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GSA GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

CENOZOIC
CHRON. ANOM. ANOM. HIST. HIST

v. 4.0

MESOZOIC
CHRON.

PALEOZOIC
PICKS (Ma)
66.0

PRECAMBRIAN
PICKS (Ma)
252 254 260 265 269 272 279 290 296 299 304 307 315 323 331
1500 750

AGE (Ma)

MAGNETIC POLARITY

PERIOD

EPOCH
HOLOCENE

AGE
CALABRIAN GELASIAN

PICKS (Ma)
0.01 1.8 2.6 3.6 5.3 7.2

AGE (Ma)
70

MAGNETIC POLARITY

PERIOD EPOCH

AGE

AGE PERIOD EPOCH (Ma) Lopingian

AGE

AGE (Ma)

EON

ERA

PERIOD

BDY. AGES (Ma)


541 635

1 2

C1 C2

QUATERNARY PLEISTOCENE*
PLIOCENE

30 C30 31 C31 32 C32 33

MAASTRICHTIAN
72.1

2A C2A

PIACENZIAN

PERMIAN

3A C3A

MESSINIAN

80

C33

CRETACEOUS

C3

ZANCLEAN

CAMPANIAN
LATE

260
83.6 86.3 89.8 93.9 100

Guadalupian Cisuralian
LATE MIDDLE EARLY LATE

10

C4A C5

TURONIAN

ARTINSKIAN SAKMARIAN ASSELIAN GZHELIAN KASIMOVIAN MOSCOVIAN

1000

PROTEROZOIC

4A

NEOGENE

C4

TORTONIAN

90 11.6 13.8 16.0 100


34 C34

SANTONIAN CONIACIAN

280

CHANGHSINGIAN WUCHIAPINGIAN CAPITANIAN WORDIAN ROADIAN KUNGURIAN

EDIACARAN NEOPROTEROZOIC CRYOGENIAN

850

TONIAN
1000

MIOCENE

CARBONIFEROUS

5A

PENNSYLVANIAN

C5A

SERRAVALLIAN LANGHIAN

CENOMANIAN
300

STENIAN
1200

15

1250

5B C5B 5C C5C 5D C5D 5E 6


C5E C6

110

ALBIAN
113

MESOPROTEROZOIC

ECTASIAN
1400

BURDIGALIAN
20.4 120
M0r M1 M3 M5 M10

320

BASHKIRIAN SERPUKHOVIAN VISEAN TOURNAISIAN FAMENNIAN

MISSISSIPPIAN

20

APTIAN
EARLY

CALYMMIAN
1600

6A C6A 6B C6B 6C C6C

AQUITANIAN
23.0 130

25

7 C7 7A C7A 8 C8 9 11 12
C9

OLIGOCENE

BARREMIAN HAUTERIVIAN VALANGINIAN BERRIASIAN TITHONIAN

126 131 134 139 145 152 157 164 166 168 170 174

340

MIDDLE EARLY

347 359

1750

STATHERIAN
1800

CHATTIAN
140 28.1

10 C10

DEVONIAN

30

C11 C12

M12 M14 M16 M18 M20 M22

360
LATE

2000

OROSIRIAN PALEOPROTEROZOIC RHYACIAN


2050

372

RUPELIAN
33.9

150

380

FRASNIAN
MIDDLE

JURASSIC

M25 M29

LATE

KIMMERIDGIAN OXFORDIAN CALLOVIAN BATHONIAN BAJOCIAN AALENIAN TOARCIAN

13

C13

160 RAPID POLARITY CHANGES

GIVETIAN EIFELIAN EMSIAN

383 388 393 408 411 419 423 426 427 430 433 439 441 444 445 453 458 467 470 478 485 490 494 497 501 505 509 514 521 529 541

2250

2300

35

15 C15 16 C16 17 18
C17

PRIABONIAN

400

SIDERIAN
2500

PALEOGENE

37.8

170

MIDDLE

EARLY

PRAGIAN
LOCHKOVIAN
LUDFORDIAN GORSTIAN HOMERIAN SHEINWOODIAN TELYCHIAN AERONIAN RHUDDANIAN HIRNANTIAN

2500

40

ORDOVICIAN SILURIAN

C18 C19

19 20

BARTONIAN
41.2 180

420

PRIDOLI

LUDLOW WENLOCK LLANDOVERY

NEOARCHEAN
2750

EOCENE

183
EARLY

45
21
C21

190

191

ARCHEAN

C20

LUTETIAN
47.8

PLIENSBACHIAN SINEMURIAN HETTANGIAN RHAETIAN


199 201 209

2800

440

LATE MIDDLE EARLY FURONGIAN

200

460

KATIAN SANDBIAN DARRIWILIAN


DAPINGIAN

3000

MESOARCHEAN
3200

50

22 C22 23 24
C23

210

TRIASSIC

YPRESIAN

FLOIAN TREMADOCIAN
AGE 10 JIANGSHANIAN PAIBIAN GUZHANGIAN DRUMIAN AGE 5 AGE 4 AGE 3 AGE 2 FORTUNIAN

3250

480
LATE

55
25 26

C24

PALEOCENE

56.0

220

NORIAN

PALEOARCHEAN
3600

3500

CAMBRIAN

C25

THANETIAN SELANDIAN DANIAN


66.0 250 59.2 61.6 230

500
228

Epoch 3 Epoch 2 TERRENEUVIAN

60
27

C26

CARNIAN
MIDDLE

3750

C27

240

LADINIAN ANISIAN
OLENEKIAN
INDUAN

237 241 247 250 252

520

EOARCHEAN
4000

28 C28

65

29
C29

4000

30 C30

EARLY

540

HADEAN

*The Pleistocene is divided into four ages, but only two are shown here. What is shown as Calabrian is actually three agesCalabrian from 1.8 to 0.78 Ma, Middle from 0.78 to 0.13 Ma, and Late from 0.13 to 0.01 Ma. Walker, J.D., Geissman, J.W., Bowring, S.A., and Babcock, L.E., compilers, 2012, Geologic Time Scale v. 4.0: Geological Society of America, doi: 10.1130/2012.CTS004R3C. 2012 The Geological Society of America. The Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic are the Eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. Names of units and age boundaries follow the Gradstein et al. (2012) and Cohen et al. (2012) compilations. Age estimates and picks of boundaries are rounded to the nearest whole number (1 Ma) for the pre-Cenomanian, and rounded to one decimal place (100 ka) for the Cenomanian to Pleistocene interval. The numbered epochs and ages of the Cambrian are provisional. REFERENCES CITED Cohen, K.M., Finney, S., and Gibbard, P.L., 2012, International Chronostratigraphic Chart: International Commission on Stratigraphy, www.stratigraphy.org (last accessed May 2012). (Chart reproduced for the 34th International Geological Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 510 August 2012.) Gradstein, F.M, Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D., et al., 2012, The Geologic Time Scale 2012: Boston, USA, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59425-9.00004-4.