adalah pembolehubah yang nilai-nilainya ditentukan secara
proses tidak sengaja yang tidak dikawal oleh pemerhati
14 14 Pembolehubah Constant hanya mempunyai satu nilai K dimana K adalah sebarang
pilihan

Pengukuran dan Pengskalaan

Statististiks menumpukan kepada dua jenis perkara iaitu penerangan data dan juga pengaruh
pembinaan sesuatu populasi yang berdasrakan maklumat terkandung didalam sampel. Tersurat
dalam perkara ini adalah kita sebenarnya boleh membuat pengukuran ciri-ciri berkenaan.

Pemalar dan Pembolehubah (Constant dan Variables)

Apabila pemerhatian keatas sesuatu fenomena atau sesuatu hasilan ujian berterusan didapati
tidak berubah ianya dipanggil “malar” (constant). Contoh bagi malar ialah jika kita bertanya
kepada semua peserta didalam kelas ini berapakah harga yang dibayar untuk memperbaharui
lesen memandu kita akan dapati bahwa jawapan yang diberikan adalah sama.

Apabila pemerhatian terhadap sesuatu fenomena berubah dari satu ujian ke satu ujian yang lain
ianya dipanggil pembolehubah. Contohnya adalah apabila kita bertanya berapakah yang
dibelanja oleh pegawai-pegwai INTAN untuk makan tengahari tentunya kita akan dapati
jawapannya tidak sama kerana perbelanjaan makan tengahari adalah berbeza dari seorang
pegawai dengan yang lain.

Ahli sains sosial biasanya menumpukan pada pemerhatian pembolehubah. Rumusan dan
ringkasan data akan lebih mudah jika pemerhatian dibuat keatas pemalar. Tiada mana-mana
maklumat teori diperlukan untuk dijadikan sandaran jika nilai-nilai pemerhatian adalah constant
dari satu ujian ke satu ujian yang lain.

Pemerhatian terhadap pembolehubah kuantitatif hanya boleh mengambilkira nilai beberapa


bilangan tertentu dan ini dipanggil pembolehubah berasingan (discrete variables). Contohnya
bilangan kanak-kanak didalam sesebuah keluarga. Apabila pemerhatian dibuat keatas
pembolehubah kuantitatif yang boleh mengambil kira pelbagai nilai bilangan pada peringkat-
peringkat tertentu ianya dipanggil sebagai pembolehubah berterusan (continous variable). Bukan
semua pembolehubah yang digunakan didalam bidang sains sosial adalah kuantitatif contohnya
status pekerjaan bagi seorang keseorang yang lain . Pembolehubah kualitatif adalah satu
pemerhatian yang berubah jenis tetapi bukan pada tahap.

Skala Pengukuran bagi Pembolehubah Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif

Ahli sains sosial bersetuju bahawa ada empat skala asas bagi membuat pengukuran. Ia berubah
bagi tahap ke satu tahap dalam mengumpulkan jenis bilangan pembolehubah. Skal yang
dimaksudkan adalah nominal. ordinal, interval dan ratio.
Skala Norminal

Skala Nominal menerangkan kategori tertentu dengan nama. Kategori ini dipanggil tahap
skala. Semua pembolehubah kualitatif diukur dengan skala nominal. Contohnya, kaum boleh
dibahagikan kepada empat jenis iaitu Melayu, Cina , India dan lain-lain agar semua pemerhatian
setiap bakal repsonden boleh diukur atau dikategorikan pada tahap peringkat tertentu.

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Bagaimana pun nombor-nombor ini tidak mewakili mana-mana nilai dan kita tidak boleh
menyatakan peringkat-peringkat tetap tertentu bagi tahap-tahap tersebut

Skala Ordinal

Skala ordinal mengabungkan ciri-ciri skala turutan dan ciri tambahan yang diperhatikan boleh
disusun atau diletakkan dalam turutan dari rendah ke tinggi. Walaupun pada skala ordinal kita
boleh meletakkan tahap pemerhatian dari rendah ke tinggi, kita tidak boleh menetapkan jarak
diantara satu tahap. Contohnya kita boleh mengkelasifikasikan kakitangan awam kepada empat ,
kumpulan A, B, C, dan D tetapi kita tidak boleh menyatakan status tahap atau jarak diantara
kelas tersebut adalah sama diantara satu yang lain.

Skala Interval (Skala Selang)

Skala interval mengabungkan semua ciri-ciri ordinal atau nominal dan kita boleh menyatakan
jarak atau had bagi sesuatu skala. Contohnya adalah seperti Ujian IQ yang sama tahap
dijalankan bagi 8 buah sekolah di sesuatu kawasan , jika purata ujian skor bagi setiap sekolah
seperti yang ditunjukkan dibawah , kita bukan sahaja boleh mengkelaskan purata IQ tersebut dari
tinggi ke rendah tetapi kita boleh juga mengetahui jarak sebenar, yang diukur dalam unit skorbagi
ujian IQ terebut diantara sekolah-sekolah terlibat. Berdasatkan purata skor IQ, skor sekolah 7
lebih mirip dengan skor sekolah 6 dari skor sekolah 8

Keputusan Purata IQ

Sekolah IQ
1 150
2 128
3 126
4 125
5 122
6 120
7 110
8 75

Satu ciri kurang baik skala ini adalah punca skala tidak dinyatakan yakni kita tidak tahu dimana 0
diletakkan, dengan tidak mengetahui dimana 0 diletakkan pada skaal bermakna , kita tidak boleh
mengesahkan nisbah pemerhatian. Sebagai contoh kita mungkin ingin mengetahui nisbah bagi

IQ Sekolah 1 = 150 = 2
IQ Sekolah 8 75

Keputusan yang diperolehi tidak membenarkan kita menyatakan purata pencapaian IQ pelajar
tahun 6 pada Sekolah 1 adalah dua kali lebih baik dari pelajar Sekolah 8. Jika 0 boleh dinyatakan
pada skala selang, skala tersebut menjadi skala nisbah.

Skala Ratio (Nisbah)

Skala nisbah mengabungkan semua ciri skala selang dan ciri tambahan yang membentuk tahao
skala. Contohnya kadar kelahiran, kadar kematian, ketinggian, berat, bilangan pelajar. Kesemua
keempat-empat skala berbeda keupayaan mereka dalam mengkelaskan data.

Kriteria Pengukuran

Tiga kriteria utama dalam membuat penilaian dalam pengukuran ialah kebolehpercayaan
(reliability), kesahihan (validity) dan sensitivity.

Kebolehpercayaan (reliability)
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Soerang tukang jahit mengukur kain dengan mengunakan pita pengukur, mengukur dengan tepat
, panjang kain yang perlu dipotong dan jika tukang jahit tersebut membuat ukuran berulang dan
sentiasa menanggar ukuran yang sama adalah dikatakan pengukuran menggunakan pita
pengukur adalah boleh dipercayao. Apabila hasilan proses mengukur disiapkan , alat pengukuran
dikatakan boleh dipercayai.

Kebolehpercayaan digunakan bagi mengukur keputusan yang sama berbilang kali sepanjang
masa. Secara amnya, kebolehpercayaan adalah tahap pengukuran dimana ianya bebas dari
kesilapan dan menghasilkan keputusan yang tekal (consistent, tidak berubah) Ujian yang
digunakan adalah Alpha-Cronbach.

Kesahihan (Validity)

Tujuan pengukuran ini adalah untuk mengukur apa yang kita ingin ukurkan. Kesahihan
menyatakan pemasalaahan mengenai samada pengukuran yang dijalankan mengukur apa yang
sepatutnya diukur. Kebiasanya kesahihan mengukur kandungan (content), kriteria (criterion) dan
konstruk (construct)

Sensitiviti

Skala sensitiviti adalah konsep pengukuran yang mustahak apabila perubahan sikap atau
hipotetikal konstruk dikaji. Ia merujuk kepada kebolehan instrumen mengukur dengan tepat
kelainan jawapan dan rangsangan.

Dimensi (D) dan Elemen (E) bagi Konsep (K) Pembelajaran

Pembelajar
an (K)

Kefaham Mengingat Aplika


an (D) (D) si (D)

Jawapa Membe Mengingati Menyelsaik Mengabungk


n Diberi ri Sumber an an Sumber
Dengan Contoh Selepas Masaalah , Bahan
Tepat Yang Seketika Mengunaka dengan
(E) Sesuai (E) n konsep, Bahan
(E) faham dan Berkaitan (E)
mengingat
(E)

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Proses Pengukuran

Asingkan
Peristiwa Emperik

Bentuk Konsep
Minat

Huraikan Konsep
Pembentukan dan
Operasi

Bentuk Skala
Pengukuran

Nilai Skala
Mengikut
Kebolehpercayaan
dan Kesahihan

Gunaka
Skala

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Teks: Measurement and Scaling Concepts

I. WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED?
A. Concepts
B. Operational Definitions

II. RULES OF MEASUREMENT

III. TYPES OF SCALES


A. Nominal scale
B. Ordinal scale
C. Interval scale
D. Ratio scale
E. Mathematical and statistical analysis of scales

IV. INDEX MEASURES

V. THREE CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT


A. Reliability
B. Validity
1. Face or content validity
2. Criterion validity
3. Construct validity
4. Convergent validity
5. Discriminant validity
C. Reliability versus validity
D. Sensitivity

I.WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED?

Any researcher has the opportunity to select a measuring system. Unfortunately, many
measurement scales used in business research are not directly comparable. The first question
the researcher must ask is "What is to be measured?" This question is not as simple as it first
seems. A precise definition of the concept may require a description of how it will be measured,
and there is frequently more than one way of measuring a concept. Further, true measurement of
concepts requires a process of precisely assigning scores or numbers to the attributes of people
or objects. To have precise measurement in business research requires a careful conceptual
definition, an operational definition, and a system of consistent rules for assigning numbers or
scales.

A. Concepts: Before the measurement process can occur, the researcher has to identify
and define the concepts relevant to the problem. A concept (or construct) is a
generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes.
Concepts such as brand loyalty, personality, and so on, present great problems in terms
of definition and measurement.
B. Operational definitions: Concepts must be made operational in order to be measured.
An operational definition gives meaning to a concept by specifying the activities or
operations necessary to measure it. It specifies what the investigator must do to measure
the concept under investigation. An operational definition tells the investigator "do such-

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and-such in so-and-so manner." Exhibit 13.2 presents some operational definitions and
measures of job challenge from a study on the quality of life.

II. RULES OF MEASUREMENT

A rule is a guide instructing us what to do. An example of a measurement rule might be "assign
the numerals 1 through 7 to individuals according to how brand loyal they are. If the individual is
an extremely brand loyal individual, assign a 1. If the individual is a total brand switcher with no
brand loyalty, assign a 7." Operational definitions help the researcher specify the rules for
assigning numbers.

III. TYPES OF SCALES

A scale may be defined as any series of items that are progressively arranged according to value
or magnitude into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. In other words, a
scale is a continuous spectrum or series of categories. The purpose of scaling is to represent,
usually quantitatively, an item's, a person's, or an event's place in the spectrum.

The four types of scale in business research are as follows:


A. Nominal scale: The simplest type of scale. The numbers or letters assigned to objects
serve as labels for identification or classification. The first drawing in Exhibit 13.3 depicts
the number 7 on a horse's color. This is merely a label for betters and horse racing
enthusiasts.
B. Ordinal scale: This scale arranges objects or alternatives according to their
magnitude. In our race horse example, we assign a 1 to a win position, a 2 to the place
position and a 3 to a show position. A typical ordinal scale in business asks respondents
to rate brands, companies, and so on as "excellent," "good," "fair," or "poor." We know
that "excellent" is better than "good," but we don't know by how much.
C. Interval scale: Exhibit 13.3 depicts a horse race in which the win horse was two
lengths ahead of the place horse. Not only is the order of the finish known, but the
distance between the horses is known. Interval scales not only indicate order, they
measure order (or distance) in units of equal intervals. The location of the zero point is
arbitrary. The classic example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit temperature scale. If
the temperature is 80 , it cannot be said that it is twice as hot as a 40 temperature.
D. Ratio scale: Ratio scales have absolute rather than relative scales. For example, both
money and weight are ratio scales because they possess an absolute zero and interval
properties. The absolute zero represents a point on the scale where there is an absence
of the given attribute. However, for most behavioral business research, interval scales are
typically the best measurements.
E. Mathematical and statistical analysis of scales: The type of scale utilized in business
research will determine the form of the statistical analysis. Exhibit 13.4 shows the
appropriate descriptive statistics for each type of scale.

IV. INDEX MEASURES

This chapter thus far focused on measuring a concept with a single question or a single
observation. However, measuring more complex concepts may require more than one question
because the concept has several attributes. An attribute is a single characteristic or fundamental
feature pertaining to an object, person, situation, or issue.

Multi-itemed instruments for measuring a single concept with several attributes are called index
measures, or composite measures. For example, index of social class may be based on three
weighted averages: residence, occupation, and residence. Asking different questions in order to
measure the same concept provides a more accurate cumulative measure than does a single-

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item measure.

V. THREE CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENT

There are three major criteria for evaluating measurements:


A. Reliability: Reliability applies to a measure when similar results are obtained over
time and across situations. It is the degree to which measures are free from random error
and, therefore, yield consistent results.

There are two dimensions of reliability; repeatability and internal consistency.


Assessing the repeatability of a measure is the first aspect of reliability. The test-retest
method involves administering the same scale or measurement to the same respondents
at two separate points in time to test for stability. If the measure is stable over time, the
repeated test administered under similar conditions should obtain similar results. High
stability correlation, or consistency between the two measures at time one and time two,
indicates a high degree of reliability. There are two problems with measures of test-retest
reliability; first, the first measure may sensitize the respondents to their participation in a
research project and, subsequently, influence the results of the second measure. Further,
if the duration of the time period between measures is long, there may be attitude
change, or some other form of maturation, of the subjects which will affect the responses.

The second underlying dimension of reliability concerns the homogeneity of the measure.
An attempt to measure an attitude may require asking several questions or a battery of
scale items. To measure the internal consistency of a multiple-item measure, scores on
subsets of items within the scale must be correlated. The split-half method, when a
researcher checks the results of one half of the scale items to the other half, is the most
basic method for checking internal consistency.

The equivalent-form method is utilized when two alternative instruments are designed
to be as equivalent as possible. If there is a high correlation between the two scales, the
researcher can conclude that the scales are reliable. However, if there is a low
correspondence, the researcher will be unsure as to whether the measure has
intrinsically low reliability, or whether the particular equivalent-form has failed to be similar
to the other form.

Both of the above methods assume that the concept is uni-dimensional; they measure
homogeneity rather than over-time stability.

B. Validity: The purpose of measurement is to measure what we intend to measure. For


example, in measuring intention to buy, there could be a systematic bias to identify
brands "I wish I could afford" rather than the brand usually purchased. Validity addresses
the problem of whether or not a measure does indeed measure what it purports to
measure; if it does not, there will be problems.

Researchers attempt to provide some evidence of a measure's degree of validity. There


are three basic approaches to dealing with the issue of validity:

1. Face or content validity: This refers to the subjective agreement of professionals that
a scale logically appears to be accurately reflecting what it purports to measure.
2. Criterion validity: Criterion validity is an attempt by researchers to answer the
question "Does my measure correlate with other measures of the same construct?"
Consider the physical concept of length. If a new measure of length were developed,
finding that the new measure correlated with other measures of length would provide
some assurance that the measure was valid. Criterion validity may be classified as either
concurrent validity (when the measure is taken at the same time as the criterion
measure) or predictive validity (when the measure predicts a future event).

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3. Construct validity: Construct validity is established by the degree to which the
measure confirms a network of related hypotheses generated from a theory based on the
concept. In its simplest form, if the measure behaves the way it is supposed to in a
pattern of intercorrelation with a variety of other variables, then there is evidence for
construct validity. This is a complex method of establishing validity and of less concern to
the applied researcher than to the basic researcher.
4. Convergent and discriminant validity: Convergent validity is the same as criterion
validity because a new measure is expected to predict or converge with similar
measures. A measure has discriminant validity when it has a low correlation with
measures of dissimilar concepts.
C. Reliability versus validity: The concepts of reliability and validity should be compared.
Reliability, although necessary for validity, is not in itself sufficient. The differences
between reliability and validity can be illustrated using the rifle target in Exhibit 13.5.

D. Sensitivity: The sensitivity of a scale is important; particularly when changes in attitude, or


other hypothetical constructs, are under investigation. Sensitivity refers to the ability of a
instrument to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses. The sensitivity of a scale
which is based on a single question or a single item can be increased by adding additional
questions or items. In other words, because index measures allow for a greater range of possible
scores, they are more sensitive than single item scales.

METODOLOGI PENYELIDIKAN DAN ANALISIS STATISTIK 2004


Asas Menjalankan Kajian
• Research forms a circle. It originates with a question in the mind of the researcher, and
ends with an answer to the question.
• Research cannot continue if the aim of the research is not stated clearly and
unambiguously.
• An elaborated plan of procedures that are going to be followed is a precondition.

• Research starts with the demarcation of the main field of the search (the problem) and
the division thereof into smaller manageable subdivisions (subproblems).
• Direction is given to the research by means of setting applicable hypotheses which are
based on suppostions.
• Research has to do with factual knowledge.

Cadangan Menjalankan Kajian (Research Proposal)


A research proposal usually consists of the following elements:
• A title

• A problem statement/question

• A subproblem statement

• Hypotheses statement

• Demarcation of the terrain of study (assumptions, limitations and delimitations)

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• Definition of terminology

• Indication of the importance/significance of the study

• Review of related literature

• A careful and detailed analysis of the proposed research procedures

• A time schedule

• A budget (where applicable)

• Researcher's qualifications

• A resource list

Before an attempt is made to start with a research project, a research proposal should be
compiled. For the beginner researcher, this is usually the most difficult part. It is, however, the
most important aspect of the research project and should be considered carefully by the
researcher. This does not only require subject knowledge, but also insight into the problem
that is going to be investigated, so as to give logic and structure to research envisaged.
The research proposal can be envisaged as the process (step by step guidelines) to plan and to
give structure to the prospective research with the fina1 aim of increasing the validity of the
research. It is therefore a written submission to spell out in a logic format the nature of the design
and the means and strategies that are going to be used.

1 The Title
The title is usually only formulated after the research problem and subproblems have been stated
in a more or less final format. The research project title should demarcate the following:
• the WHO or/and WHAT is researched;
• the WHERE;
• the WHEN;
• the HOW; and
• an indication of the ENVISAGED SOLUTION or possible NEW
PRODUCT.
2 Problem Statement
It was previously mentioned that research forms a circle. It starts with a problem and ends with a
solution to the problem. Problem statement is therefore the axis which the which the whole
research revolves around, because it explains in short the aim of the research. Prospective
researchers can search within their own subject field for suitable problems. What should,
however, be mentioned, is that not all identified problems within a scientific field of study is
suitable for research.
The prospective researcher should think on what caused the need to do the research (problem
identification). The question that he/she should ask him/herself is: Are there questions about this
problem to which answers have not been found up to the present? The research problem should
be stated in such a way that it would lead to analytical thinking on the part of the researcher with
the aim of possibly concluding solutions to the stated problem.
The following aspects are important when formulating a research problem:

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• The research problem should always be formulated grammatically cor rect and as
completely as possible. You should bear in mind the wording (expressions) you use.
Avoid meaningless words. There should be no doubt in the mind of the reader what your
intentions are.
• Demarcating the research field into manageable parts by dividing the main problem into
subproblems is of the utmost importance.
The following serves as an example:
• Main problem (Aim of the research project should be clearly stated)
• Subproblems (Means to reach the set goal in a manageable way contribute to solving the
problem)
The main and subproblems should, however, form a research unit. After you have stated the
research problem, you should continue to formulate the relevant hypotheses.
3 Formulating Hypotheses
From the literature it is concluded that a hypothesis is a tentative statement, that implies a
proposed answer to a problem, setting accountability and responsibility of effective research
procedure as high priority (De Wet, Monteith, Steyn & Venter 1981 :76).
It should, however, be emphasized that in no way a hypothesis statement can claim to be the only
solution to the problem. It serves only as a point of departure - the chain between the theory and
the research that leads to the broadening of knowledge (Smit 1983:19).
Hypotheses are thus tentative statements that should either be acknowledged or rejected by
means of research.
Because hypotheses give structure and direction to research, the following aspects should be
kept in mind when formulating a hypothesis:
• Hypotheses can only be formulated after the researcher has gained
enough knowledge regarding the nature, extent and intensity of the
problem.
• Hypotheses should figure throughout the research process in order to
give structure to the research.
• Hypotheses are tentative statements/solutions or explanations of the
formulated problem. Care should be taken not to over-simplify and
generalize the formulation of hypotheses.
• The research problem does not have to consist of one hypothesis only.
The type of problem area investigated, the extent which encircles the
research field are the determinating factors on how many hypotheses will
be included in the research proposal.
A research hypothesis is usually stated in an explanatory form, because it indicates the expected
reference of the difference between two variables. ln other words it verifies the reference that the
researcher expects by means of incorporating selected research procedures.
The research hypothesis may be stated in a directional or non-directional form. According to
Landman (1988:86) and De Wet et al, (1981:80) a directional hypothesis statement indicates the
expected direction of results, while a nondirectional one indicates no difference or no relationship.
ln order to assist you in formulating a research hypothesis, you should ascertain the criteria used
in formulating hypotheses.
3.1 Criteria for the formulation of a hypothesis
According to Srnit (1983: 20-21 ) the following criteria are of importance in formulating
hypotheses. A hypothesis should:
• stand a test;

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• be expressed in clear language;
• be in accordance with the general theme of other hypotheses statements
in the same field of study, and should be regarded as valid;
• be. co-ordinated with the theory of science;
• be a tentative answer to the formulated problem;
• be logical and simplistic;
• consider available research techniques (to be able to analyze and
interpret the results);
• be specific; and
• be relevant to the collection of empirical phenomenons and not merely
conclude value judgements.
3.2 Hypothesis formulation
From the aforementioned it is clear that hypotheses can be formulated in more than one way.
Smit (1983:21) demonstrates the latter by using the words ...if and ... then when formulating a
hypothesis. The following serves as an example: If first-year students pass through an orientation
programme then they will be better equipped for study success.
You schould take note that the results after the word then, are not necessarily true, but could be,
in cases where the wording after the word if is true.
3.3 Hypothesis testing
Landman (1988:12) explains the term hypothesis testing as follows: The purpose of testing a
hypothesis is to determine the probability that it is supported by facts.
For the testing of a hypothesis, knowledge of applicable variables of the researcher is an
important assumption. An explanation of the term literature survey with regard to
4 Demarcation of the Terrain of Study
In this section a precise indication is given of the scope of the research with indication of the
assumptions made, limitations and delimitations of the research before the research is started.
5 Defining of Terminology/Concepts
An indication is given of how the researcher interpreted and is going to use terminology/ concepts
in the research report. This is very important, because some concepts/terms are often used in
different meanings by different authors.
6 Indication of the Importance/Significance of the Research
The researcher should indicate and defend why it is necessary to undertake the research. The
benefits that will result from the research and to whom it will be beneficial should be indicated.
7 Literature Survey
To conduct research regarding a topic, by implication means that the researcher has obtained
sound knowledge with regard to the research topic. It is therefore imperative that the researcher,
at the time of the submission of the research proposal, clearly indicates what theoretical
knowledge he possesses about the prospective research. A literature search therefore will entail
the literature the prospective researcher has already consulted.
An overview of the literature anticipates the background knowledge of the researcher and a
possible classification of the content for the purpose of stating the research problem. This should
also reveal the importance of the contemplated research. A literature search therefore simplifies
the formulation of hypotheses for the researcher.
According to De Wet et al. (1981; 40 - 41 ) the aim of a literature study is to:

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• give all-round perspectives on the latest research findings regarding the
topic;
• indicate the best method, scale of measurements and statistics that can
be used;
• interpret the research findings in a better way; and
• determine the relevancy of the prospective research.
It should further noted that the research design must be accompanied by a preliminary list of
references consulted by the researcher during the preparation of the research proposal. The list
should include the mast recent publications on the research topic. It must however be
emphasized that this reference list by no means is sufficient to complete the research project - it
must be augmented during further literature searches as the research process continues.
8 Analysis of the Proposed Research Procedures
The researcher supply here a careful and detailed analysis of the proposed research procedures
he/she intends to follow.
9 Time Schedule
A detailed proposed time schedule is supplied.
10 Budget (where applicable)
A detailed indication of the funds needed to undertake the research. This is necessary where the
researcher intends to apply for funding from the FRD, etc.
11 Researchers Qualifications
A list of all the qualification the researcher obtained up to date.
12 Resource List
The list of resources used will only include resources referred to in the research proposal. Use
the APA style. An information pamphlet is available from the library.
13 Technical Editing of the Research Proposal
Although the research proposal is considered the preliminary planning of a research problem, it
should comply with the following requirements:
• It should preferably be typed in double spacing on size A4 paper.
• A margain of 4cm is required on the left side of the paper.
The following should also accompany the research proposal:
• A front page.
• The name and surname of the researcher.
• Opening words to the effect of:
• Research proposal prepared for a project with the following title:
...................
Apart of the aforementioned format, Leedy (1987:107-108) recommends the following guidelines
to assist you in structuring your presentation logically:
• The programme and its milieu
• State the problem.
• State the subproblems.
• State the hypotheses.
• Demarcate the terrain.
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• Define the terminology.
• Indicate the importance of the study.
• Review related literature
The calculation and interpretation of data:
• Relevant data.
• Research methodology.
• The proposed handling of each subproblem.
Subproblem 1
• Data required.
• Where will you find the data.
• How will you obtain the data.
• How will you calculate/interpret the data.
Subproblem 2
..........................
Framework for the prospective study
Landman (1988: 88) holds the view that preparing a research proposal is an important task,
especially when the researcher wishes to obtain funds for the research project. He emphasizes
that the research proposal format should include the following:
• The statement of the problem.
• Hypothesis formulation.
• The significance of the problem.
• Definitions, assumptions, limitations and delimitations.
• Review of related literature.
• A careful and detailed analysis of proposed research
procedures.
• A time schedule.
• Budget
What should however be emphasized is the fact that the research proposal forms part of the
research project, and is not merely a means to acquire funding. If you want to obtain funds for
your research project, a definite recipe does not exist for preparing a successful application. The
basic guidelines given by Leedy (1985) and Landman (1988) should suffice.
A well prepared research proposal is characterized by an orderly logical outline. It should be
emphasized that various disciplines and different research types, requires different approaches
and methods.
Permasalaahan Kajian (Research Problem )
Research forms a cycle. It starts with a problem and ends with a solution to the problem. The
problem statement is therefore the axis which the whole research revolves around, beacause it
explains in short the aim of the research.
1 WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROBLEM?

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A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive, confused
and ill at ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO
or WHAT, the WHERE, the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation.
There are many problem situations that may give rise to reseach. Three sources usually
contribute to problem identification. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source
of problem supply. A second source could be scientific literature. You may read about certain
findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. This could lead to a research problem.
Theories could be a third source. Shortcomings in theories could be researched.
Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory, at clarifying
contradictory findings, at correcting a faulty methodology, at correcting the inadequate or
unsuitable use of statistical techniques, at reconciling conflicting opinions, or at solving existing
practical problems.
2 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
The prospective researcher should think on what caused the need to do the research (problem
identification). The question that he/she should ask is: Are there questions about this problem to
which answers have not been found up to the present?
Research originates from a need that arises. A clear distinction between the PROBLEM and the
PURPOSE should be made. The problem is the aspect the researcher worries about, think
about, wants to find a solution for. The purpose is to solve the problem, ie find answers to the
question(s). If there is no clear problem formulation, the purpose and methods are meaningless.
Keep the following in mind:
• Outline the general context of the problem area.

• Highlight key theories, concepts and ideas current in this area.

• What appear to be some of the underlying assumptions of this area?

• Why are these issues identified important?

• What needs to be solved?

• Read round the area (subject) to get to know the background and to identify unanswered
questions or controversies, and/or to identify the the most significant issues for further
exploration.
The research problem should be stated in such a way that it would lead to analytical thinking on
the part of the researcher with the aim of possible concluding solutions to the stated problem.
Research problems can be stated in the form of either questions or statements.
• The research problem should always be formulated grammatically correct and as
completely as possible. You should bear in mind the wording (expressions) you use.
Avoid meaningless words. There should be no doubt in the mind of the reader what your
intentions are.
• Demarcating the research field into manageable parts by dividing the main problem into
subproblems is of the utmost importance.
3 SUBPROBLEM(S)
Subproblems are problems related to the main problem identified. Subproblems flow from the
main problem and make up the main problem. It is the means to reach the set goal in a
manageable way and contribute to solving the problem.
4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The statement of the problem involves the demarcation and formulation of the problem, ie the
WHO/WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY. It usually includes the statement of the hypothesis.

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5 CHECKLIST FOR TESTING THE FEASIBILITY OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
YES NO
Is the problem of current interest? Will the research results have social,
1
educational or scientific value?
2 Will it be possible to apply the results in practice?
3 Does the research contribute to the science of education?
4 Will the research opt new problems and lead to further research?
5 Is the research problem important? Will you be proud of the result?
6 Is there enough scope left within the area of reseach (field of research)?
Can you find an answer to the problem through research? Will you be able to
7
handle the research problem?
8 Will it be pratically possible to undertake the research?
9 Will it be possible for another researcher to repeat the research?
10 Is the research free of any ethical problems and limitations?
11 Will it have any value?
Do you have the necessary knowledge and skills to do the research? Are you
12
qualified to undertake the research?
13 Is the problem important to you and are you motivated to undertake the research?
Is the research viable in your situation? Do you have enough time and energy to
14
complete the project?
15 Do you have the necessary funds for the research?
16 Will you be able to complete the project within the time available?
Do you have access to the administrative, statistic and computer facilities the
17
research necessitates?
TOTAL:

Tajuk Kajian (Research Topic)


The research topic or title should be specific and clear. The topic should indicate the
WHO/WHAT, WHEN, WHY, WHERE and HOW clearly. It is the focus of your research.
The following factors should guide the selection of a topic/title:
• the feasibility of the research

• the uniqueness of the research

• the scope of the research

• the topicality of the research

• the polivalence of the research

• the profitability of the research

• the coverage of the researchers daily job

• the theoretical value of the research

• the practical value of the research


CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING THE TITLE FORMULATION:
YES NO
Does the title include

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1 the WHO/WHAT?
2 the WHEN?
3 the WHY?
4 the HOW?
5 Does the title include the problem stated?
6 Does the title include the solution to the problem?
7 Is the tile clear and to the point?
TOTAL:
Kaedah Kajian (Research Method)
The research method you will follow, is directly connected to your problem statement and goal of
research. Because the research goal and problem may vary different methods of research can
be utilized.
Research is a purposeful, precise and systematic search for new knowledge, skills, attitudes and
values, or for the re-interpretation of existing knowledge, skills, attitudes and values.

The various kinds of human science research can be subdivided according to three criteria:
1 The measure of generality and applicability:
• basic research

• applied research

• in-service research

• action research
2 The level of ordering:
• descriptive research

• prophetic research

• diagnostic research
3 The measure of control by researchers:
• library research

• field research

• laboratory research
METHODS OF RESEARCH:
• Exploratory research

• Experimental research

• Ex post facto research

• Correlation research

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• Descriptive research

• Testing research

• Case studies

• Sociometric research

• Instrumental-nomological research

• Interpretative-theoretical research
OTHER NAMES GIVEN TO RESEARCH:
• Micro-study

• Macro-study

• Longitudinal (diachronic) study

• Cross-sectional (synchronic) study

• Pilot study
AN OVERVIEW OF SOME RESEARCH METHODS:
1 Action research
Action research is regarded as research that is normally carried out by practitioners (persons that
stand in the field of work). It is a method par excel lance for instructors/trainers. It enables the
researcher to investigate a specific problem that exists in practice. According to Landman (1988:
51) this requires that the researcher should be involved in the actions that take place. A further
refinement of this type of research is that the results obtained from the research should be
relevant. to the practice. In other words it should be applicable immediately. This means that the,
researcher, as expert, and the person standing in the practice, jointly decide on the formulation of
research procedures, allowing the problem to be solved (Jacobs et al. 1992: 431).
Action research is characterized according to (Jacobs et al. 1992: 45) by the following four
features:
Problem-aimed research focuses on a special situation in practice. Seen in research context,
action research is aimed at a specific problem recognizable in practice, and of which the outcome
problem solving) is immediately applicable in practice.
- Collective participation. A second characteristic is that all participants (for instance the
researchers and persons standing in the practice) form an integral part of action research with the
exclusive aim to assist in solving the identified problem.
- Type of empirical research. Thirdly, action research is characterized as a means to change the
practice while the research is going on.
Outcome of research can not be generalized. Lastly, action research is characterized by the fact
that problem solving, seen as renewed corrective actions, can not be generalized, because it
should comply with the criteria set for scientific character.
2 Historical research
Historical research, as the term implies, is research based on describing the past. This type of
research includes for instance investigations like the recording , analysis and interpretation of
events in the past with the purpose of discovering generalizations and deductions that can be
useful in understanding the past, the present and to a limited extent, can anticipate the future
(Landman 1988: 65). Historians should consequently aspire to getting to the original events that
took place and therefore the researcher is dependent on the availability of documentary sources.

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According to Klopper (1990: 62) collected data for historical research should pass the following
test before it can be applied for research purposes namely:
• external evidence or criteria that will account for the authenticity of the information should
be included;
• internal evidence or criteria should be included that will explain the meaning of the data.
Although the chronological sequence of events should be precisely acknowledged , researchers
should bear in mind the fact that mere compilation of chronological events is not considered
research in itself. An investigation can only be regarded as scientific research when the
researcher interprets the events that took place by pointing out their relationship to the problem
investigated, and explaining their meaning.
On account of the voluminous data that historians collect, it is extremely important that attention
should be given to a specific plan for the obtaining and organizing of information as well as the
retrieval thereof, before this type of research is attempted.
Lastly, it should be mentioned that historical research also encompasses research concerning the
origin, development and influence of ideas of the past. As examples, aspects like the origin,
development and influence of communism, democracy, capitalism etc can be mentioned. Should
you like to do this type of research you can consult the recommended literature listed in the
bibliography.
3 Descriptive research
The term descriptive is self-explanatory and terminology synonymous to this type of research is:
describe, write on, depict. The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that
refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it.
Descriptive research is thus a type of research that is primarily concerned with describing the
nature or conditions and degree in detail of the present situation (Landman 1988: 59). The
emphasis is on describe rather than on judge or interpret.
According to Klopper (1990: 64) researchers who use this method for their research usually aim
at:
• demarcating the population (representative of the universum) by means of perceiving
accurately research parameters; and
• recording in the form of a written report of that which has been perceived.
The aim of the latter is, that when the total record has been compiled, revision of the documents
can occur so that the perceptions derived at can be thoroughly investigated .
Because the total population (universum) during a specific investigation can not be contemplated
as a whole, researchers make use of the demarcation of the population or of the selection of a
representative test sample. Test sampling therefore forms an integral part of descriptive research.
In descriptive research the following steps should be included:
• Problem selection and problem formulation. The research problem being tested should
be explicitly formulated in the form of a question.
• Literature search. Intensive literature search regarding the formulated problem enables
the researcher to divide the problem into smaller units.
• Problem reduction.
• Hypothesis formulation.
• Test sampling. The researcher should determine the size of the test sample.
• Information retrieval. The application of appropriate information retrieval techniques to
comply with the criteria set for authenticity and competency, is relevant.
• General planning. Any research requires sound planning.

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• Report writing. The report entails the reproduction of factual information, the interpretation
of data, conclusions derived from the research and recommendations.
You should make sure that you understand the meaning of the terminology used. Consult the
recommended sources for detailed explanations. However, further reference must be made to
aspects related to test sampling.

• Test sampling
As mentioned previously, when descriptive research is exposed, demarcation of the population
become unavoidable. Test sampling therefor forms an integra! part of this type of research.
Two important questions arise frequently when test sampling is anticipated by researchers,
namely:
- How big should the test sample be?
- What is the probability of mistakes occurring in the use of test sampling (instead of the whole
population)?
Special care should be taken with the selection of test samples. The results obtained from a
survey can never be more authentic than the standard of the population or the representatives of
the test sample, according to Klopper (1990: 64). The size of the test sample can also be
specified by means of statistics. It is important for the researcher to bear in mind that it is
desirable that test sampling be made as large as possible. The most important criterium that
serves as a guideline here, is the extent to which the test sample corresponds with the qualities
and characteristics of the general population being investigated. The next three factors should be
taken into consideration before a decision is made with regard to the size of the test sample:
- What is the grade of accuracy expected between the test sample and the general population?
- What is the variability of the population? (This, in general terms, is expressed as the standard
deviation.)
- What methods should be used in test sampling?
• Bias saying
When you attempt descriptive research, you should take care that the test sample reflects the
actual population it represents. The following example holds validity for the latter: you cannot
make a statement regarding all first-year students if you do not include all first-year students in
your research. If you do make such a statement, you have to select enrolled first-year students at
all the tertiary institutions or a balanced proportional manner, and include the latter when you
select your test sample for your research.
Landman ( 1988: 91) points out that, when a test sample does not truly represent the population
(universum) from which it is drawn, the test sample is considered a bias sample. It then becomes
virtually impossible to make an accurate statement or to predict about the population.
4 Experimental research
This type of research is known in literature by a variety of names. Synonyms are, for instance: the
cause and consequence method, before and after design, control group design and the
laboratory method. Landman (1988: 82) summarises experiential research when he states that it
is research designed to study cause and consequence. A clear distinction between the terms
experiment and experimental research should be evident. In the former there is normally no
question about the interpretation of data in the discovery of new meaning. Experimental research,
however, has control as fundamental characteristic. The selection of control groups, based on
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proportional selection, forms the basis of this type of research. Experimental research is basically
the method that can be applied in a research laboratory. The basic structure of this type of
research is elementary: two situations (cause and consequence) are assessed in order to make a
comparison. Following this, attempts should be made to treat the one situation (cause) from the
outside (external variable) to affect change, and then to reevaluate the two situations. The
perceivable changes that occurred can then be presumed as caused by external variables.
• Control group
Because: control is a fundamental characteristic of this type of research, control groups are a
prerequisite. Control groups are selected from a group of selected persons whose experience
corresponds with that of the experimental group. The only difference is that they do not receive
the same treatment (Landman 1988: 58).
• Variable
In order to do experimental! research, it is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms
dependent and independent variables. In experimental research it is a prerequisite that the
researcher should be able to manipulate the variable and then to assess what the influence of the
manipulation on the variable was.
A variable is any characteristic (of man or his environment) that can take on different values.
Objects are usually not considered as variables - but their characteristics are. As example the
following can be considered: a transparency is not a variable (it is an object). The characteristics
of the transparency are variables, for example the colour, design etc. In other words, a
transparency as an object can take on different values.
• Independent variable
According to Landman (1988: 98) the independent variable is the circumstances or
characteristics which the researcher can manipulate in his effort to determine what their
connection with the observed phenomenon is. This means that the researcher has direct control
over the variable. As example of an independent variable, is study methods.
• Dependent variable
The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the circumstances or characteristics that change,
disappear or appear when the researcher implements the independent variable. For example,
learning content that should be mastered (student performance) is the dependent variable, while
the manipulation of study methods by means of different teaching methods, is the independent
variable.
• Internal and external validity
The importance of control in conducting experimental research has been pointed out earlier. A
further pre-requisite for this type of research is validity.
Validity is a term used in research methodology that indicates the extent to which a test complies
with the aim it was designed for. (You should ensure that you understand the terminology used.)
- Internal validity
Internal validity means that the perceived difference in the
independent variable (characteristics that change) is a direct
result of the manipulation of the obtained research results, and
therefore possible to conclude. In experimental design, emphasis
is placed on the way in which reference between independent
and dependent variables should not be confused by the
presence of uncontrolled variables (Landman 1988: 97).
- External validity
External validity means that the results of the experimental
research should be applied to a similar situation outside the

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experimental design. The results of the experimental research
can then be confirmed in similar situations. (The findings are
then considered general.)
5 Ex post facto-research
Experimental research, where the researcher manipulates the independent variable, whilst the
dependable variable are controlled with the aim of establishing the effect of the independent
variable on the dependable variable, is also applicable.
The term ex post facto according to Landman (1988: 62) is used to refer to an experiment in
which the researcher, rather than creating the treatment, examines the effect of a naturally
occurring treatment after it has occurred. In other words it is a study that attempts to discover the
pre-existing causal conditions between groups.
It should, however, be pointed out that the most serious danger of ex post facto-research is the
conclusion that because two factors go together, one is the cause and the other is the effect.
Jacobs et al. (1992: 81) refers to the following procedures when conducting ex post facto-
research:
- The. first step should be to state the problem.
- Following this is the determination of the group to be investigated. Two groups of the
population that differ with regard to the variable, should be selected in a proportional manner for
the test sample.
- Groups, according to variables, are set equal by means of paring off and statistical
techniques of identified independent and dependent variables.
- Data is collected. Techniques like questionnaires, interviews, literature search etc:. are used
to determine the differences.
- Next follows the interpretation of the research results. The hypothesis is either confirmed or
rejected.
Lastly it should be mentioned that this type of research has shortcomings, and that only partial
control is possible.

Hipotesis (Hypothesis)
1 WHAT IS AN HYPOTHESIS?
An hypothesis is a preliminary or tentative explanation or postulate by the researcher of what the
researcher considers the outcome of an investigation will be. It is an informed/educated guess.
It indicates the expectations of the researcher regarding certain variables. It is the most specific
way in which an answer to a problem can be stated.
Mouton's (1990: Chapter 6) and Guy's (1987: 116) presentation of the hypothesis:
Mouton:
Statement postulating a possible relationship between two or more phenomena or variables.
Guy:
A statement describing a phenomenon or which specifies a relationship between two or more
phenomena.
2 THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN HYPOTHESIS AND A PROBLEM
Both an hypothesis and a problem contribute to the body of knowledge which supports or refutes
an existing theory. An hypothesis differs from a problem. A problem is formulated in the form of
a question; it serves as the basis or origin from which an hypothesis is derived. An hypothesis is
a suggested solution to a problem. A problem (question) cannot be directly tested, whereas an
hypothesis can be tested and verified.
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3 WHEN IS AN HYPOTHESIS FORMULATED?
An hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated and the literature study has been
concluded. It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical
background to the problem.
4 THE PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF AN HYPOTHESIS
• It offers explanations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically
tested.
• It furnishes proof that the researcher has suffucient background knowledge to enable
him/her to make suggestions in order to extend existing knowledge.
• It gives direction to an investigation.

• It structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the
examination of the problem.
5 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN HYPOTHESIS
• It should have elucidating power.

• It should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation of the phenomenon.

• It must be verifiable.

• It must be formulated in simple, understandable terms.

• It should corresponds with existing knowledge.


6 TYPES OF HYPOTHESES
Hypotheses can be classified in terms of their derivation (inductive and deductive hypotheses)
and in terms of their formulation (research - directional and non-directional and statistical or null
hypotheses).
• RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
It is a relationship between variables and indicates the nature of the relationship.
If A is valid, B follows ...
If you hit a child with a cain, he/she will cry.
Schools in which pupil-teacher relations are open/friendly will have less unrest than comparable
schools where pupil-teacher relations are closed/tense.
• NULL HYPOTHESIS
"You are wrong, there is no relation; disprove me if you can" (Kerlinger, 1973)
There is no difference between pupil-teacher relations in unrest schools and pupil-teacher
relations in comparable schools which experience no unrest.
NB
• An important requirement for hypotheses is TESTABILITY.

• A condition for testability is CLEAR nad UNAMBIGUOUS CONCEPTS.

• A research hypothesis (inempirical research) has to do with relationships between


empirical phenomena. The concepts in a research hypothesis must posess single
references (indicators) or denotations to identifiable phenomena in reality.
• A central theoretical thesis refers to hypotheses in more theoretical studies.

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Pengumpulan Data ( Data Collection)
There are four ways of gathering data:
• Literature study

• Observation

• Questionnaires

• Check lists

• Measurement
1 LITERATURE STUDY
A thorough literature study is an indispensable component of all research. It familiarises the
researcher with both research which has already been done in his field as well as with current
research. A literature study makes the researcher aware of what the current train of thought is, as
well as the focus of existing and acceptable thought regarding a specific topic. lt also helps him
demarcate the boundaries of his research theme. When doing this, he finds ideas for his own
research theme and for possibly processing his data.
The researcher also gains personally by his literature review. It fosters a certain attitude and
leads to the attainment of certain skills:
* It develops the ability to recognize and select the significant and the relevant, without getting
lost in trivialities.
* It helps in gauging the quality of research material and in planning his research accordingly.
* It develops a critical attitude regarding others' research as well as his own efforts.
* It trains him to be an astute observer especially in respect of certain obstacles, making it
possible for him to avoid them.
* Knowledge of relevant literature helps the researcher to define the boundaries of his field.
1.2 The role of a literature study in research
The literature study helps the researcher to:
* select a research problem or theme. Relevant literature enables the researcher to discover
where inconsistencies, wrong designs and incorrect statistical conclusions occur.
Often research reports are concluded with recommendations regarding research which still needs
to done. The researcher's thinking can be shaped in this way, which in turn will enable him to:
* define the boundaries of his field;
* establish the size and extent of his research;
* consider the procedures and the instruments which he will use in his research. After having
considered other researchers' procedures and instruments, the researcher becomes more
sophisticated in the choice of his own;
* see his own problem in better perspective through a better understanding of the underlying
theory. This enables him to establish whether his research will make a contribution and what the
value of his contribution would be;
* avoid unnecessary (non-purposeful) repetition of research already undertaken. A researcher
often develops a brilliant insight into how to tackle a problem, only to discover, through a study of
relevant literature, that someone else has already done so;
* better evaluate the significance of his own findings. This applies especially in respect of which
techniques were used, and which contributions were made to gaining a better understanding of
the problem, etc;

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* formulate his hypotheses with sharper insight;
* carry out his research more purposefully. In time he learns to eliminate the unnecessary. He
learns from the successes and failures of others.
1.3 Types of literature
In studying works dealing with earlier (and acceptable) research, two types of sources, especially,
come to the fore:
* Comprehension literature, ie books and articles by experts in which they state their opinions,
experiences, theories and ideas on concepts and constructs within a specific problem area, as
well as their opinions on what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, valuable or worthless
regarding insight into specific concepts or constructs. For the young researcher it is very useful
because it helps him to understand the validity of correctness of theories (outdated, existing or
newly formed) better. It also shows him where there are shortcomings in a specific field (thus
requiring research). It also shows its strengths which he may wish to pursue.
* Research literature: This includes reporting in respect of research already undertaken in the
field (and is currently drawing attention) and gives the researcher a good indication of successes
and problems in respect of research procedures, design, hypotheses, techniques and
instruments.
* The results of studying these two types of literature are thus a personal frame of reference,
i.e. an insight into the body of basic knowledge, possible differences, underlying theories, et
cetera.
* It furthermore leads to a greater awareness of those matters within the field which have
already sufficiently been demonstrated and proved, as well as those matters still requiring more
in-depth research.
1.4 Primary and secondary sources
Primary sources of a specific type of information are the original works, books, magazine articles,
films, sound recordings, et cetera, which reflect the information firsthand. Secondary sources
include commentaries, explanations, elucidations et cetera, which other writers have done on the
primary sources.
It is desirable (especially in historical research) that, where possible, the primary source should
preferably be consulted. T here are, however, problems with consulting primary sources.
* The source is out of print, has been destroyed or is unobtainable. Then secondary sources have
to be consulted.
* The primary source is in a foreign language, rendering it inaccessible for the researcher.
Translations have to be used with the expressed knowledge that such translations are possibly
inaccurate or even incorrect. Sometimes it helps to read an expert's comment on the translation.
* The primary source is so complicated and advanced that the researcher cannot understand it. It
then helps to read explanations in technical dictionaries, encyclopaedias or elementary
handbooks.
This, does not mean, however, that secondary sources are of no value whatsoever. The
researcher could possibly encounter many useful references to primary sources in his study of
secondary sources.

1.5 Systems of documentation


Consulting specifically focused documentation systems can be very useful. These are
systematically arranged sources of reference or literature dealing with a specific subject which
have appeared. They have many additional references to related themes. The following are some
examples of the most useful indices and/or sources of information:

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* The Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC) which has a "Current Index to Journals
in Education" (CIJE) series. Every English article of any significance dealing with Education which
has been written since 1969, has been included in this series and has been indexed and cross-
referenced according to key words.
* The system of documentation of the "Deutsches Jugendinstitut" in Munich (Germany): All
German and most English literature is read, briefly summarised, printed on cards and bound in a
book. The cards can be torn out and filed. An example.
* The "Encyclopaedia of Educational Research" (very similar to the ERIC);
* The "Review of Educational Research" (very similar to the ERIC);
* The "British Education Index" (very similar to the ERIC);
* The Institute of Contemporary History (INCH) at the University of the Free
State, Bloemfontein's documentation systems. At this Institute all South African
magazines and newspapers are read, cuttings are taken and documented
according to key concepts. RAU is linked to the system by telephone. If one dials
a relevant number, the cutting appears on a television screen. Photostats (very
indistinct) are available at 20 cents per page.
* The system of documentation and computer printout service of the HSRC.
This contains printouts of research which has been done in South Africa in
specific subjects.
1.6 Making notes
The following general guidelines should be useful when making notes:
1.6.1 Start with the most recent works and work back to earlier (timeless) works: your chances
of adhering to outdated or faulty theories are then much smaller. Earlier misunderstandings and
obscurities can be eliminated at this point. The recent works should lead you to older works by
referring to them - not vice versa.
1.6.2 You should preferably start with the works of recognized writers dealing with the specific
theme. For example, research on human thinking which does not refer to writers such as
Ausubel, Fenerstein, Bruner or Piaget is incomplete. Then too, it would be unforgivable not to
read the original works of such writers.
1.6.3 Further, it is worthwhile starting with articles, treatises and dissertations. This kind of
literature is usually very well-documented and will quickly put you on the track of other relevant
sources.
1.6.4 Before reading a source in its entirely, you should read the summary, precis or abstract of
the book or article in order to ascertain whether or not it is at all relevant. This will save much time
and will spare you much frustration.
1.6.5 Before making notes, you should skim through the whole chapter, paragraph or section in
order to ascertain whether, and if so how, the section links up with your own problem. This will
help to determine the kind of notes to be made. Much valuable time can be saved in this way.
1.6.6 Work on cards and not on scraps of paper. Write your notes directly on to record cards,
and save yourself the double trouble of rewriting. (You will also eliminate the possibility of
unnecessary errors made while rewriting your notes from scraps of paper on the cards). Cards
(as a result of their stiffness and uniform size) are easier to handle and file than scraps of paper
or the backs of envelopes.
1.6.7 For this reason, it is a sound habit always to keep a few record cards on hand (in the
pocket of your jacket, in your handbag) so that ideas can be jotted down as soon as they occur.
Such ideas may occur in the bus, while you are waiting to see someone, or while listening to a
lecture or presentation.
1.6.8 You should select a comfortably sized card. I personally fine 150 cm x 100 cm (6" x 4")
the most useful. It is small enough to fit into a jacket pocket and yet big enough to allow for plenty
of information.

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1.6.9 In order to facilitate filing and sorting, and to allow for flexibility, a single piece of
information (thought, opinion) should be entered on a single card. You should preferably only
write on one side of the card. In cases where more than one card is used to enter a specific
argument (or episode), cards which belong together can be kept together by means of elastic
bands.
1.6.10 The source and a relevant page number should be clearly entered on each card. This
will later eliminate many frustrations.
1.6.11 Each card should have a suitable heading/key word. This facilitates filing and retrieving
information. Apart from this, it already serves to structure the chapters of the research report.
1.6.12 You should try, as far as possible, to summarise the writer's thoughts in your own words.
This eliminates the danger of plagiarism, and will force you to try to understand the information.
You should only rewrite verbatim those thoughts which you cannot paraphrase better. In such
cases you should ensure that you rewrite the quotation absolutely correctly. Each punctuation
mark, each capital, must be correct. Be careful to spell correctly.
1.6.13 You should clearly distinguish on your cards if you have written (1) a direct quotation; (2)
a paraphrased summary or your own comment.
1.6.14 Very long quotations should rather be photostatted and pasted on to the cards - this will
save time and eliminate unnecessary rewriting errors.
1.6.15 Neat handwriting is not a requirement. Retyping notes, or first taking them down in
shorthand and later rewriting them neatly, is an unnecessary waste of time.
1.6.16 You should plan ahead and acquire a sturdy filing system. Initially, shoe boxes are very
useful.
1.6.17 A final remark - each source should be dealt with as accurately as if you will not handle
it again.
1.7 What should be included in the literature survey (bibliography)?
* The sources which should be included depend on the final format of the research report. For
example, fewer sources will be mentioned in an article than will be done in a thesis or
dissertation.
* There are, however, timeless sources (e.g. Beknopte Theoretische Paedagoaogiek by
Langeveld which was written in the Forties). Sometimes too, the researcher wishes to indicate an
historical image of the rise of a direction of thought, and then he needs to reach far back.
2 OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE
Observation means that a researcher studies or observes a specific situation or type of situation.
2.1 There are 5 steps which together make up the observation technique (of the classic
scientific method):
2.1.1 The natural phenomenon is observed
2.1.2 Conclusions are drawn
2.1.3 Hypothesis and premises are formulated or predictions are made. All three these are
based on observations.
2.1.4 Subsequently a procedure is designed which may be used to test the hypotheses.
2.1.5 Further steps follow concurrently, as well as simultaneously: the further extending,
refining and restructuring of existing/new theories.
This method developed rapidly once observation was supplemented by:
* the classification, organization and structuring of the observed information and
* combining observation and an evaluation technique.

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This development was made possible by especially the development and use of aids such as the
microscope and the television camera etc. Further, there was a gradual change from the
observation of natural phenomena to the studying of simulated conditions in laboratories.
2.2 The technique of observation is especially suitable when research is comparative,
evaluative, experimental or when it takes the form of a survey. However, it is a very expensive
form of research and is mainly use for "deep" or "below the surface" investigations. In the case of
surface research, the technique of questioning is preferable.
However a technique of observation can be used here too.

3 QUESTIONING
The four most important data-gathering techniques in which questioning plays a role are:
- interviews
- questionnaires
- check lists
- critical incidents.
3.1 Interviews
In the interview, the researcher talks to the respondent and obtains information directly.
3.1.1 Advantages:
a) Flexible. In-depth.
b) Situation can be adapted.
c) Reasons for answers can be sought.
d) Clues can be followed up.
e) Yields a higher percentage of answering.
3.1.2 Disadvantages:
a) Time.
b) Costs.
c) Difficult to analyse responses.
d) Subjectivity.
3.2 Types of questions
Structured or unstructured.

3.3 The questionnaire


The questionnaire is usually more superficial than the interview. It is usually used in group work.
The questionnaire is especially useful to obtain information about reasonably big groups.
3.3.1 Advantages:
a) Relatively low costs.
b) Can involve large groups.
c) Usually information that can be easily interpreted.
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d) Each question is answered.
3.3.2 Disadvantages:
a) Inflexible.
b) Information not in great depth.
c) Individuals may ignore the questionnaire.
3.3.3 Types of questions (Interviews and questionnaires)
Closed questions
Only indicated responses are allowed.
Open-ended questions
Any response is allowed.
4 THE CHECK LIST
If a researcher has ensured that he has made provision for all the possible alternatives to each
question, and that the respondent need merely tick the answer, the questionnaire is called a
check list. A check list is structured and the questions are closed.
4.1 Advantages:
a) Convenient to answer.
b) The statistical processing of data is uniform.
4.2 Disadvantages:
The respondent may be irritated by not being able to find his specific chosen
answer among the given alternatives.
4.3 Critical incident
This is used if the researcher wishes to gauge in great depth what the respondent's opinion is or
how he feels about a matter. A situation (incident) is presented to the respondent, who must then
voice his opinion.
5 THE TECHNIQUE OF MEASURING
Often the information which the researcher hopes to obtain is so difficult to obtain that he/she
prefers to use existing media to "measure" (or, stated in anthropological-personological terms: to
evaluate the respondent's position with regard to some or other construct).
5.1 One of the most common forms of measuring is physical measuring, e.g. the mass, length of
a child; his endurance, as reflected by the number of push-ups which he can do in one stretch;
his nutritional condition as reflected by the thickness of the skin when tested at the triceps.
5.2 Then there are numerous objective tests used in educational research. Here one
distinguishes between:
* aptitude tests
* proficiency tests
* achievement tests.

Menginterpretasi data (Data Interpretation)


The application of statistics in research is well documented. Before choosing a statistical method
for your own research project, knowledge regarding scales of measurement is a prerequisite.
Scales of measurement per se have to do with the allocation of numerical values to
characteristics according to certain rules. Measurement can thus either be quantitative or
qualitative. The quantitative level of measurement includes among other things, aspects such as
interpretation and paragraph analysis, whilst the quantitative level of measurement focuses on

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measures such as nominal, ordinal, internal and ratio levels of measurement. The latter are basic
scales of measurement and will be briefly outlined.
1 Measuring scales
• Nominal measurement
Nominal measurement includes the awarding of a numeral value to a specific characteristic. Tr~is
type of measurement is the most basic form of measurement, because it measures the lowest
level that can be measured and is therefore considered a scale of measurement with limitations.
The following serves as an example of nominal measurement: A researcher wants to
determine the profile of the academic background of his students. For this he/she might
need information regarding the specific level (HG, SD, LG) his students passed during
their matriculation examination. The different matriculation subjects would then be listed i.e.
Mathematics, English, Geography etc. To each subject passed on the higher grade a numerical
value 1 will be allocated, and the numerical value 2 for a pass in the standard grade and so forth.
The numerical value 1 does not mean half of 2, it merely indicates a difference.
This scale of measurement is used mainly for the compiling of frequency tables (Smit 1983: 208).
• Ordinal measurement
Ordinal measurement is applicable in cases where a criterion/characteristic is awarded to
numeral value in terms of a specific order (thus the name of the scale).
The ordinal scale implies that the entity being measured is quantified in terms of either higher or
lower, greater (more) or lesser (less) without specifying the size of the intervals (Leedy 1993: 38).
The numerical 1 can be the highest, whilst 3 could be the lowest. The following serves as an
example of measurement on ordinal level: A school wants to select the best student of the
year. After the evaluators (in this case the teachers) have nominated the best students, the
finalists should be placed in rank order according to the set criteria in order to determine the best
student. In this case the numeral 1 is an indication of the best student, and therefore the winner.
The ordinal scale of measurement can be applied to determine the median, percentage, rank
order, correlations and percentile (Smith 1983: 209).
• Interval measurement
The interval scale of measurement is characterized by two features, namely:
- equal units of measurement (equal intervals); and
- a zero point which has been established arbitrarily (Leedy 1993: 38).
The latter indicates that there is not an absolute zero point. There is therefore a specific:
relationship between the distance (interval) of the numerical value and the different sizes of a
characteristic. Because of the before mentioned characteristics, this measure scale is considered
to be a more advanced type of measuring scale. An increase or decrease of the one
characteristic goes hand in hand with an increase or decrease of the other. The interval level of
measurement enables the researcher to compromise between aspects and to indicate clearly
how much more the one has of a characteristic than the other. As an example of this type of
measurement the following is given: an individual intelligence score is 110 whilst another is
100. The difference between these scores is exactly 10. It should also be remembered that
intelligence measurement has no zero point. A second example of interval measurement is the
Lickert attitude scale.
The interval scale of measurement is therefore suitable to calculate arithmetic mean averages, do
standard deviations and determine correlation studies, provided that the researcher takes care
that the preconditions set for each scale of measurement, are abided by.
• Ration measurement
This is considered the highest order of measurement that exist, because of the fixed proportions
(ratio) between the number (numerical) and the amount of the characteristic; that it represents.
What should be mentioned is that, when ration levels are measured, a fixed (absolute) zero point

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exists. Ration level of measurement thus enables researchers to determine whether aspects
possess something of a characteristic or not. The following can serve as example of ration level
of measurement: The average weight of a gymnast is 55 kilograms. On the other hand, the
average weight of a rugby player is 75 kilograms. Kilograms are expressed in constant units,
and a zero point does exist, because "no weight" can be determined. Because scores on this type
of measuring scale possess absolute values, any type of arithmetical calculations are allowed.
2 Characteristics of measuring scales
With any type of measurement, two considerations are important - validity on the one hand and
reliability on the other hand.
• Reliability
Reliability is the term used to deal with accuracy. A scale measurement is considered reliable if it
measures that which it is supposed to measure. Further refining of the term reliable is that, when
a test is repeated by the same researcher i.e. with a different group representing the original
group, the same results should be obtained .
• Validity
Validity on the other hand is concerned with the soundness and the effectiveness of the
measuring instrument (Leedy 1 993: 40).
From the literature consulted four types of validity stands out, namely:
- content validity,
- prognostic validity,
- simultaneous validity; and
- construct validity.
Content validity deals with the accuracy with which an instrument measures the factors or content
of the course or situations, under study.
Prognostic validity on the other hand relies basically upon the possibility to make judgements by
virtue of results obtained by the instrument. The judgement is future orientated. Consider the
following as an example: it can be predicted from the matriculation results of a prospective
student that he would be a successful medical student.
Simultaneous validity is tested by comparing one measuring instrument to another one that
measures the same characteristic and which is available immediately. The second, as a criteria,
checks the accuracy of the first measure and sets a standard against which to measure the
results. The data of the measuring instrument should correlate with equivalent data of the
criterion.
Construct validity is interested in the degree to which the construct is actually measured.
3 Classification of statistical methods
Before a researcher can use a statistical method for his research, he should be familiarized with
the various statistical methods as well as the prerequisites for the implementation thereof.
Because of the circumference of statistical methods, an in-depth discussion cannot take place for
the purpose of this element. It will suffice to highlight the basic statistical methods.
Statistical methods in the broadest sense are classified into two main groups namely descriptive
and inferential statistics.
• Descriptive statistics
Smit (1983: 212) sees descriptive statistics as the formulation of rules and procedures according
to which data can be placed in useful and significant order. Landman (1988: 94) states that
descriptive statistics deals with the central tendency, variability (variation) and relationships
(correlations) in data that are readily at hand. The basic principle for using descriptive statistics is
the requirement for absolute representation of data.

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The most important and general methods used are:
- Ratios. This indicates the relative frequency of the various variables to one another, for
example 1.
- Percentages. Percentages (%) are calculated by multiplying a ratio with 100. In other words it
is a ratio that represents a standard unit of 100.
- Frequency tables. It is a means to tabulate the rate of recurrence of a specific measurement,
for example a specific achievement in a test. Data arranged in such a manner is known as
distribution. If the distribution tendency is large, larger class intervals are used in order to acquire
a more systematic and orderly system.
In order to understand and interpret a frequency table, you are referred to Huysamen (1976: 24).
• The histogram. The histogram is a graphic representation of frequency
distribution and is being used to represent simple frequency distribution.
Characteristic is a vertical line (the y axis/ordinate) at the left sideline of
the figure and the horizontal line (x axis) at the bottom. The two lines
meet at a 90 grade angle.
Because frequencies should be divided into class intervals, the
benefit of graphic presentation is that data can be observed
immediately.
• Frequency polygon. The frequency polygon does not differ basically
from the histogram, but is only used for continual data. Instead of drafting
bars for the complete histogram, a dot indicating the highest score is
placed in the middle of the class interval. When the dots are linked up,
the frequency polygon is formed. Usually an additional class is added to
the end of the line in order to form an anchor.
• Cumulative frequency curve. The frequency on the frequency table is
added, starting from the bottom of the class interval, and adding class by
class. The cumulative frequency in a specific class interval can then
clearly indicate how many persons/ measurements perform below or
above the class intervals. In other words, from cumulative frequency
tables a curve can be drawn, to reflect data in a graphic manner (Smit
1983: 213).

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• Percentile curve. The cumulative frequency can also be converted into
percentages or proportions of distribution. From such a table, one could
read certain percentages or promotions of persons or cases, with
regards to a certain point on the scale. The scale value in which 10% of
the score in a distribution falls, is regarded as the P 10 (10 percentile).
Those in which 25% of the score falls is the first quarter of P25 etc. (Smit
1983: 213).

• Line graphic. During the previous graphic presentations the historical


line (X axis) indicated the scale of measurement, whilst the vertical line
(Y axis) indicated the frequency. In the case of a line graphic, both axes
(X and Y) are used to indicate the scale of measurement with the aim of
indicating a comparison between two comparable variables (Smit 1983:
214).

4 Central tendency
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Central tendency is defined as the central point around which data revolve. The following
techniques can be employed:
• The mode
The mode is defined as the score (value or category) of the variable which is observed most
frequently. For example:
375864595
From the above mentioned, the mode equals 5 because 5 appears to be the most frequent score
amongst all the numbers (occurred 3X).
• Median
The median indicates the middle value of a series of sequentially ordered scores. Because the
median divides frequencies into two equal parts, it can also be described as being the fiftieth
percentile.
10 13 14 15 18 19 22 25 25
The median in the above-mentioned is the fifth score, that is 18. There are 4 counts on both sides
of the numerical value 18.
In cases where you have, for instance:
10 13 14 15 18 19 22 25 26 29
there are 2 numerical values indicating the median. By dividing the result by 2, the median can be
determined. The fifth score with a numerical value of 18 and the sixth score with the numerical
value of 19 are in the middle of the sequentially ordered scores. The median for the above
mentioned scores is therefore 18 + 19 ) 2 = 18,5. Because 18,5 does not occur in the sequentially
ordered scores, Huysamen (1983: 50) states that one should in cases of these rather refer to the
18.5 percentile.
• Arithmetic mean
The arithmetic mean refers to a measure of central tendencies found by adding all scores and
dividing them by the number of scores. The following is an example:
5 2 6 1 6 =
(Sum total of

scores )
N
Thus 5 + 2 + 6 + 1 + 6 = 20, because there are 5 scores, N = 5, and the sum total of the scores
(20) is divided by 5.
• Standard deviation
The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of dispersion of a distribution of scores. The
deviation of each score from the mean is squared; the squared deviations are then summed, the
result divided by N-1, and the square root taken (Landman 1988: 94).
• Inference statistics
Apart from descriptive statistics that deal with central tendencies, statistical methods enabling
researchers to go from the known to the unknown data also exist. This is to say to make
deductions or statements regarding the broad population as the samples from which the 'known'
data are drawn. These methods, according to literature are called inferential or inductive statistics
(Landman 1988: 95). These methods includes estimation, predictions, hypothesis testing and so
forth.

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In conclusion the role of statistical methods in research is to enable the researcher to accurately
utilize the gathered information and to be more specific in describing his findings. For more
details on statistical calculations you are referred to Huysamen (1976).
5 Self-test
a) The following marks were allocated to students during a test they wrote:
33 44 69 66 72 46 69
44 61 80 73 42 73 88
62 81 75 50 71 56 86
60 86 54 80 87 63 49
Compile the following on the scores presented to you:
- frequency distribution
- histogram
- frequency polygon.
b) Calculate the arithmetic mean, mode and median of the following:
8 7 3 21 16 34 22 18 19.
c) Determine the mode and median of the following:
8 11 12 3 31 12 8 9 12 10 5.
6 SOURCE LIST
Huysamen, GK 1976 Beskrywende Statistiek vir Sosiale Wetenskappe.
Pretoria: Academica.
Landman, WA 1988 Navorsingsmetodologiese Grondbegrippe. Pretoria:
Serva.
Leedy, PD 1985 Practical Research: Planning and Design. Third Edition.
New Tork: McMillan Publishing Co.
Smit, GJ 1983 Navorsingsmetodes in die geesteswetenskappe. Pretoria:
HAUM.
7 ANSWERS TO SELF TEST

b = 15
Modus = 21
Median = 16
c Modus = 12
Median = 12

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