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Spotty-Handed Villainesses by Margaret Atwood Speaker Margaret Atwood is a Canadian novelist, poet, critic and social campaigner born in 1939 She was a feminist campaigner in the 1960s but was not an extremist. She supports feminism, but criticises it for its extremism. Audience Mostly middle-aged, intellectual and literary women readers - familiar with all the literary and cultural references The speech was given at various events in 1994, for example the American Bookseller Convention and other womens luncheons Extreme feminists criticised Atwood for misunderstanding feminism Context Delivered in 1994 In the 1960s, there was a strong feminist push, known as second wave feminism. It focused upon fighting the oppression of women in society and the need for equal rights. By the early 1990s (when Atwood made this speech), this had become third wave feminism. It was in a way a response to the backlash of second wave feminism. There was a clash between extreme feminists and counter feminists. There was questions of what feminism meant and the changed roles of men/women. Purpose To entertain, inform & challenge Attempted to provide the audience with an entertaining insight into the portrayal of women, especially female villains in novels, short stories and plays Initially felt it necessary to outline the aims of fiction and the process by which it is created- purpose is to explore the scope and genres of fiction, answering questions which are posed by this area of academic interest Moved on to explore the pressing issue of feminisms influence on literature She wishes to inform and challenge the views and attitudes of her audience Established the idea that it was acceptable to portray some women as evil in literature- accurate reflection of society which consists of the murderers, the seducers, the espionage agents, the cheats, the bad mothers and the stepmothers as well as a plethora of good women Aim appeared to defend the current portrayal of both good and bad female characters in fictional works and to differentiate herself from the feminist movement she explores good & bad women in literature & deals particularly with the role of women & how literature portrays them She asks for women to be behaving in a range of ways in literature that places them at all points on the moral spectrum Says flawed characters are necessary for making a story believable & interesting create a flawless character and you create an insufferable one; which may be why Im interested in spots.

Atwood Spotty-handed villainesses

Context A speech given here and there to educated audiences in 1994. What speech is about Women in literature Feminism and the perceived view of being evil Themes: women in society, literature reflecting reality Techniques Personal anecdote I did, after all, have curls Her daughter putting on a play in which nothing happened but breakfast Effect: introduces a personal tone to the speech, making it more accessible and interesting to the audience, while also giving examples of the literature she is talking about. Colloquialism Flogging a few dead horses No-nos of writing Authors need to get some words down before they can fiddle with them Female-obilia Effect: makes the speech more engaging and of more interest to the audience, and also adds a humorous edge to the speech. The conversational tone of the piece ensures that Atwood is able to keep the audiences attention. Literary references Lady Macbeth, Ophelia, Imogen, Iago Emily Dickinson we tell it slant Shaw, Ibsen, Pinter, Warhol Henry James, Bram Stokers Dracula Effect: these references are specific examples used to illustrate Atwoods arguments and back them up. They also help to engage her audience, who are highly educated. Rhetorical questions Is it not today well, somehow unfeminist to depict a woman behaving badly? What kind of something? How do I know this?

How should I go about creating them? Effect: these rhetorical questions prompt the audience into thought, inviting consideration of the possible responses to the questions. They also introduce to the audience the topic of each section. Reception Because her speech was originally given to an academic audience, they greatly valued it because of its abundant literary references and because of Atwoods insightful messages about feminism. The speech is continually valued for the same reasons, and also for its intelligent humour.

Attwood Notes
Context: Well known Canadian author, speech presented on a number of occasions throughout 1994, to different audiences. Intended audience educated, older, well-read Our context: still questioning what it means to be human, relationship between literature and reality, womens place in society Complexity of womens character and human condition o Challenges dichotomy of female behaviour, the angel/whore split so popular among the Victorians o Criticises the way in which the Womens Movement oversimplifies issues facing women and polarises morality by gender. o Need both good and bad needsomething disruptive to static order uses motif of eternal breakfast as a metaphor for dull, static perfection. Women, real and literary, need depth to their character something more than breakfast o Uses personal anecdotes of the childrens rhyme which her brother teased her about. Illustrates divide and makes issue accessible. o Keeps tone light while dealing with this controversial issue by employing humour and conversational tone or a good pet canary Flogging a few dead horses there is a widespread tendency to judge characters as if they were job applicants. o Cumulative rhetorical questions engage the audience and force them to reflect when bad women get into literature, what are they doing there, and are they permissible, and what, if anything, do we need them for? o References a few motifs all the way through (breakfast and spots)continuity o Quotes others to validate her opinions evil enough in all of us Rebecca Dame West Exploration of the nature of literature

o Attempts to define the novel by listing what it is not. Demonstrates humility through low modality let me and presents herself as inferior to the audience let me first go over some essentials which may be insulting to your intelligence, but comforting to mine. Engages and boosts confidence of audience o Explores trends in literature, shows that it is dynamic once upon a timethe first would have been morebelievable to the reader, but times have changed and art is what you can get away with. & that once forbidden but now red-hot topic o The creation of literature- compares the novelist to God God started with chaosa void, and so does the novelist. Then god makes one detail at a time. So does the novelist. Humorous, quirky analogy engages audience. o Lists the how-to questions of the novelist o Many allusions to establish rapport with educated audience States: Each character is desperately trying to acquire a stable selfconcept. ->Implies Margaret Atwood has not done this, as she forces them to choose between these identities. However, evidently, seen in Margaret Atwoods speech, these two sides of a woman exist. Theme: Identity of a Woman/equality. In order to portray a positive sense of identity of women, the composer must portray men in a less equal way. allusion Adam is so subject to temptation that he sacrificed eternal life for an apple making him seem inferior and foolish in order to amplify the equality of women. rhetorical questioning, Isnt bad behavior supposed to be the monopoly of men? this creates doubt in the responders minds, whether women are the expected gender to be engaged in bad behavior, or whether it is expected by men more than women. Adjective: a sensible middle classwoman who can snare an appropriate man with a good income questions whether women having to attain success from a man, or are they capable of doing it themselves? To allow women to establish their full potential, we must give women an equal opportunity to portray themselves. antithesis of good and bad in When she was good, she was very very good, and when she was bad, she was horrid! Here, the composer portrays women as having two extreme opposite personalities, which also imply that women can also have anything in between. disproving all women as villainesses. Irony where create flawless character you create an insufferable one this depicts women face inequality, as they are required to live up to a flawless, perfect standard, and if she cannot reach this standard, she quickly becomes unbearable, due to the display of her imperfections, as human being.

high modality in something else has to happen where the composer stresses the fact that the story must have a protagonist in it, therefore it is acceptable for women to be imperfect, have blemishes or spots and not fill the expectation of perfectionism.

Keating Funeral service of the unknown Australian soldier


Speaker Keating was a Labor prime minister during the early 1990s and an intellectual. Context Remembrance Day (11th November) 1993, at the Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier: remembrance for all Australians who have suffered or died in armed conflict. This year (1993) was the 75th anniversary of the WWI armistice. Present at the occasion would have been politicians, representatives of the armed forces and other distinguished guests. What speech is about Honouring and remembering the Australian war dead, without seeking to glorify war Themes: honour and remembrance, patriotism, war Techniques Repetition We do not know x6 One of the _ Australians We have lost, we have gained The pronoun he Effect: in stating all that is unknown about him, Keating builds up a picture of an ordinary person who served his nation, thus invoking the audiences patriotism. He builds an image of the ordinary Australians who became heroes and this is reinforced by the repetitive, emphatic phrases used throughout the piece. Repeating the pronoun he personalises Keatings argument. Inclusive language We, us He is one of us On all sides All those men and women Effect: Keating creates a sense of unity in his audience, and links this to patriotism by the phrase one of us. This also shows that Australias war dead have become part of our national identity. Emotive language Vast and all-consuming Mad, brutal, awful struggle

Transcended the horror and tragedy and inexcusable folly Enshrine a nations love of peace Effect: the positive diction associates the soldiers with heroism and invokes the audiences patriotism, and contrasts greatly with the bleak view of war given by the negative diction, to show wars futility and the fact that the glory lay among the lower ranks, rather than among those commanding them. Statistics 45 000 Australians who died on the Western Front 416 000 Australians who volunteered in WWI 324 000 Australians who served overseas in the war 60 000 Australians who died on foreign soil 100 000 Australians have died in wars this century Effect: the statistics inspire pride in Australians, by showing the vast contribution of Australians to international war efforts. They also authenticate Keatings claims. Reception This speech was, and is, considered to be one of the great Australian speeches, because it is not a triumphalist speech and because it recognises and commemorates the great contribution of Australians while still maintaining that war is something that should be avoided at all costs.

Theme: Unity Critic: James Curran, Professor of History at the University of Sydney -> compares when they were waving the union Jack, since the British race, era creates a sense of unity and national pride that unites the Australians after federation 1901. Chris Martin, Sydney Morning Herald 2012. Pragmatism: real nobility and grandeur belongs not to empires and nations, but to the people ->Keating attributes the victory to all Australians Connotations: grandeur, nobility ->empowers the common Australian, creating a sense of pride for the country and unity in everyone. Symbolism: bonds of mate ship ->symbolic of Australian Widely held values, which unites the people further. Hyperbole: laid down their lives for Australia -> shows the great loss they have suffered and great pride they have for their country. This is turn unites the Australians to the same extent. Antithesis: his tomb is a reminder of what we have lost in war and what we have gained. Positive connotation: they were the heroes of that war ->even though of the hardships of that war the soldiers were successful in uniting Australian citizens in a bond of a Strong, National Identity. Listing of occupation: not the generals and politcians, but the soldiers and sailors and nurses ->empowers the common man, a sense of

victory from the war, eliminating hierarch, as Victory belongs to all Australians [unity]

Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier


Speaker: Then Prime Minister, Paul Keating Context: Eulogy at the funeral service to honour the Unknown Australian Soldier, all those from Australia who fought in World War I Audience: All Australians Structure: Short, flow-on paragraphs maintain the sombre mood and allow audience to reflect on what has been said, balance is achieved by variation in sentence length. Short sentences arouse simple emotions and achieve maximum impact Long sentences information and facts Ascends ladder- builds drama and interest, dissimilar to a journalistic style Language: Inclusive - we creates link between speaker, audience and unknown soldier public realises we share qualities of mateship, courage and resilience No contractions formal, eulogy style Emphatic dictation negative connotations -never, horrible, terrible, sacrifice, tragedy positive nations, ours, all of us Repetition we do not know emphasises anonymity of unknown soldier Australia, Unknown Soldier develops unity and national spirit Emotive language establishes pathos, generates extremely negative image to force the audience to recognise the value of peace Colloquial language establishes connect between speaker and audience, makes it more accessible to wide audience Contrast of binary opposites city or the bush, married or single appeals to widest possible range of audience Successive adjectives illustrate the barren nature of the mad, brutal awful struggle that is war achieves dramatic effect while concentrating on the issue at hand Metonymy Contrast of individuality and anonymity emotional effect at individual and national level Paradox Juxtaposition of antithetical opposites antithesis of loss and gain emphasises the futility of war Religious connotations Rhetorical devices: Statistics - supports the textual integrity of the speech Dramatic pause represented by commas and hyphens give audience time to consider what is being said establishes pathos Conjunctions Discourses: Nationalistic, democratic, gender, religious, historical, class Historical reception: Received tremendously well. Honoured the war dead and unified the country creating a sense of national identity and pride Concepts explored: Unity, equality, peace, identity, sacrifice, freedom

Contemporary significance: 75th anniversary of Armistice Day - 11/11/1993 grows with each passing year, particularly as the last of the Australians that fought in the war have passed. The ceremony was to be officially recognised as a poignant and powerful symbol of all Australians who have died it war. Because war still continues and Australians are still dying it remains a significant topic in 21st Australian society. The speech is still important today because of the appreciation of how difficult a task it was for Keating to break down the political divide at hand and unify the country to honour the sacrifice of our war dead. A new Australian spirit had been forged, one that gravitated around the core values of mateship, courage, resilience and self-believe. The national identity that was forged that day is still evident in Australian communities today.

Keating Notes
Context of speech: 1993 delivered as formal eulogy at the interment of the unknown soldier My context today: As a young Australian, I identify with resilience, courage and belief in ourselves as well as anti-authoritarian tone implied in military formalities and political incompetence Celebration of the commoner/ underdog Paradox: ordinary man is not ordinary. Engages and challenges audience Unknown solider symbolic of the common man who proved real nobility belongs...to the people Commonalities draws on our common history and shared values as Australians to engage the audience and inspire solidarity Common history ANZAC + common values of resilience etc Equality through contrast- doesnt assert a soldiers character above a civilians not one race or one nation or one religion above any other. This repetition of contrast stresses that it is our similarities what it means to be Australian that matters Inclusive language Low modality (inoffensive) Positivity- rather than focusing on the folly of war, Keating chooses to celebrate the positives that have come of it While we lost more than 100 000 lives, we have gained a legend for out of the war came a lesson which transcended the horror and the tragedy Positive language when speaking of gains (heroes, bravery and sacrifice) as opposed to mad brutal awful circumstances from which they arose

Learnt value of soldiers and sailors and nurses listing implies equality and fraternity Anaphora it is legend emphasises hope, grandeur courage and ingenuity

10. Pearson An Australian history for us all


Speaker Pearson is an Aboriginal academic, who is an activist for Aboriginal issues but is also critical of some aspects of the Aboriginal community (e.g. the high rate of reliance on welfare), and advocates increased responsibility for the Aboriginal community. Context 1996 UWS Chancellors Club Dinner (academia) a convivial atmosphere. In 1992, the Mabo decision invalidated terra nullius and gave Aboriginal people the right to claim Native Title where it had not already ceased. The Wik decision in 1996 extended the Mabo findings, saying that Native Title could coexist with pastoral leases, but where there was conflict, pastoral lease would prevail. These were the first times legislation and case law recognised Aboriginals as the first inhabitants of Australia. Also in this year, PM Howard criticised the black armband view of history, which caused debate over how Australians should respond to their past. What speech is about Reflection of history debate (above) Themes: reconciliation, guilt, responsibility and racism Argues reconciliation is not about laying the blame about recognising injustices and bearing responsibility Shows he does not advocate black armband, but is critical of Howard Techniques Colloquialism Hot button issue Prideful bits Opening our hearts a little bit Live and let live Effect: the speech is formal but these colloquialisms help to appeal to a wider audience than just the academics he is directly addressing, making it more accessible to all Australians by giving it a more Australian flavour. Direct quoting Howard, Senator Herron (Minister for Aboriginal Affairs) to demonstrate the views held by the government and the nature of public opinion.

High Court justices Deane, Gaudron and Brennan to back up his claims with the views of respected, authoritative public figures. Keating demonstrating the progress made while he was PM. Academics Robert Hughes and Professor Bill Stanner to validate his claims. Acknowledges Schroeder, the academic who taught him courteous also subtly establishes his own academic credentials and pays tribute to his teacher. Longest quote is a letter from an Aboriginal writer who emotively challenges the white domination Pearson uses it as a tool for emotionalism and outrage by means of the letter he conveys a far more emotive attitude. Political figures presenting the debate as a political issue. Repetition Ordinary Australians to make speech inclusive of greater Australian population and make the speech more accessible. Us, we, our in relation to Aboriginals to declare solidarity with Aboriginals and to compel the population to unity and reconciliation. Notion of open hearts to reinforce Keatings message that reconciliation is about compassion and acknowledgement rather than guilt. Hot button clich drawing attention to the fact that reconciliation is a major Australian issue and to engage the audience with colloquial language. Negative diction Stupid, ungracious and insensitive to attack Howards views of reconciliation and his promotion of acquiescence and that Australians dont want to feel guilt. Derogation and diminution, a legacy of unutterable shame to describe and emphasise the historical suffering of the Aboriginal people. Effect: this negative diction is an attacking device against those whose views he opposes, e.g. Howard. Reception Pearsons speech would have been received with controversy because of the debate going on at the time about how Australians should respond to their past, and because of his condemnation of key public figures such as Howard. However, the speech is valued for its logical and persuasive argument about Australian history, and its balanced and open-minded views on the topic.

Pearson Notes

Context: 1996, academic audience (accounts for formality), high-profile indigenous activist, Howard gov opposed Aboriginal land rights movement and had recently criticized the black armband view of Australian history, time of political tension between indigenous and nonindigenous Australians Our context: even after a formal apology by the Rudd Government in 2008, how we respond to the past is still a sensitive issue, so the concepts still resonate. Equality, freedom and reconciliation How to respond to the past, apportioning of guilt o Directly quotes Howard and shapes his argument by contradicting him. Howard inflammatory and emotive to tell children whose parents were no part of it that were all part of a racist, bigoted history is something Australians reject. Pearson objective and rational, promoting collective responsibility. He logically argues that if we readily celebrate and share in the achievements of the past, we should also feel responsibility for and express shame in other aspects of our past o Clear, concise. Outlines focus of speech immediately the debate is about how Australians should respond to the past. o Calls for open discussion and tolerance, hope for reconciliation. Title inclusive o Must not polarize the need for absolute goodies and baddies runs deep in us, but it drags history into propagandaTo preserve complexity and not flatten it under the weight of anachronistic moralizing o Against simplifying and anti-intellectual approach. Our present national leadership is only thinking in terms of broad characterizations and slogans. o Bitter at times over treatment of indigenous Australians the myth of terra-nullius meant that the legal invisibility of Aboriginal peoplewas embedded within popular belief. Sarcasm in myth and invisibility o Doesnt dwell on injustice rather calls for a new Australian history to tell the story of the other side of the frontier in light of modern academic study. o Quotes to validate opinion The reading of history is never static. Revise we historians must. Robert Hughes, intellectual figures suited to audience o Guilt is not a useful emotion as to the question of guilt, I am myself equivocal

o Contrasts divisive language you and us with inclusive our nation. Elevates issue to one of national significance o Allusion to Keating in the confusion and turmoil we had to have draws on another proponent of reconciliation. open our hearts a bit open and generous heart As we fail to acknowledge the past injustices of the indigenous people, we are unable to move forward in a step towards reconciliation. adjectival language: turbulence in the colonial past is central to the moral and political turbulence. Here, the word turbulence conveys we are going in circles, unable to move forward with the notion towards reconciliation with indigenous people, as we have not acknowledged the colonial past. Metaphor: in a view from the window has been carefully placed to exclude a whole quadrant of the landscape This shows we are not acknowledging the importance of aboriginal people as we have failed to realise the importance of acknowledging the past, which again creates obstacles in the move towards reconciliation and ultimately inequality. colloquial language: in They will say that Aboriginesshould get over it. Here Pearson implies Australians are not concerned or give importance to acknowledging Australian history. Therefore, from this we learn the importance of acknowledging aboriginal inequality, in order to move forward to attain reconciliation and equality. ->Also can link to justice and remorseful attitudes. In order to attain equality and move a step towards reconciliation, we must acknowledge the sufferings that the non-indigenous people have faced. emotive language: The guilt issue. By doing this, Noel Pearson evokes the negative emotion of guilt into the audience, which allows people to feel like they should feel guilt, as a way to acknowledge the indigenous people. Hyperbole: in taking responsibility for the future, by dealing with the past. Anything less is simply evasion of reality. Here, Pearson implies we should accept Australias history and acknowledge the indigenous; he implies anything less is as good as destroying reality and life, itself. Allusion: black armband view of history emphasises the dispossession of Indigenous people of Australia and related injustices. It is the point of view of the non-indigenous people, which shows the ill-treatment of them should be acknowledged for reconciliation to occur.

Suu Kyi Keynote address at the Beijing World Conference on Women

Speaker Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of General Aung San who fought for Burmas independence, is the key figure in Burmas National League for Democracy. Since winning national elections in 1990 (by 82%, but she was not given power from the reigning Junta), she has been in and out of house arrest. She is very peaceful and positive and a staunch Buddhist. She advocates peaceful resistance. Context 1995, Beijing her audience is women (and men) around the globe. Her speech was read on video because she cannot leave Burma. What speech is about Analysing the role of women in the political process, and around the world Providing an analytical overview of the global forces affecting the quality of life of the human community, and the challenges these pose for the oppressed The international liberation of women Themes: role of women in society, tolerance Techniques Word choice Not least among these obstacles are intolerance and insecurity War toys of grown men Disinformation engendered by men The human race is not divided into two opposing camps of good and evil. It is made up of those who are capable of learning, and those who are incapable of doing so. Effect: Her word choice ensures that her speech is not aggressive or overly passionate. By maintaining an elegant, gender inclusive argument her speech is dignified, positive and peaceful. She avoids the labels of good and evil and avoids preaching. By not allowing her passion to manifest itself in the form of anger or aggression, her language is unifying and powerful. Her word choice is simple, direct and clear. Her linguistic attacking devices are very subtle (e.g. war toys of grown men) so as not to appear aggressive. Listing Peace, security, human rights and democracy Tolerance, human rights, democracy and peace Productivity, equity, sustainability and empowerment Effect: Suu Kyi uses lists of powerful, weighty abstracts to emphasise and reiterate her message. They also resonate her theme and her peaceful nature, and what she sees to be the most important of the issues for the human race to move towards. Personalising of argument My own experience during the years I have been engaged in the democracy movement in Burma has convinced me of the need to emphasise the positive aspects of tolerance

The struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma is a struggle for life and dignity In my country at present The Buddhist pavarana ceremony Effect: Suu Kyi supports and justifies her argument by bearing personal witness to her message. Her reference to Buddhism combines the desire for religious truth with modern democracy and the desire for a democratic process, particularly in Burma. By giving a specific example of a nation, she is appealing to the global community and also re-iterating the message that there is a global instinct for peace. Authoritative evidence UN quotes: Human security is not a concern with weapons it is a concern with human life and dignity Statistical: 14 out of the 485 elected MPs were women less than 3% of the total successful candidates Scientific: recent scientific research on the human brain has revealed that women are better at verbal skills while men tend towards physical action Effect: by giving concrete evidence, Suu Kyi is supporting her claims. Scientific research and statistics are seen as validation. It shows the logical structure and development of her argument and supports it with recognised authority. Reception Suu Kyis speech was greatly valued by her original audience because she was addressing a world conference on women, where the issues she spoke about were particularly important. Her speech is continuingly relevant because of its peaceful nature, and because it gives an insight into what are some of the most important issues facing the world today and always without placing blame on any person or group

Aung San Suu Kyi Notes


Context: Icon for non-violent political change, under house-arrest by Burmese Gov, smuggled out via video, given to predominantly female international audience Our context womens place in society, tolerance still issue in divided world, Cronulla Tolerance, unity, equality o Inclusive language us our common hopes I want to try to voice some of the common hopes which firmly unite us in all our splendid diversity our sisters everywhere o References to UN and International Year for Tolerance add authority and provides international context o Metaphor of light vs dark, Light represents hope and female values of loving kindness, partnership and trust, mutual respect, whereas dark is status quo, intolerance, patriarchal domination and degradation

o Burmese proverb the dawn only rises when the rooster crows disproved by scientific reason implies that it is not the prerogative of men alone to bring light to this world. o Positive language generation of happiness and harmony splendid diversity o Rhetorical questions How much more could they achieve if given the opportunity to work in their own right for the good of their country and of the world? o Recurring motif of freedom and community give speech continuity/cohesion In order to create equality between men and women, women must be valued in the eyes of the people. rhetorical questioning: in women talk too much. But is this really a weakness? This creates doubt in the responders mind, as the stereotypical values of women are questioned, allowing a womans value to be re-evaluated. colloquial language: in menfolk are unable to give them protection, women have to face the harsh challenges of the outside world empowers of women, as it shows women are able to stand up for themselves and be individual. This allows the figure of a woman to become more equal with that of men. Simile: as women are brave as lionesses, defending their young shows a strong, individual womanly figure that is able to fend for herself like that of a lioness. learn, we should strive for equality between men and women, as in our modern context, we value the equality of men and women, therefore the we should strive for it. Women and Men should be valued in the eyes, of women by giving women a sense of empowerment. [this allows women to take part, interest and appreciate the text more!] alliteration in The education and empowerment of women which enables a link between education, which empowers womens identity, and allows equality of the sexes. When women are empowered, they can do great things. diction in women not merely tolerated, they are valued. This change in word, allows a change in tone, which again, empowers women them to be lifted from a state of unjust. metaphor as we should let the shackles of prejudice and intolerance fall from our limbstogether we can strive. Here the composer conveys we should stop judging women based on stereotypical views, so that together we can promote equality and allow women to reach their full potential.

In order to attain a sense of equality between Indigenous and the NonIndigenous people, we must strive for a sense of reconciliation. Metaphor: as they are chained in their stubbornness and if we need to go forward without them, then we must. This shows we should not hold back on reconciliation, due to some people who do not support the notion of equality between the indigenous and non-indigenous people. rhetorical language why is it so hard to find our commonalities this allows the audience to consider the similarities between indigenous and non-indigenous people, as it is obvious there are commonalities, although some people ignore this. change in tone: as there is a need to heal the wounds of the past, the terrible indignities The change in tone from a positive, to negative >reinforces the negative aspect of Australian history and creates emotion in the audience to step towards reconciliation. In order to create equality between the indigenous and non-indigenous, it is important to include them as part of our Australian community. diction in ask not what is in it for me, but what is in it for us. This allows the audience to reconsider their words, by acknowledging the Indigenous, as part of their community, promoting equality. Hyperphora in what is reconciliation about...its about rights... This implies rights are an important part of acknowledging indigenous people, as being recognised in legislation allows equality and reconciliation. positive connotation: enshrined promotes a positive outcome, from recognising indigenous Australians as part of the Australian community. From this, we learn it is important to allow indigenous people to be part of the Australian community, as it allows for a sense of equality, so that we can live in harmony with indigenous Australians. Repetition: its about rightsits about those rights being enshrined in legislation. Creates emphasis and a creating a community free from reconciliation, allowing the aboriginals to become equal with nonindigenous Australians. Purpose of Faith Bandlers speech: motivates us to seek productive social change to make sure the indigenous people are not left out of the Australian community in any way.

Bandler Notes

Context of speech: social and political landscape of mistrust and racial tension, terrible utterances excused in the name of free speech. Our context: after formal apology, issues persist, so continually relevant

Cultural understanding + common ground

doesnt polarise discourse between black and white, instead divides along lines of sight vs. blindness willingly blind to others way of life deliberately blinkered

blends personal with political, I feel with legislation, adds credence common aspirations working together finding our commonalities sarcasm it took some time for me to understand...why our differences should matter uses irony to say that exaggerating differences is senseless

Overcoming adversity Continued metaphor of battle = opposition ramparts fierce battles and conflict fight mobilise forces struggle High modality we must and its time imparts sense of resilience against tremendous odds

People-power can move more than governments, it can move mountains. It is those that patiently bear the brunt of many misdeeds and indecencies who are praise worthy Addresses audiences as friends, we inclusive Emotive calls to action we are free if not us who? Comparison by contrast we should ask not what is in it for me but in it for us echoes JFK, draws on success of peoples movements

Deanne On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy
Speaker William Deanne is a High Court judge who became Governor General in 1995 and held office to 2001. He played a role in the Marbo case and maintained a reputation of commitment to reconciliation. Context The speech was delivered at the ecumenical service for those who died in Switzerland in a canyoning accident in July 1999; an ecumenical service combines the various denominations of Christian churches. In the accident, a group of tourist were swept to death in a flash flood, 14 of the 21 victims were Australian thus it gained a lot of media attention. A reflection of this is that a highly placed person (Deanne) was asked to speak at the service in Switzerland. It is important to

consider the role and position of governor general in Australia. It is Essentially a funeral impacting on the formal reserved language. What the speech is about The loss of these Australians is felt by both the families and all Australians The accident has brought a unity between Switzerland and Australia Recognising the tragedy from the loss Techniques Youth Imagery/Repetition young people delight of youth young Australians Effect: This emphasis on youth highlights the great loss to Australia, as young people are often associated with light and beginnings rather than death, making the image even more emotive and argument stronger Inclusive Language We are gathered We pray with them We remember that Effect: Is used to ensure that the listeners be they Australian or other nationalities feel they are being addressed as well. The great sadness of mourning connects them all despite nationality. Hyperbole On every night since the accident Effect: Highlights that the tragedy is felt by all but ironically uses the exaggeration to indicate a negative situation can have positive results (connection w/ Switzerland) Aliteration the competence, the compassion and the kindness shock and sorrow Effect: Shows thanks for Switzerlands fast response to the tragedy and consideration which is used to balance the grief of the speech with thanks to Switzerland Reception The speech was very well received as way of bringing the nation together to face this tragic loss of Australian lives. His dignified comments and delivery presented Australia in a very positive international light, offering only support and praise rather than condemnation. Media attention was also very positive, representing Australia as a nation that handled this event in a stately manner.

UNITY: In order for individuals to unite, there must be a sense of feeling welcomed and a sense of commonality. Critic: ABD Radio Transcript, 2011: Katy Kronin: Governor General accompanied by Swiss President Ruth Dreyfus. this was a day to forget rivalries

Symbolism: Sprigs of wattle our National floral emblembringing a little Australia to them. -> able to unite and form peace, promoting international relations and companionship. Imagery: Australia and Switzerland are on opposite sides of the globe. Yeteffects of disaster bring our two countries closer together [commonality, sorrow] High Modality: little part of Switzerlandwill always bepart of Australia. [creates unity, able to form peace. Compatible Tone of thankfulness: creates recognition: abide in gratitude [Australia needs to recognise Swisss rescue efforts for unity and good political relations. Intertextuality: John Donne wrote, No man is an Island [humans cannot function is isolation] we need unity. Alliteration: death diminishes us all, because we are all involved in mankind [commonality ->human, that we all suffer and experience death, allows us to unite in the loss]

Sir William Deane, On the Occasion of an Ecumenical Service for the Victims of the Canyoning Tragedy
Context & Purpose
Sir William Deane = Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia Was well favoured by the public Avoided political controversy Also delivered speeches at other tragedies, such as Thredbo, Port Arthur etc. Hundreds of people, including family of deceased, leaders of other countries, and survivors of tragedy both Australian and Swiss audience Delivered on 5 August 1999 at Interlaken, Switzerland site of tragedy in a memorial service 21 people were killed, 14 Australia, 2 Swiss, 2 Briton, 2 South African & 1 New Zealand o 21 young people [who] were killed in the canyoning accident here, last week. Purpose was to mourn and pray for those who were killed, and to offer comfort to audience o We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people

Content & Subject Matter

Did not mention who was to blame for the accident was a speech to mourn rather than accuse The speech was fairly personalised o I have as the Governor General of Australia, with Senator John Herron o I have already had the privilege of meeting with you, Madam President, and with. o Yesterday, my wife and I, together with family members and friends of the Australian victims.. Ecumenical service The gathering of many Christian variants Mourn the deaths of the 21 individuals o We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people To unite the Swiss and Australian nation o Yet, in this age of modern telecommunications, one effect of the disaster has been to bring our two countries closer together Sombre Very inclusive throughout the speech o I have, as Governor General o I have already had the privilege of meeting with you o Yesterday, my wife and I Focuses on the unity of Switzerland and Australia through the tragedy o One effect of the disaster has been to bring our two countries closer together Short, tight and effective Stating that mourning is occurring o We are gathered in great sadness to mourn the deaths of the 21 young people Like the Keating speech no sense of blame Traits of victims are unifying o The exuberance and the delight of youth Stressing significant loss o Collectively, their deaths represent probably the greatest single peacetime loss of young Australians outside our own country Inclusive language o We are gathered in great sadness to mourn o I have already had the privilege of meeting with youIn particular, I pay tribute to the bravery of all those who worked o We remember that and so many wonderful things about them as we mourn.. o Yesterday, my wife and I together with family members. o And when we are back in Australia, we will remember Emotive language o Gathered in great sadness o The young Australians who have been killed all shared the spirit of adventure, the joy of living, the exuberance and the delight of youth. Factual Information o The deaths of the 21 young people o Fourteen of the victims of the tragedy came from Australia

Construction

Language Techniques

Reception

Religious Connotation o in the words of our Lord (Matthew Ch5, v4), they will truly be comforted o May they all rest with God" Juxtaposition o Australia and Switzerland are on opposite sides of the globe Hyperbole o On every night since the accident Sibilence o experienced the shock and sorrow of overseas tragedies in the past Alluding/quoting o As John Donne wrote, /no man is an island. Symbolism o We cast into the Saxetenbach 14 sprigs of wattle, our national floral emblem, which we had brought with us Patriotism o Rather, it is to suggest that a little part of Switzerland has become, and and will always be, to some extent, part of Australia. Metaphor o It is still winter at home, but the golden wattles are coming in to bloom, just as these young men and women were in the flower of their youth. Received well by audience Dignified Uniting of nations Praise rather than condemnation o I pay tribute to all of those who worked on the rescue efforts Media attention was well handled Unity among nations Tragedy of loss of youth Patriotism International relations Linking humanity The positive light of death

Themes

On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy
Speaker: Sir William Deane, then Governor General of Australia and former Justice of the High Court of Australia. Social justice advocate and strong supporter of racial tolerance and a multicultural Australia Context: Ecumenical service for the 21 young people killed in a canyoning accident. They were from Australia, Switzerland, New Zealand, South Africa and The United Kingdom. Audience: The friends and family of the deceased and political leaders of the five affected nations.

Structure: He makes a direct address to the Swiss, in thanking them for their rescue efforts creating a sense of familiarity, equality and unity. Language: The sombre, melancholy tone is appropriate for a eulogy. He speaks in international generalisations to establish a connection between the five countries that have been unified by the tragedy. He uses a water flower motif to symbolise Australian nationhood and patriotism. He uses it as a natural image of beauty to represent the young Australians who died in the flower of their youth, casting them into the water represents their journey of their spirits back to Australia. Much of the speech is plainly worded in colloquial vocabulary, we felt that was bringing a little bit of Australia to them. Inclusive language such as the use of the words we and us show a shared experience with the audience. Alliteration families and friends, competence and compassion, add to the dramatic effect and formal style of the speech. Emotive language profound tragedy, shock and sorrow, joy, delight, bravery highlight the contrast between the sense of loss and praise for the deceased and their rescuers. Rhetorical devices: Religious allusions such as spirits and pray and the imbedding of biblical quotes add a reverent tone to the speech, exploring a religious discourse. Cumulation the competence, the compassion and the kindness- highlight the skills of those who supported the survivors and relatives of the victims. Discourses: Nationalistic, religious Historical reception: Consequentially because of the speech and the tragedy preceding it Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Switzerland and The United Kingdom have become unified and more of supportive of one another. The speech is not political in nature and for that reason has not received great negative backlash from the public. Concepts explored: Unity, identity, peace, equality Contemporary significance: Nations are becoming increasingly supportive and unified in the face of tragedy and crisis. It is important for nation leaders to put aside political differences and lend aid to one another in times of need. On the occasion of an ecumenical service for the victims of the canyoning tragedy is a prime example of nations uniting to support one another in their times of grief.

Deane Notes
Context of speech: 1999 commemorating the deaths of 21 young people in a canyoning accident the greatest single peace time loss of Australians outside our country Our Context: values still resonate, nationhood + as young Australian particularly meaningful Common humanity o Allusion to John Donne No man is an island o Inclusive language our humanity collective loss

o Listing Australia last avoid partiality + imply differences superficial Silver lining o Competence, compassion and kindness from those who helped look after survivors o bring our two countries closer together and increased awareness o Brought Switzerland into every Australian home o Repetition of home suggests humanity as family, connections that transcend borders o Metaphor of light Lit the lives of all who knew them A shining part of our humanity o Seasons Winter at home current sorrow Golden wattles coming into bloom life affirming, hopeful

Sadat Statement to the Knesset


Speaker Anwar Sadat was the Egyptian President from 1970 til his assassination in 1981. He was a radical leader, who returned the country to a political system based on multiple parties, and succeeded in signing a peace treaty with Israel. However this treaty made him extremely unpopular with Islamists, such that Egypt was expelled from the Arab League. Context The Statement to the Knesset (Israeli Parliament) is highly charged with the context of the events about Sadats life as outlined above. He was on a mission to establish peace with Israel and achieve recognition by each of the others territorial boundaries. We can understand why he chose his words carefully. The speech was translated from Hebrew so it may well seem stilted or somewhat awkward to the ear of a native English speaker What the speech is about We submit to God, the all powerful Egypt and Israel can be united Peace is possible and desirable Peace must be based on justice for both sides Inclusive Language our sons and brothers let us be frank we must all rise above Effect: These terms invite the listener to join the speaker in the common dream of peace, participatory terms help create an air of support, a willingness to believe and hope that there might be a change. This language unites the audience, allowing them to be part of the speech but empowers them to also be part of the solution. Referencing of facts, dates, names and documents

Techniques

On 4 February 1971 16 October 1973 Balfour Declaration the Geneva Conference

Effect: The mention of these specifics adds realism and historical authenticity to his speech, this makes it more believable and truthful to the audience, adding strength to his argument. Repetition Permanent peace based on justice (x4) durable and just peace (x3) Effect: Highlights the importance Sadat places on peace and his mantra is repeated as it is the main value of the speech so the audience can remember and connect to it. This is effective as the value of peace has value for all listeners. Imagery There was a huge wall It was a wall that warned us Effect: Imaginatively engages the audience, and demonstrates the barriers between the two nations to stress why there is not peace between them and to also illustrate the need for peace. Reception Sadats mission was hailed by political commentators as historic, his visit and overture of full and genuine peace in return for recovery of land seized by Israel was described by UN Secretary General as an extraordinary leap of faith and imagination. The speech was a success in that the agreement with Israel was reached and a treaty signed in 1979 but it also lead to Sadats assassination.

Statement to the Knesset


Speaker: Anwar Sadat, Egyptian President (1970 -1981) Context: Sadat had initiated a war between Egypt and Israel only four years before. Yet on 20/11/1977 he travelled to Jerusalem to speak directly to the parliament of his then-enemies to begin negotiations for a peace agreement. Audience: The speech was telecast across the whole world while his immediate audience consisted of Israeli government and citizens, some of whom would have personally fought in the battles started by Sadat, or lost family and friends due to his military initiative. Structure: Formal address direct address to audience establishes a connection between speaker and listeners Language: Considering he was addressing a Jewish audience, it may have been viewed as insensitive or provocative that he open his speech speaking Arabic, to diffuse tension he speak in generalisations, making the point that all the world is menaced by conflicts, not just Israelis and Arabs. He makes inclusive, nondivisive statements about religion. The repeated use of the conversational Let us be frank and yes lets the audience feel as though they are being spoken to directly. Emotive language, dramatic adjectives and metaphors are three imagery devices used to establish pathos. Alliteration, assonance and rhyming emphasise specific points that the speaker is making. Repetition is used to reinforce unity

and urgency. Sadat uses the extended metaphor of a wall/barrier to explore the concept of division. Open and closed doors are used to indicate the need for acceptance. A straight line metaphor is used to argue for honesty and directness. Rhetorical devices: Asyndeton the omission of conjunctions where they would normally be included allows the speaker to ensure that a train of thought continues uninterrupted, ensuring that the audience is undistracted and creates a strong mental image of what is being said Personal anecdotes encourage a connection between the audience and speaker, it also contributes to the believability and textual integrity of the speech Enumeration dictates importance of points and train of thought Rhetorical questions leave the audience with a resonating thought Imbedded text achieves a religious discourse through the incorporation of religious quotations Specific dates and statistics contribute to the textual integrity of the speech Discourses: Religious, political, democratic, racial, historical Historical reception: Initially Israelis and Arabs alike were suspicious of Sadat and wondered whether he had ulterior motives behind his visit. Sadat was the first Arab leader to ever visit a Jewish state, against the advice of his fellow Arab nations; this ultimately resulted in his assassination by fundamentalist army officers from his own country. While his visit to Israel resulted in him being named Time Magazines Man of the Year and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, his actions were still enormously unpopular amongst other Arabs and the wider Muslim world, resulting in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League at the time. Concepts explored: Peace, unity, equality, acceptance, justice, honesty, sacrifice Contemporary significance: While Sadats move for true and lasting peace was not the first or last attempt, the significance of the push for peace by not only Sadat, when addressing the Knesset, but his acceptance by the Israeli Prime Minister, resonates more than three decades on. Egypt was the first Arab country to officially recognise Israel. The peace agreement between the two nations has remained in effect since the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty was signed and in that way is an important achievement that is still recognised in a global 21st century culture, though the negative implications of the treaty signing can make the initiative seem a failure, if read alternatively. One can admire the courage of Sadat and his ultimate sacrifice, his life, to do anything to save Arab and Israeli lives and prevent suffering. His personal integrity, idealism, sense of responsibility, vision for the future, and ability to recognise his own faults and follies make Anwar Sadats Statement to the Knesset a timeless and universal speech thats ideas are relevant to future audiences and differing contexts.

Sadat Notes
Context: 1977 Israel and Egypt in conflict, Egypt spending 30% national budget on defence, impoverished. In an interview states that purpose of speech What I want from this visit is that the wall created between us

and Israel, the psychological wall, be knocked down. Highly contentious, later assassinated. Shock value of taking the initiative is partly why such a diplomatic success. Audience specifically Knesset, but simultaneously broad and international Our context: call for peace irrespective of context, world rife w conflict etc Peace and common humanity o Very clear, unambiguous I come to you today on solid ground to shape a new life and to establish peace. Maintains its sincere, not verbal juggling or political tactics. Conveys sense of honesty, and openness with phrases to be absolutely frank with you we really and truly seak peace o Idealistic yet bluntly realistic, presents not just concepts but strategies, solutions. Structures speech around 5 facts. Focuses on precise issues disengagement agreement in Sinai o Second person engages audience, makes message powerful o Delivered in Hebrew, gesture of friendship speak same language o Inclusive language our fate stresses that the issue involves them all. Reference to God Almighty (both believe in) draws on common faith in order to unite. we all, Muslims, Christians and Jews, worship God and no one but God o Presents himself as an equal, does not speak from a position of weakness or hesitation. High land-based demands in return for peace, Israel must return all Arab lands they have gained since 6 day war in 1967 o Peace and justice recurring motifs, give speech cohesion. permanent peace based on justice and we are advocates of justice and peacemakers o Speaks in universal terms any life lost in war is a human life, irrespective of its being that of an Israeli or an Arab, humanist terms sons and brothers o High modality to emphasise progress so far and lend speech positive tone we signed, we proceeded we are. o Denounces war: destructive wars that leave neither victor nor vanquished In order to attain unity between people, you should be truthful of past injustices, to allow a long-term united relationship to build. Inclusive language: Innocent children are ours be they living on Arab or Israeli land. Here, Sadat uses children to address the suffering, which is common in both Egypt and Israel; therefore it acts as a uniting force. conversational yes: in We hadour claims, yes. We used to brand you as the so-called Israel yes. This acknowledgement of treating the Israelis

unwell, is a powerful tool to engage the Israelis and understand Sadats motives of unity. Metaphor: we were a nation reduced to a motionless corpse which shows the treatment of Israel by Egyptians was ill and by acknowledging this, Sadat creates credibility, allowing the people of Israel to believe his intentions are true, which persuades the people of Israel to engage in productive social change. This educates us the importance of admitting the truth as it allows long-term relationships to build.

In order to attain unity, you communicate to the audience to let them know your motives are honest and compassionate. anaphora in we really and truly seek peace, we really and truly welcome you to live among us emphasized the feelings felt to welcome Israel, and create unity with Israel. This persuades us, to accept Sadats offer of unity as his intentions are honest and compassionate. hyperbole as Sadat will go to the farthest corner of the worldto address members of the Knesset. This shows Sadat has gone through great lengths to deliver his message of unity to change the attitudes of the people, persuades them to accept his offer of unity. epistrophe in Any life lost in war is a human life irrespectiveArab or Israeli. A wifeentitled to a happy family life, whether she be an Arab or an Israeli emphasises the fact that Sadat does not care whether someone is an Arab or an Israel, creating equal treatment for all, therefore unity. This educates me, that there should be an element of honesty in my motives, in order to allow the force of unity to take place, as when you are enemies with other, it is difficult to be united. [check learn statement!] In order to attain a strong sense of peace between two Nations, it is important to illustrate your intentions clearly and distinctively. Accumulation: Peace that is not shaken by storms, swayed by opinion, or jeoporadised by ill intentions. Here Sadat identifies his aim for a permanent peace, and wants to create it very strong that it is not broken. This is also seen through use of repetition: before us today lies the appropriate chance for peacea chance that time cannot afford once again. This emphasises the urgency felt by Sadat to establish peace, and to establish it very quickly, as he wants to attain peace before the opportunity slips away. Alliteration: we welcome you among us, with full security and safety. From this we can see Sadats intentions of welcoming Israel in the notion of peace by informing them, that their treatment will be secure and safe. From this we learn, in order to attain peace, it is important your intentions are clear and distinctive.

In order to attain peace, between Israels and the Egyptians, it is important to allow a sense of cooperation by pointing out the commonalities between them. emotive language in moaning under the cruel pains of widowhood and bereavement allows the audience to remember both Israel and Egypt feel the suffering after war, which shows how unnecessary and futile war is, and in need of peace. repetition of life in Any life lost in war is a human life. Here Sadat draw upon the commonality between the people, as he refers to them as human, creating unity in humanity, which ultimately leads to peace, as the loss of human life in war is not valued by society. inclusive language in We all Muslim, Christians and Jews creates inclusiveness of whether you are a Muslim, Christian or Jew, as these differences form unity, and ultimately peace between the nations. Can also use: extended metaphor of peace based on Justice used throughout the speech to shows Sadat wants permanent peace, not just peace.