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Module PMR

CHAPTER 7 : ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

A. Unknown

*An unknown is a quantity whose value has not been determined.


*Letters can be used to represent unknowns or objects.

Example Exercise
1. The teacher gives some pencils 1. I bought some books
to the students Solution : ……………………………
Solution : The unknown is the
number of pencils 2. There are many monkeys in the garden.
Solution : …………………………….
2. There are x students in m class
Solution : x is unknown 3. Azman bought y durian in z shop
m is object yesterday.
Solution : unknown……………..
object ……………….

4. Mr a sold his car for k ringgit


Solution : unknown ………………..
object :…………………..

B Algebraic Terms

i) Algebraic Term with one unknown


- is the product of an unknown and a number.
Example : 4y is called an algebraic term 4y = 4 x y = y + y + y + y
4y

Number unknown

* Identify coefficients in given algebraic term


- Coefficient is the number that multiply the unknown

Example Exercise
1) 7m : coefficient of m is 7 1) -3z : coefficient of z is……………

r 1 2
2) : coefficient of r is 2) x : coefficient of x is …………..
4 4 5

3) – y : coefficient of y is -1 3) 0.7 h : coefficient of h is …………

4) p : coefficient of p is …………..

Algebraic Expressions 77
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(ii) Like and Unlike Algebraic Terms


* Like term : terms with the same unknowns
* Unlike terms : terms with different unknowns.

Example Exercise
Determine whether each of the
1. 3m and -4m Like term following pairs of algebraic terms are
2. 4x and ¼ x (same unknown) like term / unlike term
3. 0.9z and 5z
1. 6s , - t : ……………………
1. 2w and 8h unlike term y
2, -5f and ½g (different unknown) 2. , 8y : ……………………..
4
3. 1.2q and 3.5g 3. 19 d , 19e : ……………………
2
4. , 4e : ………………………..
e

C Algebraic Expressions

An algebraic expression is a combination of two or more algebraic


terms by addition, subtraction or both

Examples : 2x + 4y , 6r – 3s + 6z

(i) Number of terms in a given algebraic expression

Example Exercise
Determine the number of terms Determine the number of terms
in the algebraic expressions in the algebraic expressions
below : below :

1. 3x + 6y : 2 terms 1. 6m + 8n – 9 : …………………..

2. 7p + 5q – 9 : 3 terms 2. 3b + 2e – 10b -5e : …………….

3. w – 2z – 8y + 1 : 4 terms 3. 2s – 4s + 5s + 3 – w :………….

(ii) Simplifying Algebraic Expressions


- Group all the like terms together
- Add / subtract the coefficient of the terms
- unlike terms cannot be simplified

Algebraic Expressions 78
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Examples Exercise
1. 6m – 2n + 4m – 5n .1. 2x – 7y + 5x – y
= 6m + 4m -2n -5n (group like terms) =
= 10m – 7n

2. -7x + 4y + 3y + 2x 2. 11z -3w - 8z- 8w


= -7x + 2x + 4y + 3y =
= -5x + 7y

3. ( 12a – 4b) + ( 5a + 7b) 3. ( 6r + 9s) + ( 3r – 2s)


= 12a+ 5a – 4b + 7b =
= 17a + 3b

4. ( 9q + 2p) – ( 4q – 6p) 4. ( 5k -3) – ( 7k + 2)


= 9q + 2p – 4q + 6p =
= 9q – 4q + 2p + 6p
= 5q + 8p

5. 8x – ( - 4x) + x 5. (2t +4s) – (7t – 3s)


= 8x + 4x + x =
= 13x

6. -3c –(- d) +(-2d)


= -3c +d – 2d 6. – 3s – (- 5s + 1)
=-3d -d =

7. -14w –(-3w) -7w


=

D. Algebraic Terms in two or more unknowns

Is the multiplying factors of the term


Examples : 3xy , ½abc, 0.8 def

* Identifying the coefficient of an unknown

Example Exercise
In the term 8xy2 1. in the term -3ab2c
* 8y(xy) the coefficient of xy is 8y * the coefficient of abc =………………..
* 8x(y2) the coefficient of y2 is 8x * the coefficient of ab2 = ………………..
* 8y2 (x) the coefficient of x is 8y2 * the coefficient of ab2c =……………..
* 8(xy2) the coefficient of xy2 is 8 * the coefficient of ac = ……………….

Algebraic Expressions 79
Module PMR

E. Multiplication & Division of 2 or more terms

(i) Finding the product of 2 algebraic terms


- collect all numbers and similar unknowns together
- then multiply the numbers and the unknown separately.

Example Exercise
1. 2ab x 4b2c 1. ab x a2b
=2xaxbx4xbxbxc
=2x4xaxbxbxbxc =
= 8 x a x b2 x c
= 8ab3c

2. 3xy x (-2 yz)


2 2
2. 4m x ½ mn
=4x½xmxmxmxnxn =
= 2 x m 3 x n2
= 2 m3 n2

Exercise 3.. 6ab2c x (½ bc3)


4 1
6. pqr × (− pqr )
5 2 =
=

7. (-3m2hk3)x (-7m2hk2)
= 4. (-8p3qr) x ( -7pqr2)

2 2
5. − w z × ( −9 wz 3 )
3

Algebraic Expressions 80
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(ii) Finding the quotient of two algebraic terms


- Express the division in fraction form
- cancel similar unknowns that are found in both numerator and denominator

Example Exercise
14 xyz 1. 24pq2z ÷ 8qr
1. =
7 xz
14 2 × x × y × z
=
7× x× z
= 2y
− 16 x 3 y 2
2.
2. 12m2n ÷ 3mn − 4x 2 y 3
12 4 × m × m × n =
=
3× m × n
= 4m

3. -5cd2e ÷ 15c2de 3. 12abc ÷ (-18cd)


(−5) × c × d × d × e =
=
3 15 × c × c × d × e

d
= −
3c 4. (- 18sr3t2) ÷ 6sr2t
=

iii) Multiplication and Division involving algebraic terms

Example Exercise
1. 4p x 6q2 ÷ 3pq 1. 6p2qr ÷ 3pq x 8pr
4 × p × 62 × q × q =
=
3× p × q
= 8q

− 4c 2 de × 9cde 2 − 12 gh × (−9kh)
2.
6ce 2 2.
6 gh 2
− 4 2 × c × c × d × e × 93 × c × d × e × e =
=
6 31 ×c × e × e
= -2 x c x d x 3 x c x d x e
= -2 x 3 x c x c x d x d x e
= -6c2d2e
3. 10a2b3 x (-2b2c) ÷ 5abc

Algebraic Expressions 81
Module PMR

F) Computations involving Algebraic Expressions


* In Multiplication / division of algebraic expressions by a number, every term
In the expression is multiply/ divide by the same number
Example Exercise
1. 3 ( 2a –b) 1. 8 ( 5m -2)
= 3 x 2a – 3 x b =
= 6a – 3b

2 1 2. - ½ ( 4a + 12b)
− (5t + 10 s ) =
5
1 1
= − × 5t − × 10 2 s
5 5 3. – p – 7 ( p -3 )
= −t − 2 s =

3. h – 9(h – 2)
= h – 9h + 18 4. – 5 ( t -2) + 8t
= -8h +18 =

5. 3 ( 2s -7) – 4( s + 3)
=
4. 2 (4e +y) – 5( 2e – 3y)
= 2 x 4e + 2 x y – 5 x 2e + 5 x 3y
= 8e + 2y – 10e + 15y
= 8e -10e +2y + 15y
= -2e + 17y 6. . ( -12pq + 8qr – 4pqr) ÷ 4
=
5. (6ab – 4bc) ÷ 2b
= 6ab ÷ 2b – 4bc ÷ 2b
= 3a – 2c 3x − 9
7. − 5y
3
6. 1 3
(4 p 2 − 8 pq) − (4 p 2 − 12 pq ) =
2 4
= 2 p − 4 pq − 3 p 2 + 9 pq
2

= 2 p 2 − 3 p 2 − 4 pq + 9 pq
1 2
= − p 2 + 5 pq 8. (5 p 2 − 10 pq) − (6 p 2 − 3 pq)
5 3
=
12 x − 4
7. 5(2x – 1) -
4
= 10x -5 – (3x - 1) 18 − 24u 2
= 10x -5 -3x + 1 9. + 5(2u 2 − 3)
6
= 10x -3x -5 + 1
Algebraic Expressions 82
Module PMR

= 7x -4 =

Common Errors

Errors Correct Steps


1. 7pq x 3pq 1. 7pq x 3pq
= 21 pq =7x3xpxpxqxq
= 21 p2q2

2. 2 ( 4e – 3 d) 2. 2( 4e – 3d)
= 8e – 3d = 2 x 4e – 2 x 3d
= 8e – 6d

3. (6de2 – 4ef) ÷ 2e 3. (6de2 – 4ef) ÷ 2e


= 3de – 4ef = 6de2 ÷ 2e – 4ef ÷ 2e
= 3de – 2f

4. (x – 4y) – ( 2x + y) 4. (x – 4y) – ( 2x + y)
= x – 4y – 2x + y = x – 4y – 2x - y
= x -2x -4y + y = x -2y -4y - y
= -x-3y = - x - 5y

5. -2p ( pq – 3) 5. -2p ( pq – 3)
= - 2pq – 6p = - 2p2q + 6p

6. 10abc – 4 abc 6. 10abc – 4 abc


=6 = 6abc

7. 3a +6b – 8a – 3b 7. 3a +6b – 8a – 3b
= 3a + 8a - 6b -3b = 3a - 8a + 6b -3b
= 11a – 9b = -5a +3b

8. ( - 4rs2t) x 5r3st2 8. ( - 4rs2t) x 5r3st2


= (-4) x 5 x r x r3 x s2 x s x t x t2 = (-4) x 5 x r x r3 x s2 x s x t x t2
= 20r3s2t2 = -20r4s3t3

9. -5s - ( 3t – 2) 9. -5s - ( 3t – 2)

= +15st -10s = -5s -3t +2

Algebraic Expressions 83
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(G) Expanding single Brackets

* Expanding algebraic expressions by multiplying each term inside the


bracket by the number or term outside

* p(q + r)= p × q + p × r = pq + pr

Example Exercise
1. 2p (p – 3q) 1. y ( w + y)
= 2p x p – 2p x 3q =
= 2p2 – 6pq

2. -4b(2a + b)
= -4b x 2a -4b x b 2. -5e ( 3f + 2g)
= -8ab – 4b2 =

2
3. b (6a – 9c)
3
3 r
2 2 3. (12 − 9 s + 3t )
= b x 6 a - b x 9c
2
3
3 3
= 4ab -6bc =

4. xy ( 4z – 2w + xy)
=

2
5. x( xy − 5 yz 2 + 10 z )
5
=

6. - 7ab(2a – 4b + c)
=

Algebraic Expressions 84
Module PMR

(H) Expanding double brackets

* Expanding algebraic Expressions by multiplying each term within


the first pair of brackets by every term within the second pair of
brackets

( a + b)(x + y) = a( x +y) + b( x+y)


= ax + ay + bx + by

Example Exercise
1. (x -3)(y+5) 1. (a -2)(b +1)
= x (y + 5) – 3(y + 5) =
= xy + 5x – 3y – 15

2. (2k -1)(k – 3)
= 2k(k -3) – 1(k -3) 2. (m +3)( 3m – n)
= 2k2- 6k – k + 3 =
= 2k2 -7k + 3

3. (p – 3q)2
= (p – 3q)(p -3q) 3. (-2s -5)( 3t + 4)
= p(p-3q) – 3q (p-3q) =
= p2 – 3pq – 3pq + 9q2
= p2 – 6pq + 9q2

4. (2a +b)2
= (2a+b)(2a+b) 4. ( a -3)2
= 2a(2a+b) + b(2a+b) =
= 4a2 +2ab +2ab + b2
= 4a2 +4ab +b2

5. (3m –n)2
=

6. ( 5x +2)2
=

Algebraic Expressions 85
Module PMR

7. (y + 4d)2
=

Common Errors

Errors Correct Steps


1. 2x(x-3) 1. 2x(x-3)
= 2x2 -3 = 2x2 – 6

2. (a+b)2 2. (a+b)2
= a2 + b2 = a2 +2ab + b2

3. ( a – b)2 3.. ( a – b)2


= a2 – b2 = a2 – 2ab + b2

4 2m2(3m2n – 4 mn3) 4. 2m2(3m2n – 4 mn3)


= 6m4n – 4m2n3 = 6m4n – 8m3n3

5. -4 ( 3de – 2rst2) 5. -4 ( 3de – 2rst2)


= - 12de – 2rst2 = - 12de + 8rst2

6. ( x -3)2 6. ( x -3)2
= x2 – 9 = x2 – 6x + 9

7. 4a2 –(a + b)2 7. 4a2 –(a + b)2


= 4a 2 –a2 + b2 = 4a 2 –( a2 +2ab + b2 )
= 3a2 + b2 = 4a2 – a2 - 2ab - b2
= 3a2 -2ab –b2

8. (2x -3)(x + 4) 8. (2x -3)(x + 4)


= 2x( x+4) – 3 (x + 4) = 2x( x+4) – 3 (x + 4)

Algebraic Expressions 86
Module PMR

= 2x2 + 8x – 3x + 12 = 2x2 + 8x – 3x - 12
= 2x2 +5x + 12 = 2x2 +5x – 12

(I ) Factorization

* Process of writing an expression as a product of two or more


factors.

- List out common factors for each alg. term , determine the HCF of
the terms .
- Write as the product of 2 factors

ab – ac = a ( b – c) a = common factor
Example Exercise
1. st – sr 1. 6a – 24c
= s( t – r ) =

2. 4m + 12mn – 16m2 2. 4m3 – 6m2


= 4 xm + 4 x 3x mxn- 4 x 4 x m x m =
= 4m ( 1 + 3n – 4m)

3. 6d2 – 3d 3. 8ax + 4bx – 2cx


= 3 x 2 x d xd – 3 x d =
= 3d ( 2d – 1)

4. 10mn – 15m2 4. x2yz – xy2z


=5x2xmxn–5x3xmxm =
= 5m ( 2n – 3m )

5. 3st2 – 15 stw
=

6. 2yz – 4yz2 + 6xyz


=

Algebraic Expressions 87
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*Factorize an expression by using the difference between 2 squares


i) expressions which consist of 2 terms :

a2 – b2 = ( a – b)( a + b)

Example Exercise
1 9 – a2 1. w2 – 25
= 32 – a2 =
= ( 3-a)(3+a)

2. 4x2 – 25y2 2. 5x2 -5


= 22 x2 – 52 y2 =
= ( 2x)2 – (5y)2
= ( 2x – 5y)( 2x + 5y)

3. 8g2 – 18h2 3. 12d2 – 75


= 2 ( 4g2 – 9h2 ) =
= 2 [ ( 2g)2 – ( 3h)2 ]
= 2 (2g -3h) (2g + 3h)

4. 36c2 -100e2
=

ii) expressions which consist of 3 terms

a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2
a2 - 2ab + b2 = (a - b)2

Example Exercise
1. 9x2 + 6xy + y2 1. a2 + 4ab + b2
= (3x2) + 2 (3x)(y) + y2 =
= ( 3x + y)2

2. p2 – 4pq + q2
= p2 – 2(p)(q) + q2 2. 4x2- 20x + 25
= (p – q)2 =
Algebraic Expressions 88
Module PMR

3. 16p2 – 24pq + 9q2


= (4p)2 – 2(4p)(3q) +(3q)2
= (4p –3q)2 3. 9e2 – 12 ef + 4f2
=

iii) expressions which consist of 4 terms


ax + ay - bx - by
ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay) -(bx + by)
= (ax + ay) + (bx + by) = a( x+y) - b(x+ y)
= a( x+y) + b(x+y) = (a -b)(x + y)
= (a+b)(x+y)

Example Exercise
1. w2 + wz + 6w + 6z 1. pq + qr + ps + rs
= (w2 + wz) +( 6w + 6z) =
= w(w+z) + 6(w+z)
= (w + 6)(w+z)

2. a2b2 + a2b + b+1 2. 2ab + bc + 6ad + 3cd


= (a2b2 + a2b) + (b+1) =
= a2b (b + 1) + 1(b+1)
= (a2b +1)(b+1)

3. 2x2 - 4xy + 6y – 3x 3. de – de2 + 7de – 7d


=(2x2 - 4xy) + (6y – 3x) =
= 2x (x -2y) + 3 (2y- x)
= 2x(x – 2y) – 3(x - 2y)
= (2x - 3)( x - 2y)

4. ab + bc – ad – dc 4. 10 + 3ab – 15a – 2b
= (ab + bc) – (ad + dc) =
= b(a+c) – d(a+c)
= (b– d)(a+c)

Algebraic Expressions 89
Module PMR

Common Errors

Errors Correct Steps


2m − 2 2m − 2
1. 1.
6m 2 6m 2
m−2 2(m − 1)
= =
3m 2 2 × 3× m2
m −1
=
3m 2

x2 − 9 x2 − 9
2. 2.
x−3 x−3

( x − 3)( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3)
= =
( x − 3) ( x − 3)

= x–3 =x+3

3. x2 – 9 3. x2 – 9

= (x + 9 ) ( x – 9) = x2 - 32
= (x + 3 ) ( x – 3)

4. y2 - 62 4. y2 - 62

= ( y – 6 )2 = ( y – 6 )( y + 6)

J) Factorizing & Simplifying Algebraic Expressions

* Algebraic Fractions are fractions with either its numerator or


denominator or both having algebraic expressions
x p − q 2a
Examples : , ,
y + 1 x 2 4 − 3b

Algebraic Expressions 90
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I) Simplifying algebraic Expressions

* divide the numerator and denominator by their common factors.


* factorizing the numerator or denominator or both and then divide the
numerator and denominator by their common factors.

Example Exercise
4a 2 b 5rs
1. 1.
2ab 2 10r 2 s
4× a× a×b =
=
2× a×b×b
2 × a 2a
= =
b b

21c 2 de 3
− 12m 3 n 2.
2. 14cde 2
20m 2 n 2 =
− 4 × 3× m × m × m × n
=
5× 4× m× m× n × n
− 3× m 3m
= =−
5× n 5n

b+c 3−d
3. 3.
b2 − c2 9−d2
(b + c) 1 =
= =
(b − c)(b + c ) b − c

e2 − f 2
x2 − 9 4.
4. 3e − 3 f
2x 2 − 6x
=
x 2 − 32
=
2× x × x − 2× 3× x
( x − 3)( x + 3)
=
2 x ( x − 3)

Algebraic Expressions 91
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x+3
=
2x

ii) Addition & Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions


a) Algebraic Fractions with same denominator
Example Exercise
2x 4 rt 5s
1. − 1. −
y y 9k 9k
2x − 4 =
=
y
2m − 1 m + 4
2. −
3n 3n x − 4 3x + 2
2. −
(2m − 1) − (m + 4) 6 xy 6 xy
=
3n =
2m − 1 − m − 4
=
3n
2m − m − 1 − 4
=
3n
m−5
=
3n

b) Algebraic Fractions with different denominator


Example Exercise
1 2 4x y
1. + (LCM = 5b) 1 +
b 5b 2 5
1× b 2 =
= +
5b 5b
b+2
=
5b

5y 3
2. 2
− ( LCM =4x2y)
4x 2 xy 4q 5q
5 y × y 3 × 2x 2. −
= − a b 2ab 2
2

4x 2 y 4x 2 y =
5 y 2 − 6x
=
4x 2 y

2d − 3 5d + 1
3. − (LCM = 6ab)
2a 3b
Algebraic Expressions 92
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3b × (2d − 3) 2a × (5d + 1)
= −
6ab 6ab
6bd − 9b 10ad + 2a
= − ab + 1 2 − a
6ab 6ab 3. −
6bd − 9b − (10ad + 2a ) 4r 18rs
= =
6ab
6bd − 9b − 10ad − 2a
=
6ab

iii)Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions

a) Multiplication 2 algebraic fractions involving 2 types :


* Denominator with one term

Example Exercise
1. 2 p 3q 7 2
× 1. ×
7 5a 3r 9 y
2 p × 3q =
=
7 × 5a
6 pq
=
35a 3x 18 y
2. ×
6 yz 15 x 2
2
6m 2 4n 2
2. × =
2n 3m
2 × 3× m × m 2 × 2 × n × n
= ×
2× n 3× m
2× m× 2× n p+r 3
= 3. ×
1 12 x q
= 4mn

Algebraic Expressions 93
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* denominator with two terms

Example Exercise
1. x2 − y2 x 3x x−3
× 1. 2 ×
2x x− y x − 9 6x 2
=
( x − y )( x + y ) x
. = ×
2x ( x − y)
x+ y
=
2

2x 2 + x x 2 − y 2 2x − 2 x + 3
2. × 2. ×
x+ y 2 xy + y x 2 − 9 4x − 4
=
x(2 x + 1) ( x − y )( x + y )
= ×
x+ y y (2 x + 1) .
x( x − y )
=
y

Division of Algebraic Fractions

* Denominator with one term

Example Exercise
a 2c a e ae 5 10 z
1. ÷ = × = 1. ÷ 2
d e d 2c 2cd x x
=

m − n 2( m − n )
2. ÷
4c 2c
( m − n) 2c
= × a + b 2a + 2b
2 4c 2(m − n) 2. ÷
cd 3c 2 d
1
= =
4

x 2 − 16 y 2 x + 4 y
3. ÷
2x 2 xy
x − (4 y )
2 2
x + 4y
= 2
÷
2x xy
3b − 3a a 2 − b 2
( x − 4 y )( x + 4 y ) x× y 3. ÷
= × 4d 2 2d
2× x× x ( x + 4 y) =

Algebraic Expressions 94
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y( x − 4 y)
=
2x
.

m − 5 m 2 − 25
4. ÷
4 pq 6q

*Denominator with 2 terms

Example Exercise
1. 2p p 5 10m
÷ 2 1. ÷
q+2 q −4 n − 3 3n − 9
2 p q 2 − 22 =
= ×
q+2 p
2p (q − 2)(q + 2)
= ×
(q + 2) p
= 2(q − 2)
3g 2 27 gh
2. ÷
ab 2 2a y −x
2 2
y−x
2. ÷ 2 =
( a − b) ( a − b 2 )
ab 2 2a
= ÷
(a − b) (a − b)(a + b)
ab 2 (a − b)(a + b)
= ×
( a − b) 2a
s 2 + st rs + rt
b ( a + b)
2
3. ÷
= 2 w − 3 12 − 8w
2 =

Algebraic Expressions 95
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7 x 2 − 14 x 2 x − 4
3, ÷
2x + 2 x +1
7 x ( x − 2) 1
( x + 1)1
= ×
2( x + 1)1 2( x − 2)1 d 2 − e 2 ( d − e) 2
7x ×1 4. ÷
= 12b − 6a 3a − 6b
2× 2 =
7x
=
4

ab 2 2a
5. ÷ 2
( a − b) ( a − b 2 )
=

Common Errors

Errors Correct Steps


3b + 6 3b + 6
1. 1.
9b 9b
3b1 + 6 3(b + 2)
= =
9b3 9b3b
1+ 6 7 b+2
= = =
3 3 3b

1 2 1 2
2. + 2. +
x 3x x 3x
1+ 2 1× 3 2
= = +
x + 3x 3x 3 x
3 3+ 2 5
= = =
4x 3x 3x

2 p − 3q 2 p − 3q
3. 3.
9q − 6 p 9q − 6 p
(2 p − 3q )1 1 ( 2 p − 3q )1 1
= = = =-
3(3q − 2 p)1 3 − 3(2 p − 3q )1 3

Algebraic Expressions 96
Module PMR

1 h −1 1 h −1
4. − 4. −
hk h hk h
1 (h − 1)(×k ) 1 (h − 1)(×k )
= − = −
hk h(×k ) hk h(×k )
1 − kh − k 1 − kh + k
= =
hk hk

5. 2x 2x
÷ xy 5 ÷ xy
y y
2x 2x 1 2
= × xy = × = 2
y y xy y
= 2x 2

6. m + 4 2x
− m + 4 2x
m m 6 −
4 2x m m
= − m + 4 − 2x
m m =
4 − 2x 2x m
= =
m m

Questions based on PMR Format

(A) Simplify each of the following expressions :


1) 4a – (a – 5) 11. (a – 3)2

2) 10q + ( -6q) -5 12 ( 3x + 2)2

3) 6p – ( -3p) – 2p 13. (5d – t)2

4) 4a – a( b+4) 14. (x – 2)2 – x( x -6)

Algebraic Expressions 97
Module PMR

5) -5m – 4(m – 2) 15. ( 2y + 3)2 – ( 5y - 2)

6) 6b – (b +3) 16. ( 3w –z)2 + z(2w –z)

7) 5x – 3(2 - x) 17) (k-2)2- 8 + 3k

8) 4k(k – 3m) – 3m(m – 4k) 18) ( 6s -1)2 – ( 4s + 1)

9) 3(x –y ) – 2 ( y – x) 19) 2 ( 3y- 4) + ( y -5)2

10) -3 ( c – d) + 2 ( 4c -2d) 20) (2p +q)2 - q(4p – 2q)

(B) Factorise completely each of the following expressions :


1. 12xy – 4x2 11. 4x -3y –xy – 12

Algebraic Expressions 98
Module PMR

2. 6e – 18ef 12, a2 b2 + a2b + b + 1

3. 4x2 -100 13. 2m2 –m + 2mn

4, 75 – 3m2 14 9c2 – 100d2

5. 3y + 12 15 uv + wv –ux –wx

6. 20 – 5x2 16 ab+ bc –ad-cd

7. 3st – 15st2u 17. k2-14k + 49

8. 36x2 – 81y2 18. g2 -12g + 36

9. m3 – 9m 19. 3x-4y-6wx+8wy

10. 4p2 -1 20. 2pq- 6pz – 3rq + 9rz

Algebraic Expressions 99
Module PMR

(C) Express each of the following expressions as a single fraction in its


simplest form
2 x p 1− p
1. − 9. −
3 x 12 3m m

4q 3 2m − 3 m + 2
2. − 10 −
p pq 4 6

4 1− s 2  m−3
3. − 11 − 
s 2s 2 3m  12m 2 

5 x −1 8 1 − 4w
4. − 12. −
2w t 5n 10n

x+3 2− y 3( p + 1) 6 − n
5. − 13. −
2e 4 3np n

p 1− p 7 m−4
6. + 14. −
3f f 12m 4m 2

Algebraic Expressions 100


Module PMR

1 2z − 1 9 y
7 − 15. −
4n 8n 2 y ( y + 3) y + 3

5p p2 + 6 2 4−n
8. − 16. −
6q 12 pq 3n 9n 2

(D) Expand each of the following expressions


1. 2 (m+1) 10. (p + 2z )( p – x)

2. 3b (b – 3) 11 (n -7)2

3 -2a ( x – 4) 12. ( r – t)2 -4rt

4. 2k2 ( k – 7) 13 (4m -2)2 + 7m

5. – 5x ( x – 2y) 14 (a+ 2d)( a+ 2d)


Algebraic Expressions 101
Module PMR

6. 2e( 4e – f + 7) 15 (3ª +b)(2a- 2c)

2 16 ( x – 3y)( x + 3y)
7 s (6 x − 12 y + 9)
3

8. -6pq(2pq + 4p – 3q) 17 . (2a + 1)( b- 3)

9 4 ( - 3s + 5h) 18. (x -2)( y + 3)

PMR past year questions

2004

1. Simplify (3x-1)2 –(7x + 4) (2 marks)

2. Factorise completely
a) 9xy -3x2 b) p2 – 6(p+1) – (8 –p)

( 3 marks)

Algebraic Expressions 102


Module PMR

 1 
1− p 
3  2 
3. Express − as a single fraction in its simplest form
2m  mp 
 
 
( 3 marks)

2005

4. Simplify (2p- q)2 + q(4p –q) ( 2marks)

5. Factorise completely each of the following expressions :


(a) 4e – 12ef b) 3x 2 - 48
( 3 marks)

1 m+2
5. Express − as a single fraction in its simplest form.
2m 6m 2
( 3 marks)

2006

6. Factorise completely 50 – 2m2 (2 marks)

Algebraic Expressions 103


Module PMR

7. Simplify 3 (2p -5) + (p – 3)2 ( 2 marks)

1 5 − 2v
8. Express − as a single fraction in its simplest form
5m 15mv
(3 marks)

2007

9. Factorise completely each of the following expressions :

a) 2y + 6 b) 12 – 3x2 ( 3 marks)

10. Expand each of the following expressions :


(a) q(2 + p) (b) ( 3m –n)2
( 3 marks)

5 2 − 3w
11. Express + as a single fraction in its simplest form
3n 6n
(3 marks)

Algebraic Expressions 104


Module PMR

2008

12. Simplify 2p – 3q – (p + 5q) ( 2 marks)

13. Expand each of the following expressions :

(a) 2g ( 5 –k) (b) ( h – 5)(3h + 2)


( 3 marks)

1 n−4
14. Express − as a single fraction in its simplest form
n 3n
( 3marks)

CHAPTER 7 : ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS


ANSWERS

A unknown 3) 0.7
1. Number of books 4) 1
2. number of monkeys (ii) 1) unlike term
3. unknown : y 2) like term
Object : z 3) unlike term
4. unknown : k 4) unlike term
Object : a
C) Algebraic Expressions
B Algebraic terms i) Number of term
(i) 1) -3 1) 3 2) 4 3) 5
2 ii) simplify Algebraic Exp.
2) 1) 7x – 8y
5
2) 3z – 11w
Algebraic Expressions 105
Module PMR

3) 9r + 7s
4) -2k-5 H. Expanding double brackets
5) -5t+7s 1. ab + a -2b -1
6) 2s -1 2. 3m2-mn + 9m -3n
7) -18w 3. -6st – 8s – 15t -20
4. a2 -6a + 9
D) Alg Terms in two or more terms 5. 9m2 -6mn +n2
* Identify coefficient of unknown 6. 25x2+20x + 4
-3b , -3c, -3, -3b2 7. y2+8dy+16d2

E) Multiplication & division of alg I. Factorization


terms 1. 6( a – 4c)
i) find product of 2 alg terms 2. 2m2( 2m -3)
1) a3b2 3. 2x ( 4a + 2b –c)
2) -6xy2z 4. xyz( x -y)
3) 3ab3c4 5. 3st (t-5w)
4) 56p4q2r3 6. 2yz( 1- 2z +3x)
5) 6w3z4
2 2 2 2
6) - p q r
5
7) 21m 4 h 2 k 5 i) expressions which consist of 2
terms
ii) find quotient of 2 alg. Terms 1) (w – 5)(w + 5)
3 pqz 2ab 2) 5(x – 1)(x + 1)
1) 3) − 3) 3(2d-5)(2d +5)
r 3d 4) (6c -10e)(6c +10e)
4x
2) 4) -3rt
y
iii) Multiplication &Division of alg ii) expressions which consist of 3
terms terms
1. 16p2r2 1) (a + b)2
2 18k 2) (2x – 5)2
3. -4ab4 3) ( 3e – 2f)2
iii) expressions which consist of 4
F. Computation involve Alg Exp. terms
1. 40m – 16 1) (q +s)(p + r)
2. -2a – 6b 2) (b+ 3d)(2a+c)
3. -8p + 21 3) (de – 7e)(1- e)
4 10 + 3t 4) (5 –b)(2 – 3a )
5 2s - 33
6 -3pq+2qr –pqr J) Factorising & simplifying Alg
7 x – 3 – 5y Expressions.
8. -3p2 i) Simplifying alg Expressions
9. 6u2-12 1
1.
2r
G. Expanding single Brackets 3ce
1. wy + y2 2
2
2. -15ef – 10eg
1
3 4r – 3rs + rt 3.
4 4xyz – 2xyw + x2y2 3+ d
Algebraic Expressions 106
Module PMR

e+ f 3
4 4.
3 2 p (m + 5)
ii) Addition & Subtraction of alg
Exp.
a) Alg Fraction with same * Denominator with 2 terms
denominator 3
rt − 5s 1.
1. 2m
9k g
3− x 2.
2 9h( y + x )
3 xy 4s
b)Alg Fraction with different 3. −
r
denominator d +e
10 x + y 4 −
1. d −e
5
b 2 ( a + b)
8bq − 5aq 5.
2. 2
2a 2 b 2
9abs + 9b − 4 + 2a
3.
36rs

iii) Mul & division of Alg Exp


a) Multiplication of 2 alg
fractions Questions based on PMR Format
* Denominator with one term
14 A. Simplify expressions
1.
27 ry 1. 3a+ 5
3 2. 4q -5
2. 3. 7p
5 xz 2
p+r 4. –ab
3. 5. -9m+8
4 xq 6. 5b -3
7. 8x – 6
8. 4k2 - 3m2
* denominator with 2 terms 9. 5x – 5y
1 10. 5c – d
1.
2 x( x + 3) 11 a2 - 6a + 9
1 12 9x2+ 12x +4
2 13 25d2 -10dt + t2
2( x + 3)
14 2x + 4
15 4y2 + 7y + 11
b) Division of Alg Fractions
16 9w2 - 4wz
* Denominator with one term
17 k3 –k -4
x
1. 18 36s2 – 16s
2z 19 y2 -4y + 17
3c 20 4p2 + 3q2
2.
2
3 B. Factorise Expressions
3. − 1 4x( 3y – x)
2d ( a + b)
2. 6e( 1 – 3f)
Algebraic Expressions 107
Module PMR

3 (2x – 10)( 2x + 10) 4p −3


4. 3 (5 –m)(5+m) 9.
m
5. 3( y + 4) 4m − 13
6. 5(2-x)(2+x) 10.
12
7. 3st(1 – 5tu)
7m + 3
8 9(2x -3y)(2x+3y) 11.
9 m(m-3)(m+3) 12m 2
10 (2p-1)(2p+1) 15 + 4 w
12.
11 (x+3)(4-y) 10n
12 (a2b+1)(b+1) 3 − 15 p + 3 pn
13 m(2m-1+2n) 13
3np
14 (3c-10d)(3c+10d) m+3
15 (v-x)(u+w) 14.
16 (b-d)(a+c) 3m 2
17 (k -7)2 3− y
15.
18 (g – 6)2 y
19 (3x -4y)( 1-2w) 7n − 4
20 (2p-3r)(q-2) 16.
9n 2

C) Express expressions as a single D Expand expressions


fraction in its simplest form 1. 2m+2
8 − x2 2. 3b2 -9b
1. .
12 x 3. -2ax+ 8x
4q 2 − 3 4.. 2k3 – 14k2
2. 5. -5x2+ 10xy
pq
6. 8e2 -2ef +14e
9s − 1 7. 4sx -8sy +6s
3.
2s 2 8. -12p2q2 -24p2q +18pq2
5t − 2 wx + 2 w 9. -12s +20h
4.
2 wt 10. p2 –px + 2pz – 2zx
2 x + 6 − 2e + ey 11. n2 -14x +49
5. 12. r2 -6rt +t2
4e
p + 3 − 3p 13. 16m2 -9m + 4
6. 14, a2 +4ad + 4d2
3f 15. 6a2 -6ac+2ab-2bc
2n − 2 x + 1 16. x2 + 9y2
7.
8n 2
9 p2 − 6 17. 2ab- 6ª + b -3
8. 18. xy +3x -2y -6
12 pq
PMR Past Year Questions

2004

1. 9x2 -13x -3
2. a) 3x(3y-x)
b) p2- 7p -14
2 p −1
3.
mp

Algebraic Expressions 108


Module PMR

2005

4. 4p2
5. a) 4e(1-3f) b) 3(x-4)(x+4)
6.
m −1
7.
3m 2

2006

6. 2(5 –m)(5 +m)


7. p2 – 6
v −1
8.
3mv

2007

9. a) 2(y+3) b) 3(2-x)(2+x)
10. a) 2q+pq b) 9m2- 6mn +n2
4−w
11.
2n

2008

12. p -8q
13. a) 10g -2gh b) 3h2 -12h -10
7−n
14.
3n

Algebraic Expressions 109