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BELIZE DEFENCE FORCE

FORCE MEDICAL CENTRE


FIRST AID LECTURE

LESSON 1

AIMS AND PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID

AIMS

The aims of First Aid or the reasons for carrying it out or to be more specific, what the first aider
is trying to achieve. They are:

1. to save life

2. To prevent the casualty’s condition from becoming worse.

It must be remembered that there is a limit as to the effectiveness that first aid can have, and with
the vast majority of casualties even partial recovery from their injuries can be long term. If a
casualty reaches further medical aid without his condition becoming worse then the first aider
has done his job well.

PRINCIPLES

the principles of first aid are:

a) To prevent further injury to the casualty and to avoid injury to yourself: (e.g., from enemy
fire, flames, collapsing building or any other hazards.
b) To assess and treat the casualty in the correct order of priority.
c) To place casualties in a comfortable position.
d) To immobilize injured limbs.
e) To relieve pain and anxiety if possible.
f) To arrange evacuation if necessary in the correct priority.

PRIORITY OF TREATMENT

some injuries are more serious than others and in general they should always be treated in the
following order:

1. AIRWAY - Casualties with airway problems.

2. BREATHING - Casualties with difficulty in breathing or whose breathing has stopped

3 CIRCULATION - Casualties with bleeding wounds or are in shock.

4. DISABLITY - Casualties with other injuries, e.g. breaks and burns.


PRINCIPLES OF CASUALTY RESCUE

Often at the scene of the accident, the situation is made worse by people rushing in without
thinking and this can lead to the unnecessary suffering of casualties and more importantly injury
to the first aider. To ensure the efficiency of a first aider at the scene of an accident, the following
should always be carried out:

1. LOOK - For any further danger


- at the number of casualties and their injuries For a safe place to treat the
casualties.

2. LISTEN - To the casualties and bystanders and ascertain what happened.

3. THINK -Which casualties to treat first. If the casualty can be moved.

4 ACT - Carry out the appropriate actions.

PRIORITIES OF EVACUTION

Once casualties have been treated they are given a priority for evacuation. This ensures that that
those casualties requiring the earliest it and those with minor injuries are left to the end.

Organizing priorities of evacuation is particularly important when evacuation transport is limited


and only a percentage of the casualties can be evacuated at the time.

PRIORTY 1

Casualties needing URGENT resuscitation and/ or surgery.

PRIORTY 2

Casualties needing EARLY surgery and POSSIBLE resuscitation.

PRIORITY 3

All other casualties.