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Abu I-Hol- Figure on Giza

Amun - is known from an early date from references in the Pyramid texts where he is shown as a
primeval deity who symbolized creative force

Anubis - is the Greek name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the
afterlife in Egyptian mythology.

Arabic- is a Central Semitic language, thus related to and classified alongside other Semitic
languages such as Hebrew and Syriac.

Barley- cereal plant belonging to the genus Hordeum of the grass family Poaceae (Gramineae) and
its edible grain. Believed to extend back to 5000 BC in Egypt

Book of Dead - is the common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary text known as "Spells of
Coming" (or "Going") "Forth By Day." The Book of the Dead was a description of the ancient
Egyptian conception of the afterlife and a collection of hymns, spells, and instructions to allow the
deceased to pass through obstacles in the afterlife.

Cairo - is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab World.

Canopic jars - were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and
preserve the viscera of their own for the afterlife.

Cleopatra VII Philopator - January 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was the last effective pharaoh of
Egypt's Ptolemaic dynasty.

Deity - is a postulated preternatural or supernatural immortal being, who may be thought of as

holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, and respected by believers.

Falcon- Pertaining to the God named Horus which is the son of Isis and Osiris. Horus is a Falcon
Headed man.

Funeral Mask- like all of the many coffins in which his body was laid to rest, made in the
traditional form of the god osiris, so that , through a kind of imitative magic.

Giza – or Gizah is a town in Egypt on the west bank of the Nile river, some 20 km southwest of
central Cairo and now part of the greater Cairo metropolis.

Great Sphinx of Giza - is a statue of a reclining lion with a human head that stands on the Giza
Plateau on the west bank of the Nile, near modern-day Cairo, in Egypt.

Hatshepsut - meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies, was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty
of Ancient Egypt.
Hieroglyphs - was a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that contained a
combination of logographic and alphabetic elements.
Hemiunu - or (Haman) (fl. 2570 BC) is believed to be the architect of the Great Pyramid of Giza,
Egypt. He was the son of Nefermaat,[3] a relative of Khufu, the Old Kingdom pharaoh whose
pyramid it is.

Imhotep - fl. 27th century BC (2650-2600 BC) was an Egyptian polymath, who served under the
Third Dynasty king, Djoser, as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra at

Isis - is the Goddess of motherhood and fertility.

Jean-François Champollion - (23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French classical scholar,
philologist and orientalist.Champollion deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs with the help of
groundwork laid by his predecessors: Athanasius Kircher, Silvestre de Sacy, Johan David Akerblad,
Thomas Young, and William John Bankes.
Karnak temple complex - universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of
ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings. It is located near Luxor in Egypt. This was
ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut ("The Most Selected of Places"), the main place of worship of the
Theban Triad with Amun as its head, in the monumental city of Thebes.
Khufu – or Cheops was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from around 2589 to
2566 B.C.
Tutankhamen - (1341 BC – 1323 BC) was an Egyptian Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty (ruled
1333 BC – 1324 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as
the New Kingdom.
Lotus - is classified as Nymphaea caerulea. The lotus, in the water-lily form, is a persistent
ornament in architecture. A well-known example is its use in decorating the capitals of columns, a
practice dating from ancient Egyptian times.

Maat - or Mayet was the Ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and
justice. Maat was also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of
both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of
Mastaba - is a type of Ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure
with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's
ancient period
Mausoleum - is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the
interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons.

Monotheism -is the belief that only one god exists.

Mummification - Preparing a body for the afterlife in ancient egypt was a very long and
complicated process. The Egyptians believed that preserving the body in death was important to
keep their soul alive.
Mummy - is a corpse whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or incidental
exposure to chemicals, extreme coldness, very high humidity, or lack of air when bodies are
submerged in bogs.

Nefertiti - (c. 1370 BC - c. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of the Egyptian
Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for changing Egypt's religion from a
polytheistic religion to a henotheistic religion
Nile - is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.
Nut- in Egyptian religion, a goddess of the sky, vault of the heavens, often depicted as a woman
arched over the earth god Geb. As the goddess of the sky, Nut swallowed the sun in the evening
and gave birth to it again in the morning.
Obelisk - is a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the
Osiris - was an Egyptian god, usually called the god of the Afterlife. Osiris is one of the oldest
gods for whom records have been found; one of the oldest known attestations of his name is on the
Palermo Stone of around 2500 BC.
Papyrus - is a thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus
papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt.
Papyrus reed- writing material of ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived,
Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant.

Pharaoh Akhenaton- also spelled Akhnaton , or Ikhnaton , also called Amenhotep Iv , or

Neferkheperure Amenhotep , Greek Amenophis king of Egypt (1353–36 BC) of the 18th dynasty,
who established a new monotheistic cult of Aton (hence his assumed name, Akhenaton, meaning
“One Useful to Aton”).

P’Tah- also spelled Phthah, in Egyptian religion, creator-god and maker of things, a patron of
craftsmen, especially sculptors; his high priest was called “chief controller of craftsmen.” The
Greeks identified Ptah with Hephaestus (Vulcan), the divine blacksmith.

Pharaoh - is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods.
In antiquity this title began to be used for the ruler who was the religious and political leader of
united ancient Egypt, only during the New Kingdom, specifically, during the middle of the
eighteenth dynasty.

Pharos Lighthouse- lighthouse in Alexandria, Egypt, that was designed about 280 BC, during the
reign of King Ptolemy II. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Pyramid - is a building where the outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point. The base
of a pyramid is usually trilateral or quadrilateral (but may be of any polygon shape), meaning that a
pyramid usually has four or five faces.

Pyramid of Cheops - Which is the Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three
pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Pyramid of Khufu- After the Great Pyramid was initially sealed, it's original entrance was hidden
and faced with smooth limestone. Because this blended in so well with the surrounding casing, the
opening was invisible. Around 820 AD, Abdullah Al Mamun mobilized men to bore a tunnel into the
pyramid to search for chambers and treasure.

Ptolemy II - (Philadelphus) king of Egypt (285–246 BC), second king of the Ptolemaic dynasty, who
extended his power by skillful diplomacy, developed agriculture and commerce, and made
Alexandria a leading centre of the arts and sciences.

Pyramid Texts - are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old
Kingdom. The pyramid texts are the oldest known religious texts in the world.

Ra - is the ancient Egyptian sun god. By the fifth dynasty he became a major deity in ancient
Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the mid-day sun, with other deities representing other
positions of the sun.

Rosetta Stone - is an Ancient Egyptian artifact which was instrumental in advancing modern
understanding of hieroglyphic writing. The stone is a Ptolemaic era stele with carved text made up
of three translations of a single passage: two in Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and
Demotic) and one in classical Greek.

Saqqara - is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient
Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step
Pyramid, as well as a number of mastabas.

Statue of Ramses - A huge statue of the pharaoh Ramses stands at the temple of Luxor in Egypt.

Step pyramids - has been an ancient part of several cultures throughout history from the. These
pyramids typically are large and made of several layers, or steps, of stone.

Temple of Hatshepsut- The Mortuary Temple after Hatshepsut's death, Tuthmosis III replaced
her image with his own - or erased her image completely as detailed above.

Thoth - was considered one of the more important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often
depicted with the head of an Ibis. His feminine counterpart was Seshat.