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psicoterapia psicoanaltica
Hugo Bleichmar

Hacia una tcnica de intervenciones especficas

Psicologa Psiouiatra

1;pot'"0i.
I

Psicologa Psiquiatra Psicoterapia


Llltinros ttulos publicados:

Hugo Bleichmar

l3l. l12

',' P Creen - Arr1,r.i r',1 1.15. L. C:rncrirrr y C. La RUsa Lt,itio Ptn,,rtt

lll V Bruce\

E. Bianchi y otros - El se nic it social como proL.eso tle ayutla C. Feiras 1 M. T. Mrro. ,4f,." rimil t.n^ tt tl\i,tenkt l:1.1. V. F CuidrDu . El st mim, n nr," ,

AVANCES EN PSICOTERAPIA

l.1o N. I.ejermcn. H. Arroyo, l\,{ Maisaro y & lJurn'll'


137. )vl. Prez Pcrcira y J.

PSICOANALITICA
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fantil r otos rusomos
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. Rrggieri

Auistno

t38. J. S,'5. . Arcc ) A. Pncro Mamal le p: ,l,'air jurntnt r39. J. Mui/es/o\ i( / - Prrc,'trntl,1,'qi psi t,ilhini,. lt t40. !. Corsi Vilntnt tintlir t4t. A. M. Washton , 1 Jiq n a td ot orut A. Barlos Ltipez - A6arz4itho, t- Ntturulqo. .titryu v etulua(itt l,+1. A Bados Lpez , Agor'fobia. ll-'l rutamienbs tr,higiot \. larmd(o k; !i<t).\ | 41. M. Payne - Teorat cotremporneas (lcl trab4o !o(.d t,15. R. Coromins y M.' J. Sanz - El minuty.ilio lsrn I su enkrrno 146. D Adamo y ou-os (conipt;. Pscolopi de Ia ot irin poli t+?. R. J. Strnhrrg - /ri,rrirr:r en |\tLtl,,!kt 1413. S VinogrrJ,,! y S Yelom Garir ,i ut Je :i,t'trapit Jt atut, 149. L. S. Grcenberg y otros - I..t(ilitando l cambkt enotional t50. J. E. Azcuar 1 tnfo' Altr,,,tu \ dcl arcnJi,tjL tttt'Lr l5 t. J. Cor.i ) r.trl'\ - Vn,len,.n nttwlnu t l frtt,t 51. l. E. A?co^ga - Los tuktro dl l wa( e 'l tk) r5l. J. Currrmirr:r. y utro. P-\i\4htptu tt Xruf,^ t,u n ,t r5,1. S. M.Nmee ) K. ). Cer en - Ln rer,qid t,,w t i'n i uit hu r, \ i r55. B. lnh(ldcr \ J. Plpet Dc lo l,'f i. .1 n ia,, d ltt t, \:i n.lL t,tlt,tv-ntt t56. F. Torr\ de Bea - (;rrt',,\ l ht^ \ h A r.\
157.
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tn h prin,ra ufun.tl

Ca\|rc El d?suffotb tiiil.dtt(iLo

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Hacia una tcnica


de inte rvencione s e specrtcas
I

r59. K. E. A.en j P.'fofi\o - lnrcr\.nit,'tt ltmilit 160. D. Stern - L r.y'r-itrt ,tl 'nt l6 t. R. Dallo\ Irr.rr.r /. t tcolt i]r:.lnolltttre\ t2. E. Hurl,,(l - P.\t\1ln<tu l J,tt\t-nt-it l6-'r. J. W- Wordcn_- _/ ratmoto el Ju.b: sesofttmienb ps(t)kjaL\, \, tetupi 164. J. Po(h y A. A\ rlir lni.niy,h-t,4 p:,i,irn\,t 165. F.. Crr(!tmDrune ) utru\ - f \rr. /,p.lt.,./ h,ri,' \ r ..:1,, q u r t.q i t' 166. .,. Rojxs Befr,ride/ - T irn r y a ,t ,'r,,Jnn tttt. , t6t. R Si!rk y ,flfu. - Tun t ,ltit d lu tlttirnt 1613. H. Bleichntur - 4v.nk\ e l'-tittt(t,tpt.t p\i(t\tt,tlli 169. F. Lope/ y P. Poblacion - L/ .f('rl/r/, t .\:tqrut {nird\ frn,rmt it,ts dplitd ?n piL^oterulia. l7l. D. Glaser y S. Frosh'A bux, seuol inlottil t12. A. Cesell y otros - 1l io de a 5 to t13. A. Gesell y otros El io de 5 a l0 ao!; t]1. A. Gesell y otros - El dlolesnte tle l0 u l as r75. M. A. Caudill - Crnrrle el dolor antct tle que el dolor le tontrole d usted 116. l:. Casas - ln.fo,rc'io: ltrtrycivar; piL\)so(:iale.\ t1'7. 1.. For^n - Dilemr^ tiyi cn DLlidrkt l7l{. l). Greenberger y Ch. A - Pade;ky - El control d \u esta.lo e dnmo
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C. CplLrn

R A Nernteer1M J \frhone) - (',)n.n.u, tttiltk,.n l'\ilth,ntltit ) R. B. Crplx ( ,,n-,ulht \ 1.,'htb,,t,j,.t,tn r *tltkl mlntnl

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PAIDOS

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So'd. Pot' L'l "P.1ltllicl1" p() l()s pa1t*!tas

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At

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1997
1998

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nrtrrc pr)hihidas. sin lutoriacn csc.ila dc k'slirurncsct hr,1$ sm.nmc\ erabl.rids cn tus teycs. l .cr'xiuccnnr krlt F{. u:lqtrtrr m.r.,.1.,,.Ill,.(.lri n,.,,,,rcr,trJ,- t"

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dc kxlas las ediciones en castelluno. tidiciones Paids Ibrica, S.A., Muirno Cub.92 - 08021 Barcelona y l.ililorirl Paids, SAICF, l)cli'nsa, 599 - Bucnos Aircs

l3.l .19.-{).r94 X l)t pisito [rArl: It .1.941/1998

lsBN:

(18l

Irrrrcso t.n A

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Str.

M (iilic, S. L., lt'plul dc Mogoda

(Barcelona)

IttlPttso crr lrslrarir l,rintctl in Spain

SUMARIO

\Br'.r(le( inricnt.,s lnlrl \lu( ( r, )n El rcr.lrrccirnismr en psicoanhlisis: c rrxr(lel() chrctlil-especulatir o l'om]irs clel re([lcci( )nisr)ro en psic(rp.lr()logx f Jn alternxti\,1: cl rn<xielc m()cltlhr-tnrnsfolr]racional
.

11
1.1 1-3

17

20

1. EL MODELO MODUIAR.TRANSFORMACIONAL Y
SIJBTIPIOS DE

DEPRESIN

LOS

]5

I)itfentcs canrinos rle enlrxcla a la clepresi<in 'l lansfirnrcioncs cn(re l()s (lislint()s cilcuitos (lue crn<lucen

fll scntiricnl() cle inr<ltenciu/clesesperlnzl para la rexliz.lci(-)n clel

clcsct
la rle

15 13
62

presi(in

titilitlucl th'l nr()t{cl() nn)([l.lr cle.fiiculej(ir] (le

(i)nsectclci:rs pall la terirpia <lel m<xlelr nx xltlr-h ansfirnraci< nal clc ( llr clcpresiirn ....... CLralr() (as()s clinicos: espccificiclcl rle ls intervenciones tcruprticas. 69

c())p(ertes

6l

2. EL MASOQUISMO.
Sul)tip()s (lc

S1

I.ls(xrisr]r() en la intersrl)ictiviclcl Articulaci(in cle rrxrtivaci<nes en l()s cas()s (le

rltas()(Flislll()

. rnaso(}rislll() . . .
h
.

l-l 90
94

.\les<xuisnro: finra rlc cor-ttr'ol y transfi rrur;tcirn cletensiva cle ('i,,t'l tr.rrllr.rti(.1

situe-

9i
99

l)\i(1f(,r.ll\r., tlt I ll.rsr,lrts1,, llcpetici(in tlc vincul<>s n)s()(ist:rs en Iir sit!lci(in terapuIi(il M:is allir clcl (l(se() y el principi() clel placcrr el sr.rjer clel clisplacer.
caso clnicr cle fil.lir rL la hrxrxscxualiclacl . . . . IJI srrjcr clel tlisplecer y el scntid() cle relitl:rcl I.l clni<u <le mls ll (lel dcsc() y (lcl principi() clcl plrcer
t Tn
.

I0l
105 107
111

1li

I
,{VAN(-tJS

LN PSICO'I'I]RAPIA PSI(]OANAI-I'I(]A

SUMARIO

.J. T,O REPRIMIDO, LO NO CONSTITIIIDO Y

IA

DESACTTVACIN
117

5. IA AGRESIVIDAD: VARIANTES Y ESPECITICIDAI)


DE I.S TNTER!'ENCIONES TERAPUTTCES
lgresi\ i(l(l y l: representuci(in clel Angustis (tc rLrk )c( )nst:n'?cirin . Sentinlient()s (le cLlp.l)ili(la(l Agresivirlatl ! nurcisisln()

SIi(ITORIAL DEL INCONSCIENTE INTER!'ENCIONES 'TERAPI ITICAS DIFERENCIADA

..

221

sujeto

22)
223 226 227

lil \rrAirricnk) y sostn tle la fincii>n clescante. ,l\lt'Llio l'rrcilitack o nretlio rroveetlori' (.irir(t(rsticrs clel terlpeutu y h c()nstitttci(ln cle I tirn<it-rn (leseantc llrrr clt,rrlrr (lel psic()l rl.i lisis: cl (lesnrroll() cle unt clni(1t <le lt Ill/kt s/.q4(,i/ f cU(liana (illrpotencilr/desvlllinliento) ( itlncsis clcl sentilrient() cle p()tencil: clticit y conflict llill):r) lcrxprtico c()n ls creencies r))iltri(cs psi(n]rles.
\||rl 'r)l,r (, lrislr triir l.i( nrlirl\.1 l'.rtologirr rol iclcntific:tci<-rnr su ttt<clific:L<i<in l.( \':lnlllienk) cle la represi<in y c()nstitLrci)n clc l< nct c<rstituiclt en el i (i rl)\cl(.nt(. tx sl(1i\,1r( i(-)n sect(n-ial (lcl inconscientc y IJ I ilttctg.utg freucliant

li.sl,rl,,s , rr rlclir il

t20
72,-

1ll3

tJ0 t32
136

La "egrcsivicluci-instnr'Dcnt( (-(rD() icci(in s()l)rc el

Agresir iclacl e intent()s <lc Agresiviclacl y sa(lisn()

sepiLnLcion-inclivicltrcion

(fro y el pr1)pi() sLiet() 232


2.1-l

23+

l3s
r

i5

Iigfcsiv,(hdylaterrlpt.rlsitlnltl (iim() est insclila I inten(ionliclucl agrcsivir cn cl inc()nscicntel . Llplicrcionss pera la tetrpia (lc lit desc()nstruc( irin de la grrsi\ i(Lrcl en rrxllitlrlcs v c()n(li(i()ncs ([rc la rclivrn.

238

23)
213
243
248,

116

ti2
l5()
t62. 163

l.i7

6.

PSICOTERAPIA DE LOS TRASTORNOS

NARCISISTAS rxtcrn()

(,()n\((u('n(ius pltla
r'il.r)l (

ll

tc-rapia cle lx rllttltiplici(l.t(l cle estl(l()s clel incons-

l'.ll(,1()giu xrr cfficit. p()r trlrLln1. pot instripcirin pittol(igicil ( I] (,1 inc()nscientc. y l)()r c()nflict() l)r)s ('.ls()s clnicos: tincllrment()s y tcnicr cle Ia tenpiu.

lrrlr( lirrilrricn) entre clficit y conflict(). l)()s l(r)ris solrre la rclcirn cntre llngusli y cleseo. Ir)l( r\(,n(i()ncs repllr(l{)rls: xlgtrnr)s stthtil)()s

169

ti2
1l

tl in.,rns.rcrrtc C(npens:lci()nes nirrcisists inc()nscientes. l'sicoterapi (lc l()s trast(nn()s r-rr('isistls


La < ont acliccir'rn 1 la kigica cn

Sulrtiros tle tlask)rn()s n:rrcisist,rs El balancc lLrcisist.r: prlgonr <le ficzas. Iirlxn(e nur(isjsta intraps(lri(() .v str relrrciirn (()n el ()l)ict() I-.1 n:rrrisisr<: crlcligr I <'st(cttir

250

25'i

23i
25;

2i9
261

Exlnrcn crti('() (le la ()rientx( i(-)n ta'cnicu k()hrtinl: indclrci()ncs. Iimit,rci()ncs \' c()ntralin(lic:tcir rcs .

4.

F]I,

TRATAMIENTOI AMPLIACIN T'E I.A CONCIENCIA, NTODIFICACIN DEL INCONSCIENTE

t
I
:

7. I.A MODIFICACIN TERAPUTICA DEL


Supery n()rnrativ() y supcry(i La relacirin del sujct() c()nsig()

SUPERY

27i

1ll3
I

nl;rrl rrlcrlir', (lc le interpletaci)n: l)ahnce enne cl lla<el cle la repe tir r' t r ll l)l.r(r'r ([ I ..l'i. l.r s t'li r t()s t n t l ini onsc irnte (le las intcn enciones anliticrts 'li;rlr:rirr r'l l.r tr';llrsli r'nr'jlr: Ill transleren(iit c()u() resislenci f.,r rt pt :ion (l('l ( ( rr( ( l)t(, (lc c()ntrxin(licxc(in en psic()xnlilisis. l.il l):rrti( rt)ir('i()l] .tr'trr:t <k'l px(iente )' la cresti<in cle lit regtesiiln y la .r., ,r l.rr i, r lrl'rr. l'rr':r rn;r IirrrrrrrIrr'ir'rrr rlt l.r lcglrr litnclurncntal
Vr.

l.r. IL\r.l(nri.ls (l( nlrr' (l(l inr,,n\(i(nl( ll\ I., L)It,rI)r( I.Ir'r| ,n nr(,( rr)(lil,L i 1., ,\ ( l('( l(,\ rn(1 ,n\( r( nlv tlt llr intt'r'J'ttr'tlt,. t, 'n Nt'trr'.rlirlrtl nlticll )' rosiciirn emocitrnul clel teraper.tta

ti5

190

192

t94
195

ruglcsivirlatl . Mlrndrtt()s s\rpe[_v()ic()s rttorelcs y n.lr('L\,\t.t:' La proltillici<-rn superyoic:r <rrur:r crccnril nrxtriz Resislcncils r la rn(xliflclrci(io clel \Lrnerli;

l)os rnocl:tlir.laclcs (lc csfru(llrlu(i(in clcl su.)ervri v

incliferenciackr nlism()

l1l

...-

277 279 282

lctir't i<jn rlc llt


2t]
2ti()
2lJu

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Mcdificcirin r-lel sLrpery<-r: lr clcsiclentiflclcin l)rrs firoits (lc cntcn(ler la rrsrcicirn liblc. ,Srrpery(-) :rrrrilirl o intcrprctucirin clel strperyi'/.

291
29.1

2q7

ztt
213

8. PSICOTERAPIADELDUELOPATOLGICO
Prclicla tle (r)ieto,

., .,

.10-l

2t6

F'uncioncs que cl (r)jeto pcrclickr cr-r[rpla p.rr el sujet().

J05
307

prdi(ll en c-l elk

lo

AvAN(it;s l:N pslco'r-liRAptA pslco.,,tc

l,os rlL;licit tlcl sLrjeto y Ia fijci)n al obieto ti'rrrtrr <lilclcncial entre tlixci(in prir))ariiL y fijuci<in secunclurilt?. Lr '..r',li,.l.r rlt.l ol'eto in(ern,'. Ilr r':rso rle claloraci<-rn de un cluel() px)lgic()

109

AGRADECIMIENTOS

3ll
.l1.1

l.lrlx[rrcirill clel (klclo: el trxtxnient()

J15 319

9. AIGUNAS DIMENSIONES PAf,A I]N MODELO MODUIARlll sislt


l

'TRANSFORMACIONAT EN PSICOPATOI-OGA Y PSICOTERAPIA


rr;r pulsional-clescunte: ln()clalicla(les clel desear

.,

321

y c()nterlid()s te
321

rtr.ilrrUr cle I,,: tleser t

)(nrinrnciil. c()nc()r(lancials y c<>ntraclicciones entre clese()sllslir(lr)s (ir)l()ci()n.les y lngrrsti:rsr el sisteD,)ir clc aleta y errcrgencil

326

lll n(xlel()

iltlsitlrtl

irlcctivu cle ls icie:ts: insrflciclx l)Ll7tnicnt()

cle la cxpliclt( i(-)n (iel (lcs

i11
.

lirs lnALrsitius cle clesinteg[acin y fragrncntlrci<in

.lJrJ

l.()s tslx(l()s cltxcirnales: formas cle c(nnunicaci(in y i,l r, ! v (.1 suiel( ) . I I .llrl',( rl()n.uni(ntr] r[( (li\ ()

tlc accirin solrre el

3l
l.i

lrl srsl( rir rlcfnsiv<:r clelensas en el inrrrnst iente y srt clifi-renei c<n los

rll((itnisln()s cle <lefenslrs


k['rrs ollscsivlrs cle aglcsi<in a seres queri(l()s y la p()tencilrcln imxgimlr ,.r ( l(.1 \rj( t( ) ( )rg:lr)iz(i()ncs psctticlts

.l4J

i49
supr()(lina(hs: relucioncs intcmas
c1e

objet<r

Ni\ ( [s ])irritiv()s cle orglrnizacirn clel psicrr:srrr<r l{r'r rrr'. 's tlelit it }1)r(1)\ I'('r'tin( n( iir y relev:tncir cle I.l intervenci(in terap'utic.l: el riesg<> clel tralr.ri,r r,n l.r p<ril(riir (le lrt prrt,,krgi.r
AprlNotcr.: A
I

l.l sistr r.r n.t[( isislll rnl( rn()

312 J57
359
-16 i

cuencir\ I)r'ir lx tcnica (lcl tt1rtl))ient(). sc hn icl< tirljancltr rl lo Iatgo clc cs' t()s llill)()s tliez aos cn lis (liscLlsi()ncs (lt( ('ll sct))inri()s \'aL-s()s lltn)()s r(jnillx <k liscttclt (k' Lhta'llttst'tdttz.t tlal l'sittttitcnirlr en /t7l.l.s -a( (lcsei-ll)irm()s rcn(lir tril)tlt() 1l() (lll( signili({-) pxlit [,1 (uyo (r)n n(nr)l)re /'.s. . cdlrcucirin y el pensuttrienr clti(() y n() clogulitico cn Esl).Ia y Am ca l,rtlin.r el !D()vinrienf() ilnptlsr(l() por l'.\ l':sctt.4t da I'ibra )tsctitttzt l-lrs iclelts (lLle cll)(er11()s s()n, cn pre. tln (()nlintlici(in ,v Pl ( )[tn(lizilcia)n (lc lrltl)il (lL'I(nll'l en ctlenl;l l:l i()s nfcri()f(s en qtle lrill)iinr()s s()stcni(l() l ncr"esicllL<l (lel <le tultilllts es in(trnscicnte c()n1l)leii(l(l (l(j l esltllctLll.l -hal'Lill:ttrt(ls )gi1l en cl cttl los tlis taclos <lel inconscicnte- l)itl-x tn lll()(lcl() en llsic()p.tt( )l( (,,ru', ('.llugt,l'llls r\ sint crtlxl el L\t.ln( tink)s tl-itst()rn()s filcln cntcn(li(l()\ nr, (lc (lc nr()ti\'l sistelrl\ llfticLtlcia)n rcsLlltx(l() linul tle Lrn Pr(\'es() c()l1lplcj() (i(nt1tlcs. l'cr() c()nstittryclt. s(r)re l()(k). tltr nLcv() dcsrr()ll() en le lnea clc
nLlesllils l)rr()(tlPllci()ncs il(1(liles: c(illl{) iil'l(llllcnlar tc(-)rictllcntc Lln l I)r'lL tic lcrl)a'tt(i(x qttc:Lll)crc Ls inlcicncitlncs 1()i'l()(1)[(lcs iPIi(ll(l!s lt n(' il))_ p(r'tx (lu tiro cle curlclr<r I):,ic( )Plllol( )!li( ( ) () cslltlcttlrrl clt llcrsonalichcl <tcl pll(ientc. F'r! n(l.Lluent?ci( )t] tc(iri( (ltle (lcl)e ser segr.ticlll. lrrtio ricsgo cle que dmos cn el rlltno cte las afirrnci(ncs gcnerxlcs. ror un tletalle tlc las m<xlalirhrlcs rr. nicus tlc iutcrv(nt iin qLtc l-cstlllcn set llls nl1-ls cs>tt ficlts posillles. t!nk) l)itril cltrla configrtr;tcirilt psict lpatoIl-rgic lt c()ll1() pr:l sLls vlLriitntt's o srll'r
_

psic()Pat()la)gic() (ltte Prescntanl()s en estc

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APNDlcr,.

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tii)()s

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l,rr un lxiicoanlists del porqu de la adhesin a modelos reduc('onsaas

Fil tr'.tlrujri intclectrt.tl. ittln(lLle sc hltgrt en solitltlio, r'ctlr.tierc tlc ttn .lintlt cxtcrn() eslinltllantc. I':s cl (ltle cnc()ntrll ll1( )s en eslc lrl()lllenk) fecunclo r:tr:t cl psicoanlisis en (lLc l()(l() cst.l strjet() a t'cl isitin. en crte el resPck) p()l sLls

)htr:urts

lllblkrgralia

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<tte lrs tlellenr<s. n() (()nstittlyc (r)st,lcll rlrlnzlr ntlis all;i tlel prrnr el ctte Iltgltttln l]llsta vel clc p:tnt se tt'atc Itl rr'tt ill rcs)(]fl() llts rtr]sionltcllts llQl'nlitlts s()stc,l(ls cr lils griltl(lcs rel'ist:ts clt'l l)si(()xnulisis PlLra tcn([ ilnll ulLlcstl:t (lc [1] vtllli(lx(l :ttttt.tl clc llt rrrx[lcci<in te<-r'ico-t lnic:t. I)er() el crlcLtcntro a clistltn<ilt c<ln acttell,ls (lLle st.lp.lslln.Ln 'li<los necesitanxs clc la inrlecliart z Por lo rtlisDro qut Ln(). n() cs slttl<icnte. (ltn Lln senlicl() lrofirnclo 1t ntleslr()s Pr()y('(1()s clc h ptesencia tlc seres tttc

gnnrles >cnsackrrcs. pot lo ntttcho

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INTRODUCCIN
EL REDUCCIONIS MO EN PSICOANIISIS: EL MODELO DOCTRINAI-ESPECT]LATIVO

I ttit'rsidul l\Dificilt C:o till. (lr.risiera cxP,es1r nti graritu(l p()r c .r1r,4rr rrilricIr. (i)c(.iinrcnt( p()r lx (r)trljilrrz:l (lcl)()sitldu eri lp.sr.J xl (le sirln.r Lr t'otrro t.nfirlcl ,..olaltoratL rra enc:lrl{.rdrr clc irnpartir.el ct,.",, p,r. el que st- rlrrrrlt itl liul() l)r()l)j() cle l:r llnivesiriecl rlc "Esper.ialistlr L_rniversitarir c-n

\ l

(llll)i(.r ] l)\t( r )l(,riil)jx l)si(r ):nl liicu,. C(-l &).k). nt rec()n().inti(,nk lit ltni rt lsirl.rrl r':l lrr:is trlh tle esta citcLtnstllncii clerivl clel clinll hrl))n() c lnrtl(\ lLrirl (l(.(.slrnul(),y rc l)el() quc presi(l(,el tral)ii() c()ti(lirn() rluc cn ella lelr lrzttr . lr nros \ pr()fi,s().cs.

En Jrsi<rnniilisis c()cxisten (l()s grxndes tcnciencirts ltcttc.l dc c(jnl() ltl)()r (lar cl ('ump() espccfic() (lc invcsligxci(-)n (lLrc al)ri() el csttl(i() sollre el in(()nsciclltc. llnlt. u lrt ruc rcsull:lrr \.ili(l() (len(nuilrtr "(lo( t illit l-cspcct ltiva,,

nllr Llnxs p()(lts cxteg()ris nlLl\'l)lf(ltti\lls y. it palltil- (ie un c()Drenzalr ellas. l)r()ccs() lle tip() (lc(lt(ti\'(). qLe (\)ncltt)c cn lln sisiem crffacl() cD (lLre l(xk) se explicr eu l)ast a llts pletttisrts iniciltl,.-s llltjo la moclali(llr(l (le i(rslificlrci(in (lLre !n epistc n r( )l( )gr se col()(( (1)t1I() "(()hcrentisol() cpistmic(),,. I-ls (l(( ir, justifi(llcion clc ttn c()n(cpl() (n funci(in cx(lusi\' (le h c()hercnai (lLre tengx c()n las pr()l)()sici(),lcs 1l ntcri( )rllentc cntnciaclils. nls alLi de crulcluicr ()l: (u(-sti()n uic'ti lll si5cnlx (l('r('cDCi:ls a(ePt:(l(). I)(x()
sc cafar(tcrizll p()r

ilrp()rt pra el (irs() (luc el pr(xc(li)rient() esPcculllti\'() sil.l cicltlt l(-)gic () (lLre ()cLrnln en(nnles sltlt()s cn lat inli'fct1( i. recliltl:tt'el rtst> r-lc tln tl)tfllli)
iz:( i(in (lcsl)( (ll(llr que rrnc lr tlisnril. L() ccDtral vit-nc cLttlrr por rtterer cles clihir la complejiclacl lt prtltir <le cxtcg(ns (le tlll gr(l() cle lstrecci<-n qte ll

que sLrceclc en
tr>tkr.
tocla

pr )x prctcnsi(-)n (Ir(' llls cutcg(niits inlrrtcls Pcrlltititixn cntcn(ltr l clniclt, tlesrle lts ( Lrit(l)s l)sic()p:lf()logic()s llxsta l1l t'( nic.l (le lil ctlrx.

cl interior

clc esa contplcjirillcl cs clcslltcncli(l(). I)cro, solrre

suponinckrse Lrnlr rxci()nali(la(l cluc srlo ellas pertttitirian. A cstlt fi)rl)la cle inl(-nt.rr.rc(r(lcr al (()n(xir))i('nt() se rtplica Ia ctticil (ltle lirlltla i\'kin. ...rs

sielrpre.rl)stra(1ir. Jlrlc. -ideol'rgic.t , cs sictllPrc siruplifl( :l n(e" (l\l()tin. l9lr. pag. 15. entrcc(nnillackr en el originll). Aunrrre el l)cnslr-Ilie,rl() sil]ll)lilicantc D() sc ig()t c()n lils vcrsi{)rrcs cn <r,rc los rrincipios )lg! 11iz.l(k )res s()n ltl)s([lc)s. I)()lllin. tlrnll)ia'n. (Lllu(k) Ls valiables explicatir'.rs re\-istcn hs ltnnas ltlis cercltrlls a lo cttrprito y ollset vable. crranckr se crcc (lLrc c()n LrDa p()cils clirttcnsi()nes trxlo cs clecltcil>le. seln srs I llircsivi(lir(1, le sc,xra Iid.t.I, cl n:l[( isist))() ) sts !icisittctcs, r la intersul)ieti!'i(l1l(l 'el tlis(u|so clel ()tr(). () Ll estrLl(ttra clel yo 'cl strPery. P(n' tant<, l;r cuestit'rn no sc rL'sLclve lx)r ()ptr p()r el qlr)pirislli(),/P()sitivislllo en
<

(1)nt (lc

pttt'at \) 1)rfur'i sLlstcl)talLl:l (]t'l (ltttg()r;ls tras(Lnclentales la rxz()n tc(-)ric.t serlt lx (lLle dcterurinrl:t el tlollrinio cle lt cxpericncia r la cuitl p()sil)ilitit, y quc la histri cle la cicncia n()s aPorta p-uel)irs s(r)rx(lirs clel rcclucci( )r'l isrr en (lue (lesentlx)ca cl trllPirisrro.

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AVAN(.I:S ]N PSI(,('I'I]RAPIA PSI(]oANAI-'I'I(]A

INTRODUCCION

li

ll( nl! r (sl()s lil)()s (l(j pensantiento sinlpliflcxnte, sell el (le lrs (.atc!l()rs .rl, rr,r( tir\ () (.1 (l(.1 cttll)ilistrx). se h.lll.L Io <rrc se lte cluclo en [[erner el "pensa ||ll( Dtr) (r) tl)l(-), (Nl()rin. 1977), que lrusca entenclcr ks sistcntrs cn ltase lr I tlt crrnlponcttcs. l'ticltlacia)n qLle n() resp()n(le i propiedacles ahist.r rrs tlt,lrirls a lcvcs cle cstr.uctLra , <.(nr)() I< sosttrrrr el estnrcturalisnro logi( i t.l . sirr{) (luc se pr<rlucc Dreclientc proc-t-r-os que se \'an encllclenanclo en rc
.utir rrlrrr'ir'r

pr-()ces()s en l() (lLle rr]e(iiante trilnsfi)n)uk.,ncs 5v r,r',1ll l)rl,f)rt(l:r(lts crtlergentcs. en clrre lray letr():rcci()nes solr'c hs pafles. en ,lrr' rlrr.rr l()\ it'cn()s tlcnrltinck>s "recrrsir.os,.' stos r'rrclr'en a tege rrlrrr. sin rLrc lt:rya jatnlis vrrelta cxacta a l() lnisnx, la orglrnize<.iitn clel siste nr.r. ( r (r( tl lrzul interuiene hacienrlo quc algunes c(url)inxci()ncs tcngitn hrt.u r rlt.itrr<Lr cn el cilntino las cr.re sienclo una posiltiliclecl nr lun clcvenicir en .rr trrrlizir rrr clc esa poten< irlichcl. Pensrllicnt() <r)lDplejo ([re:ldquict.e (( rt , l,rrrr.r rlt l)i11i(ullrrizxci(ln en el cstuclio clel psi<uisru<r lo <rre se conoce <,rv tttlttlttritlftl. cr)ncel)ci()n (llie cstl)lc(c qrrr el firr:ci.,n;uDicnl() (lci Dtisnr(, n() (k l)L.n(lc rlc trrros >rincipios rnifrllrs (lue tils(-cD(leriitn lt t()(lars ls l),rrt(s sirr) rlt llr rli<lrlrcir)n compleja cle sistcntas cle cot))p(rtcnlcs ccla trno (, )r sr lrlr)l)ilr cstrLr(tur. crnteniclrs y lcycs cie fincionatick r. l,lrrlrlcura cle Lr r r r t r r r r I c[,] rsicr-risuo (llle enfcntu a clos posiciones: h (lc l)escirtes, ,rrl l,r rr.go. r'llr tlc l-'r'anz _[oseph Gall c|.re sLrp() intuirla, ]un (uan(l() sr cl(sl ll, ll, (l(.1 (,)r](({)l() en I()s (1)o)ienz()s clel sigkr xrx lc priv<i tle Irs nreclior, rue lrulrr'.rr l>t lrilirl) (l(fitrl() (le una lase cit,nttic. |leLrcl ()pki <lecicliclalte:te lr l,r r.nr'lxio rlc le rrrc[lariclad. ttrr ej.: el sistellu in(()nscicntc cs clife r( nl( ( ill(l(.1)(.o(li(\ntc rlcl sisteltr cle la crnciencir. ca(la Un() regiclo por srrs l)r, l)i.s l(.\1s (lc ()rgxnizckin y fin(.i()nlr)icnt(), llL't.() ?l.ticL.r(k)s. 'fatnltin cn Lr,lrrr'.r , n tlanlilisis <ue hece clel .Hcubrt (le las r.ltIs", chrncle urrcstr l:L , , rrrvlrgr.r rt i.r \' :rfticlrl(i(in prrr:r ll prrxluccicin rlel sni<ne cle un ntllter<: nrrr1, l.rrrrh,rlt.rlirrcrrsi<nes: rlcseos clc clivers()s tip()s. .ngLtsti!s, rlelensas rnlti:rlcs, r'fisnr() ir)irl. rcgcsiirn. jrrego clel significilntc. paxl clcl significaclo incons, it'nlc tlt, ( i(rlrs fxntusas, experiencixs vivitlrs, etc. Dintensi<tes que tiencn. r.rrl:r rrrrr <lt, cllas. su propio origen y lnea dc clcs:unllo. lis l.i( lI( l]l)crl ( 19119. 1992) cl <ue n}l'ts hr insisrick en psi(()an.tlisis s(r)re l.r irrrxr|t:rrt'i:r rlr cntcncler cl fll ncion nticn ) psc1Lrico coru(, integraci(in (le
r
r

rI s sr'irlr,s t. cn patirlelo,

llx )ti\ ci( )na lcs divers()s ([Ue \.1 Stern ( 19U ) halte firm-rlado clrlrotente en sus tsluclios <lcl cleslrrollo infnnril clcscle una pcrspe(tiva psicoanlliticnr....Mien l[ls qLrc ]() existen du(las alcclci de que tccesitatrx)s r-rnlr concepcirn solrre Lr nxfi\'cin, sta tenclrl qLre scr leconcel)tualizncln en trltin()s cle l)tLtch()s sistcrras lrotivacionales cliscretos per() interrelaci( )nadcs... Nt srre el pensar tluc toclos csk)s sistem]s I<ltivrcirnales se (leriven (le un unitlrio y nir-tt sis t('ma m()tivxci()nal. En leliihcl, lo que alxrl,a resulta mirs nc.esari() es c(n]rl)ren(ter ca)nl() est()s sisteotlrs ol()tivaci()nales cfltergen y se intelfclil(ir)n.Ln. y r'rrltlcs tie:rcn rrna posicit jerrqrLica supci()r o inferiol, clruante qu contli( i()nes y il t1u echcles, (prig. 2-3tt) P()1 ()tre pafte. fireru clcl cerlrp<> clel psicoanhlisis, Chornsky, (lue convie,te Lr rrcltlaritlcl en elerucnr clave pra enten(ler n() s(ikt ei lcnguajc sino el psiruism<> en gr:nerrl,r clestaca tlue el c()ncept() ()pLtes), al qut: lllunx "principk) (le lu rtnogcncitlecl,,. continx d()nlimnclo proclucci<xres te(-)ricils tan cliverss c<tncr lrrs tlc J)ieget o la clel crtr.[rctisrro cle Skinner tChrtrsky, 19S{, piigs. l-1(r). Delense clet'iclirllr cle la m(xllrlri(lad que se xp())'ir s(ilidnrnente en lu eviclencia que sc va lrricncl< camin() cn la lrcttaliclacl soltre el crnrci'niento cie cm< funcic> n:r el apl[rt() psqLric(), y que peflIite xilntur a l)anrasi(): "...N1estft) rol)usk) srntickr clc integr.rci(-)n t)lentul se cre x pllnir <le llt lcci<in c()n.ertacll (le sistenrxs a gr:ln cscxla n)e(lintc c(nljllnl()s sinc )nizxclos..., (I)utu:Lsio. 1994, plig. ')-). Es (lrcir. r'r() Lrn() () unos p()c()s princ)i()s r>rganizlch>res clciiDiclos crnr>

rI

I : r

\rsl('nr:rs ll(fivir(ionulcs riilcrenciecl(lls, se>l:lrl.tles, 1tfiicL lil(( )s, existien(l() rrna rrls:iz:rcii)r'r jclitruicu par;t l:t.fitttcttttitt J,.fiutciolamiuit) de cada uto ,, r\ s/./r,/r/(/s. 'lilnll)in c()nsidcr.itnr<s la rt,lci<in crr? l).r .?-sftrlld.\., su ten:ir rlrrr;irrricrr v lil \:lriaci(in en llr cl<rninancia jer:'Lrqrica entrc ell()s, (1992. |,rJi l), (ursi\.r t'rr <,1 origitel). C()n(epci(in srltrc l articrrlu,:.i<in (lc sistem.ls

"

l.,r,,(Lr ,r1,(1.,,1,\l.r ,.rfl(i(l.Lcrnlsi:r(|rr(l(1!t){krrir:(xsi ll]]snn) t)rl) D() l)() rDx |,,,1,r,,L,Lr,'i,., )rrIklrt( !nr)I)(r'ur) crr(xden.llrrr(nIl) (l! pr()((\()s cr (t!c rtr(l pxs{) g(n(. ,,trr,,r,,,1, t,,,.r ,tr(. l,)\\i1tlll(Jr(\ r)rrxn. cl r'itrinn) (l(. los cuatcs ts cluz degenerrhr (.(nr, ,1,, r,rr rrrr r.rl , lr,r,r.l,r Is,, (l (,r)(.cJ]lr) dc r((rllsr\,i(1,(l en lx grillrllililjlr gdnerati\,r. ],,1()rin l() ur'l\,..,
r'1,,,.1r

l)Urrt() (lc I):rrti(la slno ittlclltucin, ncci (tccrtadaL sitlctltiztcu de s\bsistrlnns. (lrc. ltl n< cle var unrr cle ks (fr()s y tenicnd() origr-t prr)pi(), se vJn t l-rc<ntranrhr en el pr<>ceso clc afiiculaci(-)n. Es aclu clonclc el c()ncept() feu(li.t n() (le sc es (rnnplenrcntarius. qLre se ticn(lc u rcchlcir cn su aplicacii,n .r rqr.relkr <1ue se dillix nicantente cn el proccs() ev()lutiv() (le ca(i suiL-) y n() c(nl() lcnr-xrteno (lLre (xtrl)in ()cLrtle en ltr sint roni. cs tlecit cn lx llrticulxcin en el )resentc (lc vlrius clirncnsir>nes psqtricas, ltclquiere tockl su yak>r. N()s cne( )ntlilr]()s, p()1 1 n ), irote el pelNltieltta co14 ajo y l ntcclt aritlttd, ><u ut'r laclo, y cl pensxntieoto ccluccir>nista, siltlt)il)cante, p()r cl otro, (ltLe detcnlrinan estrategias heursticus y cle justificecitin (lilcrenles. llespcct() al l)ensanlicnr re([lcci()nista en psic()anlisis, ste se acompua. tlccLente[)en lc. clc (fr() pl()cr(limient(,r cl al\rso e i(lc()l()gizuci(in clel tit<r rlc cleiinici<nes (lLc sc (()lt()Ccn c(rI() estiprltivirs. Dcfiicirncs tlel tip().el iD(()nscientc ss...". llen'tncksc cl eslncio <1ue clcjltnos vlco crt )e propie<lacl que cacla aukrr en .uentra c(n)x) sLflcicnte. en vcz clc jntentarsc clescril)ir Ltn existente lne(linte l()l))Llaci()nes clcl tipo ,,la firlma en cltrc.filllcittcnt l<s prt)ces()fi inc()nscir-ntss cn l<rs crrc L't,)tlro t,rt(,/tsse clrlcte[iza por'.-.. lo qrre alrrire le posibilicla<l tle tlesclilir r':trirts rlocilicl:Lclcs cle firncionarrrie) c()n [.ls respectit,xs arftlclorl( qre cntre cllas se prrclucen. UD \rz (lue sc dcl iclc qrrc el incons 2.

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tNl R()l)Lr.(iION

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(r)sir. c()ntinuaci(in sc usa esta clcfinicia)n PI:l arril)ar ir c()ncll (r) rcli(llld s()n nLlevas clefinici()ncs. lh()r'x de las con()cicllts coll)() l)( rsitsivls, cs (lccir. clestind.ls l Pr()dtlcir efect()s dc e(lhesi)n cn el interlc ( Ul{)r: (l:l(k) (lu(- cl incrnsciente es tl cts-. il;l estiptllativa-, y ,///4 -clcfinic clatsrtrlt o cle exclusi<in- I el llaurtl cl:irrsula tlc tu(t5 tlt!(, l lcr,,srr... -la jnc()s(ieDtc. entr)nces ( Litl(lt is,- (f c.rr.rLl(riz.llsi.r):rr:ilrsis sc rlcline por cl rrrr <lt'l irrrrrlts<iente n() es psicounjiisis y los <ue n() lLceptltn la tlt'firrici(rn l)r()l)u(sl:r rro son psico:tnllistlls". lk)r tllnto, Ltsc tlt <le[inici<nes pt]rsLl.tsl\.ls Pr'orio rlcl l('n()lis1)l() i(lc()la)gi(\) t'no cle ls necesiclrtcles cle la ciencir. Lu cle linit irin <lcl inc()nscicnte p()(lrl c()nsistir en considemr lt ste c(nn() el gllca(lenlr))i(nl() si.nill(?nte, o el luglr cle la fintasa, () ios resk)s inasilltilllles cle lrirl-lr)l('rtl()s cle cxrericncilts o tlc tensajcs recillitlos. o lo c1r.tc prol't>cll rc-r'lr;rzr r'r'r lll a(tcieD(iil 1 pr el)o es ext lttitlrl tlnll vtz (ltle esttl\1) ljn sl.l. r) , l lrrgrrl rlcl crcligr y del ttlt, o las signiticlcioncs ctte r.tn lnxetlittlicllt(t helrr(lliuli(\) tlclr<'ria clescifllr. () cl reslltl(lo icliosincrl-tsicr]) (le Llna rllc('itlti!-l ( r(':rlivir (luc sigrrc las rcglas clc l:r rtetrfirra < la tllernitnia, o cl ent ttentrr en tr(. Lr lriokrgi<o v [() rcpresentci(l ps<trico. l-r ctesti(in n<> rltclica cn crrc tal,s r rr't'rcior':ts no rcflejen espectos clcl tilnci()nil!)tienlo inc()nsciente sino ,rr, rrt tltsr[tiCulltt un l()(lo inteBIit(l() por sulrsistel'ls (lttc tienen (listinl()s (()n r.ni(ll)s \ l(ves (lc frnci()nxl'r)icnt(). l P()stularst c1int t-lst'iente cl1 sitl(ttl/tr ,\' rrr l, rrrultilrliri<ltl. se incut'te cn l<s <tefect<s <rte le lutn si<lti cttesti<na<krs lti (lesllficnden las ecciones y lel,( lls.Uri( nl() r('(lLrccionista: esne( fic rttente. sc Ir(,,r(r'i()r)( s ( olrr l()s sLrl)sistemes iocrnscientcs.l l\'r() (rxr r()(la la valiclcz qtrc pudiera tencl lo cltte elirunlos, cle p<ro vale
s (lr(
r

('l ([e Lr psi(( )plLl( )logia, y', srlrlc rk:. c<-nxr st xrrh.a tirrnrular rrn pr()\.cct() [)()sili\'() qtc n() se resttingictlr l ()l)ictxl.le sino <trt [c c( )nt[rpr( )pLlsieflt (ttr() n1()_ rlckr cluc Iticicra .t\,l-tzr en h clireccion (le inlentir supcfilr sLts lilltitr! rL,n(s.

ycck) de lcvirii(-)n (le la psicoplrlog;r tsicoanaltic.it y cle la tcor.1 y te(.icr (lc l:t cttra. Y. si nos fireru lxrsil>lc intenrrl,. prrr l, rrrtnr,.-, llcral nuestras l)r-()pLlest.rs hasta el nivel clel cletalle, aquel al c1Lrc sc llega ltor un esfle,z() dc <lescemlcr clel lenguaje trascen(l(nte cle l:rs granclcs afinlci<>ncs jcncriexs. llxy, 1l resl)ect.). Lln utetfi)rit a I quc n()s llentos ficionch: el psico:rnlr]is lr () I)Lrc(lc scr lguien e(luivllcDtrj a un birlogo (lc lx t.u cle lrr cvrlrcirlr: rue rliscutc los grancles ptincif)i()s generalcs cLurn(k) est.i con sus colcgas 1. Itrego. c<xr cl prcicntc. psx r a()nvcfiirse en un jatrlJnerc cltre clescor.t(x.e la rurica clel illx)n() (lrc entpleu y slo se preocut:r tle crr:'rntas veces l)()r sc rrranu lr aplica. con clu cllu:rci<in ccla vcz. y (lur.)tc qu lupso. sln pcgLlnlrst c(i l() lrcIxn lxs pr()picclu(lss fsic<t<1utnica cle l sust:rncia cue clltplea sol>re les prrricriacles espet.tic.as r.le cacla phntrr eD l)rticulltr 1.clel sLrelir en ruc slrr se eDCUCntr. Ilsr;rrerle rle llr cspccificirlucl rrrc nos c(rt)pl(r)tet(t.ii .r r clestle l:r tcor'lL .lc la t,ctllcll hxstu l pf()pucstil <lc tirrruas (le intcl.\cnci(in ruc. cr.ranckr se llLs filnrrla cn el nir,el p?fiiculllizil(l( ) <lLrc rtesclruxrs. n< (.okren sicrnl)l-c en 1:xrsicirin vuln<lallc iientt- a lll (.riticll (le (fr()s prir(tr..untcs. llzi)n p()r L ctul hl>itrlltnentc se preficrc utantencrse cn el plano <lc la tetr |ilr de l cur' v n() clc las lirnrras crncrettrs (lc intcncnci(-)n. l)cr() l)rsr-,n()s, par ser c(rterctes c()n k) (luc veniD)os cntrnciancir. ll txanlen clc (r-)lI)() rr:lpilrc(c el pcnsiu)licnt() recllrcr'irnist clr ur (.:ullp() l)rrti(.rllu'.

l.r r'pistt rrrolrgu crn(l() n() es etlpleecla en el clnlo espc'tfic{) (le investil{rirr rlrrt contill nucstr() intcrs. Si l ePistelr()log;l sirve, as c(nr() lll inter rlisr irlin:r. r)() es p.r invoc;trle y trtttlcrnos en el plltlto gcnenl clc ll crutcli rurr \ l:r lrlirr r:rci<'rn sLgeret'lte, <1r.te lr.leglr nt, <llt lttgltr ! (()nsccLlell(l.l\, sLn'l
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t:\

p\t (,pA.t.()t_()(,i^ rtrc

l):lril irr(lUirl:ls en el 1)rtxeso clc prodr.tccin cle c()11()( il'llicnto Palti.Lll:tr Es l() rrrc llt'r'u ;r Sllltriell ( 199-l) a alcrtar cuc an quecl:t tttuclto c:ttnintl por rec<lr r'(r', l)(s( l su cntusiasor() por las posiltlcs aPlicacirnes al psicoan:ilisis cle la lcrolrrciol't cl)jsternolgica actltal. espccialmcnte las clelir'clas tle las lccras solrlt la trruplcjichd. P()r ntleslrit pe. Pllrtirlros tle l iclea cle <1rrc l:t atiura ( (;!l srtg(r(ntc rlljga intcler'tLIrrlcnte e ltqttel tttc lrt fi tlttla stt clesltltolll \ I);rrlr( lllriTir(i(in iista cs it titc ttrriL rue clcse:nr<ls ilrtpritllir I nlles) Pr()psr(()xnilisi5 cs l .()str" Irtreslr'lr r u.rr(1,,,r iIrr,r'rlimrx in.()ns(iune ,'-.trr'\r.r.r\rrr.r lr li'flrr: 'li(nc usl((l rirz(')11. ((-)rn() poLlrix (lisc(rtirle. rslii cn str tlcretho clt lr,,'r r.rl .,1r.r, r r'r,,.r Lonclirir-rn rlt cue trctlc ch|o qLrc cllo signill(ir: prrra nri. (lcntro (lel ..,.r,'lr.r ,t,! , r^,r(.rr1,,.(l('lirr().csrrptI,.(lutcl n1(\nrs(ienrt ()cl Psirorrlrilisis s()r Iitl .osx' l,,,,rr.r l,{,r,r'. r.r, rr,.r i, (trrr' nr^ itr\l.r lliruur tl rxP) dc l.ls sirl)in1r (lel incons.irDlc v tl . , , | ,r!,1,^.rr.r\tr.r .r \Lr ticn(l.t Pr;r pasrrr ll nrrLic. .R\'nd()se (lr.ptra's s('r cl IA , , ' ' ' l,.l,r,rru,,t,u rr,.r.,l,k ln,,l(t(rk,s (i( r(t(rcli()s qLrc inlr:n(.lrrxn vi(rird()5 'l nrrkr r<lir,r ,,rvlrr. , rrr l.r. s.rl,rrr.r. hr,.,1,,1, I r.r1't,,. rrreLl.ttrrr r.:ttilcs.

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ts tul trsrr, o.tl

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rr('Lrr()sii ()l)csi\:r, ltt i<ltit. lt tlcpresir-rn, /t r-rorcxilL. /t psic()sis \rcnll)rc t n singrrler'-, clest rrirllincl<se la conrtlejiclacl y cliversiclacl <rrc hay,clcntro cle .(|it un! (lc clls, lo rlue de tenerse en clenta llcr,.:rri lr prcguntlrrse qrLi, hav tk'corn y. sol>rc t<xlo, de clilc.ente entle l() (lU(,sc clcnrIina lristc,rie cle (r)ovcrsi(in v rcluclla cuy() l'.tsl.l() vbresaliente es lr scclucci<in coLpo[rl <r rlc tuelruier ()lr() tip() v el exlt jbicionisll]o, o llr irDtrresia (lis()(.iutivil, () el rl(spertir el clcscr tlel rr'o >ara lucgo fruslrrrle, l):u-u uilsl.n1) ll erDrin(r() gilts r]) <lcscrilcioncs qLle c()ntin:Ln vigentes; () <lu es l< quc cstl)lece lx (li-

-lristeriu. nrs re(ientes conro la clc xn()rexiii, catcg()rits (.()nsllUi(llts exclLsilantente en l()nl() r l.r c['sctipcitin cle sntrltlrs. y se las sruetc a un cltltle pr()r.(s() r,ulrlilicrrntc: cl de rrttificcrcititr c ult,qr .ktl ./iu.zadtt y cl dt past )t tilc.tc iot t En cLrrnl() l,t uufcrtct;t q!()riul.ftzku. lus ctcgcras s(r) (.()Dver t<ls cn cnicl:<lcs h(nogclnc:rs: cicnkrs (le tnbrj<rs ir:rlrLirr clc /i his<,rilr. /
.

rl<ttinlrt cn psi(1)p.lt()l()gi sc t()nuln las catcgoti.rs clisicas <le la lcnotrrent iogia psictril-rtrica olscsjoncs. firltias. .lsicosis. ct(..-. () xlgLlnxs

k): I)r()(e(liori(.trk)s (l(l I)eosxlDlctlkr rcrluc<.irtnistl krs

IS

AVANCES

IiN PSICO'I'IiRAPIA PSICOANAI-1'ICA

19

l( r( r( iil cntr-r la clepresi(tn qle sigtle al fiacastl en un proyecto en el <ttc una rt.r'sor rrrli<lart nxrcisista puso la posil>iliclacl cle iclentificarse con el yo icleal y lrr rtrc r-tsrtlh clel oclio y stts efc'ctcls clestrltctivts s(r)re la rePrescntl( ia)n cle l()s r)lr()ri si{nific.rtir<ts y clel sttjet(), () clel scntilllient() dc inlP()tenci qtle pr( rhrtln krs paralizantes rittules ol'sesivc>s o una filia mltililnte. t cle la lepetllte' ' '. I)r( senlll( i(-)n clesvakrizacle clel sttjeto tlr.te ttn otro inoctll<-r clescle '; i;r t:stttc_ profr-tncLr cliferent lrlr r.'l ceso rle /a antt'exit, xcaso n() existe Llna Irr-:rl. rr:is ell clel clentttinaclor c()nliln int(nllaltic(). cuantk restllt ser l cxr't.sion rlc lrn trst()rn() narcisista de insxtist-acci(in glolrel clesphzltlo a llt irrrrrgcn cotroral a la qtte ilusoriatnente se intentil rcprltt lne(lintc stl xdaPlr( i( )D l rn icleal cle clelgaclez. () cle sentjl)lienk)s cle ctrlpalliliclacl y lenclcncias rr:rs( xluisllts que itponen el atttrsecrifici<, () de c()nflict()s intcrPcrsr)n:rles 1ll rrtlt'tk'<lc l rir'liclacl eclpicrr y la lucha nar(isistx por el pocler. t clel inten t( ) (l(' r({cncr la machc fbrzancl< a sta lt <ttc se pte()ctlpe ptlr la elimentlr ir'rr. o or;rndo constitrye Lln clefnsa fiente e las angttstias pl la scxtralicla<l \' ln)r l)()s('('r'Lln ctterPo con pcchos y rerklnclez en las firrtllrts (llle (lesPierten qtle trata de se r evitlcl<l lrle(lilnte cl apllnamientr> tue t.l tlt st tlel (f r() -l() l,r .rrrrr'xirr l)r()p()rci()na . () ctrancl() es un intento <le inclivitlLtacirn y clc ser.rr;rr'i()n lrcnte .t figur.s extemils avasallantes <ltlc lthtlgan el espacit' r'i.1tri r . 1 lr crrrt rgenciu clel deseo clel sujer. figuras a las ctales se recltltzlt a trarr's rk l lrlirrrt-trto (ltle lals rePresental silrl)a)licallllcnte o qtte h:t set1irlo ctll< rrr,uLrlirLl rlivilegiacla cle intcrcatll>io lttctivt ctn ls Ittistns/ llrr r'r:rrlo;tl tcnrirneno de pt'lso tt ficuciritt. las categor;ts psict)pxk)lgicas ,ll,. r',| t'l ttttjt'cle los clls()s, s()n enticlxcles scparallles y ()p()nil)l\ ( ntrc si ,l, nt|r, rL'lrn sistcma cl.lsillctori(). tien(len rl ser c(xrel.lc()n(llls, tllllt ll ttnll, t clcl ( r,n l)( r-s()r)irs c()lrcrctas, pltsl'tnclt>se hllltr ciel llistrico o clel <lst'sil'r ,lr'rrtsirr < clc l rtnorxica c clel bordcrlile, txllll)in en singltlar. tlste trrrteI.rr'ir'r cnltt'catcgttra nosoltigicx y pclsonl hlce olvitlal rlrc n<l llal ningr.rnrt r,zon ni tcorica ni enlprica pxrrl qtle una nlisllla Pcrs()nll no puecla l)recntal'
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sinrultlirl( 1lr)cnte rasf.l()s Pcfienecientes a hs cxteg(r-l (lc hitcrix, nctrr')si\ olrst sivrr. li-rlric. o clepresi<in. inclepenclientemcntc (le qtle sicurpre ptrlamtls ( r)(\ )r)lrllr- rtn pre(l(ruini() cle un agrttpatllient() sinl()rul s()l)tc (fr(), () qLle Ple limruos rlcll-til ltl prc ienic. p()r rtz()nes plilcticls. por l<ls sntotllas cle trlayol p()f 1r':rrrrllrcl. M:'rs aitn, categorlrs qLle aprcccl-l c(rl1() oPtlestals, p()ngillll()s r lrsr nrt llrrcollt v Pltran()ilI, pucclcn c<rxistit cn la nlisllrlt rersona. ntl s(llo en l.r surtsion sirto cn I sincron cle trn lll(),nent() tlctenrlinaclo. '
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.(nno )ili(Lr(l -___(1)n.trr tn (i:r (le dos () nri c(rtr(lr()s l)si err Lrs 11!islxs PsiqLr i:rl I i( .rs es (lnrse(Lrcn(i:r (lc lx irIP()si

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l.r ,Ir( r ,t(i l( .rl(11:rrr:r I'rLr('1)ir de qlrc lxs (rrlcll(nilrs si (nnles s()rr rt(()flcs xd)itrrr ll'r.,t,' r(rti(',,' rr.rl,rr.rr rL' lrrrril(s. strs st Perlx )sn i()ncs \. cD espc(i.rl. lils rirnst('rr( i()ncs
r

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LIna vez qLre el ckrble p(rceso lccluccionista cle ttttificack)tt t.t httlt(U(nizdctt .fi'zadq y (le pers()ltific.tct'rl tiene |-rgal srkr hey <ue dar un pascr rtr'ts para lrtrsclr una eti(f()g:r nica: toclos Ios ctlclros agrupacl<ts con< <l sesiones () tirbias o cleptesiones ten(lr:ln una calsl nica para cacl rnr cle ellrs, liuitacla a Llna o, en el n'rejor cle los clrs<ts, a unos p()c()s f.rck)res c?rsxles segr'ln ca(la escuela- As. sc cree prxler explicar a /a llistric.l p()r un ltecanisnrr [epresia)n-. () p()r r]n c()nteni(l() tenrtic() conllicto sextrll -la -el v srr rechaz() ric la sexiLaliclrl-. () p()l-Lnr cle las finlas cle rehcitin con el rtrr tleseo (le fiustrxrlc . etc.; () se cree pocler clrllrcterizar al clepresivo -el ()rrl y/() pol la aglesiviclacl intr()yectacla. () p(-1()s sentil]ticntos la fijaci<in lxrr cle culpa, () p()l un trask)rn() en la rcpresentacirn clel .sr,/l o a/psic,ri(1'. p,)r la frlla en la represirn. < en lu funci<in paterna )'la firrclusitln, () p()r l()s nlccanism()s pucsk)s cn juego pulir clsscsti[rar h realiclcl. () p(n la e\ai\i,n, r, por el tipo cle iclentiflcaciin proyectiva y su lnasivichcl. Pxra p()l)r lu vtliclez cle las teoras supuest:ls conn) explicirti\'.rs se apela a prcscntr clts()s en quc krs fact<res invoclcks cstlll-i.rn presentes, sin rrrarar cn el Irecto <le rrre ctra rls sirnilrres n() muestran ll flctrr'c<nsiderrclo calrsal. o qtre cste flctor se encLentra trrnl)in cn otros cua(lr()s absr>lutalnente (lifrentcs cn sLl sink)Dtatokrga. -lliple error, en)nces: personificcion clc la categora psicopetoltigic.a, tnificci<in firzlch sin rec<n<cilliert< dc la nttrltipliciclacl clc sulrtir,., 1 eti, rlogia irnica que no contcrl)plx l<s clifcrcntes cr11inos (lc psicognesis pol krs cll:lics sc llcga a los srl)tip()s. lllr()[es :r Its cr.rles se le agrega Ltn cr.rrk): la pr()pucsta cle un tipo clc tclapia nirrr tur- cecla escuela lrplica tnonocorclenente a t()cl()s krs casos. Recluccionismo cn psicopxt()logix y psi(oterxpia xl <rre, clesglaciaclamente. resultt tln diflcil cscapxr. y quc n()s acecha k)d()s los psicoanelistas, yl qre recaentos rn y (frx Iez en ellos inrpulsaclos por rrolcles clentro de l<s crrales n()s l)ctu()s habittaclo pensr. Con relaci()n ul reclucci<nisnr< en psicopat()l()g.r, el pnrltlc[Lr no sc s()Itrcirla ccurrienckr al cr:ncepr clc nrLrltif)ctrriuliclucl. es <lccit, llLln)cnt:rn(lo cl nnlcro cle fuctores que intcn,eu(lri.rn en la proclucci(ln rtel cr.clr< c-n lase :l sele(ci()n.Lr lo n'rejor cle cecla unl cle'las explic.lci()nes cti()pxk)gnicas ,,-{.111 sas ir-tlrapscuicas, intery)c-rs()n:es, flrntilir'cs, scriales r. inclLrso, ltiokigicas-. Sin luglt a cluclas c's nrej<lr consi(lenr nLrch()s factores <uc un()s p()c()s, prr() tel aproxirnaci(rn (lei sin rcs()lver la cuestin clc fitnclt: curiles son lrs c<lr I)()nentes, las climcnsi<nes cle an:ilisis <1trc clct)nen y c()nfi)rrrun c(la estt.ttcturil psic()p!rtol(igica, cnrcl est:in lclaci()nil(k)s es()s c()llponentcs () (lirlen:ri()ncs rtrtre s, y c(-)nx) se h.ln icl() arti(ulitn(l() plLra (lltr la crrnfigrrracirin pxfii(Llhr (lue constituye l rrtnliclacl l la clrc alu<lcn Ixs (lifrcntcs den( )nl inl( l()ncs L] t('gorixlcs. Aclers, cues (le esos c(rllp()ncnlcs s()n exclrrsivos cle cclu estru<trrLr. cLrilcs no. y resultan capaces, en ctr. lir. al xfti(Lll$c c()n (fr()s ( ()[rp()nentes. cle gencrar ()tt..ls cctnfigulacioncs psicrrparlrigicas. Crrncl() lla\':u11()s resp()ndi(l() a esk)s intcn-(){xnles p(xlrcn)os cntcn(ler canl() lls ttrcto-

^VAN(.IJS

I]N PSI(]('IJRAPIA PSI(oANAI-ITICA

\.rl.r, ,rl \rsl(.r:l (l( lir lengul -v. lles(le ellx. lr]'.rr(n ll ()l)jct() -selc(ci()nln(l(l sLjel(). ,i rI st., ('r) ,li\(l('s l>rofitnckrs qLle rsrrpl'ln l c()n()cr]ienk)
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l\'r() ln)(l( n)()s ir ris allli clel ejenrplo. (jrc se s()stiene en un luct)\.ric (ltre llr'1p ()ligirllrliluDcnlc p()r la cinciencia. v cDtr'arl enk)nces en un terit()ri() k)-

rris

sigDilic:ttirr par? nuestra xrgunrr'ntxci)n. ./tlfo.tl stll)sistena in

)I\( i( nl( , ('llnlctcfizll(l() p()f tener c(ntr() c()ntenid() il rcstos tialgmcntllrios ) lrr irrir li)il rk trnlinlciin de slrs elenlenk)s en (lue la c()ntraclicci(in n() r'rrslr'ni olrr,cltr't,:r ttn crcligo qLe paeexistal i l()s (r)lltponentes y les ()t()rgue rrrirrilit.rtkr. (.\is(cn ()tr()s contenitlos y fimllx (lc funcionamiento dcl inc()ns , r( nt( (lll( nl((slfi1 c[ c<lrtccionisnxr ([c (lLr(]rcr circLrnscril)ir a lt<ttel sttl'tsisN(ls rt,lt,rirrs:t rrrto sulsisteltt incr:sr'iente en tttc ll Vigen(i (lc lit , rnlr.rr litlir n ('s csencil p:lra p(xlcr (lllr ( uenlit (lcl conflicto c(lpico, clel Etli lrt t1'l)tttli(h)!fi liinl() elcmenk) cluve en ll teora freucliana clel inc()nscientelrn (,1(\'t{). si l)(r-(ie(()s cleseos inconscientL's el sujet() sicnte culp.r ln(()ns([e ]() ctlal. insistirlx)s, lleglt a str , r{ nt( \' ir,)r('nzas cle ser castig;tclo -nx(l:r r Drrr i|Dt irr, ( n lll (luc una anflLrstix incleflnirt Puecle ser lo r,inico qr.te clonlirr' . /n() nos lr:rlrlu trclo elk <le qr.re en el in(r)nsciente ha,v rccles c<rnctPtu.rl( \ ( r (lu(' lit .ttlut(licckin entre l() que se clele cleseal y arttell<r <tte cl .,lll( tr, (l(\(ir ig( a()rtt() prirrcipio organize([()r'1 L]n inc()nsciente erl (ltrc Ltlllt ar./r/_ rrrrrt r rlL'tr'r'rrrrn:rrl:r no cs simplemetrlc tra tr)Ljcr sino qtri ntlclre" -!ln , r /r/o crrtcrrrlilrlt. sol> en el interi()r clel sistcl ('()nceptu.rl (lel pirrentesc(r-. l1,r L rt . i|l(r(li(tit, rn contraclicci)n c(t lo tlue me estii periti(l(). rxz(-)n r,r l.r , rlrl si lir L[sc() ven(l[,r rn ()t]-() firi()s();r cltstigltnlre. Acits() es p()sil)le ,l l.rl)r ///(i)/?sa/irl/, clel in(est() el cle la prohibicitn conscicntc- sin -no (lue e-stal)lezc.r lls relaci()nes (le llr.r ()rJlrlizil(i(in onceptual inc()nsciente ( (), penr)iti(l()s y pr()hil)i(los, tlt( s( l( )s intc[cl)rl)ios 1, las c()nsccLrencixs dc lr,rr l.r rrlr:rr'r i()rtl l'()r tlrt) ye n() s()n simplcs ftill]lrrcnt()s significantes sin() re(les r rrrr'rlrLrlt.s in((rrs(ientes (lue orgrniz.rn las [elrtciones (le Par(ntes(() ]'qtllj r'r'rrritr.r tlili,r'r,n< ixa .r lt vccir'rl <le tri tlu<lc. ).\ r,tt t,l itt)uscicnle n() L'xisttct .'otllr(t.licci(itt, c\no sc pt)dri! (.fPlicor Itt tuti'tltttl rl( r(t.\ttucirt ltcutscen( rlt? ntl ca la ()P()sickiu f {.il(().'ir$ta h t,s tl* it'tlttt, s sc Picrdc el.fitlo se l).ts(t tt l.t catcllu'.t .la coslrutk) (ltte es t'ttlttlt ttttt t h',q ttdttcicitt? l)es(le cst,r pclspcctivll, n() deja (le ser n()tl)lt: rrrr'st IrtrLr s()sl(.ncr (lLe cn cl inc()nscicnki no hey conlracliccirn y, al nlisn r ) tr( n rln ). ('( )n\ (.rtil- l lngustia (le (lstrilci)n in(()nsciente en rlr()t()r (lel psi,rrrsrrr,, Arlt nr:r:. ,<s ttte. inclttso. cal)ril hxl)ltr (le dcse()s inccstlrosos in (r,lls, i( rt(.\7 St lli ((rrlr:l(li((i(in ni c()ncel]t()s e\istie[rn en el inc()n\(rent<, si r.l r orrr r.rt ,I,. rIrrt' rrr:rrrr:-r es excl!sivllrnente cle pal'.'t no estuvierJ in:('r'ikt. , ,, |r'llllrt(lr.r , tl,',1Lrr'r'l stlj() \e l)u(lier'.1 ilc()stitf el] stt fantlslt intrnseicn t( (()n Lr r\rr.r nrri(r rLrc clcscorxrcerlt (ltrccs slr t-t'tadre por :o existi el (r'rr((I)I.,I nr.,lr, rrrrr rlrricrr turnbii'n lo lrace l<uel (f[() (lue, p()rn(tP(),1, r1,r,rrr' ,()|||,, I,.r,Irr'. tr consitlerara p()see(k)r (le ningn priyilegi() c()n
t rr;r l.r
t

rt.litLcl (lc sL

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).

Afinla qtre cn cl inc<nscicnte no ha! c(),ttrl(li.(.iol. rrrc t.rr cl no existen concept()s, que cilrece <le rccles articnlclus cie significlckrs t(.()rr-(.(,ntr.t ZtCiones reChLCCionistas (le este tip, r c. 11s vst.lttt)s J r'gu tnent.rnrlo-, Crt (irce a tantas clificultaclcs en la te<fia _v en la clnica qrre uno cle ks re(.ursc)s e los <ltre se apela p:rra tratar de reintegn eslrs climensi<nes (l)ntcni -slts tlos y firrnrits (le titn.i( )m[rient()- c()nsiste en rrclenrar: .Eso n<> es el in, c()nsciente. es cl pl!c()nsciente,. Cotttr lleltxts s<steniclo en otro lrtgllr, se slrncionra as Lrn in(\ntscicnte .\,erdu(ler(), y ()tro de nrcnor linlrje l ([Lle se elenllina prc('( )nscierr Ie. Pc,() estc ti)() (lc (lefinii'i(in estipLllfi\il. ilrl)itr.ril IX)r tnft), cle (lU( cs< no cs cl inc()nscicltfe sinr> c) prcconscicnte plesenli \,tios problemas )rp( )rllrnlcs:
1ll c.ln)l)i:lrse la connotecit-tn cuc cl cn senti(l() sistclDtitic(), es <lccir lo repritnid(), incapaz cle c()ncienci:r-usa(k) salvc levantanriento cle l:r represin tiene cn l te()l freLrlilrn. No hay un solo trabajo cle Frerrrl. Ln s()l() hist()rial, cn cue uL ha lrlar <lel inc<ns<iente cn ttot() siitellir n() lllucstre cnt() en l se c()nt[xp(xlen (lese()s entre s, c(-)nr() cirrk)s dcsc()s cnt[rn en c( )utrx(licci(in con lit proltilri, cir->n, tatnltii'] icrscicnte. y c()nx) (lL- esas (r )nttat (licci()ncs entr( (lesc()s y prohibiciones sruge. >r>r ejeltpkr. culpe inutscientc, t:ln in(onscicntc (lLlc cl sLljek) sc lL)c.tstiglr l hlrce fr':rcsar srrs posil>ilirllrlcs. Itclo clk sin (lur trnI.t (l ltren,,t' .rtisl:,, r n.r i('nlt, rle,1rrL l., t-st., \'lrri(.n(l(, 2. Se vxca ul inc(rnscicnte clc trclt k lelilci()nilcl() c()n el (.()nflict(). se exduye el confli<{o ccntl cn psicoanlilisis clcl inconsciente, ya cuc el c<rn flickr inconscientc s<ilo prrcclc existir si hay ( ( )nt[t(lic(.i(-)n entre elellrn(()s. Entre Lrn signilicante, enftc rn.l tlitz visuill. t.i( til () Lnll pxlitl)ra cle\[)t\)\Lst.l (lr: signiflclci(in (or))() c()sir-. y (fro significxnte no -ruecle hrrlrcr -palulrrl () l'jiuil uD (\, IrD nIr\rD pir nrlj(lir(l rl(l.r ) ( i (lr ((nenid()s y tiIlr.\ rle lr) .i,rlrr)icnk, (l(l rD((rrs(irr)rr. \.r\ Illei(.hnr.rr. H. (l()()) Ilr) rnc lil)r(): cn rl (irpilUl() \1. Ll

1. Pr()duce c()nflrsi(in tennin(r(igjca

trino inc()nscicnte

I I LI Ir j

I I I

:rp:rrri(1() .I-r .( nnrir(li(


k)s

nI (l({i,nsi\r): (lefenss

CL:rn&) 1.rcud hrl)lir dt ( lp in(()ns('ienrc. pura no dc;rr drrdus de (tu( la Ul)l(:r cn (L in (rnrs.icnc rcprinrido. s.r Lr n(frcin sinrln-)lnx Lr r'(lnn)n cn clsttll:r n( + (trc t!.ir!e

rr.,rr\ i(rir(

(l(in y l,r l()Sicll cn cl in.(,rs(icDlc.: fn cl .PitLrloIX.cl upxrrl(l() .:l sisrr( cl rnr(rrs.irntr v sU rlilrcnci, (() )r,s nrc(lnisnn)s (le dctnsirs. t,lr.l (liiercntcs cstx(k)s (l(l irilns.ient(j. en (l crPnLrl() lll, (1 :lplrl(l() .1)es.l('ri\:r.i(jn rcc,111 (lcl

)' l.r / ///,,\,/,/( lr,,r,l. r'.

.\'.r!,r(.nr,.

cxlr(siarrr ^enlirrrcrll() in(()nsci(rr(( (lc (Lrlp:r- fr(,r ncrcsicLrrl clc (irsrr!\,. (.rn rn. qrrt k, <rrn:r(lef.r Uno dc loi rrril\r(.,,1^r:i(.Lrl(' (n t)s(():rn.rt1is. (l(i rl:rr,, rtrrc h.rl r).r rnr(ulx(iarl (r)t,c (lcsc(). rrr rrn Lckr. h tttltlndLt,t rncrstrenrc dc tsir rlLsr: iro rnfrcncs cn rclr.ir',n.r (rrflr)\ r(l(.xlrs v. ltcri()nDrrrr. l,r ne(csirIrd dc cusrigo par..r u)rrrar.iu (\rlpir. l:strr(tLrx. en ((ls((\rrn.r. r qre hxv rrn crrhg,r rlt \:rllnllri(es ! prin.ipn) (l(,c,)n
ronscLcnre

-r'(rr I)rrr rcfrirs( :rl i.(rr\(icot( \islenliti.(). rct)nri(lo. \ ( rl ffr.()ns(.irnrc (Po cicnrlo crr /./ ro )./(,//r). v()l XlX. t)rig ilr \f:is xrin. ll pI)lnnrrr cn I:ll,1l)h,t t t'ctkiDti' L,t ) ,t-\t L,nL,
r(nlplrzrI h

lr
r

-TI(]A AVAN(]ES EN PS'(:O]'I]RAPIA PSI(-OANI

IN'I'RoDU(.(-IoN

2i

',rlt.r

c()lll() enc.rrr sigrr ifir:rcion. I)()r es() cuirn(l() I:r(,rn enten((i() el inconsciente ()rden (le ,il,r,,L,.lni,, signilicante clej(> cle laclo l' tetrr tlel c()nf-lict()' f'n este ,,,.',.- r.(-,,r,r ..' -r,,alr, cntentler cl sLlPery') inconscicnte --encarril'llllienk)

re rllirto. tinicxl))L'llle c()lrl)inaci()l ' El conccpto (lt c()nflict() inc()l-ls( iente p()r lcsl()s Ii))))x(l() estli (ltle el in('(rllsciente cie incortt r:rrillle c()n h tciis

chtl tlcl pacienrc."

<le nirclie sinc pot nccesiclacl l(-)gi(. cs clecir. pol llt clis cor<lunci crlre (l()s coniLrnt()s: el clc rn tc(r'a rc(lu( i(Ll cl de la corttplcji-

putrl)lc ir la mala fe

Si en vcz cle reclucir :rl in(\)nsciente

r lnr

(le

sLrs Itoclaliclacles,

sl

tn

veu

n"erts' r,',rlrr.rtiriz.nlrrl(l tlcst.-1,'rrs'r"lriiri'i"nr\ti rn <l in'r'ns''ilnt' (l)iet() grt:et" c]el ! ,,, r, i,, a, ,,r t,, .airin? l,a 1,lreferctrtr'r Llc l'l rLlctlti(li(l '-[c () (lte prc-

csas /es rk.l ttcsco scxLllll cs stilo ttn 1l[olrletlut cie I:t c<rtrciencia? (lesea ser' n() s( qlte n() aqr'tello l( r( n('i!rs. rlttc ittrrlicen contr'tp()sici()nes con in<rrnscienrel ( iliitr rnclx(llls en llr proilnclo clcl c()lr() rust( )i\ \ig.i ii .. cleline clc l1)anerl re(ltlcci()nista al inc()nscicnte c(idig()' y si,,1i.,,,,t., a.l.r,,.j,r, t()(la siRnitlcxcia)n, cerl(i()s ctlxl(ltliul ^ rticrlll crl l noci<in tle <tte c-l psicoltnitlisis se octtplt sc l (1. Irxcee ',,,,lt,in.,,nr.nt. ,l,il i,,,., ,,,.ai.n,.. rnk)nLcs l.Ls c(,nsecae rlcilrs n() l)Leden dcil(r ctte potl<lttcllo \(, tir: (,n Il sifL!cia)n anelticl no n()s p()dl'etll()s rlcrtper clc l)'lsicas llts creencilts Ni psicoen:ilisis' , I lrrrir i< t rl() scl-i:l cl rtllier plrl-rio clei la reni iJcrrti''l'ttl \cnltnrrcnt( r ''lc ,1, I strj.r,, (ltrt ()rnizx; su llis pr"ftrnil' lll ltlr Ii( nt'n i'Iglnj/'r(lir\ .lt'l ,,t1,,. nt l.s l,nf'st ls rlllrtt'llt ,,,,.., ',.,.,,r, ni l'J intcrIl()slilcs tl nreisistas I ,, , ,.,,,,,, (lL'\lttlirlirl'i,) Lle cl.'c"s scxLt:lles. qtle cl ')tr'r \r(nt( LlLl( cl \icntc y (lLc Ic 'rrl, tiritLr<l ('t] (lLle el str,et() sient< ('icl-tcl(). ni 1.inc1. rtre dcsc,,n,tc (lL( ei\t.r !\t.rl)k

(le hxcer l() mislll() c()n psiquism(), sc c()osiclerlr a ste c(nlx) un.l estrLctu{.l rDrclulrrr en qLe sc rrti( rln m[rltiples (lir))(nsiones y sist(Dl.ls m()tiva( i(tnlrs. elkr pclrtrite psns;rr cn un.l psi( ()pirl )l( )grr :-tr hasrtcl:t tn Ii sint(m1l(r( )gi. (le l:r psitrriltr' (lesc[il]tivx sin() en ll llIio()s (lc lxs varil(llts c( )nflgulucr, rnc r ([Le
r

ri ,i, ,, ,,,1,,1r,,,,: Lr.nrr..le trruttla i., ,,,,,,',,,fri r'"i,,c1 cn clttc xnxli\tJ ) 'rnrrliz'ttl'r \( \'rn-int'ltllcn(l() dc es() nlrclll inttaPsi(ltlic(). el crnflicto ni sentlfcs. r(.|ltr,(,t \\ l)r(),vect()s 1, v r'lc'ltctlello (ltL'llily qtlc i'llr ,,,.,f, ...,,,, .: rl centrliclc lrt ollserl'aci<in tl)u'ltn (1)n\(icntlxt tlL'stt4ttr"loLlt> cst() strii sinll)lcll)('nte cltnlinio clcl Pt( y n() l)xl'l r, v,l. l 1,,, l)( tltnk) (r)je) l)itrx l'l psic(fcl'll)ia -cn tlespecliv<rsil-l silLtaciones pr()(lLlccn ,l i.',rlrnliiisi.. Al cxcltrir-se tocl<l ttn territrll'io se clcl

las llr ta'cnicrl anrlticrt crtetl'tntl( ' !('r1l LrniL't:' p'rtihiliclLcles ',',ti,t,, 1r"r,, (]ese() el tlLrt r'[s t't sesirrn '"(lelilr rrtlltlisl. c el crre llrlllttlrit' 'il,nr'iotlcl h'l_ lrltlsc() r:l s'llt() iDstlficjente , ilt rtlt',r o. (tlilD(l() t(xl() csl() st: revcllt c(llr() (lLle (lc l()s en la coltrtacl:t (lc bajo acttl:cin , i.r r'l t orr:t'io ) li)rl))lls 8r()seris libertlcies' l:ts xttat'rclas sc si [)()(lt'tll r)rl( iL'llt1,' gr':r\c y sn la lsitrrtct'ltpi''t t

csrrlten cle la crrlinac i<-rn rle esus clilDensiones. As rrrrro signific un :l\ ltn (c pera la |reclicinlt cleiltr cle )Irr snl()mlls coDro Ia palitlez () Lr k)s () la astenilr () I()s vnlrik)s c(r))() elcmen)s ch\flct()rj()s p:rri nisr r centlase en las crinclicioncs fisiok-rgit:rs v biotlLrrIri( ir s-nrct.rl)a)licls (ltc l()s ()casi()nirn, (()n k cultl se pu(l() c()rtsl;li crtr la ltperenle trnitlcl lenttui'ric cn( trl)rir tr-tit lrrrrltiplici<LL<l cle cor-tcli<irrnes cLrsl('s, (l( igrral nrenett lesr.tlla inclistct'tslLble ir nlis:tll:i (le l()s grLlf)anrient()s psi(luiiitric()s sint(lrrrl()l()gic()s tlue son fen(-)uren()s clc superficie. resLlltl(l() ilnul cle plocesls qLle le sLl)y1lcen.') lil este sc-nticlo, ls clesiflcaci()ncs psi(lri:itricas c(r)x) el I)sM IV (Anreri(1ln l']sychiiltric Ass()(ixli()n. 199.1) r lrr ()l.-10 (ONIS, l9()2). l)esrr clc st incltcll.)le rtilirLcl 1-r:rIlt I:t <riclt Dtiolr )!l:l y l):rir (icrk)s tiP()s (le invcslig.l( i( (s, I)()setn t)il liritcin cle firnclo ctte n() cs slrpcll)l( por'krs rcfinanrien15 ';(jsiri ts rtrt' pu(lierirn s()lxevcnir (\\'icliger ,v Sxn(lels()n. 1995). Aclerttlis. sL (lescn( Lrenhl) con la psictferapia cs:rl)s()[lt(): al no esreciticrr ni los crnponenles cle las cst[Llctlrlrs psicopatoltigicas que clcscriltell ni ls concli(irncs l)r(xivx(i(-tillcs ctrc rigiDlrron y ll]at)iicncn es()s c(n))p()n(ntcs. Ltnll lez (ltrc s(] hl (ltrlLt(t,r (k) i un pai( icrtc (on cl rlilrgnristtco rlt rlc-rr'esit-rn nr;t'r . firlri:. in( )r(\1., tt.\ krn<r clt, :rnsieclacl gcr-rclalizlcla. o ctt:t[uicr ()tl(). n() se pttccle clerir:tt rL purtir (lc rsxri cutcg()ras ilir'rgn plln clc ltc<irn l)si(()ttrxl)Lrtic(). P()r (ft() lr(l(). krs cuc practican lil psi((fcrpi:l ctxn(k) cn)plexn.l(luellas (ateg()r'ills l() [ra(cn c(lt() ueras fiirmulas intrtx[ckrri:rs en ial c(nntrnicil( i(-)n (r)n sLrs c()lsgts. ralir lrrcgo (lcsenten(lc[se l(]talnrcntc clc ellas cn el lr:tlxlj() Psi((ler.rn(julr(i

l(trllilrl('xr( 1.1.,',,,,,,,','',,. ,,,.' 1.,,'u'i,',,.r.I'''t.ttIIr (l( l'l 'l( \cr lllrrrllll<rlt( y t,s tn slntrll,). l\,r tr.lt'Initn,cl \ ll(.ilt,l('ll ..rlttsecttcncis Plil.tiC.ls Ir.lrll se reclLl((: el inc()ns_ t,,,,,,, .,,t, sl tlclre lecr cn tr'tlo l< ctte tlrttcstl lt'. t ttat-t(l() ',, en I ,,,, srr lor tlt sl fitnr. il rnllr. icnltI' tlcbitlo a tlr'te ll clte sLtce(lr , (lcsl)('l(llt sicl))ptc ( '.,,,, lfaii(.r (1,tr(lrilt.t (rx) Ir)\ l):ci!,ntcs -gfilvcs Y tl() fl'ilvcsgcnclxles ,.s,, rrrrxl, t,, r,.lrrcitlo. n() r( P(lc(le ir nrs ltllli tle lirnrttl:tcioncs (lue ptll)li(iltl sc clnic():' ,rr( r(.r (l( l.r t,,,tr.r rlt lrt trttrt, llor lo tr'tc l<rs cas()s qttc llts pt cn r''ct'so' clel (ltlc f.lltit l'l dccriPci)n .,i ,r r ! n. r" ln ( lr rt r.rs \ trr( lils ( r'1 r' ion t't' r_le la (tlllll(l() son excluicls n() -rrest:nt't ,L l,rrr,llistlt , ,, , , , , , , , , ,.rrlt.rrr .r,l.rrrr, rrl .rlltlltl.l\ l.l rlisotiltt'ioll el)tre k) qtlc se s()sticn( tci'riLll_ inl ll() l)()l ,,,,1,r,, , t,,,rr, 'r lr,r,,,,,,'l P,t, i(,llt L{)ntr(l()csD)'\i'))ll 'llg()
r
, ,
, , , ,

(\rti(liitn() (r)n (l l):tciertt(j. l-o rlLre cs (()nscclrcn(ill n:t[rl (lc (lrc I.s intcr vcnci()rlcs terllputi.lrs n() l)uc(lcn clirigi|sc a (aleg()riils globaics sitrtr rr /r.rs
ti. \lirs rirn. si cl ((nrllict() sr pr)dLrur s()lxrrrnlc
cLrirn(l() Lrnr r1'pr rsunrr.i( )n 1ltgir

rl

ptu'

trt.otk, ' \t't it u)t L,n tt't,' .t)t h,,qalitkttl t t,,uk nitk'\ ltl)b! tt)t) L) r.\'clttkk) lrttlt L' tkt Lt ' ,t,tnk tlLl \.tlx,t'tlc kt ttr)Lh,ttLkt () l{(rrs:ilk,n ll.l )rlrr(l( t:llrfn(ll cs(,: ((rr{'el]t() (l( |r(x!s(.,,ru, (i( (l! su (c('./x(i(n. i,, (tur l( lr:r(c (lcilnir el .:rp.r:r) pii(lu(r).(rn,) Irfl irDrlrl() dr lrrl)xf, (: (l((ir trrr rtt)irrrl(, (lc (1.r !li(ir.i(.(1ttrir(:rnricnl().dc(irr(g(n'izuri(jn.(l('((nrl)nru(i(-)n.(lcnrerr(urir(i(h.es(lerrunc(rrlrrrrrir dc prrxrs<rs dc lt'tDsl 1.tci.)tt. dt rLrtos. rlt inlinurir(rn. dc emr'gi]s \'tnklxs I:ll]lo clc .rlu(rr (rrD() cle a(lent). dc l() x.luxl ((,n() dtl p.rsr(k) (ltolrssill(. 119. prig. lJlt3: la errrsnu ,* (l( ln,Lrssilk)n. quicn seirl.r (tur rl tcrnrino /,7r)/\/irlxl. /r;,/ d(]l)r' s(J t',rttntli(kr .scg l c(r1 t ('tr,) ,xl.r1 fr)pLresl() pi)r \ lli,rr.).

l(

AvAN(,LS llN PSI(OItlR^PtA PSI(,OAAL1 I(.A

L ttooucctN
sL

27

t t!,t)1t(ttt.'5 csPcL Jicos. d los utlulos <lre (()nti)r[-L[r ( sl[u(11l1ls psic()pat()l)gicxs y cle persona liclacl. r"

t'

en

llicrlxci(in hs

l r! ntc lx cstcrili(Lr(l pr[ I nsi(()tcrl)ie cle las catc.qoras clisicas de 11 It rrrrrr-nologil psiqui.'itricx sc cae iecuenterente en el nihilisl'D() (le s()stener

rr( < l <liegn<istico


scltrr
k
, li,

rl:rrl, sin rcprrrarsc (lue


rlr ;r cit,gus

\' (le pe$()nllida( n.) licne ningln.l utilir.ii se prescinde (lel lrlisn() l<l ni<rr ctte queclx es l (lle.se rl>sen' y solc cl (lur se inlt'rven(lrar. se' secl()r tlt'l
psic()p?t()k-)gic()

inrrrrlsacla p()r aut(xnlltism()s acerca cls los qne no se |eflexiona. El pe() l clrcstin cs qtr tipo (le clirg n( )sti( ( )i Nucstra ()pci(l)n cs cl.rra al respect(): tcltrel <r.te rcsrrlte tle disp()ner clr r r( )(,r-t()r'i() dnllo Llc dir))ensiones clel tipo tle las Drencionarlas sLrDlnrrrcnlc rr:is lLr-ib. las qtte ilentrs rtrplixnd() cri krs citptttLrs siguientcs y a lxs rrrt rros refi'r'irenx)s c()n m,ts rlctlllc en el cle(lica(l() l()s sistcluls l)r()tivaci() ll,lts. I )irr'rsir nes () c()lDp()ncntes agrtrpackrs cr] sul)sistcmals <trc -L trlrr ri rrn rltx-r'so clc lr,-ti(uhcii)n gcnerxn sul)tip()s cle petsonrliclacl v (lc.u.tclr()s
ritrrr'rstico sc c<nvicrtc.rsi en ,npe[.tiv(),

triirn

l)\r(\ )l)ill( )l(')r.li( ( )s. l)lr';r rrclrr-lrr (lu querelr()s (lecir c()n pr()ccs() cl( rticulacin clc c(nrlp()r( nl(\ o()s \,.r1(lrcr11()s, c(tnl() I)l-illler- ilttstftLti<ln. clc Ir Irkxlrt'tica \, espcr r.rlrrrr'r(t'. dc la granl-rti<a flenelxti\'a. p1tru lt-r()str:tr cr-rmo el nrtclelo trre esta rrllrrr.r rros olrccc l)Llede scr (lc u(ili(lxcl prra l)crisr. ks culclrs psi(()l)irt()l(i1,.irr)s I)ijllrr()s (luc si ilpelalDos l1r l)i()qurni(,r ) .r l;r gr'lnl-lti(x n() es p()r(l(k ln s( llr(ts (irc scitn capaccs rlc (li[ [csplr(st:t l las Pfe( )( Lr Plci(rtcs Pr'()hity !iesg() en llt l,r.rs r! Lr rsirr rr; rtologa ni cle llt psicoterapil (llt)p()s-. sin() p()r(lle n()s .rrr.rI r.qrr v r',1 Jx i,)rpr)ftci)n (l(' l]r()(lcl()s (lc ()tr'()s-sienlpre ,rr,rI stnir'(lr (nientaci(-)n la firnlt cn qLre esas cliscirlinas. solrre todo Ia 1:r.rrrrrrIi( rr l{cn('rilila, ;rlxclltn <ienos plolrlcnrus (le gnesis y (le (lc\('ip(ir)'l

(l(

r'sl rtt( ltlt'.Is.

(ulqrlicr text() llctul (le l)i()(lu]ri<rr. sr prrccle r>bsenar algcr illll)li(uncias: tlt' las strstancils rlue sc firrnrun cn un (ng.Ini5ru() i!()n Ilt (()nsi(l(ll(|r\ rl px)ducto. el rc-sullrck final (lel en(uentr() e inte[rc('ia)n (le (friis susltr(irts (lLrt c()nstituvrn sLrs pre(Lrrs()l's. (ar([:l un() cle llts cr[tles rier)( su {)rill(!r en su propia crtrlena t1e l)r(c!lr-s()rus. l)ate represental el pr<re :o rlt' lonrrr< ion tlc tulr strstncil cltclt. si se c()l()c:r l st.l en rl (enrt() (ic un r1r'rrlirrr st arnul)l't)cl)at (lue es c(rl() un nu(l() tcrr()\'iiuio - Irtger <le llegacla 1' ( r k. r.r |lrr llr- t.rr t l trc conr.'rtgc rtn r'rcl clc cir( lli)s i'ltcl ( x-Ic( tat(l()s ,l(re , ,'1irr.rn :r llrs \(!slln-)(-i:rs precuts()ras. las c1tre, c<tro (lijirr()s, l-crrtiten t l()s cir
Si tr)rlrltros

tlifi'r'cncian sitttpletncnte por Lln (a(ictcr .s, () lx .2,,-. p.rra (.()nstrLlir alll-l.r lrs frirscs se rcrrricre (lte e\ista c el psicluistrr<t Lrn:t rg,rnlzacin tie nitirlrr los, jt:rrrriclrttcnte a.ticulad()s (lue. <leacuexl< a c<im<,,L a,rrirln"n. pu"Orn fcnrinirr (lincl() cios prrxluctos a lsr lutlurentc (lifcrsntes en rn nivcl _el clel sclli(l(r-. igrtalcs en otro sintcticr>- 1, (.x5i igLlles cr) Ln ter.(.er() __ el k)
nok-rgico.
Ii-l

-orglnizacirjn llrils- y ill colnp()ncnte selnalntic() --aliccionxrio clci ta,ntrinr>s y t.cglas clc (rginiZt(i()n rlCl seni<lo. CL(rntlo nUestr Ol(ntc (r)nstrLl),e r.rrttt lilsc kr <r,re h<e es lr icular una scrie cle m<itlLrks rrtilizanclo reglas <le.,rr.rin".i,rn y ,,r_ r'lt,os cle l()s (1)up()ngntes p<tr poncr tin ejerlplo. ls tjltses .sul (le clsll" y ,sl cle caza,. (lue rcnliten it (los lnun(l()s cle signif)caci<in tan clifetentcs, sin etrllrltt.lo pa icipan rlt'Itr ;)isua orgnizacirin sjrt:icticu
1., tin<r1,.,liri:trcnc,

rulis relevlLncia pLlil cl cilutp() cle la psicopatologir'v la'psicrxerepiu. l,ara que <rtalcrricr fiasc prrecla llegar exi.rrr:cs irlprertinrlilrl,: ,',,. ,. .,ri,,1,,r." 1,, ,,r_ Ik ulci(in (le un corp()nente () rilul,, sint.rttic,, ,Lr. i,. 1,, ,lrg.rnizuci<in cle la frrtsc y c(-)m() se uncn l<s elelr,ntos p()l.ei.. en r.astr,llanr, (\)nc(r.cl1ln(.i clcl generrl y nttrcro <lcl articrrlo ton cl del sustnti\,(), p,aaaal"nl.i, clel rticu lo crrn rcspeck) lll sustalttiv(). c()n(()rclitt)ci:l clcl l.erlxr a,rn 1,, p.ra,rn" a.t l;u_ iekF , iLlnt() xl (()lnp()ncntr o rnr-rcllrlo tirnokigico clc los fine_

((rl)in.l c,,n utrJ\ sLlstJn!iJs. orglnizlinclose en \, (irAlrD( )s_ ,r, linr..ic.nalrs -tejiclts \i rn.Ltllrit,) rtrLr n.r:-rn,..r ,lili:rcnte r[,] .rntt.ri.r. \r,r(, (.\ (.1 ,lc l,\ c5 , tt(lr '\ (lc l.t gr.tr)t.iti(.1 l.jenrr.ttj\.t. stos nlttestln lrlgo <rre pas:t tcner ntrchlr
ciI. Lln r'ez finua<lr, se trniclucles Dtorfirlt-rgicrrs

cris cle sts prccLtrs(nas. A srr vez. xlgLn()s (le estos prccLrs()r_es ptreclen entrat no s<'lr en ]os circtit<ts quc conclucen lt la formnci<-rn (le esa sLstancia, .sin() en rlltch)s ()t()s cil.(.lir()s, (lgpcndicn&) cle con clLr prccurs()r tnrer.rcci()ncn paru que se originen pr(x[lct()s muy clivers.s. E.s l. patictrlar c.,bincirin rle c(rltponentes Ia r1t:e clerl lrrgar I unlr r <tl sr,st:rncia. l. stsren_

s,j

-gl

nr

<

lr) lr,,.,,rr,'.rl rtr'll(l(tl)SM-l\.;ur(lucnnpli(nd()Lroentll(i()nirdecu(lxd(tenerclr l, ,. r Jr l.,l .r,1, 'li , r' (l(. 1.r rri\,)r: lirnirr(r-)n qri,r cl .J( l: (lcjr (lt lx(k) cl (nr(li()(lrlir ,r,'l|\.r,,rr \,1,.r,.r.. r r'\lr||t(.r (r(11()s(r-irsl(nn()s(lel.rpds(rulidu(l\hen!1rur(1(\trl(li(){c lr rr..,r,.rlrl.r,! r,,r.rl \ rr,(\rrl)l(r1 h llirlx(n-)D cn'c sus cteg(ns ni ls li)rnrs (le paritic ,,rrr',11,...',,rr,,r.,i,rt,i.,l.rl.,rn,rL,) lirs(:r(g(rirs(l(i cte i. ( l'.rrir un c\:rnr.n (lttrllx(io, r.rrrt,,,l,.,l, Lr t,rtr,,,l, \,.J.,,1(\rrt)ri\(,(,,n()Ll(. lirs rlii(uhxd(,s orelo(l()l(')girirs (lel (jell.vex'
,

Dr., l r

qtte rcprcscntasc l hist()rix generttiva <lc unu trtse coloc_ el centr() (le un recl cle firrnt:r arborifiLnc. ct\,s [lllits seritn el rrtnr cic cncuentr() (le ()tflts cdc\ lr.lrrrrikrtr,s (lLtL- l)-rl)firlri { r.lginil(() k)s ( (11p()ncntes. ln este scnti(l(). la gralulica gcner:rtivx ofrccc Ut.: lD<rlelo c.on_ ,.cltrlrl. crl srili<l:r firncianteo:rr.ion, tar.a L-i cxlllnctl (l!,pr()ces()s (.lxuplci() \'(lc slrs prlxhrct()s. Iil grrn li,rir clcCh<nsky. srr rcvolu<.i<in c,; Lnginsnc. t , nsisti<-; cll esrtclir t,l itpitr() lcnrratir,o, es ricc ir-. krs rrocesr (lc lllticulx_ t irin y I raltfi-tit c icit t c l. mente clel ltirl)1.nte_( )yentc i,,r".", d" pr()dL(.i1., t rrn rn ciertr> nnrcn> rlc re.qlas, un nnrc.r iotini <lc lirscs. Itna cle sus vcn l:rjs..n() la nica, con rcspect() tl estftrc.trrralisnxr litgiistico raclicr- en el he_ L,lro (l(] (lLrc sc p:tsr 1!s Jlr clcscripci<in (lt c uctrl..ls Iingtiisti.lrs conro enticlu_ tlcs \a constituirlrs l exrnrcn rle los pr.ocesos ,,.,. g"aa."a esi; ;structrlrs r.\knrijiun \ Hen\'. 1975: Ilrcsnan. l9it2r ClrrD.kv. ilOs, 193. 198_2r Hallc 1. ,nrrs. 197ti). Clrtusk1 y sr.rs clisr.pukrs c()nsidcrar()n quc l lingilrsrica erx l)ill-lL (le l rsicokrga cn unlt p() en (lue el estnrcttr:rlisnto,,ai, ,.,rn al",

dilgrallx _ll []n astr en

lri ,k'r
'i,,r

AVAN(:ES I:N PSI(-O'TIiRAPIA PSI(:OANAI.Il'ICA

'f-r{()DuccrN
,

29

la ditlen:r lrt 1.rsi.r rlingiist icr ) r k>s procestx tlc gnesis' P\'ilegixn(l() clc llr cliacrc:nilrr sintionic cn clesmcclr()

l'urtitltltoraalapsicoparloga,afincleln()stratc)m()entenclerelrrc> r, s,r rlc :ttlicr.lltcitin tle ccrrpotlentes, v en Lln eienlplo que s(ik) pretcn(le tl.rr rrnl 1'rLitrtcrl idc.t iltlstr.ti\'. l)ensetll()s cn algrticn !'n qticn el cr>rllpoi(lL' t.qtt.sit'itltttl cltscrllpca Lrn pepel it'ttportanreLr Bl ittlr'rlso 'tg|esiv{, (fr() c(n)lponcnte Presente en esrl Pcrs()nlt' pongarrrr.rlt' cncontrllrse c()n pe ,ru,. r,,r.r.,, lil repfesentllcia)n rle- s tnisnl colttr r'tlnerlllc Llillil' en qttc tn ttrt ntttntkr cie lrgr',,. rrte si sc rtiittla. r( stt \''cz, c()n la t'elrese ntecion p()r 1,,. r",.4.,,n vengati\1)s detcrlllinilr.l el tctLtlt lx rcsptlcstx tetalitivx pt' aglesivr' illlpttlso caso el En cuyo l)irrt(.(lL'l ()lr() hecie el qttc sc <lirigir'a. cle la rl en tlltrnclrl lccaliztlt <ucclrt:tclo ,lr', rrlril,irsc cD sLl exlei()rizit(iritl. a lleg:trl'tn ntl <rte itfllcsiv()s nlit 1t()s irtteginltr y poclrit ll J:rcrstlnl l.rrlirs1t l1 lctllte()r cl c()n rticLll2l(l() lgresivo, itlpltlso , rt.ili, izlttscl. Esc Illisrllo (fr() re'tl t1,,,,,,,r p.*, recesitlt(l(), sitllttltlin'.-anlente. cle etctivizalse c()nll:l el strnlctersc' rltccle clltr lr't lr,, ,,,r',,.,r.ia,a,r,, (llc c()nvi(rtc cn hrtllilllnte tl <tcl <lltr<l lrusi1,,, ,r lirt-ttre. et-tcttllielts cle aglesi<in: salxrteo clt las clcllltncllts cle la depenclielan ir.,, r,,,r tl. stts r.lesers. p()sterga( i( )nes itlstifi('dlts cttnlo si tlenorllinar sttele se r,.rlitLrtl cxlctnr 1 no tiel propilr striekr' l'is clecit' lo tuc (lLlc se xglcde, cnlre ()tr:l ti,,ttllils l))e(lillll,r'r:otttliclrtr.l ,t,rit',, "g."aiur, c ()tr() en sus tleseo:,. I)cro si cl iurptllso egrct,, ,.1 litstrar encrLltier.turuente iil sit ntc (nrlnipotcnte y autl>legitirl tacla ' sc r,r , , :i,,rg. . n tt na personllithcl rue ntl)[ln scrts lt los cltte n() y c()lll() cliliies , ,,,, .,: ,, l,rs tlcllis crllrrl 'lsistrc-xllillirl el sLrjeto tuc Ilulnili(stll :tgresi(-)n c()lll() ,1, r,.,Irr, p,,tlrli cxl:tnclitsc ,, rrr rr'grtllr v sin cttlpa. trl iilptrlso egrcsivtl, articttl.tclo lt clestlrs sextl'lles lttccle <lriginar ciertas llt l,,rrrr. tlt sr.lislto o ntltscxtlistt'ttr' (ltlltnclo se :llictl c()n llt lenrlencil gcnctar pLlc:cle rtn)\'(((ia)n. llt attt<clticlt )'ltl sentillricnt() cle cttllllthilitllrcl .,,rlin,.lt lrtirtlucci(in l)xi() lx preskin clel sLlpctyo- replesentac'ionts cl:l .r,'tr, <r,nr,,'tnlllo. inclignrl. clllnino, crrn )rt clcplesil'rn c()nsigLlicnt(: l cr': fir rrr,r. r.rs<xlr,ti:,is (lc ().rstil.l(r'Ienclcncia a ):t ttrlpltbiliclacl' P(n-otli Pllrte' ,trt no tlctil'lt cxclllsivxnrentc <le la egrcsilitlatl sitl()' c(''l)() tll()str'Ir(]lll()s cn

,li.,t rrsrr clc Lrn (fro qrc ir':r>culti en cl suictr) l.r iclenticlrl glollel rle ,nalo 1 r r llr.rlrlt, l.,r lgtesiviclacl. efiicul:rcll con lt clefns. pr()yccti\'x presentc por -n() rltuirl ( n t()(k) el munckr ni sulfli(la rt ta\'s (le unr [lnica c()n(licia)n c]e gne'.r. l)'rrluci:i un:r rept-ese ntacia)n tlel Drtncl cn ruc ste. l iDrlr.llcn v sr rrrr'jrrrtz.r clcl sujer. es vist() c()ol() iltxclntei es (lccir, Lrn crrtclro patanoicle con rr k .rs tlc pcrsccr-rci(-)n: o. en ()tr-()s crls()s. cl ilttpLlls() itgresiv(). integr.lcl() en Llnr

(,ll((( (\)tn()

tirflrrci<-rn [e:icti!1. (jn <tre ckrnrinli l:r rDrabiliclerl ] sLpLest() , rirlrr<kr clel otlt. r a Litu:rlcs tbsesivrs y rreclids pre(11Lrk)rixs. I\)r ()tra fxrt, . lrr rgresivirl<l clcpentlcli en los cfect()s que tienc solrrc el psiruisrrro clel lir'r1.)i() sujeto rlc'rtes tlirensiones. c()ln() l;r reyor o r)ren(n tcn(l('nciil 1l l rr'.Lr(\in ),/() al rlrrginrirr-tto cle cstir(l()s (le ti:tgrrrentcion ricl sr,{ y cic clesor' 1i.U)izirci(in ps<luica. o la tenclenciu:r llr p('r'clirh cle la scpancin entre pr() , L so >rinralio y secLn(larir). ), x h iDvxsia)n cls stc por c-i primero. l)r<resos ,lr( r)() s()n ((lsec(renciit clc la rtrc-siviclltcl err(n'(le (-ccr (ltr(- a lnrChx -cl () rir,'siIirllrrl. nr:rrrtt tenrlcn< ilr rt la trltguentrrci()n ia per<li<la cle llt sen.rrr'r,rrr , rlr(' pr()ces() pl-irnari() )'sccLln(hrj() sin() (lLlc cstlts pr()pie(lxclL-s. sLrrgi(lx:, lr)r (r)n(licioncs estrLlcturirntes tlifi-rentes rle l egresivitlecl, l)1tj() !-l irnpcl()

"

r'', rnuliclecl c(r

fileltcs nreclnisln()s clr ltk)c()ntr(r, clurir ltgr'1r l() quc sc

,i.

clel tit tullc rtl-rs eclclante. (lc c(nl(li('i()ncs cle gncsis Iutty clivetslts' cntre otr:ls

I I,,',p,. ^i,l,,l'.f l.'nsLrlrit n,rtLrrnl. (']1rl Prl\ ilesn'j q(rc llj (f('81r 1r lx sirlrll\is ! el riP() dc rcllrcin se rr'ri'trlrr) !listirr irrIrl'r.r. l. trrr'.rtrl,.rr \i\i(-)n r\):r\ lcnrrrl -Px1's()s rnllrPlcstn.(lLr (lcl (lctr
r,r.r!llrl,^,rrrr.r r,.l .rrt,rrrto|r.--.rcrclk)(ltLctlriis1()5inrer(\ir flr l,n,t'rr'rrn " {'r" ,,r"' '^rlr' rrrr I l "l'rLrr
:LL!(nr(!l)(](ln
qtrc n() (()nslilu l' \r l,',,,,r'nr.r,rrrtsl:r rrgrr\i(l]d (1nll() Lu1 (()lnP(nltnte ts evi(lent(r (ktrtt (lc rr nlntrr lir PL\rlx eltr, ,r,,., , ',r"l."f lr,{,,tlr, t rrr rrrrrr llrnlr rLnitll(i rrntrlisi\ gl.ne hi'lrmrr licc PrPirr 'u rr.ur.ri ,,r,,r,rrrr,,",,'rr,l,.rrrll)'rrrt.r{slrrcrrLi((liLrrn)s
r

t,,uri(lrl:r (trrf

ll,\(lC.ll.lrtltrr.l.rl(,]!)]'k!n()li('nc(llllr(Dlf(ltl\t]trllrl.rtlllr,slr:lllllilr:lliilJll n'rrrxle lrrcres prrir (lxr (Lrtnl r (l( ltl prrr(ltr((i(')n I )t)!rs(). (,rr

rtrr.r,Irr, ,LI lrrrl.tr 'r (lrl,'r, rrl{'\ nrl'lrlxr5

lln c()nse(ucn(iil. el (r)orp()ncntc r climensirin "irlllrrlso agresir,<, r'csult:r (.rl)irz. (le ircLrcr(l() L ctlcs sean krs otros cttxrnentes o cliutensic-tcs cle lrr l r'sonliclud con krs <Ltc se c(mll)ine. clc panicipel cn llt crnstititr'irin de ct,lrrrs olrsesir'<rs. liilritrrs, rlerrcsirrrs, I)tun()i(lcs. (ls an()re\i!, ct(- l-()s (luc. p(n' ,,lrir l)rtc. n() tienen p()r'(lu tener ( )l)ligrt()l iu ltreote a acul corto su f:rcr' I,\i(()gentic() ni t:rnp()c(). cn cals() (lc cNe s intenenge. c()rll() el qrc (lcsrnr , rr, el pltpcl princilal. Vr>h,cmos irsistir en (lLrc k)s ( (np()ncnles .ljrcsi\ r,l.rtl. terrror a ll venganze (lcl ()tr'(). (ulpll. rrrrvcccior't. lue('lrn isr tI( )s (le ilLl),,,r)tr()1, tenclenci:l a h frlgnrenlec'rn lujo lu 1>resirin dc h xnglrsti, paru r r( n( i()nirr algu-r()s. 1l(r ) / crld t t() dc clk stt ptrtitt bistot'.t g?trt'ul t .t. r) ., .r. lrislrli:r cle llrs c<>ocliciones cue le rlieron <>r'igcn 1 ttrc llrs roncn cn firn' r( )r\rtlnicnt() cn lx ctLxli(l!(d. Aclclltl'rs cle [c(lLlcl-ir. plr.t ctlen(lcl' sLl l)xpel. cl , r l)cnsa!l()s cr-i su xllicLllx(i(-)n (\ (li[rensi(rn{is tsencirtlcs corrro l relacion ,l, l sLr jcto c()n el otr() cuDrPO cle l inteNul)ictivi(l(l (l)unn. t()95I qrr, -cl ,,rrlrcirrl r['srle llr ctltrcltltr'irn clc, llr scxrltlitlcl v ()Inls viriill]trs (lcl (lcse() lr.rslir lls vicisitu(les clcl Fi<lixr y l:ts clifrcnrr's strltstlrtctrrras clcl Prrluisrrr,r P()r (fra prrt(, cn l1 ill'ticulacill entle (litlcntes sistcl)ls rotivacionales l,rrltlcr Ileler c<>incidenr'is (). p(r'cl cont!xli(). inc( n))pirt il)ilid(lcs ('n sLrs l-cs ,( lr\ ()s iincs. l)r rr Inrrter trn cjcrplo. tlc l:r cr lbinc i<in crte Ls :r-tg(stils (l{ lr rrl((\)nsenrci(in y cl apt,go itl ()tl-() c()llt() un rlc ls lirnas plirilcgierlas plta ,, 'rlIrr-rcstarlis, rol ttn lackr. ) el lurcisism(). por el <fro. pucrlen surgil clist rr rl:rs c onfigLrrar-ir >nes. Bn rlgunos casc>s. tl sr.tjelo irrrIrlsir(k) p()r srs angustixs ,1,'.r(l(rxtnsrt'lrci(-)n encuentra cn cl trtro (lLlr (r)nstituv( r:1 objeto ltrotector

r'si. se rctuirlizxn cn ur'r. (Jc srrs rosibilitlrrrles.

ll)
(l( l 1l)(() turtl)in
{y'/

,{vN(.tis llN Pslco'l'llRAPl Psl(-oAN^l atlc^


r

rNr-RoDrr(:(ilriN

31

ll pcrs()na

(lu( lc espcculilriztl o con qttitn sc fttsi<>na.

quc clesenrpea las tirnciones de objer 'tel


apr.lntltlantlr> cle c'sta lanerlr

:'tr stlltilnicnt() de vala y legitirlliclacl en sus dese()' Acr't hay coinciclencie enLt()c( )nse cia)n v narcisisl)l()-. v en el (]nctlentl-() c()n tr(, lr))l)()s siscllls - y stisf:lccn l:rs necesjclacles cl(. Lno y otl-()Lr t'l olrjcto se con(lensan l)cro tu srrcecle si Ia llsqtretla (lel (r)j(t() qte c()ntmrresta ngllsliils (le cjemplo. Persecut()ris- resttlta incotnpatilrle para r rlr conser,'acin -por trr <lc'I:ts Irlchlithtcs pr>si)tles cle lrrglnizcin clel l:arcisistlo en (ltle ''ste y st tt-lsolicla en lx llle(licla en quc el 'Ljet() se rePrescnte c(nno altk)n()ll]() h lr(lel ()t&)l'L()s lr:r.irr sttjeto le i:ltpttlser:in Ilre(l()s ciel ,.rrr:rz <lc prescindir sirn trln el objeto pero. n() l)ien sta se proclttzca. stfiir:i en stl n-tr(isi)l)l(). (()n l() (lLre ten<leri a rotrrper el r'trcrtlo, parlt rec!cr ls en lits ltngttstias pa lrnoicles <le las cLrales el (r)iet() le protega. Rttptttra c()n el ol)itt() <r.tc en el (irs() c|t (lrie ls tcndcncias i(glesiva seltn Ln c(llP()ncnte si{nilicliv() k)r:lr:i l:r fiDIt clc ataque al ol)jetlr, cle prtlvtx aciones. Per() si el sujcf() telllc 'tl rrlrjc'to en(\xltrltl.en lrt ftrgrt fiibic I:r tlolrtlicl:ttl de:tlejerse cle l pant
rr

(le los sLlcesi\()s Pxs()s clel lluir clel finI ntusli1naci( ) ttl cn qLle ei esttl(ti() (i()naIiento psqr-tico y cle ls cstlttcturas quc vln surgientlc) clel misur(r serl cl eje qLre oriente el (liagnstic(). listo pen,ttitir' solr>crr a l.r PsicoPxkr()9.a (lcntr() del epistema que ha hecll pr()gresrr a la cicnciL contenlP"r.in(.t. Nccesilrnos crlnfccci,trtL lll)(c.s c(n1r() disciplina esti lltr.ts:!(l.l ltJ rc-specto. y en paralelo ---crn stts clirec procestls seriales res clin;'tmicos q!e llltlestren ( i()ircs y senti(k)ri de circtllaci)n- cle :nictl:rcilin (le c(nllP()neDtes. lrlapas rlelineacl<>s sol)re transprlencias <tte, cleslizitnclose Is ttnas s(r)re Ias otras, (lt)c cie:rs c(nlll)inilci()nr-s c illterucl)(rnritxn en el espaci<l creackr por ell:ts r'iOnes emerian como pr()cluct()s c(rPle)s. Map.ls qLle pclrlititiltn. tatlrllin,

(-llltxl lxs t:tnslirlll;tei<tncs clc ttnas cstrtcttlas en {)tRrs


Si trernrrs clestacacjr las expresiones pn)ceso. drticltlLlctl de cutlpotlelty, cspceixilrentc, tat$ftrnuK: iot\, cs P(rqLc n() se tat sil))l)le,l)enfL' (le rrnlL psicopatologa nlultif'ctrlrial. c(xll() sealanl()s tltlis arrill, centra(h en lx t Ilule(tci<in cle firct()l'cs qtle :L(tL-l!ln en il situtltanciclld dcl Prcsente y,'() qte s,., fircr<n acumulancl() en sLts efictos a lo )argo tle llt historilt Sin lttg.lr a (lu(lus es) cLlenta. pel'(), :l nLlestr() jtticio, l<l dctisivo cs p<rclcr estllrlecer ks rr,rrpr>nentes <) cli[lensi()ncs que carcteliziln l.ls estrtcttlrxs psiropatoltgi(as r analizltr los t1-]tiltiplcs crlllrin()s P()r krs cttlties cs()s c(n))P(nentes sr !(rn\litrven, ilfiiculltn -v sc tlitnsfi)mlan cn el Pro(es() cle a: ticltlltci(tn. Dcscle nttes lr() pttnt() cle yistll. existe pof l() l]rcl)()s ttru cl<llc tllcl a rcalizar, clc Il cLtll , ste lrlrrrr r'\ trn It)l('nlr, tn t:. rlir'Ltirln:
/,.\

cle (n)lniP()tcncix attltistx. Si l() (lLlc inrl)ela :,()n l<s clcsetls nalcisists (lc rePttscltalrsc c()!l)() itl()\li(i('nte. cl sttjel poclr (lcsc()D()cer sus nccesiclecles xtctivlls prilllli1ls (lc .rtg<r o scxttalts. con les consigttictltes ilt-lgLlsti qttc se molilizan culrntlt> ''n ( slrrs r)() s()n satisfcchs, ngLlsii <ltte cle acr.terclcl .ll grl(lo de tlrgr n Lz'rt'i' rI l rsirr.risrtr, l l tenclencit I ie regresi<irt () ill Lls() (le exPcrien(ils (lc s:tti\l.rrlir'rrr con)rensutorilts. p<xhn clcselltl<car en crisis (le piinic() () impttlslr ltl iI-Igestx c(nrlptl sLrtt() lr:rci{ cxJlctiencils cle satisf-!lc( i(in stlstitLttivit -dr()8.1, \i\"r. ('l(.- rut:t t<;clilicar cl cstcl() ilfecti\r) (ltle reslllt.t intolerl)lc lijctrrlllos estltetrrttic() Per() qtle n()s van inclicltncl<r I itrrP()rtlLn( i:l dt (()rlslluil un. psicoPill()logii en <tte Itl clcscLitt c<nr> cnti(lldes etlnclls sclt tisl( ) .ooI() cl tesrltacl<r clc h .rticLlxcia)n (le p/1rce-(r.J, tlcl cttctlettuttliel() 'lc \rr iir,,(-ilts. (lc eDcutnl[() (le c(nllp()ncntes, c(!(1 1t1](t c(l stl hsttt tct 8'r,t' ()s insistcntes tn csie pLlDto- y. sollre ttxk). cle Is rt'lnslorttra //yr -stlc r'rrncs rlc cst()s c(rp()ncntcs en el procesl> cle ilrtictlici(in de retr()accin de un()s solrrt otnrs, y cle Ia cre.lci()t-l cle prol-lieclaclcs elllelgentes cn qLle la .trtir Lrr'jrn tiginlt rllg() qtic n() cstttlx plevirtltrentc cn njngtlno clt- los ll-ticltlos

rxllri ir)t('rlill lrc()nstrtir tln espacio

(()rrl)(nlrntts.rr l)e all nucstra

Pr()pLest1(

clc r'rna

p.slcr rprllo

hpa nurlttlar-

r l.ts . al?Horas psi coPal ol g..ts |1t )sl rd t t d( ) st bt iptts .1'. t t lrct<xk. locatitps de ps co91rcss .l' lds lli lcitsott('5 sttb.''ttct'ttlcs tTttcse arlkttlott pdnt ttfgttt'ar cx .//2t,pl). l)esc()nstrtlccin. P()r (fra pafic, (lLle tl:[ lrrglr l nrlevlts configut-aci()nes diftlcntes cle l:ts categ<lras clc Ie fn< nrcnokrgia psi(luiitric.. y rlrits ltcoltes c()n las (lin)eni()ncs ctte el psicr'.tnri lisis ha lcvclaclo cott'to inclispensltblcs Pllrl cntenclct el psi<ttisttto. 2. l)ist ica' inlenvlrckrcs cra)cttticts bctsctcltts ttt ct)tttt Ltttcttlatttcs el diJtt'tc; ../r,.1.-. qtrc sc lli i.ttt .t clel psirlrisnrc i!ttcitDtLulticltto f -vts tkntlt:s de lds dilt'cntcs ctntJiltrt'ttcilttcs tttt.ttlilictr t spec/i< anttatta bs tt)t1lpo (ricntrtdrs x dil)\icq)dtul(Eicts .y ela personulclud. Es cleci. intenenci()nes rrensrnes l'sectores tle'tclrin;ttlrs tlc eslts cttfigtlrlci()nes. y no lr elllts en
1. Dcs

s n

Irlor1t-tc.

(,rr I ,

,,{rx,.ri.)lr,|,,,i,rr, i l(11,,. rl sLPcr\,-) \'l rc:rliLtrr(1. Prrrii pr(firndizrlir (1n1 l,r o(xn-)n(lt(('rfllolrlr.r:r.,t(.Irir,) ( rfr( ril(,]l!\ d(ls(lperyo ene rlesrr' rlel cl(<. rnlr( id(rrt ilrc:rf ir rci d(l f(). lr \,.r! ,',, tl,r(l')-_. I).igs lrfLl0S) cl c()ceP) (lt rnrcrgcrr.is glr)l)xl(\ t{lr(xk)es () rIrl ,,rr,.,rrr, l,r.,,trl!,rrrl(:,rr'nlercltrsrlerrrne,r :rr.lrrci.r )tr\trrPLlcsl.t ) \ rtri'nr(1 r(r
)r!r,. ,, \ r,r n
.

strs tliclsrr\ lrirns:r(.i(mc crfre sisl(jnllrs nnfivxci()lrllc: ts Jcl c()rr(cP) d( .or)lli(tr) 0'(I1) (lLrt l:'lrLrd 'lrni:rtrt l)x' Ir \r'ic '('r1 ll!(,,,',,ri, ( l,1,*(\) y l:r In(rril)irrn. ent|ctl (lcse() inc(,rs.icnlc ('i(lexl(s (le l'L conrrtnrir' l)'rr'r

lJ

rrl lr I r

l-r' (,rrlt:r(l\.1(nrcs<r
rrr:rs

,',.,lrlr'1,- 1!IILIIIIII'\.I l;rs rlte: cn <t seno clc un sistenl dr(lo qtrc rsiiin L,1,,, r, t,.,,(,- ' lt.rll.rrr ('r) Lsri(k' (lc .rshri( r{ ) )

xLrscn(c

pl1rlrlema ccntr.tl ck: la psic()tcrtPia n() es Ia detenllinlt< irin ctcl rurc< lirr111 -1,t," el rrl'ter< de sesi()ncs sell I)revc, cle citr:ttirln lirllitacl r inclelini(l.r-. Sin lLgar' (lLt(lxs est() crnclicionl t<xlo el pr<rcso pttes incicle s<>llrc l.r protirncliclacl a la <ue se irLtecla llcgirr-!', espctiallenrt, ri(r)lc lr)s lenrinlerros crre pocirn lrunifstarse. s()t)lcterse ll escrutini() y I tnoclificeci<in Pelo, rurl lr krs rspeck)s ti)rntitles^, ((y() tcc()n()c)ricnt( ) ) cslu(li1) Ita signifitackl rn pr()greso! kl rtte tcruinar:i cleciclicnclc> el resultatlr scrt cl mc>cleltl psictr

til

J]
l)irl( )l(il{ic()

AVN(:tiS

ljN

PSC()r ItRAPIA Pr(-OANAt,TtCA

IN'I'RoI)UCCION

3.1

([rc prcsi(h el tratmicnk). lo obarc(|o qlrc st

(l( l)cn(lerar crLal(luier interyencin terapLtic. qlre tcngr lrtgat'. sca cn el luillcrr rl rrnrt psicoteral)ia cle cliez, clr cien t cle l)til sesi()nes. Eslll ctcsti(in (lel rrrrrlckr rsicopatc>lgico cs lo crrc creeros s()sli). una crecisnte tenclenci] lr r'rrrlistl que hlrce nr:is irinc:rpi en el lrrlrrc() del tr.Ltxrtrient() ([Le en lo qilc su(((l( (lenlro cle 1. En c()ntrap()\l\ r')n -t <st.t rr,sicir)n nLrr\tr,, cnfllsis scr'.i srllrrc llr c<nprcnsin psicopat()l(igica y s()l)re I<s funclaDrent<ls cle unu tct-,t'i
r.k' llt
crr Llt.

st.'. -v

del ctlll

(lel lratclixl l)r(lil('i()n sc cncLtcrltl-it ;iclttpre cutre dos calllP(ls ([e ficrzil: el lesllltante tln , ,riuiral I cl crirligo clcl interpretanlc. sien(l() la Pr()(luct() qlle se se ensil)le () ( sef]n el interpretllnte .r( r'( lii l]'r'ls al pi[]c,"(), sin alcanzirl(). ('n (icfi()s factorcs: ll():l lrn(,rcucnllt

l. I-l l)un(lxn(ilr del lrtclial r rl

clctltllc clel corprts solltc cl cttc

cjeli.

si Iublarnos (le c()lnprensi(in psic()pa tr )l(jgica. ssl{) nr)s intl-()dtL(e er t.l rloblema cle Ia interpreracirin (e ()ri dt()s <rre la tLni<u n()s vl ()flccieD(l( ). intcrpretllcin que n() es sirlo el clesctbdtrticnto cle un significlckr que e: lrrre incltriclo e-n el clato oliginal. \'ertt vlle l)Jl. (r'ientlrn()s lo cue h his el scntitlo It'r:r clr la hemenf-rticu nos ha ense<k: la il:tcrpreleciirn -en llt ctrel llt cnr[ crrrnrrensi<in (le u]r tex)- no pueclc knlr llt filla lr:rio It nrlir'r l 5( hleirn))ilcllc t> I)i)t)re] . cs cleci. L [cc(r]stt Lt( ( i() clc tn sentirl<r oliginul tlrrc va est:rri en el luk)r-(Naith, 191)a). l)a[a Scltleic|nrcher intc'r l)r(llrr crx le lecrxrst|r.rcci(n (lcl pcnsxmicnt() clel atttor. l)iltl)cy. p()r stl prrtc, lrscl>rr l:r intcrpretci(-)n ()l)ieliva en base l crr<rinricnt() cle l psi(()logll v l.r lrirrg[rlia c]cl lrrtt>r'. Estc aut()r tir)}aba partc rlel panolrtD)ir intclectual (lc lr[ rrrl, rtrirr tur]rl)i''r l)cnsal)lr cn nrin()s (lc Lrn iDtetprtl:(i(il obietivl-t tttc (strri:l :lscl.luracl por cl seguif tll in Lr( i()stl)lente los tletalles tlcl <liscttts<l y el ((rl()((r l.r ,u)'()r cunti(lxd cle cllttrs cle llt bioglafia cle'l stict(). l)er(), c(nll() rl(slx(il Niith. la intr.'rpretaci<'rn va lnals all-r (le Lrnl| nreftl rcprr>clucci<in cle rtn s.nlirL cxislente: lrr participaci<in (lel interpretlrnte y su hisf(ni(iducl. ), la P() list rl)il rlel text(). (lefcm)jnan (ltte lir sittxcin ltcltteni'ttlicrt lx)scil Ltn r.lrr(: l('r l)r()(lu(tiv(). clt el scnti(l() (lLtc sc gene-l:llgo 1 estrl cn el texk) ()riginul <rr|r<> lrxlmcn(c existente sin() c(r() p()tcncialidlt(1. lSignificlL est() (ltte lil inl(,rlfctxci)n sc;r pura arbitlarieclad, qtre la c()herenci clc lu vcchcl nl mrti\ir (1)nslrui(h >< cl interprerante es l() ni(() (ltc P()cler))()s llegar a llirlirli' f,slir rosiciirn es l (lr.r( crilic.r (jectt(liu))ente Stlenger ( I!)91 ) coto clc)()llln(l()r ctrltin rle los tut clenortritta "lttt-ttlcnettticistlts, (ltrc (lcsxtien(tcn rtrc t'l inconsciente col-lstituyc r.ttr:L leliclcl. (!)n (()nteni(l()s t'leycs 1rr',rr,r. (!)n estlr(l()s uritltiplesl en (fl()s tmrin()s. (lLle o() cs sillrPlelllcnte el scnticl() ()(Lrll() (lc Lln c()nlenicl() nl:rnifiest(). l)()l ell() Plrr sLr pttcsta l (lesctll)icl'to l!' ts llis lc|:cLracla l; stnrit-rticlt tlrtc llt ltet ltre'ntrt icl. ttna st'ritltit (ltre ll;lgir lrirrrrrrii rro s()l() en [()s icotlos <r ert Ios sitrtlrolos sin(). c:'l)cciallnlentc, en l()s llr(li(r's cl sentirlo (le Picrre-. lu jo los c uulcs el incotlsciente se hll( c -(nn() t's ir[rl a l]acerse signilicxr por cl c()ntcni(l() ul.lnifiest(). I)css(lllir. (lu( (l( llr(.str'ir tx rsl)('(li\'1r. n(, dcl)cr))()s ()ptLl'p()r lrr posici<-rn Prestrntlllcnte (r) i(lr\!\t.r rrrr:r ingonrrirl:rcl L-sli liurar (lel c( nr()( irnient( )-. Pcr{) trllul)()c() lr.rl rrl.u lr.rr i,r l:r tcsis rlc I ullitr':rlictlitcl llrsolLt <lc l ittterpr(t.t( i,in, (1)llt,, si cl llr,rt('r.rl srrl,r( r'l <lUc il(tarx inc()nscicnte clescllllrit- n(, rct.in -el \ rh'rrthr ptlede trovet. Fln rclLlich(I. lx inttrtL krs trutles se l()\ llrrl( ti(r,r

l'cr

,u lirl)( interpretxti\' Aqtt es cl()n(lc el nf:lsis cle l"reucl cn segllir lllinLl(iJ:.urrr.'nft lo quL'lp()l-t el pxciente. (()n()cer cletilllaclillllcnte l vicla clel tllist'n<l siltlllci(in anal \ r( l)irri en cl c()ntt\tr) en qtlc es( (lisctrrs() tienc lugar

rrr.r,s

n()s sir'c rlc grri ciccisi\,rt. -.1. lil ( ( n]()ciitt icnt( clc las rtr<rtitut iones. (les)s y xngLlstixs

-le

(lcl interpreLl

l.rrtr'. (lue serin hs tltte cliligirlin str lalrttr interprctatir' lt en tln sentid()

()trol

rLtir'. su inc()nscirinte. J l:l r]<rlelo crnccpturl. llt te(n'ilt (ltc c()nttlLil cl n1lrcr) (lc posilliliclacl (l( r)lr() (lel ctlxl cl Pr()ccs() tle lrt inletl>: ctlLciirn s( I))()\'el,l Ctllllt() lllris L()n\( n(i(l() cst cl intrlnret.lnte clc lrt r er<lecl (lc Ltll s()lil te()ri1l. l]l.is Prisi,rntr(r ,l( sir si\tcl)n simplitlc:lnte y. P( lnk), lll,ls clesvilt(l() hecia cl polo clt ia ltl

,rtt'ltIit cliLcl.

,
L

r. l, c()ncienci:r (lLc tcngr cl inlerpretltntc cle la xlliiirnll clcl inconsrr(. (lifcrsntc tlc l xrlisettti:t clc (rn le\t(). en l llle(li(la (ltlc n() c5 Ln Llnr (l f('\t(, (()Il \'1ll'i()s scrlti(l()s sino ttttiltillcs sistcnllls cntrc i:tzll(i( )s (le rcPre_
r1

.r'rrllrt ioncs

y clc

:Lfc<rs.

cepituro r
EL MODELO MODUI-q.R-1TAISFORMACIONAL Y Los slfRTIPos DE DF.PRESIN

l.()s 1rst()rn()s tleplesirrrs n<s

!lu( sc (leivrn clc aplicrrr rn

servirin para nr()strr l:rs ctnscr'Lteneis

nt<xlel< nrr >c[]u r-tra nsfi nrrcir ':lrl

su eltci-

,l.rrir'rn 1,; (lt('este rr)(lel(). rll l)cn))ilir cxlrrirrr ((il))r) sc vltn:ir'rllrntkr tli l,'r( nlcs sisl(nls m(fiviL(i()nlcs. posibilitlt. u su lez. clcclilrir L:t <-xistenciu cle
.ul)lil)()s llc cletrcsi<in y l()s clmin()s por l<rs cuales se arrilr:r :t los ruisnros. I-:r rrltrrr-hrkrgiu (lLe seguirelos c()nsistiral cn: l) (lelilnitar < u;-rlcs prcclcn ser , ,,nsitlcrtrls llrs prrpie<llcles bl'rsic:rs <le l()s trlrst(r-n()s clcrlcsivos. cl ncle<r ',,rrun (luc rlcle cie cstltr l)rcscnle t:n trcls elkrs ms ltllli LIe kr espcr'fico , rrr' t['bltDros lruscar cn r'rrtllt trn clc sus vrfilU]tcsl ) estll.)lcr'c lrs r-rntlr)r,s 1,,,r'Irs culrlcs se lleg,r,r lx (()nstitLrci(),i (le ese ncle()i c) in(li(ur lu Iirrn:r cle rli( ulllci()n tle clifercntrs (r)lU)()nentcs (luc gencr.ln los sttllilrs clc cltplc .r(nl \'. esl)e( i.llr1Icntt. lxs trxnsti n nr.rci( )nes (lLle sutien tlurntc cl rccrrricl<l

I.r'

i,r,nrlrtrt.. ,.,r..rrlrp,r.

I r sr NTINlrr.N-r'() 1)H lNtl,()t l:N(.rA/r)EsEspl-RANZ^ l vr - nttnr.rzr:rriN Dtit- ol:sll)

A ttn ctaclrr clnic() se kr pueclc carectrrizar t.lnt() p()r su sint(n))at()logu Por los mecltnisltt()s (lLre Lr proclrrcen Y s()stitnen. Lx l)ist()liit (lc lx ( ieo, r.r lrrLrcstr-rl (lLrc sienlprc l.t prir:rclit 1l)r( )x irri ci(-)n pilr (i('lit)litr !na cnti(lir(l , ' r()r Ia arrtricrrci tlcl ti'nrlncro (n nLr(s() ceso :or i:r sinknklrge-, llfir(ltle \tit tcntrinlt lrvt lln<l<se (()ln() ir-Isrrfi( icnte paril (irritctcrizllf k) cscn, r,rl tlcl fenrneno tln cLlt:sti(it. Fls la reztin l la crral en cl ces< cle l<s trs(Frc puc(lx dllr L 'nr()s depresiv()s del)cr11()s luscL unrr c()n(li( i(in srrbylrcente lrrrl;tr. ltl ltrticulltrsc c()tt ()trr)s ('()lllp()ncntcs. ir las cliferentcs rllfixntes () sulfirrs rlc rlcrrcsi<-rn. Fll int( ri's l)()[ l() estrLr(]Lrlll sLrl)]llccnf('no signitica trrc Ilr 'rrrt,rrerokrgi:r sr':r rlcstle.rlrlt Jti (lLr (lIlc(lenr()s r\enI()s (l('t(,ncr (lre expli
, , ,rr r

li.

l']1r1(

(lr

Lrs i(l(irs expLr.ts cr1

(,\lr (;rptulo trrcron pulri.x(ls (,r

.Snnc sLrl)tvpes

I/, //rirr r lllci.hnrxf. 199(r).

AvAN(rras riN Psr(i() l-F.l1At{

pstr:<lrt-itl<:

]_ NI()t)tit.() M()DUJ_AR-

RANS'()Rl\lAcl()NAL

J7

(irI Ilrs rilz()ll(s l)(lt llls (ltlc en (at(h \''lliltnte (l' k)s trlLs(()fn()s (lcPr'\i\ !rs \( tltre ies lor rlir Iir l)rsc,)(iil .1. l,r, tirrt,rn. (ltle llls (!rlcicrizJn l'tr' clti>

rll,..lc

(leptesi\'()s (()slililycn llls pltse,lt,rci,->n clc catllt unoclt'Lrs l'ltsl()rn()s tr()nc() c()nlil]l tlcjetcntos rn (1q licnen lttc gnests r',ulrLs '[tint,ts tlc clin()s

{ ]lr()(i()nalles. ltsl:t [rls rlese<ls ntis ptcrl<igicos clc tirsi<-rn lrl)s()lLlt (\ln ci ()l) Irl() (pa[t L]i r'e\ isi(-)n s()l)re rl tcrni rlt "lrreo,. \'itse Prkes r rtrs. 199J).
,
,

pliiclllxfes pat! (()n(cntl.ar l)ilril rllis lrtlelltnte el exlttltn tlc cst()s sc(t()l'cs cllos' ir,,..r,,uu.11,, c1r.te s prlcletntls c(nsi(lcrar ((nlx) c(lllP'Ll'ti(lo Ilrlr ttxlos nLresrrlr (lLre ( c()nstirLr), l,reLrci, el inicir c Dtrclt.t,ntalcttltt lglT) i() clc l't cnulerrt ll il l:is clc ttr- (le tlertcsirrrs l()s tlast(r-n()s .()r tt lrtcttsitin (lislirt)s tip()s clc r'iort rk: sn(ottt:ts l)lt l)Ls(ilr ltnlt <rrn<liciirtt lll'tsica en l()s o irtragire:tl pr'rli<lll l lt ri. r(siirn, .,,.r,.t.],ir,,,,.1,, a strt c<nr ['t rertccitill n,Uilt rlt rln,>lriet,> tlnll pcls(,-li:tl'rlll 'r1:ilcttllclar!"tlDlllll)stl-"lttlrrll'lLlu Si l clc ir,, t,rrr",t,, srt lttrtr'. trtl .i,rll,l el '''r' ''le trn" l'i lrltlt rtl tr itlt -' (lel lI c\ t|LtLctt Llt, f)ri)pi() tltrlltr"s P(rtLltr( lrl,rrtttr-r cl cstrttkr cleprcsirrr en iil,r,r,u"n,, n,> t.sitlel en la prclicle ell si nisnla sino en crinlo t'sa >'rclitllL c()rr\ticnl(\ <rcclu sigrriiiclrcle. ctt tint:tslts inc<xlsl'ientes Y ptllsltnlitn)s vercllttletrl l-'L cs senti(lit' lr'clitla clc la tltte cn ,lrra,,,tir,r,; l ,rt,t,.r,t {tclicla (ilrc ilrrlt() x l per, ,i i.:,,, ...'qui.r., .le..l..l p,.,nt,, i. r'ist cle la strbjetiviclecl' (lct,.t.,,.i,, ,l.l (l!sc() P()l-ci olrjcr sc l(r l't l)rescnte nlr() inl(xrlrlll)lc es Fretttl Lr clrtc (()tll() Jtuliclo l'st'rcs ( rf. s( cr///J////lzl llsi<ltlicalncntc.ll ()l)ic) ins:risirlt ilrle ( \\.1r,rlr) r,n ltthb(k)tt. stttlt)ttt(! .\' r,/,qll/ill lgfl)) ' <lcstiL(itr llt I ficntt >rtlitl:r clc oll,.rrg,r ,1,',ttthcl,r'trllo lo csllc'.litr clc Ilt le;tccion () inlcgr:(l() I)(lt' r'tn fi'cti\ estlLtk t's i,ll,,-- t,.t,, ir.,,ri.t,,tillle clllga tlc nhelL'' hltcia cl tlcsco cl lcl)lcstntil ,,,, .l,,lrl.. a,rr,rr.cntc, ttnr, i(lcllti\'(). sc ''lirlllirll clcsetr (le rcPfcsctllittst'cl (\)ltl() ill c()nse('Llell( ,,1,rto c,,rtxr rr, re[izltll]cl y, (ltr(' (lcl)r\l\ l/co cl cloltr<so "' ,,,rrr ilrr':tlizltblc. sLll-!le Ln sentinlientl (llten(liftrcntc tle le angttstia entc tl pcligro l|sr'( Lrn:l cLrrrliclecl eslltclitx. 1992) rrr'r. l')lifr I l()ltrlrrrn. att la attr llsl( s(nlirrliCrrt()L" cle ctte rtn clt-'s<< tlttL'tctl!t tttt lttttt <atttntl (ltr'- c'l l() tttttit liltidttutl trrr lrisllt <r.tltl'llritr 'lt"'' ''t lrtll;l'/t't' lirrrlrtci<'n tln't Ln (r)rllnlt)()s (I1 l()(llls lll\ (lel)rcsi()!r(s i lllultlrlrl'r', I9-()l))' (lesct ttrnl() 'll-)ttlliln(l() lt tn cs :rlrlrrclttir lt, .ltfic ) Sntller c:tl't1cLzltrtn eslt \"J()[ie' lrrtlo itlcul tlt' l,icncstrtr v Icli<icLltl rlofle r Srrdlcr' 1965r S)(llcr(1)nslittl l()(lllc cn (()ntcni(lo tcnl'lti(\) I(X)). l'lslc clcseo Poclrli vlLtirtr en sLt \'(' su rteili. t'nsistir. clt1c (fr()s cn l()s sigLlientcs tiP()s:
lisi<lt t'trlertrtl iFl'ctl(l l9l5( ) 2 I)csc()s cle ':t.rcgo" (lk^rllr1, l9()9 t()-j l9ll0) <trr" rrLtirtn rl'sclc los lis rlr)lltlL:s clt'csllll en clrtltltcto lisito rt-t cl olrjettr' r'lc cttrll'rr'tir cst:trlos
srnlrr iL'nl() r'rr rr lrLrtler (\L{ r(r\r f rr'r t rrnirl'rr ir r'iird() cle lrirl)l('dtrcn' ,Irillr,(tll( iritn,il,r\(l',rrirr'r .rl,r 1"'l"'' 'n lr rnrrrrr lrnt'L rrrutLr'rnt['lr(rrtl ,,,,,,,,,',,,t, ,,,L,., l.rr I r( l( rrrs( .r rrr ({irrirrrrl() i(!'liv() xti'r1n'() l(. l lrli/,!,)i',\,l l(
rr)rrrr)

3. l)cse()s ,rr(isislsr (lc rcc()n()ajD)jcnl() ): \,al()rcin, (lr (lue el ()t11) rnvrlicle el ex Iril)ici()nisr))() l{rnclioso rlcl stjet(), (ie fisirin crn el ()l)jc) idc el objet,r. ctc. l)ese()s nalcisists (lue yrn

.rlizrLck, clc triLnfi) edpic() solrre

rk srlc cl orgullo cle scntir cr.re se ckrminen krs plr4rios irrrl>rrlsos, ie: cnrtr'ir. rrcs. cl firnc'ionaurien) rent1. cl nlcclit <ir<un<lantc, () (lc scr-lr(Lr o rtpre , i,rrk. ctc.. hrrstrr rt lttttellos quc clrr(terizirl l.ts firtras patol<igi<irs clel nluci

''rsllr()r seI un .// i(tcil cle pelfi'<<i,rn fisi(:1. nrentill o rrror'1, r'ccil>ir .r,lrrlirci<in inc<;nclici<ln:tl. tenc c<rtlrrrl ()lllnip()l('ntc s()l)te trn() rtiisrrlo o Irs ,l,i(1os { Kernl)crlt. 1975: KohLt. l9-1. I()--). l- n() rclizx.i(lD cie este tiJxr rlc ,ltsr'os nrcisistls rlrr )rrglrr a clepre-*ioncs cn ttre treclorlin e] sufrirjcnk r.r(rsista (llil)ring. l95Jr Jl<bson. l97l: K()lrlr. l97t: l,rx. l98t)). r. I)csc()s relJCi()nx(l()s (on el l)iencsti[ clcl olrjeto. Si cl sujcto sc xlril)u\( ir si nrisnr() scr cl cLlsante rlcl do o suh-inrient() cltl olrlcto. plre(lc s() l,rlrcnir Lrna (lcp[.si(')n rn (lLre pl-e(l(mrin(l los sentil])icnl()s clc cLrlr:t (Alrra
L

l,rrlr. 1911. 1911: Frcr(1. 1917: .llc(r)s()n, L9-1: Klein. 19J5. l9-iO).
lislx clrtcg()r-izlt( i(nr <le <lili'cntcs til)()s d( (l(sc(ls n() cs (\lr:rusti\'1t ni l()s \(l ))lutuitllcrtlL'cxr'ltvtntr,s. iln r'icrlo grir(l() (lc sul)(r)()si(r(r) L'\i\tL' , lllf( l:rs (!l(g(r'ilrs \' \'1r'i()s tipos clt' rlt'sr.'or l)uc(lcn ('()cxislir ( n ur). rrrs,rl.l l rs()nir. Asi. I)( rj(nllll(), l:t no rclrliz,. irl-r (lc (lcsc()s clc l)cg() o rI clescrs ,l, sirlisfila(i(in >rrlsirltl prtcrlc ser vili(lir r)lrcissticl)cntc, es (lc(rr', (1)lll(, , rrrsrrcle porlu inhrtlilidltcl tlcl 'lr'opio sujekr cn r)l)tcncr kr tuc rlcsca. conto Iu l.r' 1. 5 (lese()s (lr (()ntf() (nrlnip()lcrrte \()l)r'c cl olrjelo o solrrc sr'rttrsrtto lil c(n rel1() (lcl scnlinrient() (le (lcscsl)( rilnz.r en ( urn) l l rclrlizulriliclucl ,1,'l tLsco cs l.r rcllresent!ci(-)n (luc l1l p(rs()n:t sc hrrct tlc si rltisllt:l (tnlr() Ill ,l, ,rlgtrien sin rrr<lt'r. inll)(fcn1c :lrlu nrotlific:tr tl cstlttkr (lc (()s:s: ttoltctle ,r ,h'ktr tl<'<l<,s<<tr ni k)gt'Ltt'tltc \tt (l!st\' t! r&tlicL'. I-]r cl (stJ(k) ([])rL'\r\(, nr, ,,1,r txisk- t-lit r el)r(.scn llci(')n (l(l (r)ict() () r))ctrL (lcl (lesc(). siu(). \ s()l)ac r,(1r,. (icrtit r'(l)r'cscnl;(i(-)n (lel stljc) ct Ll,;rnl{) .t s\t lx)dcrl)afit tt,ttlia(tt'slt
,1,

\(()s

l.

(lislllillLlci(in (lel l)ese<rs tlc slttislltccit-rt-l rttlsion;Ll \'(1e

nl\cl (l('lensi(in

,1"\t\).Ptl'ttinlfx)ot!1tatlt'st)ttk)s(tC()ttt(titit,tttos.lllat1l()st)<'.\-lt,ir)sl'or cstrctlllr inlere]acia) rxistcnte entrc lll rcl)tesenl( i(in l poclt'r <1trt' s(' iltrilrLrye p:tm rltcner l<, tlese.tclo. v el rrrr ll tlcl Iint'i<nllienk) lortl y crporrl. en Ia tneclicllt en (lLrc cl .ui({, , \( r, l,r( sclrln c()ni() iltll)()tcntc sc (lcsxclivlln l()s llt()\'illlicrlf()s lluc liclt(l(r) lIllci. ,l ,,1)l(,1() (lel <lest,o f)c ulr l:L inhibi<iirn v ulruli:t <ue c(mstituycn (()nr[)()''. ,,1, . . ( n(r.rle. rlt l r':t.r,1,, ilL [)h'\r\,, llil)nDg (19.J). cn ttn tLulrajo rLre signiticr-r un l)()fie signilir'rrtirrr. lirc I'r',n('r() rn (,rl!rtjzitr cl prpcl csencirtl (le sentir)li(nk) cle intlxrlcrtr'irr, inciel, rsr()rl (\nt1() rtircler) clg la clepresiorr. ltsr ((r)r() err rn()stfill (lLlc nrr r's la pr, lr,l.r rk l olrjekr lo clefinitorio sinr l1l rcpresenta( in (rtc lrt Jtlsona se hace tlc r rrr, nlir (\)nr() intpltz <lc all('nz:lr sLs nretlls. cntre elles le presen< ia y c'l
,,rr.L l)ir-tc. <lcbickr lr le ,1, I \uick). en rcle< itin

1i

AVAN(-tlS EN P5l(()'l LltAPlA PSla()ANALll l(.4

l:L 1.)Dljl o lot)u].Alt jIR^N-,:()RlA( ()N.tt.

39

rrl()r (lel ()l)jct(). Crnsiclerir qtLe la prcclisposicii>n l la clepresitin cstar (lx(la lrr le fijacirn l expericncias clc imp<xencie/inclefensir'rn, cue clcjan su trtrclle t n el rsictrisrtto. cle mcrlo clue c:rtla vez <uc Il Pers( sc siente illlp()Iclrtc en It,lrrciolr 3 sus rspilaci()nes se rL'ucti\'rraln toclas lque]llts cxperiencias. relles (,inrirBinilriJs. en qrre clonrinr-r (se seniirltieni(). l;ts irp(fencis x(ttrlL-s ti(n(n lxso p()r(lue l)()nel) eo ltcti! i(l:t(l la rcllresenraci<'rn (lel sLljcl !()[1() llll l)( )tcnte. Sintctizrn(l(), Ios elerucnt()s <1ue confitruarltn <l t1i1o tlcPlesivt r cn tanl() (\)n(lici()nes neccsafits cttc <lefinen sLl cstrllctLrrit s()n:

Bxisler(ia (le un (lcsc() (lre ()crLpa un lugrtt central en la c<onrtra lil tn rlcsco tttonr tr-rlit r r rttc no J:rttcclr ser rrrllrirlin:rl rlel suict()

l.

1rr'nsetkr

-fijaci(-)n ()tr()s c{eseos. o tcenlP[lLZl(l() l)(rr' 2. S(ntinlicnft) cie irup<xcnrir 1-rlta realizar t'sc tlcsco. J. llup()tencil pare llr realizuci<-rn clel clcsct trtc no tuccla testringi(h 1l ln.(s(ntc sin() ctrc abarca tatlti(:n el littttrol es clecir. sentitnicntlr clc clesesl tilllll.
c- iDhilriciu Psi(',r))r)trizr l.us tr ]st'crre ncils nr()tivr( i()nllles -elulirt itrr pr rlcnr. ilt. tlcstsPel n z:. r.rlr'r1irls- tristcza-(lel senliDric)r() clc

rLr,,I rc(()rre 1()(lt l:r clnt<a clc l<s tr'slt nos cleprcsiv()s -Ltn sr-rlt xrrl rleuostret tLtc' Iu gcneralizat'itin ts alrusi t()(l()s crlttt>robarturs la prtsct-tcirt clel scntiDlienk) (lc illl\,t . \'('lt l()s r'rtsos yrlta l;t tle ttn rlcscr 1ll (ltrc sc estli inten n(iil ril'scspcranza rcalizeci<-rn lf( ) strrrrt'l( Iii;rrkr. Ir()r ()tril prrtc, tleltnr<s tlill'rerrc ilrr entlc: ll) f:t(t()!(s (ltc rrrnrlut. n ), r)st,en!'n l csllclr) rlcl)fesivoi krs c:tnrinos P()[ l()s (tlcs s(' lle
Sr'
( ( )n(r

ir( l( rrlrl( ) serr sLrficicntc

!l .rl (s(ir(k)
<

clclrcsivrr lt) c1 c:ltttkt <lctrcsivo; ) tl itt.1() (lc)ci\'(): /./cl ttttrln L li t ico <k:l )resivo. inl(gr'(l() l)()r intent()s restittti\.()s (lclrlsl\'():r. !()rlr Plitationcs clc ia cleprcsiir )' lcncllci( secLrn(lri() ( IJil)nf, 19iJ; .lc()l)s()n. l97l:-J()ll )'Sndler. 1965). []s decir, un c(nIplcj() I)r()('eso (lt arlictrl.r( i(in en(r( cl cst(l() (lcpresiv() y c()llil)()nentcs rlel ltsicttisttto talcs c()nr() l()s tip()s lrrliculercs r.L' clefenss ctte tlrrlrt stjet() puc(llr l)()ncr cn ir.rego, rl cl papcl (lrc rl ()tr() rr.te<la clesctttpertI ct ]s fin1111ls cle r,Jgslltl)lcccl tln tsl(l() clc <rlrrilrlrrirr , csti(l()\ Lle ?vtLt u. t)It (lt'l rlt'setr C()!rIrrI(er1r(,s p()f cl estil(l() <tcrtcsivo. Sc (rlt-lr(tcrizat P(r'Lnit triPi< c()n(li_ (i()n (lue t()rlr. a Llna Lniclltd: 1l) scntiDricnft) clc itrrJroter-tcirt Pxr Ia rc.Lli/.tci(-)n clcl clcsco; D) tna crLllichcl espc( flcr (le (iisplltcer ttre el lcngLtaje (ralll (lc cllPtuI l).lj() ta'n]rin()s c(nll() trislczlt. pen!. etc.i c) la inltjlticir-to rsicotrlotriz, rcsttl trLtlo rlel ltcr l (llc al senlisc cl (lese() c(lx) irrclizlrle el psiqtlisrnt) n() cs irrrrrrlslrtir Ir,rri:r Iri:rctivi<l;tcl. sc i'st h cliligitllt rrl ctl.ucntr() crrn cl ()biettl, sr';r t l rlt rt ir io rk' rrt litnciirn (iel suict() l)r{)clt.1( tle rllrcer nr'cr\t\I.r. lrr( dt( .tl (,st.l(i() r.ltlrr,.sirrr (l()l()11)s() sc P()nen en iLcci(-)n cli\'ars()s pr()ce sos r['lr'rrsrr,,r (lr( (nr frr r.:lc(i()r-l 1nte el r-Ilisol(), inlent()s cle salit clcl sufri-

-lo , cun(k) srlrja cl eslrrsloiu grner:rtiv.L dc la fijaci<in a l s:rtislrccin (r.l t r, I r tlt rrcsivo, la lLrlirriit p()(lr,i c()nve ilse en el sntrml rlue clcsencaclcnlr r.r ll l,o si lr lrtlillti cntrilsc cn c()ntrll(licci(')n con rleseos nar(.isistas. seitn (le r rl r ) r.slrrti( ( ) o tle <rntrtl tlel crrclpo, () c( llngrstiils lrente al clescont.r>l v la ! rrr,r sigrriiiclrrl<> lt \,c(es (luc, t,s t,l qtrr.: sc ()t(gil ill lttrc(ir) l:lrrlilr'icr . , rl,) (('s. lrtt:r int(ntlll- c()oIl)ensrl. el strjcl l:r xltcrnar1-l (rrt lir un,r<xr.t. l',,r ()lll liilrtc. si l ten(lcncilt tlel srrjeto firera a h tirga. a la creaci()n (le estll, rl(nl.lc\ en rue el pensll-y sentir clisl-rlltcl son evitaclos, l a(liccia)n a lr . rlroglts llan(luilzantes poclrt qrreclar c<tnt defens:t privilcgi(la. l,ctr) si , , srrjelo trrc sr.rlie cl cstx(l() (lcpresivo ha usado l hiPer ex<.il ac.i<-rn crnO cx I.( r).i: (le slisf:lcci(-)n, rl (lrrni't() 1>ol cl cual se encurrila el psicuisrnr: lh< r r lr.rio cl strhinricnt() (leplesi\'() potlri trrnsislir en u-l ilpclxci(in lr lls rlrr>gus ' .lflrrul:lrttcs () x cxpcriencills (lLlc revistatn ese c:rri-l(ter -hilterscrr(rli<tacl, ,,,rtrlttr'tlts [)sL(1)paiticas. ltrclrrPlrttr. ctr'. .'[ixkr lo cr.rll rtresttt. Lln,r \'(z ot:ls, , I , r rnrplejo pr()ces() de arrticlllJcia)n clc cotttponcntcs (lre ,1In c()nti)ntland() , l , urclr c!nico crLe ca(la px(ienle llluestr,l. l ly o)(ncnk)s cn cuc cl ili cto ([cprcsiv() plrs. lt Lln segunclo plano v cs r,', rrl)l:zl(l() ror la ansiedecl rssLltntc clel scntiriento r-lc helllrrse cn religrrr 1,, .rellrr rrrr'roclrl sobrelenir irl sujet() (1() L.(tsc(.ucncix clc llr rlcli,l r ([ ur] ()l)jc) scnti(l() lrxst:t csc ol()lllcn) (rn]t() pr()tec((n-: o ro| le prtlirll ,l, lrr nfi.rnzu en l cxpuci(l(l <tcl sujetct pl cnircntr (listintos tifos cls pelr:rrls. Fln estc senti(l(), si algr.rnos cLaclr()s (lsprci!()s c[nicos tienel] [lL itnsie,l.r(l a(nn() (no (lc sLls c()l)tp()nentes cc'ntrules, () rnLeslran trna tirlri-r grnrr.-r lrz,rrl en cLre to(l() c:[tsa tclt1()-. () prcs('ntn p e()('! pci()nes hipocontlrecas, .rrt()lis (llc no cxistn ntcs rlc Il (lepresi(in. es p()rque aclrrello rc c<llr. zo sitnrkr rl] senti|)ieni() rlc introtencia p:rl'u reulizer el clcsco trLtn llllI)rr'llrlrn(k) )(lll iir repfcscrltJci<-rn ciei sLrjer. iriclui(k) sLr sentinrienk) (ic
lr

1982: Grinhrg. l96J; Halnal. 1977r I loffnran. l')').1. I.(()l)s()n. 1971r Klein. 1935. 19,i0; Kohrrt. 1971: Sk)nc, 1986). lh(k) { l') lli l()51) ILrl.) sclck l rlia coercitiva cont() intent()s cle recrrperar cl , ,1't, t, ) lr\i\lcr. txr)rl)in, esfreros restituti\()s al intentar rehacerse L srcccli ,1,, rrrrrli.rDl!, l [ntasa. hacientkr (lrre stx l]t()(lill(lLc los acontecil)icntos tal , , ,ll( , 1('f( )t \ i\ ick)s. illl)riuli,r(krlcs rl crso clifi,rentc. :tlt{)l:t \,:t l)l)j{) cl gol ,r, rr rI l clcsco rlel sLljek) ( ltenik. 1990)i (). en ()r()s (aLs()s, apelueirtrr al llan t,,, orro ll.rurcla rlc alxilir:r lls pers<>nas clel el)t()rn(). () .i los aut<trrcpcoches ,1,'l1 nsr\1)s (lLe c()nstitLyen vcr'claclcrts ltrt()cltstig( )s pra liviar sentinrient()s ,1, , rll)ir v reclrperur el anrrr clel super_r<i (Rack 192J. l95l). l',rr':r srlir clel estackr cleprcsir o sc pucclcn acti!r ()tl-as clefensas trre. e su \,'/. li( rr(tr st pr()pia hist(iJ f-lcnrrxtival, frc( Ll rltl cr ltcnte se-lull>lc rlt, las ,,,r,lrr r,lcs <ltri pr<>cltrjc'rrr el cstaclo tleJrresitr) pct() c()r-l cl (Uitl sc itli(ltliU) l',,r ltt rttltkr. si plnL tLn suic) (letcl'tuina(l() lx s.rtis[x(( i(in tal clcvino cn rn:r l, ,rrrr,r yrlir ilcgiltclu (lc cnclritr l lngltsti en ger-reral cLre rlcpcn<lcti tk,

rr,'rl,) rl(r'rloclucc (Brcnncr.

l,f(rr(ir

l)llru cnfientar

re:rlicl:rcl

y krs peligr'<rs quc ir))aginiritmente

pLte

l1)

AvANCLS

l," lrl(-(rl'lrllAPIA

PSI( ()ANAI-l-l l(.A

l]1,

Mol)lrt-o MoL)LI AR- I RANSI()lt14( l('NAl

.tl

(l:n

lril. rlr':r ls rrrnclicirnrs pllt'a que t(xl() resltlte lnlenllz.ultc (l]leithltrar, 19ti(). llll (st()s (ls()s. la inhilticic-n (lcl cstr(l() (lepresi\1) cs t.eenrplltz(llt por la agitir(i()n \ l l)il)ctaigilan(jir riginltchs L'n li expe(titti!a fi(tte al pcligr(). l-ll est.rrkr cfr.Prcsirrr cJrvicnc cn lirlri:r, l)er() l)1ltr cllo cs neces:rrio <lLr cn csr 5lrj!.t() ejelnpl(). la l.eprescnta l)1lrli( ulr ltat t un pr(disp()sici(in ir la ntislll.l -p()r r ior rlcl ltrrnclr c()l() pcligr()s() l)lcrlisxrsir.ir>n l lu firbie qlrr trlll)in p()stt stt rnri:t ltiskrr'i:t gcneralir lr en lil (lu( n() exisle Llll (.1lrnitl() tit.l!r) rtt un l(r'llnisDl() univcrsal. l'r.rr si el sufl_ittlicr')t() se ploktngl. t los tccnisnrs fesitutj\1)s n() 1tl (.r)z:ln r( rc(Llpcratr'cl objer (r l.{cnc11r llt ilLrsiirn (lc (lLrc sr lc.tlizlu.:l cl <lescr. lrr ltinr:t 1nca clclensivl clcl psicuisrtxr c()nsjste en clefensas tlirigicles c,n (()nl|lr (l(,1 flrn L i()nx|)jcnt( ) lentel ntisrno. ten(lcntes a rInlir el pensar v cl
trnlr-.r

vlnir (lcl (rclpo. l- feprcsentl(i(in tlcl srrjcto cotlo

inc1p1lz. infri()r. (l-

l)('mos (lilcrcncirl() (lc lo (lLle sc Illt ll:tnltl< 'xtll(lLle xl PCnsllliL'rll(' cn , tr' 5t prc:'Llpl)ne ttnl intetcionaliclltcl ltgrcsivli in(\nlscientt' ll
1)(

l',,t rrr t'l ttfirsi; L'tt

lt

lintc'ttsitjtt re'tliztlilidal tlcl

l<'set?

\('rrlr. I (vl(1rzl/'cl lls(lLislt)(). I-,s tle<.r, clclctsrs qLtc t() est:in clirigrclls t,rr rlc un c()nteni(l() nlent:ll cn paLrti(ullr 5in() cn (.(ntt[1] <lcl firncionlrrriorto rsicuicrr mits gloltal.
Fis

\l)ill f l9.l()) s()lnc le l)sc hntrl (lel ll.)spilu Iisrr )1), () cn I|()\\'ll)\'l l9S0) lt Iil Iitsc ri tIstrrnexirrn en el pr(rccs() cle rittlo. f]s. il Dlrit-r. lo <1trc r-rrls Dttrestre. .rr(lr(.en utrch() luen(r' gleckr. la c]iriclt cle cs()s llicicntes (lLlc l)tirecen rrr( rlr)\ \'i\'()s, siD l st(zil ni lrnsieclcl, rrrc crIrr.ttIr estlin (n lt.lrtlrniL.l)t,, .t.
n(.r,llr Ut]ir a( )n trxtr nstercn(.iaL cn (lUe el nalist sicntc rtre I)r)(l -ln I).1\.ir .r.s sin rrrc nir(l.r sLr(1rdiesc. sin fiue sc srlicitesc n1lcllr r-le i,l. Pllci(nts (lLl! r'rr:rlrtunlls r))(llenl()s rlt,l tl:rtntiento. rlcslrLri-s tle silL'nLi()s l)Iiis () tIrt)()s rroLrl!rrrkrs. l.r resltrrtstlL a ll ltr.egunt:r <lescsltciacla cle .ien tluc l)icns'1. cs: .r'rr rrrrl:r". N() rs e\iict() (lLlc n() l)icnsen en nadrr peLo lo tLre clit.en s rellcjlt l)iul( (l( l() rlLrt- les sLrr'erlc: (lc(lttcctizn ((lcspr'()\'rcn clr inr cstir icntt I lilrirli rLtl) L, rlrrc r':t trnsctrr'rit,ncl< Il()l sL lltcr'ltc. t[,rll<xlo (lLte l()s l]cnsJlllrr.n(()r <rrt rrrn cir-t ulrrnclo picltlen significecil-n ull,ctir':. ALln(lre es fl.ecLcntc que l l[rllrrl rk'rsi{)s pa(icnres cligrrl)tt,s clrre \()n (lePrcsi()ncs crrinic;rs. sin enrbr.q() ri( ttiltilri.r r.lc trna crnclicion (spe(ixl, Lln cstaclo r rs<lcplcs i\.( ) cn que el l)fii( lr irinl( ). l-lui:l(k) p()r el prirr(.ipk) tlel ltlacer. parx al)()lir cl sLfl.il)ticnt(). t(lrttinrt :t>lrgancir cl cltscr v l irl((tivi(l.l(1. Le clcli.-ls n() s(,(ljrigc !,t c(rntftt (le trt,-ltsco etl l)alllicltlxr \in() cn c(nttlil ck,h firncion Llcsclrr.Ite en st ntl\nrJ I (lc l.l rlrlcctiz(i(in cle <ltcla pcnsenticnk). Plrll criix ltoclalicllrcl <ltlensir l ltrrr l)()n('r)r()s l rlt nruiilrr'ir-rn cE tlcctlt,ctizttcitit libiiuul tlel pettstttlitttto.l-

lo

<1r.rc

crrLrcst<tnclerl rr les clcst r il.lci<tnes <le

Si la tirt:rlLtla (lltc estl)lLce ctte l:t clcprcsi<in es lx reacci')n a la pr(li(l u ()l)ia,:tlriti lrnlt \'il (l((isivil l)ii I:t (r)lli)r(si(in rlc l:t rlcprtslr'tl' n"' ,1,'l mos Plcgtlntrlt <1tr progleso significrl la intttltt<cin P()l [)iLc (le Ir, rrrl. clcl (()nccPt() Llc "itls.ltsf dclie cdrgl lc atthelu () sc' t()lllrr c()llx) , t, rk'cur'ctctiz:tcirin tlel ti'n<ltrcnr la tirult b.rjriles ctr:lc se si('nrt'lit rci Lrz.rlriliclacl (lel (lcsc(). El lnlite (le llt tirttlltl:t< it'rn 'rc'a(cln:t l:r 1>r'tliclrt cle <ll s()lllentc n()s , t,r r'csiclc rn (lLlc tr() nos tlicc en rr.t ctlsiste cslt -clicci(il-l' tlrlr rcllctttt'tlcsenclitlcnlt <,l,lctr>l, ,l,Lr <lc l;r <ntlicirln >i'ltlitl:r tlcl -):r (telinil (.()sit ull tn(irllcn() es (lLlc lin.t , r,lt P()l ll(ltlell() L,s dcjaclu sin cl.u.llr. (\)nst]r'tcn( i'l\' () sLts () (lttts'l incltls() inrlc(li1lt't P()l '1, , st'tilL sLt xllleacllelltc e<1r'te(lel similltr lt ttn sitttcion l-is I)lisrl)() pltlrit'tltrlt's ,,tr.r pr las ll:r.srl() r ll.r (n (luc (lij('r.tllx)s <r.tc <'l cntoje< ttltiellt() (lc lll Pi( l ts la rc'lcci(in (l( (rsl 1l (ltle esPcr .r,r'it'r't stlat. I'ctrl ctt ctt c(nlsislc esc cnr()iccitllicnl( )/ [ia vcz , )l.r)l()s (ltlu tls t\l)rcsi{in clt llt rltstrlillttt ir-)n r('sLI]lx ilitillle ctlltilttr Ilt r rrcstiglr'ion v cstu(lilr krs pasos tisi(\ >(ltl lll icos P()r k)s (lllllcs Ilr r':rcliclil ,l.rr llr ltrocItt<e c. itlcltls(). exllllllrl.tl',,lr.l\ (ltLlsll\ rlLl! r(.t\ir'n'n cl lllisl)l()

,1,

, l, rr) illrn(lLrc no sgllt-l tlttlilttir-rn srrl.tt

\'rrr l.(l(.n.rl(,,11(r.rc.rrr,.[rv,rrrrn.rJL.no(\prri(n(rr.0(l(L((rr,,\. lrlrr.rJ(q,r(c] l).rr r( r)11. r'tn ir'.' . ( 1ti )' ( r cn(t(,s srn(, dc ([rr xrru]l (.1 p( n\:[ \' cl s.nrir. c( l(, qr(, n() r,ntrn ( r \i tr,rtr r..'r' r'I( \.r: r(t)rl srnt](r(n1r' rlc l.r rcrrlidrrcl ni \c pcfr ire !t dcsln()|() (t( trnrirsixs.
,

lr lirLr(s(tur1()lrcniir.()g(lcn(l9j-)(le5(ril)(unIli)|irdcdelcs:r lLli!(l.r (.t|rn(lo rl p:r r(!rl(. .rl,rr,(1,) Inr (.\p.ri(nfis (tr)(. l( rrsUh:rn in(()lcr:rl)tcs, rrr]ljn,r p()r lln)tir (,t I)cn.,rf o
r1,,,i.,r

\r,s.lr.,r
,l

\r
!

l,,,tj ([\.ri]J(.()e(lcnr(u,rirtinrrllr\lrcrnir(l(lrt.)ttLti:.1(l;)tihi

1lttt11

ltt\rIr

\1,,

tl(. (.r,rtr (,\ (Jr .icrl(, (tu)\ (t(prrsi\(F (, se tr.rr.r (l(

tcD()nr(n()s

til csltciitlclrl t,.te ltl rtrrritl clclcstclo (lcPresi\1) (\)t-re\ln)n(1s x \ln serl Lrrr( l]l() (lc il1llottncie 1' tlcscspetanzll Prx rcxliz'l cl (ltsc() pt'll)ife (life ,, n. iirr cst c()lr(li(i(;n (lcl s('ntilliL nl() (ls illl)()leDC (iL( sc l)!le(lc cxPel'i_ ,,,, nllr'atrlt( el pcligr'o,v cttv lrocltttt'l1() (lt'Prcsi()11 sino Illitlico [:n I:ls r'risis l, l,:rnico llt pcl's()na lnrl)i'n sc sitntc ill)P()lcntc c ill(lcli'llsil. p{jr() })'lrx c()n r,,,l.rI tllt l>clillro tlLl(] txPcrilllcllt! (\r1() Pr()\'enienlc llr st-rllr tlcl c\ltri()r sin() vlrlvct' k'.r1. i llnlltlstiil crur'l:i sin Ii ,1, \r l)r()l)ir) l)si(lLlisln() \' ctlcfP() -sc o,rr( \. n(irli- etc.-. l)e l)l()(l() (lilc cl sentiltlicnt() (lt inrP()t(llcill l)"l' si ttlisr,,,, rro scr:t sttticicltc ParJ (:truclcrizr le <le1.ttesi<in si n() sc ltcir'tsc dc (lu'' rrl., (l( illll)(fc11(i:l sc lrrll: I)l-ai rc(iz:tr el (lesc{) (lc illll()l l(sl)((1() (l(' tD ()l)_ l)(n Lln l! r,, scl i'stc Llllit pcrstxra, tl 1lf(lpitl yo tlcl sttjcto. tn i(l(1. rt( ()tr()' cl o txlcm(). interll<; | ,1,). r) l)lrir enflcnlllr tln t)L'ligf() P()ltirrt rcsretr lll entinli('nt() (kr illP()t(nci:l llrrlr la tcltlizltt it-rn tlt:l clcscrr , l,rrt tlc estlthlcter 1lgLlnx precisi(in clicionl: llt irlrpolcn<i:t PLtc(lc sel nl(' Ll,,,lrzrrrIt. capta(l. pl.c\'lllentct( t]tc p()r cl p5i(luis11() cltsclt' tn ((lig() nlll(lcl r'.r"t.r ( ()lll() tcsfinl()ni(r tle irllci<i<Litl. () cl il(cl)t{) c(llcr ll (l l)icn(stilf (lt('il prulotttinat ., ,ti l( ). ( rl la prcocttpaciln P()r el (lxo prti'riikr :l st(" es ,,. ', rrtirricntos r.lt' ctpel>iiitlacl si l)icn ll() es inli'e('Llente (l[lc cn I]ltlchos , , r.r, h',,. tlt Presir'<;s cst[-n sinlr]tillclll)ent Prescnlcs llts ltngllstills nrcisistls ()' in(ltls() [:t t'rclttsivi1., , rrlrrrlrilitllrcl. existen (fr()s tll (lLle el l)red()lllilli()

'

AVAN(JLS

IIN PSICo'I-IJRAPIA

PSI(]OAN

I-TI(.A

IJI, MODIiI-O MODUI-AR JI'R,\NSIiORMACIONAI-

13

(lir(l

(l(

\(

un() (lc ell()s es tot.ll. AIlLnas personitljd(lcs narcisistits. .lqLclls que


l

,rrtr

r:rtisl:r(er los icleulcs cle ltctn<lirci. 'llcs scntinticnk)ri ric- intlccrci<rn st: cs rrrrlt t n vcz (le l)Lren()- in(licxn (lue la autrel.eluaciirn txml)ia,n estri en iue,
Ho, (()rr k) culrl la -rrcocupaci<in por la vxl()ra( i(in (lcl srict{, -nan.isisnr .rrrrrrprui a las pretrul-raciones por el ()l)iet() cuanct() sc rxpcrintentl culpa. llr'lrrlt(), krs senirtienrs tlt cLrlpll>i)itlrrl se (.1ictc-zln por un <Lrble conrlx )n( trl(': prc()cLrpuci<in ))r, ri..l suelo-

rtc.- se clcpritDcn cLtanck) n() pueclen slrist:rcer.srLs fitnta:i.rs ;rtntlioss, tulnckr <]c'ben soportar kr ts y1r'.a rrrnlr ltrtr. illlcitil-t cle no prxlel ,l.u' r'ictrilr sLlcltx su gresi(-)ni () sci, (.u1rn(k) no ulcnzan lx i(lcntiilcxcin ri. scrrrlrr ctr un vr iclerrl (nr)uip()tentco)cnte (lrstru(.ti\'(). I)()r cl c()nh.ario, en (tr()s tr'st()rn()s cleltrcsivos los inptrls<ls lgresivos en (()nlr ([cl ()l)iel() s()n ( r(.slir)nircl()s clesclc el strperyr-r. gcneranrlo inlens()s sentimicnlos <lc cullr t.:rr rclx(i(in lr la ciifelcnciu entrc lngustill\ ntrcisists ).sentirllicnt()s (le L'rrlrrlriliclacl. en st.l l() ccntral cs ll prcocLrpuci<in p()l el csta(lo clel (r)jct(), l,r s sLrfiinrien). Pct() al ruisrtto tietnlto. (-Llrtrd() sc siente (.ulpx. Itir). tlnx r(.1)r( scntx( i(in clel strjcl c<nc lltlkr. llgl'csi\'(), cliin(), incligno. inr.aplz clc
lru(1i!'ir.

lriusln u la clcscripcirin que Kc(nlterg (1915. 19u(r) hilce clc estc tl.ast()rno llrnl;rs:rs grantiiosas, (llnipoten(.iaj (lenifllcin (lel (r)jeto, egresirn rles-

- que ,rr('nl()s (le irl-rcltencilr y clesesperanzu p.Lrx Ix lealizLcin cle un deseo:rl , ( st:r intensalrente fiia(l(>-, lnte toda personrr <leprcsivu re'sulta neeesrirr Il,rr(c!r'n()s i()s silluientes interr()gantcs, cla<lo <uc ello impliclni disrintas la rr, rrs rle alrorclajt' terapulico:
l. El deseo es irealizable por les culliclacles clel cleseo. por c()nstituir, dilllirtt()s. Lrn desco cull oltict<t-meta (js cxceriivitntentc elcvaclr, aleil<lo en clenrirsl (le las posihiliclacles cle esc suiek)'1 Es clccirl pelsonalirhcles narcisistrs (fuc p()scen nx)(lel()s gin(li()s()s c()n I() qlr. lrspir.rD l i(lcntificase; o i(leles (l( l)ienestirr clel objer, de p(fecci(in y cuichd()s ilimitacl<s que lc (lel)erxn \( r' plcsti(l()s. sirtien() la peson: cuc serr'a su oblig:rt ir-rn hucerlo. 2. El cleser, pese 1 no salir cle krs ruc se srclen consiclelar norntales, es rculizable p( ciclt:ts c:rrilclcrstj(s (lcl st)ict() rlevalrarlir -reprcsentlrci)n (lcl sujek). severiclxd (lc la c()ncicncia criticr, (lifercntes tip()s (le pxk)logias y lr':lst()rn()s rlel clrcter c<IDr> sttteclr. poI cjeDtpl(). cn Ir)s trasl()rn()s ()bscsivos
(\xlll)ulsiv()s seve[()s.
;Es senti(l() cr:ro irrelizalle pr'fijaci<in lr situ(i()nes (lcl pusrdo <uc tl presentc scu crptacl() l)xi() lls [eplerientrciones prov<lcaclas por rrqrrellas experiencias r k es prlr un: rclrlitlcl l(1ual (ltre rcsrlta lrpalrtllante de unt figLrru ltrt()l()gica a l1r (luc sc estil s(nDeticl(); situlciones clc -Plesenci:r gr.ren:r. dc persecuci(in fientc a Ilrs cuales p()c() sc pLle(le, etc.? i. Pol cttel n() se pue(le reernplazar cse clcseo prx <Nrr:?.Culil cs la laz(rn enxr(ional de lil flilci(in ese (lcse() pirfficulur (luc c(rr! ierte sLl n() re.llizci(in

t r clrlposa- o cleseo tlc iclcntifi( .cin con eJ yo icleal -clcpresirin -cle,rlsion nlrcisista. (lepresivos l)cfinirla cle est r)laner la esencia cle l()s trastorn()s senti

pot el (r)jrk) y prc()cupxci(in por la vllia

-nrt.isis

j.

\entilnient()s (le Vcrgli('nza. (Ilc cs itngrsfix dc tip() nxrci\ist. Nli(ntras no existe < ulpa sin tlgLn niYel cle trstom() cn cl :irel clel nitr(.isislu(). puc(le ciarss sufrilrient() nllrcisista. con l.t (lcpresin c()nsi!{Uientc, sin :t( ntir irnl( )s clc t rrlralriIidacl (lJil)rillg. l95Ji (irilclher.g ],Sielunsk). 198-{i.J .olrsrrD. l()71; KrlrLrl. 1971, 1971, 1<)79: Lax. 1989r St<ikrrw y Lachnrann, l()JOi'li)ll,ill. l9H..i) f)( f)resi()n c()r.l sentiluicnk)s cic crr\-raltilicl:rtl r]) <lepresi<in l)Lrirt)(,ll('rlrtr'isisl:r. (,l (ul(luicra cle las clos hav un tleseo que sc sicnte trrrr: ir.r'crrliz.rlr[.: lrir rrt.:trtl rlt.l ()l)ict() nltis Ltn sentinlier]k) clc Yrlr urtl del

xrr el (r)irt() ), pre()clpilci(in nr(.isistil- explic pot -Prcocuplciitrr trr('los scntiruient<rs rle c u lpa ltili<l:rcl puctlcn econrpanrsc fircLrcnteluenfc (le

5i (,1)rrsent.tlnos gllic?Itrcnte cst! ckllc rlillrensirjn clc la <Lrlpabiliclacl srr lrrr'tlD lintrt, (,n Llt() cle cr.tvos rok>s esfuvierir lll prcor.rrplrcirin .x:t.el ol.rjclo y i-n ( l (fr() lrrs cocupacictnes nllrcisistxs clcl strjer por sn vale. ol.rscants rrtr'r'rr .rlgtrrtos cltsr>s lr> rtre c.(l()ljna c\ el scntin)j(,nt() (lc pfe( )(.Llrit],()D I)(. ( l r )l)i( lr). y (,nt()nces la culpaltiliclacl poitrlrir en ntrcha rn m()\,illlicllk) (n.icnLrrkr lr lrlrtc llgo cn f:r.r clel ohjeto cle rcplftrr.irin (Klein, lgJ7i lrn r'Illlrir. cLtxn(l() l() centtll s()n 1()s-intentos seqtiIicnt()s cle inadcctrrrci<in n.lrclslstil. i l nu)villicol() pscr-ricr> ct lpt,nslrl( jo sc desL-ntcnrlc clel ol>jer v. par ret rrx rrrl el alxrr clel srr:rcry<i. 1-xrcLiin generar, por ejernplo. ?ct()s (lc lult()puni t irrn. Si algo nos nlu(]st]it la tlcccsirjlrcl iDc()ns(.iente clc castig<t c-s cuc cn ) la rtr:r'rrrac ion va tlrrs cliligith a c()nscgLlir el per.ckin v an)r del super) (), .l rE( lrl)tr'.tr Lmil ilugen cle lxnclrrrl. cle <.onfirlrr lrs irlurles cle pcrfi,cciln. 1r, Itutcl t crcla<lcnnrente algo tor cl ()l)jet(). Est.l ck>llc clinrcusjr'rt cie la crrlytalti.

hacen <ue

en culsa (le clcpresion/

I)IT'HRFNTT,S

LAMINO\ DI, I,\ IRAI)A A I-A IIEPRI \IdN

Si Ios sentir)ient()s clc irrealizabilirlacl clcl clesco t'rnstituyen el n(rcleo cot<clo cstaclo deprcsivo, se rurclc ilcgar a este nclsr por nrltiples clrn]in(), ringu!-x) cle lcs cuies es concliciirn olrtiglcla. El (liilgrr a 1 intenta

litlrrl

rn rle

pt1)c(\os lit,ct soti, .l' .la su.r,sit,ts tans/)nltciones. qtre se llega ll estt(k).lepresiv(). En l he|ros incltticlo varios ficck)rcs nxrcisistll. .rHrcsivi-tr.lst()rno cLtcl, angusti;ts pgrs^ec(k)aias, (l[icit ],()i!(). realirla.1 tltr:'iicl, il'rll('(luisnr,, culpr, ctc.-. seck)rcs qle, a su vez, poclrian representrse cacla um cle ellos <x'trpanckr el (ert'() clc un <li:rgrarrra sectori.ll en (lrc.se nl()slrtse c(in]() sc fae-

tlar una primera pr()ximllcin pxrx lx c(nnprensirin dr las (listints r rr: qu( c()n(lucen a lx (lepresia)n, l)r()strlrncl() interrelaciones entfe clistintas condiciones clrusltles. EI rliagftrlru riel>e scl entcnclitk) (()rr() fixr))] cle tr.r]smiir lll iclea cle qrre es por ld drticliacitt .la cofilpotrcDte\ p'el ancacla tnieutt cle

AVANCIjS t:N

PSICO',

ljt{APtA PSI(_OAN^l,t r'lCA N()s()tr'os

rir. NloDllI-() MOI)Llt,AR',f R^NSt',()Rl\IA(:l()N^l-

1t5

n( r:ll]. Nrrcstr'() intels ra(lica en seallr el ntotitneltlo (le al]unes p'()ces()s ([ ltirl]sl()rlttaci(-)n, lrs tlLte m son tlrii(lirrcci()rtxles. c()ln() h:lcent()s n()taf nre tli:trtc le l.)iclirecci<raliclltcl clc les relaci<rcs consignacles entre 1()s sectores.

l.
tn

.4!:ta'tr'i.ul.y .l.,ptvs u

()l)iet() es s()l)re quisimlros plecis r ()tnl clilllcnsi')ni si sc piel(lc el y llt clescorxlsivlt crlica l r, xkr. xrxre al (les.{:lsiilrl() irltcrniltllentc lllc(liilnte ()bicto t'ttk) tl\t1f<t en pielclc se por Ia rtgresiviclatl, ,rl,rlilr.i,n (lesvrl(xizllcin -itrpiisaclas s, (lc clel sujet., lil rtt()estilrm ,,1-urlr, i , el rrl.,j.,t. cs s.p.rte tlllJ Pxr,r'ru-r'li solre el prt>pio sLtcto. Veanl()s tln l)reve ejel)lpl(): se tratx-(lc sll llraa atlcltlllt n'Itcisisln() en Ln ltnclda >atolrico , ,,',,r.'quc p,rr riilliil,lcl
,,,1,,.

l.a l.cilici<-rn entre ag|csiricl:rrl 1'<lePtesirin Ir:t sickr llrgunrentc cstrcliacla rsitr lanlisis, nr existienclr. sin cl))billg(). acuercl() lrcerclr rle qu ltaptl rlts('riln(J la pritnela en Ix (xrsllci(ir clc Li segtrncl:r ni clc Ia clircccirnalicll<l r[ l rtrxeso cLsrl entre arlas. I-es posiciones xl r(speck) hs por.lcnros enr!!:rt1iu (9ntr-() r.le l;ts sigrrientcs )ncsi r) Ia agres_iliclarl (r)lt() tnr cortliciio univer-slrlnente prescnte en t()(la clepresi(in. y cuLlsll l)isi(a cle la Il'lisllta. M. l( k ir t s l rePr csentnle rrr:'is luclic:tl rlc esi lnea ( Klein. 1935. I f .i0.. u unrlr c l( )s l) ire [( )s p()rtes fielon (lc Al)[han] t 191 1 . 192,i )t l:) la egtesir, id:rcl cotno (,rrs.r (lr(, no se ruer.le ciejal lLrera clc'le comrrcnsirl (l('L (lcl)tc.\i',1. Irt:ro

(llt( (s l)tc clc

Ltn ptoceso: fl-ustm(i(-)n,

ral)ir. intent()s lx)stiles pxrll (r)tener

l. t.lilicltci<'rn <lc.selrtle: lrrego, cuantir cl 1o cs inr'lrr:rz tz()nes cxtcr: -l)()t- en c()ntr1l (lc rr.rs () irrt r-r]1rs- clc alclrnzlr lls lnctlts, lx gresivi(lacl es clidgich l.r rr'rlt sr.,rrletir-rn (lcl srio, con I:r consiguirnlc pr(li(li (le iut()estitu, (.Jlt rrlr:,t)n. l{)71. pirg. 1tt3): c) la agresiviclacl pLrcclc cst.u t()talntcnte uscnte. ri, rLr lrr r(nl:rl el (lcscc,ts() <lc l:r ttotstiLr (llil)ring. 195-l): rD llr .t.rrcrrr i rl.r,lrrrrro sc(-undaria. pLles clrn(l() cxiste cs ((11() le rcstuestl a la tllla <lel

,jr,rvcclrar,.lo clLlqtlicr ()P(fiLlnirlx(l lura clenigrrtt'le' c()nvi incl()le en ll mis ,,,,,, i,r,',,g"n intern:t ttitltllllente ciesval<iztcla I'er() c(nlx) el urriclt era' rrl (llleicl1rI1n' tcprescn lllt1)' ,,,,, ricnipr, <ttc riv'rl, trnt p()scsi(-)n nxl'(isistx ,.;,''.'a,r,lr,r.r,ar.l,, a,rn ltlgtticn tlcsvarrizcl. sentlt (lLlc elh lrl)iil tiltcasacl. , rr lrr licla, n() pu(lin(l()se lcspelllrse por la :'upr'tce lrurllt elccci<in r:tctltlcl Fln (fr()s \ ln,r estt;l xtr;tl)rt(lx cn un lclrtcirin (llc vi\a cl1r() insatisirck)riir ( ll'tlcisis_ (lc illrl)Lllsllciil irllr)r olrieto I)()r ,, ,,,rin,rs, ,lgre.iui.lacl en ctntla clel vl()riol)iet() txn-t() olljcr en r'lel (()odttca perr(li(lll (ltls ll lit ,,,,,. ,,gr..ir:i,l",l senti(k)' cst(r t'n c()nsigtliente' y clel)rcsi(i11 .,,1,,. c,rn la atttoclesvalot'lcia)n n() P()ftlLte I1l r,.r,l.r rlis Pr'()Piil(l() cttc l;t expresitin tlestrttccitin clel ollicro' I)' llts ril firrttrs del sl(lislll() ,,,t,,n4 i,Lntascc con.stt cl(strtlc(ia)n fsi(x(lescalificacin.destruyc el (>l)ict() ., sin() P()r(lt llt l,o(1le () n() lrilcc () (lel stlnxrci:iisrrr(, cs in.lisltnsrrlrlc pru- s()sterlct cl ' ',i,,,i, ,,itr,,,1r,,,t".1o <1uc (ltlc ltt1lc'ln pcl-s()n'ls sit)lilitr l (lLlc ticne lttgltr en a<luclllts
l,
r,

0lrl|t() (rlcrn() qlc pr()\'(x tirkrv rrhiu nilrcisislx (K()lr1. 1971. l9:r). l)(n-nurstl- p.-tc. entendiendo h aglesiviclacl c(I)t() un() cle los e-rtltinos irllx)rlir)lcs rr los rtte sc prtecle clesenrlocar cn Iu cleprcsi(ln. iun(luc pxr- rrl:t t l Lini<o, Jo <ue nos intecsa. solrre t()(l(). cs tlrl).rirrr ((irno y pol cu las

rlistirtrrs lirl;rs cle igresi\ i(ll(l son cepaccs clc pr()v()(ar cl sentituient() (le (lc s('sl)urnzil e in)p()tcncil para la rellizaci<in clcl cleseo. Nos sen'iri cle guia r.tr-rr llt cx'r<lsrcirn el cliltgrenr:t 2. l)ifeten(ial'elt()s. lts lircs exporitivr,'. \',1 (lu( lle(Lrcntcnentc estiln as([iack)s. Ios efrctos que pulx el sLtiet() ticne lx rttcsil'itl:t<l (uiln(l() reclc solrre Ilt leprcsent;tcin clcl ol>jeto o sobrc l.r re l)r'cscntxcii)n (lel sujek). Jlor r-rn laclo. (le [()s elcct()s (]Lrc f()see <unrkr cl <[es('() xgrcsiv() es dclttddo sobre cl ()tr'() exlcrn() rcal () cuau(l() sL- cling(j L,t,ntru ('l lirnci( )namienk) del suict(). () sel, n() sirnplertcntc c()ntra l reprcscnt.tci()n tlcl sr.rjetr> sino hati sus fincirnes llenfitles () cor-xales.

l.

/)(,sH/.,.

dctct oro dd obiclo axtartk) cn

,to t'4ki24(k)

Alr'hnr (192i) plantec-r tue Ia aresivicla<l clestruyc rl ol)jcto, drs([il)ientlt las Urntlts:ts (le tx(lus olal r anltl (lLle cleter'Iinan qLe el suieto si(nrJ rlLt(r (le\lr()z(;, itt.rritn'). ll[lt() y ni(lul(i rtl ()l)jcto. por lo cr.ral cxpcrxDentxrx cLrip.

,,,,,,,,r,llrrr.n,. xrt rivaliclatl o enviciia lL kck lo trtc les rctlcltr natla lcs restl proyc<to <ttctlit r r r.rlirsr. ni p;s()ns, ni illstittlci()ncs' ni actividildcs; ningitn (lcsll'tc(iil tlcl ol>ictlr y Atlt(l(c lt<'iotl ' 1,1,,, ,ltl .lttesti<,naricntt . clc la clenigt (ltlc nlun(l() (lc estimulrlntes' v'lli()s()s v ol)iet()s , 1,,, , , ,ralL,ce a tn llltln(k) !c() , ,,,lllPra(l() P()r cl stlicl(, c()ll tlll lllLln(l() ilrl:liinlt ri( ) polllatkr clc olrictr>s xlgun()s ,,1, rlizrrrlos qttc'ric sienten, cn c( )nsectlen( iiI. ctllt inlcanzalllcs' lln ,,.,^. lrr ,destlttr ci<-rn, tle l<s (r)iclos llcgil lt scr tiln gcner:tlizacllt ttte nlttle cs (lc cnrt,l( ( il)le. cttetlanclo c(nlx) ni(() clesco, clol<ltosanlcntc senti(l() el , ,,rlr.t ills() (l(le sllqtle clel ltrrirticntl y Ill ilpiltill' rltri' r*,,'"r'i.tr,,t cn ('()ntrll clel <tl.lier (llte p()denl{)s Pxltictllrizllr 'rttn 'i () \i l'<t''lc (l(9 tt'tt".'isislri es Lnlt Posesiitt , r., ,irrigi<irr cn c()lltlil rle tn ()l),ct() ),t, t'l rhjatrt da lu (tctit'i(td tt.ttcsis/a Hs lx ditcrcncia (lue intr()(luiirn()s en (tlc (:ll-xctri/'lltl,s ,,, ,lr() lrui)a) s()l)rc el n:lr(isisnlt ( lllcicll lrlt , I!)lll) cn () c()s:Is- c()n l() lttttcllo k)(l() , l.r . /nN{/(),('s /allt lls/ls c(xr() -pelsonlls. ()l)itt() ctl c!cs (lcl () frll()s (ltl('(l l()s l)))i) t:l ,,,, ., ,,,",rric,rc tn:t rcL<iin (lllc rePre1l,,r rt ( irr'r s()l)le la tcprcsenlitr'irn clcl suieti)' Es, lxrr cjcntplo -ltl , rrt rlr.r (l tiritri(l() i)llal Ii l)a(iclte !gnci( )tlilclll t))tls itrril)tl: es )t> ctte ptterle r" r1'rlr(,lr (lll Irir lllra stts fa.l,cs tln cl lll()olcnt() ett ctte tecillc tln Pt'<l)li() c()n c()n(ltlctll p()r ci(rtx l, ,r ,.1 ( ntrlrri(), ait,,,,ral,, ,lr"reac Llnl e<ntlcna s()ci1tl (lcl Pr(),,l, r.r,l.r lclrolallle: la villl dcl ()l)ict() sc sttllra ltlgclrraicamentc lt la () o lil>xs Pintrlrirs scll()s' I'r,, .rI, Io.'I-: crslt. cl ;lt)t(rlnitil' la c<leccitin tle el mig() p()stsi(in nxrcisista lis unx , ,, ,,',,,ttit,,y.n una plrscsiirn narcisistll () senlimient() el exit()s()1 lic() st:r flltlloso , ,,, '., , ',lrilx' lnte trls clt'llls prrr

r lis Ltn Pr(xcs()

.t()

AvANcDs liN pst(io,t.rRAptA pstcoN^LTIcA

I.:I. MODIJI-o MOI)UI AR-'TRANSFORMACIONAI-

1/'

('s (lc in(rentenk) (le l: airoestilna, clc fisirin c<n la vllor.aci<in rlrte uterec.e el

1.1 (l)ieto.fu ld.tctt..14d tlutTsstt, cr.r clrurltio, cs a<1uei qr.re peDlte ,rz_ /l:?/runi xctivi(la(l <1uc otora val()m(.i(in nalcisista aJ sLict.'Es el ,rl.ret,r-lnr_ lnll)lcnk) parl Lrna llctiviclu(l rlel strjeto ctre lta sickl narcisstican]eote catecti_ zlt(lir, ()l)ick) stn el cu:rl l :rctir..irlacl () tLrncia)n no rtrrclc existir. I)(, ejerpl(), cl rrr<,r1ro (lel ()tr() (lle, l<iclrris cle poteer clc plecer cr<igent,, posiltilit;r el s(x( ltillcisistl (lc sentir ([tc cl sr,et() p()see llr prtencia tle pxtcltrcir.el placer rk..t.se otrr el ()tro (lrc es<.r.rcha y rcsp<>ncle. sin el ctral el placcr. narcisista tle Iltlrlrtr t'cic c(xnLlni(.ar es it]cxistente_ l)c igtrrti nraner.a. cl peciente y su cucr_ l, r prr:r el c inritrno. o cl pilrno , la llisicl pa! e) pi;rnistrr:'cl alLnlnr, I.t n_ ) s( nilr)zir l)rt-l el prr>fcsor pues le p()sil)ilitn ir stc (lre sc clesplicgLte trna ha

l()r. negllti\1) () p()sitiv(). qrre se l.taga solle gr,,p,r.aa,rar.,,ltr. la per.,tna. (;() l p()srsi{in nr(.isistll cxiste rna iclenticliciitn "l parcill, exclusivarrrenre en rrnlt tle sus clintensiones. l cle su v:rlut por elkr n<ies necesri(, (lue seil LDa rt,r'sonrr. prrclienckr ser ctrllquier (()sa u ()l),et() nratct.ial.

()lr(). IgL.lllDcnte constituye una p()sesi(in narcisista el grLrpr> aJ ,r,. ,r('(c pxrtid(). lglesia. ut()virDienk) i<leolrgico. ctc._, y.t qtre el

..

paara_

luicio tle vr-

rlvestidas como rbictcs icleltliz:<los inltlcanzal)les, rlnrlr ltg:t:t l insatisir( il)le crg (lc xnhel() r)rencionli(k por l'reucl ei lllhbicill. sntt .\'atr .rl/r.s/lr. Bs la clep|esi(ln crnicir que prodrrce la pemranenci.r en cllalquier trx lr.ri() xl que se clescrtlificltrc y que pas.L x realizxlse l)rt()c '(ticrrlrcntc. T()cl() rr.r(JLre o (lescalillcaci(in l()s ol>iers cle la uctiyidcl narcisist dejlr un v.lci() ( r) cl sLrjet() para la ptresta en ctivi(lcl rlc las funciones qrre clepenclicncl,r cle , sc (r)iet() c()ntril)uven a s()stener no sirlo llL auk)eritina siro, tltnlrin, los cli r('rcntcs nivelcs (le ()rguniza(i(in clel psi<uisrrro.r*

llt

AXt"srildd.tclttdclt contttt el obictu e-\lct' o


Si lx pers()nlr n() sa)l():rtacr

ttol

represenicia)n de los obietos clentrr cle ella,

irrrlrtrrrt.i,r (lLrc tcncll.a. o 1r,r. l"r.,rnciici,rncs tn (lLe ;e (lesar)lla, o l)r ,r l. r ( s( t:,i t l ( ( r , ll l)(,nsll ntlttcrial cltre ()t()rga-. lr cirs esos xtllques temri_ rr;rrr xrr lr,rr t r \r,lllrf;tl sri({() itnp()tente pul.l la rcalizac.i<in cl,l ,,,1 (la.re,, n:ll ( isisl.t (lr' r'.rliz.rr i.rr lrllsol-till (lu(, clepcncle cle esos oltjetos. La tropia profe_ so o.rrtir trl,trl ,tl).1( ( (.( ( )nl() nr '".:rli<sa en Contfaste a,ra,rtr", qUC qUeCl;Ln
,

lrr lr< tivicllrd nirr(.isistll rxplica el clesectrililtrio rrofLnclo clue sc prr>c[ce en al l.llrl.ls l)(r's(,n.ls druante los fil-tcs de semn o las vacaciones. Si sc llrr'r .t (5k)s ()l)ick).\ clc la a<.jt,irlerl n:rcisi.sta _p(r. cjertrtlo, itcrsrn)ir\ (lu( (l( )iqrlrn sLr trtlxrjrt r> prrfesitin a la cLrc pelterrelen en rlllntr> a llr

l)r)n(' rl) :t((i(in sr (ilpr(.i(lad rlu pen,.rr y su s.rl.t. prir.r,.rn,ll,rie<ll ei jLeg<t v ( l (1)rlrin(1lnte para un clcportistn; el ltutorl<ivil part lrn corretkrr clc cnrle_ r.rs. r'i ltr r l'lrm el pacite o lu rn:Lcl.e. cuanckr llt pateinicletl y lu nr:rterniclacl s<n . lrr jrl:rrlt s nir(-i.sistits (lue testiu(til.ln tle I r,:il rleJ ,u;cto c:lprtcrrlrl rrr-rr ik.scnrperi:rrl:s. S()n objelos cle la activiclarl narcisista l){..\L cLralctriei <fl rr {) rrrrlrsion () a(.tivtcla(l y las personas i, ()l)iek]s qUe (.()nstitltyen parte i (, stittivit (c stxs- <rie pcrnitrn <1uc unlr lirr.rt.itin <l<tth <le !.tk)r naR.i_ sist:r. rrrrl<r'ttl o intelcctulrl. se rcalice lll ()l)jct() (lc l aclivi(li(l nltr(.isistu (ics( nrl)cr)lL. r.r't cu.rot() a llrs hrnci<nes del sujet(). (.apta(lxs (les(le cl c(i(lig() nllr ( i:,rs(:1. (ln P:rltcl eclrriv:rlentc al tlrre tiene cl oltjei cle la ptrlsirin: pcrlrrirc (lLlc :r lr':r rt t, sr nrct: <l tl7eto tlc )a pulsirin cs e<lucllo xrr k r ctr:rl irretle a lc:rn zirI sU lctil" (l'rcu(l. 1915c, pr'ig. 11t, cursiva cn el original). Si c.l nirrcisis t<) ('s l)ia el se ltrnt.tno unlr litcrza t]t( )tiva( i()nll tiln in-lp()rtnte <rrmc kr es la s(rr(riicltt<l cle ls Ztlas erogcnas, tartrbin toscc <r,|lt,, st srrs objers es_ xr'litrr.s. il l()s (e ca(ll pcrs()ni (lue(lit fljircl:1. l_x usen(.ia cle los objelr>s cle

-crnrcirtrient(). ,,t,,r-.r r,.rlr.r. pjit .t .ln,ilrst:. t lsteri,r,lrt, rtn p.((i(nar l(.rcl.rt.t pue: n(.r l(

lrilrrltrcl

capxcictxd peclagogica, cliscrrr.siva.

ctc._

tr.re le
lt_

|r() (l!c act(iil la rgresiviclacl en el munclo extelno, (lcstlU)'enckr relaciones l.riliiLles y (le rlnistad, lelxci()nes lalrrtles, ( )p( )rt Llni(la(lcs cn Il yi(la [cll. r,,lr elkr rlescDrl'<)cx en sitLrilci()nes clc (leterior(), cle irlpotenci para Ia rcalr;.rr ir'rn cls rleseos cle alror. de rec()n()ci[ricnro. <le krgrrs en el lnrLncl() exr, rr(). Lr (leprcsi(in cs. en est()s cas()s, el rcsLllta(k) (le Lln tixcxs() cn l clelt, ,,,n <lc c<nclicir'res (lLc pcrrian la caliz:c'iir (le dese(rs que s()n crnfrles t , r ir lx pers()nir. lis kr rLrc se ol)setv con rrruellas pers()nas quc pasan grln
,
l

l( (lc su vich tacan(l() l<l tttc en stt ncglci<in ()rlrnipotentc consicleran cttc ,,rlloLL(orente prrcL'rin Iecrtrcrur, pera clcs-rus. a cierta e(litcl. r'uan<k ll ellr,l.rrl irnricle cl !)antcni,))iert() (le lis ilusi()ncs clefensivs. sentir t(xl() (()luo ,, , rr rcdilblelrentc per(lido
l,u

I'
.1, I ,

lprajit'tltrcl rlirigidu coutra

el

p,'oPio sttick)

clcsr'f(rllath cles<le la pcr\nccr\'.1 -uno, r)f'lict(), Ilr egresivirllcl 1, llrs crrnrctelsticlts especiles clel strperyti (Kernl" ri l9lttl)r el rtro, enlrtizanclo la inlportxnci ck' las f;tllas (lel ()l)l(t,) (xtcrr,,, ( Al:rrks()n, 1993)-. cl plrl clel nrasr>cuisuro cn la gncsjs (le la cicprcsi<in , , r r( l.r(k )sanre nre ex:rniinack (\'rsc ur)rl)ir GIick y ,\lt1,cr. l9ltlt). tssras ',,trlrtrr'i<ncs. irs c(nlr() el c()n(x itient() qle tenet()s (erca (lc ls rel-cio',, ,rrc el sujeto establrce c(msig() misrr() (llollas. l9li7; l.'aithairn, l!52; l r, r,l. I92J), nori penuiten aLicntr.rrn()s en pol rr,r Iu ag[csiviclatl er c()ntra , 1. I l,r,,l)() sriet() clesempe:t ull p1pel tln irtD()rfxnlc en la (lgtcrnlinci(in (lc
,

lrr (k)s tralxj()s lr. uy cliletcnles

lrlllr

rI

l,

,1, rltsir-tn.

)r.
L

l l

,rriLr() dc [

ir(j|i(l(l

nir(isislir

\(

(lL,hc

(lilr(nriur drl ol)ick)-(l!'l-s./ d( liol]\r qr)r

",,rl.rrrz.r
l

pxrcoll i(le.|' -rug) (]cl srrir) t:l &,s c1r\,)s i, (lu( sL nr)(lfi(.r c5e .i:rlrir(lrtc (s L .prcscnrr.itln I r,,,1( l.r :r(i\i(lird nirrcisist k) quc rrnxlili('x c\ el ./it cn"dnti!tk) (lcl sur1() v. (()ncooli

ll

sicr() () que l(j

prflrlil(

tirsi()r11rrse c(nr slr ltr.rndi()sr(h(l

1sr()s

'u

r(.Prcienllci(')n.

ti

AVANCI]S IJN PSI(,O'fI]RAPIA PSI(,OANAI-!I(]A , ( .,rl.r( l( ).

ll_ M())lir.() Nt()l)Lrt_At{-'t'{ANst:ol{MActoNAI_

19

sictlprc en tel:rcirirn consifl() [lislra, actttand() y ()l)ser \rin(l()sc..lcttlanal() )' reaci()nxn(l() llnte su actLtalci(-)n' As cotllc c()n Lna figr: cxlrrnil sc Plc(le tenel unll ilctittl(l l)sic (le 'tnx)r. de lcsptJei(;n (n (u\1) (s() t()(l() lo qtle aqu'lla hace es consiclcrll(l() c()n llllcn()s ()i()s' (), p()l'
l,.r -rttsonlt estli
(

l (()ntrlri(). cle lx)stili(l(1. cle if.aLlal lnxnera en lx rclaci(in (lLle l Pers()nl tie rr( (\Dsig() ruistllt i.l ctittl(l cle l).lse ptLecle ser cle all-Ior () clc ()cli()' En estc ltirrr tltso. ltnte la lllcn()r lir.tstraciitn el st-tjetlr se castigll. sien(l() la llrlstiliclacl ( ()rsili() ltrism() la cue va cretnclo. en cxclal situaci(in. el .trgtllllenk) qtlc se tsa )'l t1'll\li l):llir ir:ll1ciind()se. Nr se tllt (lue sLl suPcrya) lenfl tn est''indxr (lcl sLict() ]' (lrlc ttricl,r con lcsPect() al ctllll sc c(xllP1tra lx representa( i(in insxtisl'tc se sientc ctl1rnckr constut ttn (listanci entre sta y cl icleal clel !'() t.iol llsti en tcci(in, cn cllltl)i(). lO que lrrcucl ciescril)isra conu saclislx clel (ltle se srl)( r'y(-): Llnx lctitu(l l)i'tsica clc hrstiliclltcl (ltlc elcva el esttln(hr con el (lLe (lel ncceslri() ell l() sLtjcto t()(l() () I)ara cnrrriclc, relrlja h replesentaci<in (lLlc gtilll:i. tenlx (le lx)stili(la(l ()p()ftLnid(1 serir estil cfiticarse. (.()ltlrilf la cltYarn Se l sttiet()' que iriln se exigencilts tlt nciosrttentc. hs Plante1rnclo \Ll r(Pl t\unti r( ir )n-, (le ln()(l() Irs irleltlcs o se tlcnigrer al prtpi,r srrich' -.t rrr,. lu lrteta cnlrc llll)()s se lllllnteng siellrplc ltl)ie ' l.:r rtgtesiviclacl llltjo la firnllit de c()ntinLla ltlttocrticll n< s<-lt cleteriora l r, ,r.sl.nt,tcirn clel se'l sinrl ctlc tetltllin ejel(e tln itnPltct() negxliv() en el

l]]icl'ttrlls (lLrc el sujet() se repesentll c(rlt() estancl() en unll n(,si!j(,n (lLe el ol)iet(). g()z.lnd() o disp()nienck) cle a([lell() cFtc ste c.lrer.r l:n s(,llun(lo lrrgar. cl sujer se rep-esenta c(xno infictor de ciert()s lltn', cllrar:is, nr lrarlts sufrir. protegeris. vucluris. stlvarhs. 'lrr, r, sul)r,f\,()i(()s -nrsi el ()tr() n() lr> hlcc, crc. . Iln(lat()s que le Inccn senl, r rs lt.liz. t'to gozar;'rs , , ,rl ,.rlr[', tant() si pr()v()ca) el sllfiinrient() (lel ol)iet() c()lllo si n(), l() .tyuchn ir ,lr ,k l nrisru< xunqre i no hlr,va siclo el (atls?nte. En tercer tnin(). ).est() , ,'.., rrt'ir1, cl sujct() tiene que iclentilicalsc <rn el sufr-irnicnt (lel ()tr.(), scntir ' ,,rrr,, rr'<rio lo quc lc pxse. pr()yectiil' s(r)tc el (fr<) experiencias sitnl)(ilic ,,r, lll( (\luivrilentes. Sin iclentificci()n v anl()r p(r'el objeto n<t ltay cr.rlpl aun .. r rrnrplan las ckrs conclici<nes nrenci()n:r(llLs'1tntes. , r, Ln ( ururk) lti origen cle l()s sentilnient()s rlc crrlpel>iliclecl. si scgtrinros .r lr, rrl. r,sfc Iirc tlinclo e lo largo cle su rltr su c()nccp(.i(in acerca cle ctri l, ',,n l:rs ('()ncli(i()nes <lte los gencntn. (ilro strr'eclc (\)n ()tl()s tenras. ial ,rrrrI iiclucl (le] pens:unient() licuclien< ha claclo iLrgar lr ct-ric-ntes clentr() (lel
'
L,

,,ll , l.r\()rirl)lc

, ,rrr(s lcc()n()cer. por lo nrenos. cLt:tr() c()ncepci()nes sollc el ()rigcn (lc la .,r,'.1

l,,,,.rrr;ilisis(ltlesexp()y.lnenLln()t(fft)(lcsustlcsnoll<s.Flnl-leu(l,p()

tn Lln'r li!t( k)tlttl1cttb tlel scfi El sLljet(). ()(liatn(l()sc. c()nsLlllle stls cnergrls ()t1lln(k) ( yricos-, y() clllcit r1rr. r'r',r inttlna, .ttlcl e inhil)e su -Pr()dllce (ic sLs (lese()s ll lrrnsettlcn''i't cs (lr:rl(lui(r ln()\'illlient() hlcill h lelllizxcin (lr] slri('l() cDrp()l)re( i(l(). incapaz cle l)rin(tr stlstent() a stl Ll)estiln:l' Fln l()s ('irs( )s ('n (lLre el stljet() sc finaltrlente caraz tlc caPtllr c"r() se hall atectlo'
Lll] s( r)lir)ict-rk) dc gtnLin ple()cLlPaci(in ,v ctrlpa poclri't sollrcvenit' Grinlrcrg Ilr irsistitlo cn lx ilnpoliancia clc tenel en cLlent no sciltl el llrlces() cle clttc lo < rrrrs:rrk r lor la pi'itlicla clel ollieto sin() tltl]ll)in el clltelo ptlr llls paltcs clel \() (luc s('t cxPeril)tent.t(l.ls cour<l prcliths 1l cttlsa de h prcvia atlr' r'tgrcrir I-

,tt t ullxt (lcbiLlt

a kt cttctlitluel le

ks leset)s

t)lsci?

t?s

tl
I

rLrrl ((iinlrelg, 1963). No clcscrtntos extendern()s en tn exlnlcll Illals (lctll(l() clc ctittlo la agrc sir itllrl ruccle conclLlcir a la tlepre'sirin, Per() creclll()s tlr.le kr expttt'ito pct'ttti-

t,. r'.'r ,tt. la < ltlllll es srilo

Ias vicisitttclcs (ltlc sigtsn lt la llgresivichd (lc rl,. ringtttra ntincra el cxlllin() ol)ligl(l() cttc ttrcclia cntle rtgresivi(lx(l y

unl tle

u.,Istrrs in(estlr)sos y'Itostilcs cuc el 1.o (l;reu(I. 192.]). I-e culpaltilirlarl, tu, Ir.u'r'ciera n() tcncl lirn(l.uucnto parr la c()ncicr]ci.l. s lralh srr jrrstificlrcir-rn , r , l rrc()nscientci cs >or lu fanlasa lxstil clel sLljct() en (()ntr:r <lel ol)jcr clc ,,r,,r l. rrlpl scria. cle este oxrckr, le crnsectencia ntulll. kigic.lr. de h crral,,ir,l rlt.l dcser: clarlo cue kr que se clesel cs tlilnsgres()r. rcsullr:L natrtrI. n()

l)( s(lt sus prinrr()s tr'1rl).r)s Freucl (Caa 71, ttJ97r 1909) consi<ler cr.rc cl , nrrri(rt() clc ctrlpelriliclacl es p()r lx cxisten(i1l (le (iefi()s (lesc()s scxL.rlcs y 1,,, lrl( s (lLlc entraln en (r)ntra(licci(in con las r cpresentaci<>trcs pret,ltlcntcs en el 'rt, l,, lisflt c()ncep( i(-)n dr: clue l:r crrlpe sc otigintL p(n lll cxistencilr cn la realilr,l rsrtrri<a de Ln (lcsc() repuclialtlc halllr srr txrrcsirin en h firnr:LtrLt, rrnl ,, ' ,l, srrrxrlla<lo el nrrlckr esttllcturI, <ur cl sr.rpery<i salr rnris rlcl ello ---<le

()tr() ln()(k). <ue le rcrsonu se sir-rtietr crrlpeblc. "lrr.r scr'(le

rrr'siotr.

J (.1tll\t | (hl)t1'sijtl
l)igiul()s, l)rrir (\)ll)cnzlr tl anlisis (le l()s sentil))ient()s (le ctllPal)ili(hd' (lu( a\l()s (sliir s()sl(rli(l()s P()_ tlnll ctlLlcttlrlt dc llt fnnfeslt en qlle P()del]]()s riirc.r'ail r',r'i,,s (()t)ll)()rtertlcs. tln Prilller lttger, ttnlt dol)lc i(lenlid'ld qle el stlinfl'liz' ict()rlril)tty( xl ( fr() \' i! si tllisll)(). lll ()tro es vist() c()!n() tln scr stlfriente,

t" , llrt lx'lct crdilictckitl trrc se baca clL'k i

tpttlsos .t, desros

It r'() jLrnto csta c()n(epci(in ntLrulistx cle la cLrlp:r. c1r.re lrcucl lt il nt:lnr, r,'r rr lo lergo clc locla su ()l)n, pl.rnteil (fr-l (.rlrs.l rlc la culplbiliclacl, <tre no , l, r 'r rt lc ya <le llr cte liclcl clel clcse < I ( ) irtrpltis() sin( ) clc la coclificacirin que el Il.lrr lr:r]a (lc 'st()s. Fln Iutrodtcci(i1t dal trurc'isisnt<t cli<e: ,l;rs DustD.r illrtr "r,rn(s \'\'ive0ciais, Lrs ntisrtt<s inrprrlsos v ltx)ci()ncs cle cleseo ctre ttn

5o

AVANCtiS

liN PSICO',litiAPA PSICO^N^l,illCA

EL MODtrl,O MO,JULAR-

I RANSIiORMACIONAI,

51

ilI lllen()s pl()cesa c()nscientel)lentc. ()t1 (iesapl'()l)'td() P()f (fr'() c()n in(lignll(ia)n t()tal () ahogad<ls ya ntes que clevcngan c()nscientes' Alr()rlr l)ien. es flitil expresar la clifl'rencia entre esos cl<s bonlbres, qlle conti('nL llr c()nciicj(-)n tle la reptesi<in. en tlllin()s qllc lil tc()ria cle la lillirlo ptteclt cltrruinr. Ptrlettt<s clecir cuc ttn<l lut crigicltl en el inteli(n cle s tn ulectl
lronrlrr'e lolcrlt ()

,I rllr<cirln r pxltir (lc un prejuicio se terttlinarri conclu-vc'nclo. en c.l(laL ()p()rrLrniclacl. <tre sc es lrltlo, sicnclo l< cue hace () sicnte en es? ()casi(in la excu...r tLre p.;mrite firmxf ]() que se crc.t previattrentc.r" ste es el crtso cle krs ,rre se iclentiti<lrr con patltes <u)pt>sos: cl tlese< lil>iclinlll (lrigj(kt lllrci.l cl ol)t(1(). guiand() lx iclentificuci(-)n, cletenrrina qtrc (!ln(lo el olljeto es l)lLkra)gic(,

r( l)c.\cn.lcia)n incr>nsciente

tlel sttjeto e()lr)() (l.tin() <lesclc Ia clrte lor pura

firrtnltt i<-rn cle x cl <nal micle su ycl llctl-IllI, lnientras que en el otr() falta csa (le explicci(in ( eie la original) Lll itlt,Il, lrrcucl. 19l,ia, p:ig.90. ctltsivx cn el qtle el iclcl y la en sin() <> clel clcset> t rrsir.le- yl en la cttirliclecl tlc-l inlpLrlso pocos (litt'entes y <)ttos. Cttantl<l tln()s erl instllncir cticrl evaltacltrl s()n (ltte cl(:lcuerirnplicarl tIlic:l, es) llt seguncla firl'mule lrnos clespus l'rcltcl rl<r:t rr-rro se cleslrolle el sttpery, tttt gual ett lo(k)s bs .tt.ctos, se (leterllli rirril (l(c se.itntr () n() iul>4. AqLr h:t1 ttn cetbit> raclic:tl tttc ticnc illlPlir'ltt'tr'tls parlt el trat1llient(): ya n() 5\- tl'lt.t, ! 'olr "'rur'rLrt't rPlicanclo la tlte cttanclo el :ln:llista >r'irrrcta conccpcir-rn sollre l:t cetlsa clc la ctrlpallilicllci, tlt'st ul>re (lue stl P.ciente ticne ctllpl inconscicntc clclc lluscar exclttsivanl( ll(c ()s <lcse<rs teprilliclos sin() qte, lltlll)i'n. ) ccntlalll)entc. se P!cgtlntalri lrt'rrcu de las ttzones rot las cttales el srrpeq'<i coclific ctltl< 'rgrtsivo t' rl:rniro alg< (lLtc ()trll pers()nrl n() Ilar. lll analista rtte tenga en ( ttenll cl ca ri(l('r L'()clifica(k)l rtte el srtpcryli ll;tct clc- llrs (lesc()s n() lc transulitit:i al p"tci( nt( I1r c()nccl)( i(in "p()r tcner cs()s (lcscos sicntcs culpe" sint> qtle lt' Ilt'r'arit ir irrl('tr)l{1ltsc P()r qtl stls cleseos son clptlcks clcscle tln:t PcrsPectivrl (l(le le Irrr't scntir tlitnsgtesor. cttliles fiteron hs conclicitnes ctte ctlntrillLtyel<ln a (()nslrLri un sttpcrl'r con ciclt()s i(lcillcri tilnic()s. unll c(nlcienci:l crli'l sevt l'lt. trn sltclisttxl clcl stiperyr en c()ntrit clcl ,l cltte llttsc:t cualcllricr <olrtalla

'.( in(orpore, incliscriminaclDente. xlos los lttrillutos cltll <llljeto. entre ellos , l \crtirnien ) clr ctrlpal.liliclacl. l':nll>in It itle-tificcit'rn se pttecle proclr.tcir r,,, trrn lo quc ei (fl1) es sin() c()o h irrtagcn qttc el tIr'o signillc:lti\'() in()(tll.l , 1l (l suiet(). hcinckle .rcel qtlc es lll:ll() () lgresiv().

,lt .ttlpq por tttt'o.l'cccii


l'.11

.l(4 oltqtt<'41 oblelo

Dt tclo .)' ntlcu tctl rt. el atttorreproclle. lll atttoinctllpacitin, cs el rcsulrlr la intr()\'(cci(in tle lu lgresitir-: tliligitll tiginalmcnte cn <rnt:l clel tili, t,, (,r h crncienciu se aLr)rrepl()(ll, en e[ inc()ns(ientc se rc-lt<xha al tllr I r, l)()(ir pcnsl$e qtie cst.t crtnclicirin cs igttltl a l cles< rit inlllcdi:rt.llllcnte

r.r,I

r. .rrriha. chclo qtte en cste tnl)ai() Freud plllntca la itlentificacitin secunclltrr r r r cl r>lictr >erclirlr, es clecir el rcctrtplazo cle la ctexis cle olljeto xrr la
,r
r,

l);lrr

ll(rtc1tr.l')

()

!tll,.t pu'

illc

fic.tcLitt

t"rcr.rcl. en el cap. V clc El .l\) .1'el allo i923)' afirla refirinclose it la cttlp''t (-tran(k) ir'rc( )ns( isnte: "tlnlr pa ictrlar posilliliclcl cle intltil sollrc l se tiene ('s( scntir)ricn) [<;c ctc tttlpa cs p|cst(k, valc clecir. el reslltucl< clc l iclentilitlttirtt ctn (nlJ pers()nlt (ltle xnta() fire olljcr cle ltnll invcstidllr-1r er)ticI" (l)lig. 51. (ursi\'lt en el <>riginal). tln estc cus() n() cli (ltlc la persona pol sls cle-

l, rlilicxci()n. l)trt la tLti'lencil rl(licx en qtle ctt I )uek .1' tttt4clttcr1-t l iclenrrlr,,r.ia)o que sLrfie el ytt ('s c()n el ()l)iet() cxterno clestinlllillio cle la .rgrtsi'-,n. , ,Ir'ir-con ct objeto al ctte se le reprrha. En cttlllio. cn lt 'cltlra prestt ,l r l.r irlentificlre i<-n cs tl] ttn ()l)icl() (lLlc sieute. l lllislllo. ctrlp:tbiliclacl. tis rlr,, r.xistente en cl ()l)ict() cxtern() rel {l s(Jntinlien) clc cttlll:t- clttc, ll t,r' r lll( il(e h iclentificackln clel sttjeto c<>n csc ol>je> cxtern(), el sllie) t(nlla , ,1'r, si llgo trre firnna prtrte clc esu iclcnticlarl cle culpabili -{l senlirlient() 'J,,1 N()se lil.r clc llt lg:'r:sirn introeclltcla sino clc It>s cfectrs tle l itlenlllr, r( l()r estluctur-lnte qttc (()nstiluyc irl sttieto Pxrcillllrcnte il iltlltgcn Y st de le autplie gatne ,',, trrrzrr clcl ()tro. (:()n stts cttlpas o stts utieclos -ejctnrlosclc la iclentjtlccin ,1, t,.rlr)l()ga clr.re se ruetle cleslnollltr p<>l el tecanisttltr \llr ('rnl)itrg(), csits aLat() c()nccl)ci()ncs rle llt ttrlla, qLe cn FrcLl(l n(, st ,,,rrr.rlxnren sino qlre se sLlmun. eo (listintas cscucllrs ps ic<lanaltit as pasln a

.,,r' ,, r,r'

L rrlificltcirin tttc el sttpery'l va hltciencl<l clc sts c<nclttctls lle grrr- lr llr r'otrt lttsion inc()r'lscicnte cut es mal<1. sin() quc sc trta ([t' tlnlt idcnlitLrrl lrrsi< rt glrlral, la cle ser malo, agresivo. La l)latriz inconsciente cle cue es r;rl,r ur'tr'r'ltr'll r( l)rcscntci()nes en st c()ncienciil cle cltte ltiztl tltl < cttal cosa

irr:rr[,rr.rrl,t tl, rtilIi el ()l)iet(). lt ltg:ltviri. elc- l)( t]t(). gent:Lrr''i


1,,

r'tn't

I l \r() lirr rl irtrcs l(ti(ion.rl dc t)r'r r, ((nn() rlirrrl:irtrnrls un l inr()(itrt( n-)n llr r\i, " l, ,rrr inrinr\rcnt(' L'n rL( hrrl trt.Ptrs lx i(l(r)ri(tii(l dc nrrrl() lrr rnlis iilll (llr c(ul(lLricr un iur( iGsc,rtiri!ni( ), Lr .r xfinllir(i(in (ltr( tn str (xr:i(l(r xbslr:r(). (rnrx) (rccn , ,,,rz,rrrrrnnal.lacnc rti inlinilits Icr:i(rres. 1)r(rclr:r. tlrnrl)i'n. (ltre el irr(1rr)(i(ne no s(-)1,, , ",, t,, ( (truillrlidud t1nl)or'( )'csp( ixl t) por scrncixnzr sin() qtrc rLlrrcc l)estrl(ltrcnn)s irde ,, ,,r, r'r 1:r .irr (le treu(I. slc trsu lx nr)Iirrin k'( [r vuehc ir rtrlrrrrr Plirrllr)s dtsPlrs-,
r.,,,,1,,i rr,,il.

\,'r*
r(

l.r

ttr'rrrl\lrl
(l('

f,'r\,r r,,,

rr 'l( r,tr,

(lrrc Pre\cnl.tnr)\ cn s(,)re cl Prrrlr "t ,,! il, l t).t( i,rrl( ) riL'lfr lillx lr.r lrrrrr.r (I :rl)li(rlr e\l( c()nceplr) 3 l' terlrrx (l(l 'ruicril1 ,, r,-rrlr, ,,nr r,rrtt t,r l:r nrivnr.

(l(.rpittrk)

strPeI]

trn

l() (les(riptr!.rortnt(j inc(nrs(rurltt c(nn(, l( Pcl1tn((1cnlt rll Prc(()rr* l"nr. F(i_ , ,,,1, ,tu( r(luars del in.()nscicntc (lc l()s rcs&)s ccrrx(l()s s()l)e si rllisnr()s. Ptrrl)s ignilicnrl_ r1IrrrIi(:r(ll). c\islc (rr() sul)sislenlir inc(nls.icnl( (cl l.c fictr(lixn()) qtrc lirncion dt' ,,. I ( ()Ir,) r(.1rlnr()s Llr c\l()ner

(,lr:r ii(Ir( cl 5tnld() (lc rc):rr(.rr (ltrc

\!

L!.r (lcl inLi)lr\'ilrnl('\i\ltrrl.li(r) (lcl

r_

,, j,l,

rl
(

AVAN(]IJS

IiN PSCO''IiRPIA PSIC(]NA] I I'ICA

IJI- MODIiI-O ]!TODU LA R-'TR AN SF'O

]\1,\( -ION AI-

))

r )rrslilultsc rn las explicacrnes quc se itrvoc att clc nlanela cxsi e\ciilsivx. En (rr)ll1r,))()s ir i un esPectr() tltte la cles<ls cl prlk; ctte ocltparia lr escLrr-l kleirrirrnlr. r.'n la rlue cttancl<> cl tn'.rlista (letect culPl itlc()l'lscicnte lttst:r tlinl()lr'() polo. acttellos rtnelistlts rrrlsrr.rgtcsir.o rerrittriclct {) escin.lid() \'. en cl (l(('(r('(n tlLre h cttlpabiliclatl es sictttpre el lcsultacl<l clc llL incttlp.rtr"n p"t' r.rrtc t[ le figr.trt externl. ctrsiclerltnckl <rtc tl conflicr intr:tpsirtric" ittt'glt Lrrr rrPt'l sccuncleri() P()r eietnPlo. -K()l)Llt. Nlurks()n ( l99J). en tut intercsrrllte xrticlLl() s(r)r(j el trlasrlclttisttl<l 1' Ie clclr'( si()D, (lsslirca t'l efccr cLrlplllilizllnle (ltle llgtll()s patlres proclttcen en sLts lrii()s il t[l\'s cle mostr1trles stt troPic> sLllt-ilrlient() ]'.lrril)Llir i'stc ll llir. o al lrir(('l(5 scnlir en f;la si cl hirI clrr evi(lel)cirs tle gozertrscrIeliz (ilrlr tlir'r. \lrtrkson: .Est() lel scntinriento cle cLtlpltllilicietl ) n() ts sirllPlctrltnt(' llt r't, rtt'i()tt clc ltnlt llntasa in((]scientci clc tttlttlet lil)iertla () cllclll)ic'tl, (]I sL lrirli( nl() (lc los -,;tclres cs lltlil)\tid() tln nio clttc I elkrs no les lrtrlr.tcc plltrtr, ( r:ig. 9J2, :lgregxcl() tuio lo ttte cstli cl1(re l)rlrttsis) Ai lcsPt( t" 'rri-

riir
Lr

cl ctls() cle tlnlt clolcscentt (l!Lc L1)nlit)z-l slr lrillllnrienk) 1c()nsrctlenci tle rtna clellresion scverat. it-l(lLls() con irlca: tle srrit lcli't Al <lx <le tt ierlp() cl1lPic7' rl scntil-sc lci<'r' ;t sltlir ((rn 'llill(t\' ,r xrrit'r rcltnuciar sus estLlclio n()nllall)lcnte. tcner xlgtln()s trltIcntls fi'li_ r ls I n rlirt lccilro llt llurlttcil tclefinita tlc su tttaclrc qrtien rllc nl.trlitl(\:l lj\ t()\ rll\'l)rt:()clrl)itcllt por X". Y< ttle alrllr Y le pregrtntlr <ltti'cs lo cltre stti |LlL. l\lt' tcspontler .X cs rlltl' egotst. sa)l() le intetesa salil (()n I()s -trllig"\ ) rlrr crlilsr'...". listlr n)Lltt cixlillib lrt trlrtvor rtlegrlt cle srt llija. sts till)i(l()\ in l( trl{)s (l( inclepcnclencia conll inclitlrckr'es <le cgr''isltlo. (lc []xl(hd l)1rIx ('sl (sll lnelt ttltlltia_ l).lr i('r)lr' l() (le(isi!() et cl canlinr llltjrt su crltcit>n -)'tn r\x)s titc |<rler it tleslltcnclii'nckrse (lel xl)rilz() ctllPill)ilizxnte ltl clrte la so\ir'.r

ll)(rtirr tlos cjelt>los.

LJn() es

(-n ()r'il sL(ursitl, (le.\tir() qlie ller':tblt !tlri()s t()s clescanckr. No llien srt r\l.r(l() esti-i asegure<lo. aun antes cle qire rxurra, cmpiezx a sentirse lllal Por ,1, .rI u los c(nIper()s cle tr'-tl)llj<t. con kts qite licne (rnlt relecitin rtrtrl c.rri,,,,',r. r a lrs qLe siente tlue abantlona en slt itlcha en c()ntrt clc las concli ese iugar. fln el clso de este P1(ciente. 8ozxl' ',,rr's duras <uc prevalccln cn puclres a sI infi)fiLtni()- C()stal ,llLlclx) trilu suflienlts ',,1'lirrrl>l rtb:tnckrnlu a ,.rlllitic() qtre clc sr.ts paclt'cs eta algo <lue cler'cr cl srtiirtrien pttclicra clue r :t rrrcn lc (,( ia p.ol()gr rle e]L.ls v (ltc cst.tl)il lltris rtll:i clc stls cxc[sir ',L.il:r , ,..ilrilirlclt:s el rerlcclial k. P( r() si lry un .:lnll)() en .k)Icle el sLict() inf]ntil f)Lc(lc c,\i)cl il))cltl) clll xr algo crte cn rcalirhcl cs cl resulteclo n() (lc l(i qLle l llltce sino clc la ,r,lrrrJr clt Lrn ()tr() cs e el clc le sextt:tliclcl. Cttanclo rtn:Lclrtitlr act(tlt tle lnrL, , r strlLrctrr, c()n\( icnlr () inc()nscicDt(]lllcnte. ctllr stcctle. por ejelllplo. ,rr lrr n'ritrdlr cargerh clc cleser sextul ctre clirige a unx nilt. especialtlrentc , ('l rn)rllcrlt() cn (ltc 'strl r:nrpiL-z:l : rlesrollr firrnrlts <ltc clcspiert:tn el ,1, .,rr r-lc ecluI. l.L nix pirs:t rl sentir q(re str cuerP() es el <ltte provoca. Le t'ttir ,l.r tltl()tr'o. sr.l intencit oa Iiclci, fcfirlrrr-r f),,r tllJIi-tr'trn (ucrP (l(e Pr\' 't , | , )l)s(!\'(l() por lrt prr>pilr i c()lr() si Ilterl el (lte inicillse h seclttccirin I ,r, , lJlt iclulr'. [991]).

, tllnt t14tit't

I ,,1r,

nt(.ltil sLt nl.t(ftc. l'll (fr() (lls() es el (le tln llciente c()n ttnlt cle>resi<-rn c rrctcr( )k )gic'l inl lx)rllrntc. l)csptls clc varits alios cle anlisis. pol firl enrpiez:t ll llcral r.tnrt ricla rrrr'l1. rr -rotlct gozltt clc tclrcioncs scxtrltles. lln (li, \'iene c()otcn) 1 lll sesi()ll (l1 Llnll llttella cle'iD() v ille (lice (ltte ticnt Llnll citlt (()n ttn ntucllltcll rltr,. lt gust:t.'Iircl l:t scsirr IIlls(Llre hrrio cl t)irltll (lc exl)ectilliva ()l)rc t'sle ( )( r('r)tr(). CLran(l() rctu)rn lt l sesi<-n sigtliente, llega cleplitDiclo. sintin(lose ttt,tl \'o picnso (lLle itlg() atn(ltlv() tttel (n el en(!cntl() tlrn c:rltltckI crl )lt rttutlt;ttlt. se l() PrL'gtnt() 1' tDeclice (ltle n() l-e Pregtnto si pllsti algtl espe cirtl clcsPttis ) luc lcht, sin rincrrlar ltl tlLtc trte clice c<xt su cstx(l() cfcPrusi Io, rttt :tl rr>lr'cr lt tlts cnc{)nlr l stts tlttlrcs tll h ltrz lt>agltcla en cl slllt-rrl rI llr < lrs. Lr rttclte ezltnclt cl rosario 1' e'l priclre trliranclo )()l l1l vel)tnil. Ftu .rlrr r'urrrtk,.r'lt'rrlrrrgrllrtlegrirr.ttrtntlosesiutit)lltl por tlt'jrttlos rot'tlstt lrrrrit lllo rk It rrtrhr'(ltrc teni'. cLre licliar cotl ttn paclre (nfnl-I(). F]st.l sittlar r,,rr ,lc r1, 1rllst,rn stctrrr<Lrlirt a l:ts r icisitLltlcs clel olrjer -<lcstlt' cl sitiirr'rt, rlt l ,rlr ro. r l rLrt'rl:t signilicatlri crl)o ttlltkr-- se vtclvt x ltPr()!ltlcil' (rul.r r,lnrrllrl(l.rtlt t rlrrr';t t'l lt tln. cn la elltllrese cn (lLle tcl)xi:l, Ln cles-

.,,, ,,,l, irs ( )nte(irtrie nt()s. en unlL r'sfu-attcgiit Incnt.(l in(()ns(icnt!- pillll cn , rr 'rtrrrL ionr's qLle lpre((n c(lr() tt:ttrttrlitic:rs Pxi el l)siquisl]l() (Clr()lstein li,r .1, \, l()9 l). Killinrl() scale tuc elistc Lrn tiP() (lc (!lPx tn qtre cl ni() t,,, lr, r' l)( )slrr (ite l es mltl> prlrqttc la rttclrt lc altanclonti cttc p.'ns.rr sinr l,l, .r, nlr'(lu( lc brrnclon v (lLe n() et:t a su al('.tncc llaccr ncl pxr.t (\)ntrx ,, .r.rrl,,rl\illirrtrn{). l9ll9). I){n ()tr'() litcL>. h ctt)p:t ((nr)rectl ()(lefitl.ir'p.tr.r
(

,1, un prtrcso conrplcjo rlrte I-'.rirl)rlim (lcn()rrline .<leletrs'.t nt<>ral'{pitg.66). I rrrrr,. sintien<[ cltre e'l es el makr y no cltte stts ltaclrcs son s:itiicrr:' () (lue n() , I r, r( r\. l)Lrc(lc t)ltntelref ll iltsirln tle cicrctf ttn ciefl() (()nlr()l ()lrnil)t,ten , ,,l,rr' lrr rcltliclcl: "Si trc Portr bien... si no so)' nrlo... crtt()nccs, llle Ll(r<rr.it'1. , , fr, ,..tigurin,. I)e c.\rr n):lneir el seDtirse <ul.):tblc sc llrt clnverfitlt cn tnlt l, l, r.,.r. ( rr rrn Dtcclio ilttsorio cle recapttlrltr Ln scntitllient() (le c(ntr()l s(r)le tl

Lrrrl)irn i)()1t() lrna ofistitltle txt)licit.i(-)n srlc sl sentilicnlo <lc r'rtl:lltI r,l (luc ticnc en cucrtlll los lrrtrestls intcm()s trr's tle l<s cLllcs se ()d_ rrrr ,.1 nir\o. nccesitanck clescsperrcla[renlt senti$c Pt(l(gi(k) y ttte clo p<lt' ,, ,.r,lrts. plcliele pensul rtre l es t)rill()....toll.tn(l() solre s el pcscl cle llt ,rrl,l.rrl rue purccc lcsi(tif ett stts obiekrs. [)e cstl rttncr llttsca cxcttlpar a ll,, k'sr rrul<lacl: ,,. c) Il ,)rc(lirlit en (lltr ticnc i'xito cn ello. es r(((rPen,, l, , r rr r'l sentri('nt() (le scguliclerl que tLn llll)icnte cie luet]os ()l)ict()s pr(), tf( !Il.rtlct:l ttn.la(tersti(11, (iltirl:tirn. l9'i-3, llig.65). tlst() ss lcillizl x il-

)t

AVAN( l:S IiN PSI(:Ol llRAPI^ PSt(iOAN^-11'lCA

l:1. M()l)trl,() ltl()l)Lrl-AR-'I

RA N

SI()

M AL

I (

)N A ,

))

.rrLrter rrl ()l)jct(), pxra c()ngraciarse. t travcrs cle l Lrtoacusacin. con:rrtr<'l lr( ll1( il (luc se estr'l iter,'()riz.t(io es algo <tte no slo finciona nivel inclivi rh:rl rirr Il>i(,n <r>lecirr. Cierl:ls expeien(ils histlicis los fllgel:rntes tk' Lr I ,1.rl \4stli:r. p.r cl(rrpl(,- l,) r('\tinx)ni.rn. Alr<lr bien. llr ctrlpa prcxltrce (lepresi(-)n no s)l() porque llafl sentir inrlil.l)() irl srict(). r> rorcltte nr> satisf:tga una inlren itlel tle lonclcl con llt cual ( l suiet() (lescx i(lentitlllrsc, () p()rque genere (l()l(x p()r cl sutiinrient() (lel ()l)i( l(). sin(). lxllrl)in. p()r(lLie puecle lctivar concluctas Dras(xlristlrs cle srrrletiori(ntr) r ()l)iel()s pat()l(igic()s, cle irt()plivirci()ncs. clc autocastigos. qrc ter-

l)(-l)lccr senfit ilp()tenle al sujcto palt l: rctizltciir (lr su clesc(). trr\s (lcl ci|cuito clel llLrs(xlrisRl(). p()r l1(s c()nsecLcncias cuc stc tIrgrnl, rrrr.' l:r culpa prticip.r c(r() flrctrir relevlnte en la l)r()([rcci(in (le la clepresirln. l)t'r cl !))s(xluisn() c()nstilu\,c tn r'onclici<in ((nplcja er que l crlpa ts sr'rlo rn< clc ks fu<tores qle l() deternlin.l. Fln otrls palll)rxs. e iltLstrnckr cl prr x cso cle urticnlacirn clc comp<>nentes (lrc c()nstituye nuestr() hil() rcctor ( n ('sr(. l-irl)1i(r. cl sentiDrient() cle culpabilitlacl. c()n ()rgenes ,rrLly clivc's()s, rorlr'.i o rxr i iculasc c()n gl n):)so(lris))()- l,() (lLrtl te'srlt:t nrccs:rrio cs ntr>s lrilr l.r gnesis <le la culpabiliclacl y clel mas<rtrisnur. los fuctorcs y los <arlin,,s P()r krs quc slrrgen una y ()tl'(). y las firnrras dc rticullci(in cntrc rml)os. rr,r h rlur'icnckr cl un() ir lar ()trl r) \'icevers.ll
r,r);r')

(i\ s( nlinricnt()s tlc ttpl tle las 'cleplesiones qtle tieoen llls h clali,1, L,l r.rlri i p(fentc, rle ilupotencia-clesesperanza en conexja)n con Irt rttpr,,, , '1,' rr.r rL()iigcn itlclizach..., (pfl. 2()). I-ax (l9ll9) afir:lle qrte cn las l, l,r, r,,rrr.s 11.tr(isistns. I()s sentillrient() ctc vergiienzl y htttDillltcirn s<xr los L,', l,r, rIrnrjln, rrl,ts que l()s (le ctlPa, (plig. tttt). 1,, .rrt( r'i( nos olt)iit il hacel. P()r l() n)cn()s. .llglnl pretisi>n sollrc la cli t, ,, I, r.r ( nrrc l()s scntilllienk) tit ctripa r'de vctgucrrze. tln tclltti<in c()r l<s , ir ll n r, ,l]l ( )s (le vergtienzll. Rizztlt() ( 1991 ). cn una luf)lil revisi(in del tcllrlt cn ',, ,lr\( le c1lo la vergiienzl fite ct>nsicleracla en l litclattl!x Psic()analtic. ..,, lrrrI rlrr....1r Yergtienza eslii rclaci()na(l tDlll 4ttlod olttatci(;tt \\'<t y
',

rrr(

\ .l lo (14\'$tin ?sda k)s lt'tstoltos,rla^/ls


( nl(' ('n

A xsrrt clc que la eglcsiviclarl y la culplr han <rupado Lrn lLglrr nr(enl l litclirtrr psic()analtica s<l')le l;r clcprcsirn, vri()s auk)rcs hxn ( ues-

tL'tlt'prr:si('r (llil)ri9, l95Jr HuVual, 1!71;.fac<lrson, t97l: Kolrtrt 1971, l9;-. I9:9. l()l'i l ) K()lrl lre insisticlo en la existencia cle clepresiones cn ls cuales |l culPrr rtrr lirtnra t).rrte del lrst()l-n(). siendo. lll,ls l)icn, l()s sentinrient()s (lc fiustrirr')n ('lr tl Lrgr> rle irspirlci()nes nrcisisas l() quc c(rrstiluirx el ncls() (le Lr tlt prcsi<'r. K()hut ( 19t't0) resumi<i, ncrrtiricanrente, la clifi'rencia cntre cl srrlrirrit Dlr 1u culpl y el nxrcisist.r bajo srr firn]rulacin cle <ue existen. por ur l.rrhr, r'l .lrrDrlrte crrlpirhlc" y, l)( el ()tro. ql .h(n)rhre tralgi(rr,. c()n sus scnlrttrr( l()s rlt vrr<iO. cle t:LIt cle un .sc# cohcsir,o, ctc in<lra<irlltcl dc rl:tntener r lr(,\1\'t() \ Lrn i(lenti(l(l quc lc clote tle vitaliclacl. li)lpin (191't3). en un rlt t.rll.rtI r r rrso r'lini(\). plesent a rn px(iente cuy()s r]slir(l()s (lcprcsi\1)s n() se ,l l,,rr,r\r1tiicr)r)s(lcculpani :r 1ircsi\ idid sin() ir rllirit csftrrctrrral por l.rll,r ,l, l,,s ()lrt( l()s l).rrcntales en l 1<rultcirin cle rrn .sef coltesivo cl-xLz cle llr,ltli n( r llr .lltl(x slirIt:t. hlrrrlrrl ( lr)15) (iil(,rcn(iir cutre lts (leprcsioncs en las cueles llu\ mls ll \i)l\(,r(,!!,s \()l,r{
(

lr()r)rr(l() (luc scil,r c(nlrp(rsntes inclispensltbles pirrll I()cl()s los tipos

,r,r1,r)rlenoserlttetcccck>rcle(uliresPllctrfc(liva(lesc(l:t.'(P:ig.304, ,L .rr r,rg|cgacla). Con "rcspttcsta xfecti\':l cleserlda' se reficre it ctll() se nI , I trrc cl ()l{) re'sp()n(trt xnte P()sil)les l)lil()s dcl stliek). Llst: c()nccpci(;n (le ' [, ur,, (l(' ligxr l vergiienz] al nlttlisisrll() y. ols csPe(licllllenle' I llt ilnP() ,lr,l.rrl rlt lograt las tuetas filaclls pol el i(leal (lel !'o. cst clcntr() tle la lnea l, rr,lLrdti p()l'()tt()s Llt(r'es (lloLtcek. 19911 l-crvis. l917; Mollis()n. 1989; ,r)'Jl, r \ r)l!()s. l9f)J; Wtrchtel, lqfJl; lLlll))scr. 1917). Hly ltnlt tliluen'ir 'l 'lle ' , . rrt irrl en cl scntilllicnto de vctgiienzrl: kt pt1:5('ttc(t t'eal t).fittttdstall. de ,t,t ,,tt' sguific.tit'ct t1rrt'scrct tasl!p.la l.ts.f llos dcl stt(-'k). Es (lifi'rcnrc en, , rrlt rior sullcryri-ctiticrt- qtll \entir (ltlc ()Il-o ()l)setrrt tlttltlli('n esa -tl ,,t, r,,ltltl. Qr.rc en cl (r(s() (lc ix vcrfjcnrlt n() sc trlli (lc (rl sinrple P() , , , r{, (le l l)r()Pia criti(1t clel sttle,<i solrle cl ()t1() l(, prtlcl).t Ia flrltrl ctt' re', , ll/.r (lLrc 1()(l() stljet() I)()sec fiente a stts filncitnes cxcl-elllcnticials trtlnrlo se l,,JJ r , r) sr)lc(l(t 1' en catllbio cl ct))lxrilT{) tttr: le etlrllarglt (l.lll'l(l() ('s ()l)sdr,1,, o rr lrginlr <rtc lttcclc setlo. l)lr txnk). [1] vergiienzll cs ittlgtlstrrt n.tr(lsis t , l(t rlatytb('tit'i(1.rc1, \ n() rllcft) sentinriento clt infi'd(-idil(l p()r tensi(in
'

' ,,r, r,1 itlclrl (lcl y() y Llnll cierta rtPresenlltci(in (lel sLjet(). Iis tlccit , clttc llt cttl1,, i l.r rclgilenzt sc clifercncilltr n() s(ii() l)()r el tcllrll -Ple()(1l)x( i(in P(n l:t rlrr r['l sLricr en la v( rgiienza I cr-.l/ l]lc()cltpaci(ln pol el cstaclo (lel ()t1() e ,,l, rrrrlrr'rrciirn (()n el stlliilttient() (lc stc en l-.r ctllplt- sino tanll)i'n p()r lll esr,,r, ru.r

(n jucgo: en llt ctllra sc trlltJ (lc Ln l)Ll-o ((l,llllict() intrtlsqtticol cn la , riiu( nzit intclliene o la presttt<ill fe.ll (lel ()t1() () lx ilnti(ipx(i()n fltlt:tseacla 1, lr r|r'sqtcilt (lllc seril tcstig() (lc llt plrclt vall (lel stljt). \l s(nti!rricnt() <lc ctrlpe potlrit agtcglirselc cl (lc vergtlL-nztL ttrlnrkr se t Lri1.r\\'.r (lLlc ()tr'() c()rlst1rl tanrl)in llt lccil'rn pLrnilllc 1 tltir:t:tl sttjcr corr cles_ ,r,.r,r lirr las i trltr.rras cn qtte la tgresivi(litcl cs flttrlenlentc c()n(lt',nl(111, Lln l, r'rnrir l)()clrii sentirsc (tlpl)le si at.lca) rl xlgtlicn ). aclellrlis. scntir \'rlircn, l ,'\l;lr cn ittcl.Jr) st) \alil, lrllser'tl:t l)()r l()s (fr()s rttt lo trrnsiclerltn nllkr' , r1,.( r\'(rl()s. taoll)in. (lLc cu.tll(l() el sLtjc) sielrt( <ttc tlln(r al <xrtl xrclrli
,

rlr ( rlpr si su pre()(

t,
|

trpllci(in es l'Itsicatuentc P(n el l)iellestar clel tlr. ctl qtle ltr r\L'(-Lrt(i si tel)l!- ser citstilil(l() P( csx .tcci(ln, y vergilcnza si I()

r.rIx

(1r el c.rpitrrlo

(lc(l(r&) xl nrx:(xluisnr).

, ,,, rr.r rL'cualquier ()tla consi(tcraci(ill. lcprescnliin(k)se c(xl1() indiglr().

,,.', l, rirtrt cs el crcligo narcisistx en 'n

(ltlc

Ia consiclcrcic'rn clc stt I

llia

est lor

AV^NCliS rN PS(.(, l.llAPIA PSI(-(){NA11(.4

l:l ()):1.() l\l()DLrl-,{l{jl RANSt:()RM^( l()NAlI Lrr r,,r.r: irgr('si!'x:r rtte. lot los senclcros incliclclos ttr:is arilla -ctl'lndo ,,, ,, r r,,s tl tctta cle l:t irgrcsivicld- c()n(lrl(cn x [,t (lcpl'esi(in.

11

I'ln(nrnck horr en ks trlsrrnos l1arcisists. en la liteuttrlir psicoanlticlt st strclen englol>el bejo csa <lcnonrincirin (l()s tip()s cle r'ooclicioncs: por rrn l;t<Lr. rr<luellrs cas()s car l .rcteriz:l (l( )s p()r pcnnncnte l)jl Llt()estilna () p()r l:r tlilicLrltacl par.l rilntenel s()stenidullcntc rn irnxgen rlrlorizch (lel sujet(), Irgliindokr p()l- ln(rcntos per) requilienclo cle continLr(]s srlrinistr()s cxter rrs o cle rfrencias clc letliz:tciin personal ante el super\1i. c()n en()ne ()s r rl:r'irir sn el baiance cle su ;rrt()estinll (Occli. 1979. 19u1r (leck> v (;ehrie,

tr't-

l))j: K()hut. t971. 1977i Sacks. l99l: Sttkrrn v I-rrtl)rnn. lt)io). l,or el lis I)(s()nirli(lrtles tlrte clesrliegun Lr (nrnip()ten.ix. gr':rlrcliositllrrl. rlenigt':t,. ion clel olljcto. y qrrc krgr-.tn urrntener esa gl xo(li( )si([rcl r.n llrse u firertes

( ()n r(sPecft) r segr.tnclc> grttlo clt'tlast()rn()s nr( isists -grandiosidacl' cleniglaciitn dcl ()l)iek). (jtc. .la (lcnlesin n() es cr)ni( r sin(' .lLr' 11rtllpr cttandr) c{)iapsa unll grlnclitlsiclacl qtls l)xhx scrvicl(] Pxra ncgxr , r, .rlirIr<l -v l:s limitltcirnes pers(nlles. l-e cleprcsir-rtt es conscctlencia cle k)s ' 1,, t.s clrl nrcisisnr() tlestrtctivr sol)re las rel:ttioncs intct personlles. la in , r r,n tln [t reliclrl. t cl ctriciltclo cle la prc-ri;t lersonlt

,rrrlf(ncil.

lr).

0l( ( il|lisor()s cle escisirn t Ketnl rr-rg. 1975i R()scnll(1. I 961 ). I-ll clu in() trre clescle Lln() Lr ()tr() tip() (le t,llst()rn() nila(isistx c()n([tcr x Ia clepn'si<-;n t.llll)in es cliferente. C()n respecl() el prinrcr grllli(). ( ilt ctcrizl(lo xrl rrne polrre representxci(jn (lcl srjet.), se puecle llegal rL la tleptesitin rlc ckts l(nrlils: a) clircctanrcnte. potcur- h polrrc rcprcsenttrcin clcl srrjcr lr'e senlir (luc se es imp()tcnte. inc'apaz rle lcnzer el objcto <lcl clrseo. l 111,5c clx r,rt >trclickr; llt clepresiirn es cracil. finra pac cle ln pelsonrrliclecl; /r) incli rr't tirr))rrnle. p()[ lais c()nsccurnciits (lLrc sr' <lerivan <le ]lts rlrfi,tss ptcstlrs cn

t 1].!

/slLN

pat\k t!l()t'.ts

l.llptxsitt

'

[ecLlrs()s r oi<cs. Crnclir'irin lal (lLrc sc k. <iclrc :rgrcg:rr llt r<lirlrr opofir.rniclacles tlr en l:t viclu rcul p:u11 1)r'()\'cclsc t[ l:rs glatificut iones 1x tl:lr(lsistits ct-te la tlLrttbaltlntc atLrt()estinl rr<lrie-e pereje. trulrej(). ctc.-. l,:r s( ( u( r't(-i 1r'llsk)rn() nrtlcisist, xngLstis pcrse( rl() as / \'ergilenz / c! itll( in
r''r

rrtllo I)r)r eientpl(). p;r[l n() cxp(r-tcrsc ll sitLllci()nes <Lte >rorlLrr'eD tr,ntoL <r \( r'q[i('tzl. Ilt tcmrn:r sc inltilt. cnuD!r-, .r (r,nl.rL1,,\ infrr'rr.,.,,,'],rl(s \ it e\ rr'trcn<irr: <lc aprcncliz:ric. <on cl c<nsigrrienle enrJrtII-t.inrienl<I cn rl <lcs
lL
r

l,ls irrgtstias pclsc(Ll)rias seltn el tenl()r.tl (rstig() dcl reti-() (lc:llll()r () s()n cerltces <lt: llever , I r . ( lislintils fi)ntlrls (lc :lgfesin l'crllal. crrrplrtal. ctc qtle ticnen s()l)le (urrlino nscc las cl Ltencilts <le p()r inclilecr , Lr ,lL rltsi<in e1 cognitii()ne. tlcsanollo slll)lilll:l( cl llls pemr.trllan ttrcntel: I lLrrr( i()nrI]licnl() , , l.r' r. rrpacich<lcs cxl)resir'.ls emrcirnrtlts y reiltt itlltlcs. ls hltllili<l;trles ins (r'ase 1'| rrrr( rlllcs en lrt cl:t itl r'rn ilt rclliclcl el proPir) scnti(lo tlc reltliclacl .l' r:ir,rrrlr .3). Ls rlrft'nslts (lLre sc cti\'ll llttlt tlisnlillttir llts ltngttstias persctrtltgrcsir icllrcl. c\il.lci(lD liil)ic1l, rilLillcs {)l)scsi\()s. Dl.ls( )qtlisnl( ). }'()tt-()s , r .r, ,r'n()s (:rrit(tcr(rl<lgi<rrs- [itnitltn s< l'i:tttlentc l:ts clt-rllt iclallcs (lcl slict().
r.rlrzrinrlt1c, lrrt<intlole sentir ilnl)(fcnt. xr:t tkrulinltt n< s<il< la tc'tltclrtcl I r r||r<i<in cr)n l()s ()lr()\ significxli\'()s sin(). t:tllrl)in. stl Pr()Pix tlltnte -t(l,r.rr ior'rcs ()l)scsivlls. :tngLrslills hipoconclriacas. ett.-. P'tr'l pr()veer tlnl ilt5 r r, r)n: cl (ircLrik).lrlgtrslills Ptrsectlk )rias ./ e\"itltci(-)n fiil)ic,'inhilli< irin/tia ' r , , t n k rgr os nitr(isistlls / (lctcri( lro cle la re llre senl.lcia)n (lcl scl I cleple sirn. ,,,. ,Ir tlL unlt inclicrr'i<->rt tlel plrlel cttc las angttstirls persccLlt(nis tiuncn cn Ll,'rL rllr.r\r,,n,h , rlgr r n.r. tlerr't .i, 'n,'' l\'r() lt(l(lu1is (lc (st( ('tcct() (lq llls angLlslils pcrsgattk)rias. a lne(li1ln() () I'r1rr rLizo sttclen prrxltrr.it cttltclLrls clcpresivlrs tle llt' ntttclx llis inltrrli.Ll,r \ cr)n clttictcr crisixiir.o. Nrs tcli'litrlos it l: ()l)(,'\'.(i(;n n() infrectl('n_ r, ,l( (\)ll1{) !rr1:r l)els()nrt lls(lstlt(liL frcnte il Llrl lllfcal rclllizilt, v tellli( n(k) n()

rlc frrncirtes

pa'r(li(hs en lx reali(lx(I. con<lLrvc cn sentimient()s (lc irrrrfcncia v clescspernnzu pxr lll rcxlizci(in cle-l rlcscot p()r titn). cn (lcprc.r,l 1.. <lclesin es, enk)n(es. srcrndria unx li)l)ill rrIililttc (lcl suick). ll)lri:r ltc n() (lcri\'11 prin)iltiircDti (le un trast(r_n() en Ilr Icprescntecirin rlcl olrtr' sirrrr (lr)e tiene su LiIrsl c] (lr(, cl sujet() es rerresenlrrtkr ('(rD!) ltti rl(s( ul() t(,nte :l(lLr1. C()nr() nlc cxprcs(i rrn 1r:ttientc- (tnr infiniit si(l)i(lLax _frttzlin r' ilrni:t: "Si nc lc tjr:nc nrieclo l()s le()na-s rs ll()r1lu( s( cr(t, larztn,i L s rI t ir', lrr eprrscntlrci(-)n r':rkrriz:r<lu drl srjct() (letelinil el tocler' <rrc sc lc .rllll,u]1. [rs olrjckrs. (]ultnrlo sc Lrtiliz rl (r)itk) exiern() (()n1() Ln:l fi)rntll (ltl .rl\rrt.rl;rr llr trrrklestinra () lus ()lr'(n(lxs lll sr.rpcry'<i t'n iirmta rlc lrgros persone
li
r

rlricl tlficit \'()ic(

)s :

rlr[rricr Iirll() en estls clos rnrclliclaclcs clc rrrrttpcr-tsltcion clcscltlt<rl rlr lrl.sion (Airti v llcrnp()ritrl. 19lllr Illatt 1 \'larouclas. 1992: Illtt ) (fr)s. l,)sl. lll,tlt r ZrIoll, 1992).rr I-u polrre r-cpresr:ntlrc irin <lcl sricl() puecle (.()ndr ,ll .r l.r (l( lr( \it,n ir lrx\',s .lcl circUito rle lu egrcsil'icllrcl. l)tcrlitizlcl. lr,,r c.r.r r,rr.r r[.lr rliI r'sr. (k l srfrin)i(-nf() n:r(lsjslil sc p()ncn cn l))itrcha (1)i(lucls v
s. , Lr ,L

ntc ls cltelcs clclrc teclit (Ll(nls. expcrirucnt't Lln (lc , llrrticnl() inl'trxcntitt. tle aplastetrlicnlo. tlc <lcsr itltlizltci<ill: cs clecir' ttnl ,, r,rion cleprcsiln. C,r.trtcLo (ltle c(r)lPltll(lc scrlt illlient( )s disfricos cle ins rr.l.rrcior-l stlrrc la tetc. PrcgLlntas nci()nxliza(l()riLs acelca (lc si ese til)() clc r, r1\i(l.rd rs st .ver(lJdc[ \'()cllcin', con ttna pri fitnclizlrcit-n crecientc clel (le dLF ' rr.rrlr'o r.leprcsirrr (ltr('se cxplicx pol<ttc cl tenlor (lit ltlglLl lt tod() lip() tle l:t clcterioro el c()llsigtlicnte con l .tcci(-)n. , l rr cn e inllil)i( i(in >rreliiantcs rrrt()(stilll. l-: tclltcii-l elttrc llrie(l(),''lllp<fc'tlt ilt tlultr:si<-rll se c()Illpl.tlel):l l,,rllrc tlilliu:t(ll l;r situcirir xtcll]()l-iziotc, v n() s(ll() P()r(ltle sr' l:l rcltlice
rrrsl.r('cl'1r lus li{r':ts
,rr, r

t ,( o,!.1 l,* r.rl'.!t(i\ (l( It|rlr (n ( ,,, ..;. ',

(rrr|lulo s(r)re o.i((f(r.[)r1r (l(.

1( l|lsr()r'rx)s

nlr-

ult lLtso .tb:tncktrin,.l()l:.t. )a tlcplcsiirn (lesil):rr:(c ilnlecliatlelltc.

AV,{N( t'S liN pSlL()lltRAPIA PSt(jO^NAt-iftCA

:L MODIIT,o

MODUI,AR-'I'RANSFOR]\IA('IONAL

59

l::l

l,olrl

rl? kl idar t lificac it r etr ld deprcsn

rllR l'r rr: rlitl rtl t'l l'rnr'lslJ< 'le Irt p''rtlte:', '' l'J\ rt'rli'l'r'l' lrr tle or(.icntJL'ii,n i''t'""nu Jlrrrlrrl'((t'rJ .' p"r el ir.ch,, <ttle l.l vc.ln Ll'll)' i"t"".it'tl 't"t,"t..l

l;r iclcntificeci<in, aclenhs cle intervenir c<IO fict<r inclirecro cn la gnesis tlt llr tltpresi<-rn al cntrut crmo element() est[Lcturnte para cacla r.rno de Lrs l'u<1rres pol los que se prrecle llcglr lr la clepresirin, inler\ icrr tambin cle rni nllncrr (lirectx: Il i<lentilic r'ir->n con paclres clepresivos cs conclicin irnln)rt:r)lc cn la organizac ir-rn tlcl cli-rcter clepresivo. I-r rtpresentircirin clel sltt() (r)rr) illtp()IenIe plrra rc'lrlizar k; rleseaclr> >trcrlc tcncr srr otigen cn le rrlt rrtrtl<uci<n c()rl un ()tr() significativo (luicn, il sL r'ez, sc si'tti<i irrl)()(cntc. llr)' I)crs(nr.rs criaclus clcscte sLr trl.is tcnrprana infntil b:rjo orensllics, tnnsnriti(l()s x lril\'''s clr mil lilrrnus, in(()nscientes y c()ns( ienes, (lcl tilx).n()s()tr()s ro xrrlcnros, o "jlr'nlts kr ( ()nsegL irem()s,, ctrc el sltjeto irl(()rp(n c()llt() Lnlr l.r rnr'cpc irin cle firnclo qLre inrpregne k)d()s sus cleseos. hat irt<irsclos vt ir nI i( il)lr(liu))ente conur irDposilrlcs. Renuncia ntcs (lc intentxr lxrxue cla por rI scontuck cl resttltcl< ncgiti\'(). lil repel clc Ia iclentifit:tcirn en la psicogne'sis cle lrs r'rlttlros nsrcup.f,, Iruirrrs nr ()(up1i en psicoanlrlisis el ltrglr rluc nrestfi) irtici< Icece. l'osil)l(,Dr('nte h), c()ntril)uick) a el]r> cuc totlos krs histr iales fi(uriianos y la clcs r rr>r ir'rn clc lts fnctores qtte interrentlfiltn en h psi(()gncsis (lc Ios (listint()s Iril.\l(Jt()s cs e,l lDorlck psj(\rpilt()l(-).(lic() rrrc rlrlinit l>lrr.-na partr'r.lc l:t -qIrc urin en l rctLraliclacl- c<ltrcsp<tnclen a r,rna p<rclt <lc lil( r:ilurir l)sic()ilnlllirir':1, l,r ,,1r' tlc l,'rclrcl currn<kr cl c()n(cpk) cle iclentificlci<in lttin no cstaba plenar.rlt rlcsiurrlllck. Fln llt <lcucliL cie los vc-inte. crtanckr ,<kr cl eclifickr tetilirrr clinitrr solre la firrrutcin cle sntrnas se hlltl ,'r rrnstruick, Freucl s( ()(Ll)x clc uranera sisterrltic clel fcn<ineno cle ll irlcntificaci, ,n p,:r r.jr.l]rlrl<r. en I'scololaa de ls ntasus -\' allisis dal .t\) ( t921) y en l,ll .to .t'cl
dh t l())11.

:';l;,,,il::',;';";; ;r"re'l'.r"rr*r'

"'1.:::]j^:]]l:l;' ;:J]l',Jl;.i:.. r^ n:l:';": J'j'ii"' '""ri"'r"' "" (lrrc i::.":'.']l:.i[::l,iix,,,-ilJ.*l]ixlllx:,1.:: p,,r (lilerL'ntes Ll,^.rnulis.r'
'rlr,*,._i'i,,,,,., llrt.rrpy clinir Ilngl.rr(rr.r). ;,:':'::;,,,,;;:.,;.,n i'i* ''r'

't""' ::

""'r' ^ill:,:';::l::ll ll;,;il;: i;;'.il ll, r c\rrL ( rtrr'r .'rcr intr,." n' 'rtrn'r' ' '''n '| l'1., *::'li'li,,: ill'i,,tlil, ;l iil,; ;,'.,r.' iq;t'l ttr" r l cositlera'ntlt'''c tntLi"'""' " cntocirul clcl nio lerlue< jl.ti', ;; ;;"i; :l#;."'i" :::lt.llJ;:;:J.:',.'ii::::I:'i:'l::,,[']J:
s,nri,, i,!rp,,{(.,,r1'i'.".

lr|.l::'il.ll]:;'ili',],; :,;r'.;l\.,,..n(,rs l.r lrisr,,ri., rt(,t(). r'' Asi 'lr r..' r'!''|\ ..: '",llilil'1,,],.:.,i'l"ll: [;:::il : il].:';:. i,1"" ,,. i '[rnJ '( '( ('xisIiI "ii" lln '\cnlilli(.nt,l '.],,!:,,: nr orcst:trllt- (l'fcIl(1. l()].i1. ',,,,,,,n.,,u..t.,

l,..lI;.i::'..n.,,,nr.,"*'''..l''-r"riLltntit'r'rL'it'n'r'nI^t:ttllt'qrr(1r\r{e
sienten.
.--.-,.,, ,."i.,p :tr''"*' Ll( lcn('r. i hl *. ntinri. nt,, tlL irtrp''t(nt i r Pt!( J-'"' sc ic['ntilit''t crrn r-l li'rente (le la antcrit: lt'pt"t'n'
rrn I rtol'usLllt-l(lr)n

. tll ,rrr; c.oncliciirn cliI'l',-)l \in'r (r)n lx ilrx ott"


(
I

iJ"'I,,.l,r,',,,,,,,..;,1,:l't"".'l'i'il:l;::l,:'l;,ll:.:l.l;.:;:l;i::illl::,l: tlrl :tltlt' tt


:li''*':,';l;.;.;ii,
;,
r

rne' Ire ' lr't't't '|. i)('ns'rl rrplit ir nu 't t'n "'rt i no'rr'r' <trl<r '' .''u ",.l.. i"i' lluccles" pal:t ir-vi.ntltl e,r pa.ltes (ltc tr'lnrrnllt'(11 .-i''*..rt"' ,i, ;:.;.;,, cn er suc, ."*lll'i:i:,,i,.f *::::1:i;.!,"'lllllil:,:::lllj[:
':

,l

rirrrtr ct ,,1,ier,,.*'.:."1:-:',1 l.l.i;,';:,:::,,;;;'; i,, iir.nt,.r,, (l(lL tlr (le l)r ,tcn( i-l LILIL siclllPlc
stliet().

<lel

rr,.

n<, a l,r clcl

irlcntifir:r<ion cn la firrrncirin clt'l <rrcter (vasc llauclly. l9ti3). in(lica que hit)' rn.r \'(ti l('(iri( u n() sLr ll( icnl enr(nte explorlcla ni arlir':rcla il l (lnica. Resrrrt,r.rl rr xlcr- clepresr-11crro rrrc Ireclen clescr D >r'ri rt r l)ir(llcs Ll( l)r(si\'(,s n() urc firrrilrr rr lu lricn tkrcttttcr(lr,l:t <rlrrclcin entre tlertcsi<irt l).rrcrilirl ) (le rrr':rrrrr lilirrl (M()rris()n. I9tiJ), () x lus ctnsccttencils cle ll fultrt (l('rcsl)rcstil .rrIr'rlrrirr rtrc krs paclres cle]rcsiv()s tienen pltra las nectsiclu<les t'ttttrionles r[,srrs lrii()s (Ar]tlr()ny. I98-J). ni 1r ll atlrrsfera cle tristezl v <r,rlr:r <rrc gcne.rr tNl.Lsorr. l99f).,U,ls l)icn. rrri inters aqlt es sultruyal l itltntilicat irln ,l, l rrrr,,, , r,ro nt5,q() cffd( l!t"d,qr'co, crn lu clcpresi(ln par(nt1. Ilcliri('n(l()se
l.ir irll)()rt.rncia que. a
.r r.\t.r r ll(

p.l ir cle c'se nromento.

F'reLl(l le ()t()lga a ln

(t. Dfic:it

-trtctts:

c(t llit l )' ilt't tt ilicLtckitt''si'xDio^


(

r'r''n U:]-.:'.:,1 pttctlc ser la LrD lr.r\li )fll( ' tle l clrcscn (lc c<nset.rtencil rlt trn cii,ilcit aar,l -,r,, l)Lrr.lr))cnl(j t'i"t'J't..t.... tt'g"iriv t\' expresivxs ,i.. tci<'rn clel sttieto- clc t"ttur"t 't' f.. ' 'tl
Fll sentirlicnt()

(ls irrrP(f(-n( i'r

1>'rrrt

l't

re-tliz

str.n. Ar]rir I"reu(l (19(r5) lrll

D<ir

.l-o que sr,rcctlc es rtrc lalt's nirios

.rl,.rrz.ur sr sr'rtinri( nl() rlc' lrniclltcl c<n sr lllaclte clepresivlr rt() rtt((l1lntc I() )lrr. i \ r rlutr\ i,r sirr nrrrlirrntr: el reProdtrcir clt <r//<.r.s el estark tlc rlnirrt clc llt
rrr,rrlrr' (r,r1i

L.rDrrr('ri')n(lcl'|'\(\r'r\lt)'..'*^'l';:i.'''l,,'';:;i'''1'l.l''''lt,'"'''in\lrtrrrrcntrl'' j.ii,.,,,p,,,:li;li::l*l;i:ll;ll,]:'JI:l'ii;1.*.1 :i.ll;;,,;,,,,,,:,; ('r r.n. i,,ii,,"ii. i,.'*,i'r''' r']r""'|n(r"!'|(n'|'' llx'i::;:,x,'i:,ll:: lil,lx;illll" tle' lrt papel J lti ..*t"ti" 'r'lrrc r:l y()ic()' 'lxml)in :';it"
ci()narlicnt()

l: irlt ntiilceirin no se limita a intenenir t'n lu crns llrrr ,,rr rk l.r rr'l)r \r'rt.r, rorr rk'l srrjclo: tarml)in l() hacc qn eurtr lu t'c

llroll r,rxlrI

li-. (trr\i\.r Iltii).

xl)iert() pllra clcl 1.:'skrisrn<'' clei el canrir.t<r iclentiticxci)n en h cslrtrcttrrci;n ha-v tlficit clrttsA: iit'rt"" fti iclcntiticacirn c()r)r() estttcliar krs clficit y()ic()s tt'r: int'.lrp"tlr pttecle \ t f" p"*t-ntlln PLI( nit(lie ()r i(l( nli[t(:l( i('n crrn plrtlrt tiut,

li,l',J";J':;;,,,..'i1n,ii,.,,,'"'''q""ll'rtlrtt.str''n()p)\('('r'r'

AV^N.IS ItN

PSICO',TIiRAPIA PSI(lOANA l--l

l(:,\

ut-

rlf

oDriI_o i,toDUl_AR-'t RANSr:()RMA.toNAl,

61

l.,s tlcticit y()ic()s Psicologic()s () dc ('lLts orgillica -<llll)() ccrel)lal' P() pucclelt. li su vez. ssl caPtcl<s clestle Lln penpectiva nxr(isist e inllrt srrr cn un calllin() qtte conclttce a la cleprcsiirn ptlr el l:rcl<> <[cl nrcisislr()i r \c(cs ltrtr el circtiir tle llt :rgl csir iclatl (ltc p(rnen en nl1lr(l), En este strrlirlr. lr uglesiviclacl tltte no es es infiecLtente ()l)serv.tr en los clts<s tlc cl:t< t r',.llul rlt tltle pensxtse qtle tenga c()n)() (ttsil cxlltsivrl ix Perttlrl)rrr i(in llri<;Lrgi<r <lrc il('l( :lrene se in\()( sin(). tl)l)in. cl sc[ tl clttensa lient(,:rl sufrinlient() nrcisist (ltle la (:rPtlici(-)n cle Ia rr<lia liniitacin ilnn()nc. t.n ( icl-ts pers(1ls (le ccllt<i crr cletet'ilrr cclcllll ()lgiitlL() sc crrlllrlclx la cllicit yoitrrs'trstu)rl')() I-trttcisista ,' agresivitlacl clclcnsi'r'r'uencil siguiente: r,lr r.lrteriorc cle rcllcioncs intcrperson'.ilcs. xisl:tlllicnt()'(l(jl)rcsi(ini ()' 1l !t Lt's. r'( tli'il<it yoico e: talttltckr rcilli.sticillltenc r.lenclr Iugar': tn lirl'ia <lrt D() s( ()rigina en Ln trust()tn() iltlsolio clc los t-ccttrsts v()ic()s sin() en Llnll (\nrsllrtu(i(in clc tclles insulicitnci.ts tlel vo.r' Atlcrrlis <lc ll)s (()ttlicr)s ttre ptotltt<en <llicit roict;s. lr l itlentiliiciiin lon ligulrrs yrlrcntelcs con clflcit. cieras sitlrllitsis ctr ttn olljcto sirificlrti \() (luc Ltsttrl) litnciones \()i(s llclerllillll (lte sllis no sc <ltsltrtrllcl. Lll lrr. (l( sr.l('ijrlrr(rli en l)lsc 1l Ptsil)ilicirtclcs llttlurltlivas Pcl-o tilllII)i(ln il llls rrlt'ntificlciones v 1l.ls jnterlt((i()nes c()n tln ()lr() (lue Pemlite cL c'jercicio cI: lirrt ioncs. prrccie cqtte<lltt' rutrlilal(l() si Itlly lfi liisk)a-x) cll (tlll(ltli!,.-l (k c.st:l
,

jlrr.llo-

,l(c n(lx prre<le Itlcer ficnte a la relitlcl. r,ivitlll es cro trltttttclrra (lli lrring, 1953). En c()nsecLlencia. crlirlclr.riel es(lLleDrr ]enerati\'o que tlxtasc cle , Irr euentl clc Ie <leplrsir-rn <lr.rcclara cateltte clc algr cs!'nciaLl si no se inclttrcl;r cl pipel que <lesempel l.l hist()ri1l rcul (lel stricto. entenclinckrse por lrist()riir re2rl t.lnk) k)s su(cs()s qur le ha t()cilcl() vivir c<no los ap()rtcs ex r(,r-r1()s a iu c()nstrLlc(i(in <lc Iu frintsi inconsciente, c(rrx) p() ejcrnplo I1 lrist(r'ia (le Ilrs irlentificaci<nes con ls fintllsrs inc()nscientes (le los pi,h

es.r'
Es (lign() (e hrr<er nr>tlrr rr.re lr> cluc el rsitr>anlilisis cl-rirr sugicre srrlrrc

lr(

(lilrtcnsi()nes.

l.(t

n\
No

tl.td !.\terttI

trrttt 1(iti.d.)'

Irt (ll'pt('skitt

tllt clucl:t cuc'cl ltctltccittliL'nt() \'ivi(l() il(l(ltliclc sitlllPl( \tl signilittior nlercccl ia frtnts clcsrle cl ctal sc cal)(x \'. 1l sll vcz. la littslr

inflrrenci clc las cxpcriencilrs trlrrll-ltic!ri cn le genesis cle Ia rleprc:i,'rtt. <n cspecial las qrrclitlas tcnrlrln.rs. tienclr Lrl respalcliiruport:tntc en l(rs ll.rllxzrlos clc llrr>rvn y Hirrris. Est()s irrl(nes. uiilizilnrl() s{fisti(.r(lxs hcrrarientrts cle .rnlisis c1>icleniola)gic( ). cxaD)itrxr()n l in]p(ntilnciil clc le ptclicla (ie ()l)iet() (n lx g(ncsis cie ilr clepresirin, t.lk) cn lll tenlprnx intinci <r;n< ulterir' n)rntc (llr()\\'n. 1991). l)cflncn p('rclirlrt en un senti(l() rLntplio: pi'rclicl:r clt'unu 1x'r'sone, clc la salud, <lc un iclcal <ucliclo. o la rentrrlraci<in clc la exrcctetiva ,uc sc tcnlr solrrc cl gnrclo clc rr rrttrn rrttiso clc uD !!r_Lr'() cr)n rcspect() ll slri(1(). () in( i(lentcs (lLle cursti(arn sl sentilricnt() dc iclenti<llcl (lel suiet() { l)arf. (rl). Usk)s cstLr(li()s lllLrcstr.ln rtrc la Pi'r'clicla clc llr nrcllc. rrro srfrt'e trr{o ll l.rlt;t <lc ligtrrr sr)ti1ut:l 1r(lccul(llr son VIIjIbll. s it])l)(n-lnfcs cD cr.Lnt() lir PIetlisPosi< irin u llt clel>resiirn F:n cu.lrlt() lrl tixr clc t,xLlnlit,v lip() clc clcrre rrn rcstr[tlrnlc, I]r-()\\'n ]' [1rais :rtittl1rr't: "f]n (stc a()r]te\t() cs intcreslutlt] qLc lr:rl cierr tridrncirr <r.rc los lipos clc cxJtricrt< ia lerlprril tlc p['r'rlicllr rucilcn ttnrr inlllrc-ncie tn lt .fi'utct <lc le clcplcsir-rn... l,n clos cstuclios sePltlrrcirs Llt rlt<itn{cs tlcrrcsit<rs. llts {crttp[tnlls c\i)c,ici( i:s clr Illtrtle (rle IrgLrr.r .i nifirtivl) s('rnc(lr (lLlc cstrll)rn es<lcil<llts ctn ttr ctterLo clc <leprcsir'rn
l,r

n():Llrgc rx((si\:trIlcnte I)()r Ptlr.r il<ncr'-r(,n itltr'.trsrtrtic-r sin" tlrtc lraten . L()nlIil)u(i(-)n ell l()s disltlls() parentales c(rlscientcs e inc()nscicntcsl rltris esrccticeIItente, llLs trtntsis inc()nscientes cle los llaclres (Heilrun, l9:6). l)rl)cc:() (lc c().ltin(l i<la 1 r'Lreltlr, (l!' ilsilil:l( il) (le l() c\tern() P()1 l() inl('rt() \. clc cruttiltci<in cic l() intern() a l() cxtcln(). l)elo lunqtte la rt:ali <llttl t'xtcior es tleclilttiz:tcl lot la inttrt-trt' c\istcll siILlci(lngs el't tlttc 'tttrc' ll: rcsrltrr rr.>alrrrllantc, jrrgentl, tt:t pitttl central l)rlrll l1l ( reaci(in (lcl sentitlit'nlr cle cl:sesretanza e inrP')lcncix. Llts sitttci()ncs (le (nretilllicnt() <lc I ri<l: Pr', ,l, rr tg.r rlo. stlltc tockr en lits tt!P.l:\ tclul)ritnrs -3unqle Par r:rrl,l r( \lrirgi(lits rt stas-, i Pers(rls pat()lr->giclts. slitlicas y lirni(lts (Pers()r l)()rl.,r ( nl(rlls(ldes setiltsc inr'licllntcs. lt contlicitnts cl(.lh.tlld() rl.,r rL s.rrr.rirtr. rt lrts rtril firrntrs rlcl <lokrr lisico o lsi<rtito. se inc(r'P()llIl ltt ll rsirrrrsttr, (()lrr() s('!1liuienk) ile finclo tltte hace scntir a ll person:t

rDtesis cs aercgch ). I)lrfrL tclnlinitr csfe arpartit(l() solrrc llr r'elrlitl:rci y srr inflttcrtcia cn l:( (l(preia)n, hl\,rLrc- Ilrcet n()trr'(lue cl hcrJro cle rrrc en cl (liaRr1)li I Ireyu sitlr> siDtplclrlentc c()l()(lr(Lt (()ln() LID sc(1()t Iis olrccler'e cxclusivalll(]ntc x Iiu)it1l,ioncs glliliclts. I'irrrr hx(rrlc (lcl)i(lx i(sti(ilr lrl patl <lc h rcili(lx(1. i'sl:r ('r) t h ilt tttc haltl sick ) ul)ic: r(l.r ( ( nlr( ) un sqgun(l( ) (lirtgrr n) clcbu jo clcl tlirrgntrlt 1 .
L

Psicr-rtita )'Icnlprl[)xs cxpclicn(ils clc scrateciort cort rto tt[tdr'<t cle rleprc(lig. -. r'ulsiylr y crrnrillus r cl originul: la lilrsc tnfrc plt'i<in ncrrriticr ,

rlricntlo sus (listin)s seck)rcs.

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QUIJ CONDUCEN A LA DEPR!]S1N

!r r, r.r lrt clcplcsirn.

A[r)(re se ptLecle Jlcgar u la deplesin ir tr\s de cLullquierr clc l()s circuit()s nrcnci()n(ks, rle li>rra inclepenclientc, siguicncl() l()s enc.tclenarrricntos (tc pl()ces()s propios (ie crciu un() se nlucstrl en el cliag|urra 2 para -c()01() la lclack-rn agresiviclar-l, derrcsir-rn-, es posible (lLe est()s circLrit()s se xfticulen. c<lrr l() ihrstra el cli:rglana 1. l)ebemos <liferen< ilr cl()s r11()(llrli(lades <lifrentes de articulaci(-)n: l) c(Io una ser'fu contple,rcnlarlI, cuyos c(nl)ponenlcri s()l)redetefluinxn lx clepresiiln; es clecir, la rleplesi(rn ctro el rcsultcl< cle Il p.llticipaci(in simult,lnex dc varj()s fact()[esl 1r) c()r1r() rn.l sErie sL,ct?tl(ktl en I:r crral tn cir(Uit() procltce r()nsc( Lrencits y l ()virttirDk)s (lcfi'Dsi\,r>s. qrte, en uD l)lls() ultci()r, ictivlrn ()Ir() cir(ti() () gr_tp() (l(, r'r(Urt()s. Ir trtc, a srr vez, ltcri\':L at ()tr-()s, que pttcclen tgtr(xlrtL:lr s()l)le l()s plcccclentcs. I nlL sucesi(-)n (lc pils()s y circlit()s (lrc finrlulente c()n(hrccn l l.L depresia)n. Ilustreln()s esta sLrccsi(in (le eslul)()nes y t(arnsfi)r'rtruck)nL's rrcnci<n:rndo rrlgtntits poces posil)ilich(les. lln tr:lst()[n() nrcisislir, y clentr() (le (lste el pertencciente al sul)tip() en rrrt cl t-lenrento centrll rs Ia polrre lcprcscnl.rci)n clel ..,1/:rr (lue cle pot s l):rsl:rriir l)r' pr<><ltrcir cleplesion suiel() sc sirnte no vuliosr>, infi,:'ir'-, -el tle rtrrs cir<rrilrs. l)<I cjertrplo, raIa ts rlrrlrlc <1r.rc c()n([Ltzc:t x stit lL tlvs

lll (fr()s t''min()s. algo clue c(mrenz) pol el la(l() (le Llna p(r)rc lcPle, rr,l( i()n (lel sLrjr). al lLrticrlarse (()n l1l .lgl-csivicl:tcl lxrcc ctte el ctttino ltrt, r.r llr tkrtesior: \'r n() selt el rrrc clelillrrlt cle llt prirttera sino clc Is sLr(csr\.rs ()l)lig,rr, ulrr(i()nr\ rrrc le lrg:csivilucl rtrrlicllt ir cstl)lt(icD(lo -tilguuli I ri ,l1l)( )ncntcs II (\rl ()tf()s (( )lnl)()nent( s. l()s \luc I.lrlln''!,) (\r\ln \i'rrr, , ,liglrrkrs, uni\'crsles. cn )al():.Lrjc). I)( ()tr1l pxltc. un trllst()llt() lrrul\i\t-l , rr t l sulrtipo p(r)rc represcnt.icion cl<'1 .szl pLrcclc inciclir en llt rloclttcci<-rn <lc ' , li( il )1)ic()ri. los rtrc como scill;lnx)s lntes inicilln una \'r p[()l)ix liircill el , ntirienl() (l(j i:Drotencilt 1, tlest's rr: te n za (ltlc se rlnilicst c()m() clel)rcsia)n. 'Iinetrrs <>lrr clc ks serfotcs clgl cliagrrrult l. el r'ortcsltxttlicnle lt lrt ,,l, nlili(J(i()r)r crllt(l() 'stil li(trL ltgirlrrtt patlrcs un (lLicrcs (l()luioll cl srrrrrrr('nt() (lc irttr<*cnria. clkr ltttttlc Ill((t sentil :ll srli({() (lLlc l()(i()s:'(,rt rll.i5 l,nltlosos rrrc 1, llcrrinclolc :l tcnr(r 1r llts figtrllrs e\l('nlrts. al r-cnLrrt!l.ll it , ,,nrl)ctt. n() lnr ns(xlLisnl() 1]l()[ll sir]() p()r llngLlslirr: l)cr-sccLr)fias. sc c L\,1 crlton(es rl .ircLlil() rle ('stas. <rrc I)Lreclc c()n(lLl(ir x l:l (lcprcsi(-)n (cli 'ir.rrtte.3). lrllt,^t,)tt
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tlir r(,\ r)r r(rr,r,r)\t.\tt,s

int(nf:lr (()ntrrrrcstrrr el sufliruient() nxr(isis(r (l(t() p(r'la polrrc rcplesen trrcion <lc s, v sin cluc t()(l:l\ a hiy.r cleprcsion, se p()nen erl lnr( ll.r (lcseos igr-csi\'os clestinaclrs u cLcsti()n[ lL k) ()tr()s trentc r los cLlalcs cl sljct() se sicot(' infeti()r () quc tiencn ctnx finLlirlacl intentxr (l()t.lr al sujelt> rlc un s(nlil))i(Dk) cle p()lenciu y rle r':rla l tra\s (lc verse colrl() terDirk> r<>r los cle'rr;is .r))ejor lral() y (lrst:.t-ctivo, es clecir >ocleroso, ctre tli'bil c infer()r,-. ('() l< crll el nr(^ in'icnk) psttrico raslr lrh(na a r:rnsclrni, p( lirs \,ius ctrc lu aglesivicl.rtl inrPr.rlsa, con tocllts hs c()nsecuencilts qLrc ':rt,r rl)li(1l. ('ntrc ellas la cler'csion. co[r() vi1l()s cn cl apartacl() a!]1cs ivida(l/ (lel)r-(,si()n. I)cr() si. u plrtil (lcl circuito cle Ia agLesiviclad, sea por l)t,yc(!i,lt'l () lx)r'rcsl)Lresta rctrliati\,1r en la reelicltl p()t pafte clel ol>jeto exlern() agr-e rlirLr, st llcgase a .lctiv:r (l cilcuit() de les lrngrrstius persecutorias. la llega<l.r rr Lr tlt'rrcsirin poclru solrrcvenir por lrrs -rsccrrencias rlue ese tipo rle ,rrrr1rsli:r i(.rrc. O si la lrgresir irl:rcl <l:t Irrgat () l sentif tl r)lLlncl() c(r)l() pe lr1r,rso sirto i (ltc sclL cl sujet() (ltien s. r( prc'\ente r sr rltisrttr) (onr() peli!irt,\() \'(Lrriin() p.uu c()n sLs ol)ie)s. al x.ti!'1lrsr cl circuit() cle la cr.rlp:r, con srrs r.nsr,r'ut rrc ils cle rentrncia o clc ltrttrtcastigo uras()qLista, ent()n(cs s!l'rn l' \.r\L/1,
sll t)n)pir l)il(nir grncrirti\':r en rlL,hxt dircN(,s (lnrinos (uc corr(h(en (1(l srl l(iurtrli(r.n')n (()n pr(h(r. rtLr( lrcncn nl rcprL,srnrit(n rnrbirl r ul:r(i,r (lc r.r (jcsrnrxri( (lcs\.rIririr(lir en cl srieri) p(,r t).rclrcs t)xrrr,rr r.,,,rr.rti,:r\ '.r(li.fln) del suf)(r1'('). c(.

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N() o()s irtl(t('sir (lglcllrr-n()s rttlis tn ccr:cr t()(l()s l()s s(ck)res cltl rttoclcl,, nr()(lularr'(luc l)tcscnlllnr()s I)11r l()s lrllsl()t11()s clcptt'sivos nl LLs rnltiplcs in r( rr(lirci()nes (,ntrc k)(l()s clkrs. l,o <lrtc (ltercill()s resill:lr. s()l)rc t()(l(). cs l.r r ('DtlLje cle c( )ncrptl 1l lizlu- (lr est( ()(l() ls fuetzas (luc 1l(I(rn cn la g('nesis \ liLnlenit)icDt() cle ls clclr'csirrrtcs. \' (lrc Pcrnriln cr)lcn(ltr l:ts rtlrsrrt.r. , ll lanl]in()s (lc l)r()((j ()s. n() (lc (itl(g()ris cstn(irs. I)()sil)ilitltn(11) Prnelr';rr (D r tltscr-i1rcr<'rn (lr ca)rlt() se ll.lslr (lc Lrl cstir(l() il (fr(). cl< lrts ttztnes clinrirrri<lts ,I r'sls tr'r'tsti ttrrl( i()ncs, (le l()s (ir(Lik)s (ltc sc xrti((rlrr ratl llcgat lt llts nrlsrnrLs, ) l)r .().&r1, t c/t el l)ta,ratllc.lll nupe gcnc|al cle llts clcPr'ttr, 'n,.'t ((lrJgl'rnar l) 11() sc (lcl)c enten(ler ex( ltrsivlllttcntc cn un clirtrcnsir-tt ltisti-i ,,r Iriognilica. (s (lc( il'. c()nl() ( il-crii()r.i (Lrre sg firclr'r ('nca(lcn.r n(l( ) cn cl l)l'.rtlo. sit tiu))l)ia'n. y esrncilllorcte. rrtxr rle'st'r-ilric':rl() l)r'(\'cs()s lcl///'. ,lr l))ttiicnc'n lls t ottclici<nt s gct)cr.lLl, rf-l\ tlc rlcrtcst, ,t't l.\t.l rL\l11 (lL- trr-) , oIltirIU() l)f()(cs() (l( (()nslaL((i()r'ti Ilr r<'r'sone n() s()lr s<'lrP(scrtlr .r \i uris rlr ((rtt() ilrtlx)t(ntr p()r (trsl (lc Lrnat rcprcstrrl.rc it'rt t <lcl resarlo c,rt-tt.It'lacl ( n rl psi(lLli5rro es un.r l)l (-. sin() (luc lus tcgllrs b:tr lits ruc lttn-str , rr)nx su psi(luisn)() le (()n(lL(cn. una ) ()lril vcz. it la [cpr(x[ctir-n clcl scnti rllit'ntr clc inrPrxcntia y clcsrsPeIl ] zar. Un urorlclr gencul clc krs trlrrlos rlcpresi\'()s cn lr))inos de afii(Llli(i(in , 1.' clrcuitu)s ;r\ r(li. ar nucshl) ittici( ). i enten(lct l()s nle(.rtis))()s qtre stllrt'ltcetl .r lo ttr( rlc ()lIll lIiitrfa 1rl)rc(L'r'ii sitnl)lenl(nlc c(nll() r'llt(g(ials

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AVAN(:IIS IN PSI(]('I'IJRAPIA PSI(:oANAI iI-I(]A

t L M()l)llt,() tirl)Lrl.AR-1'RANSli()llA( I(INAI

-9

i)llx)tcn(.i

lrl lrilsl()rt() ntrcisistlt cr! riL-(.Ltn(ltri(). p()r txntr),: sLl ilnsie(l(l l)itritn()ide. lrlrrlr l)Lsca(k) n( ) pu(lc clctecrar pak rloga .n .f ,i.." (l( cxpcctriiv:rs (nlnjp()rcntes grandiosas, "ignlii.:,uir" .i .. r,irri^i,ri.i.l'.r.,i,r,, ,,rn,r.rrnl('s, ti nlls(xlrisnt(), ni (lflcir <lc nrrcisiz.rtiun Irr prttc.l" lrr. laclrt,s. ni ex_ rclicncias tr:tun).iticas clc l intnri.r ,1t," l" llLrlrrcr.r,t fi,,.trr., ,,n1 .itu,,,-.i,,n a"
A pr.s tlc

qtlc cl esc lll(nllent() llt lxtcitnPens (lLle nlc lrtle e<uir<rcltrk> ltl sttponcr

l)t'( s(,ltlllfs(, <lc c,s:l nt:lttt-tti, .t l.t\1,,,r rlc..u lni-rnr.r

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..1

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._,r'L',i.r .a,.g,r

(lllc Pxlczcx r!l)i') Pfi rul)i.l qLre re,rirtte. clacl. (ltle p'',l i.].,,p.',.,,"",,t "fr" Per() J ' cn < :rnrl)io sc (l!te frtlstre' sc llcg() ,r.i,, .tatr. cxistir Ln1l exPectxti\'1 en el tfltalrlient(t- (iLsi sin t:x jr,,tri, ,,a,r.ru,,rtr"o t cil(ulr ptr'ia ricle -y cot't l (or1 r()tal rcsign(i.n:r l:r irlt de grxtiiic:r(i(in Fls clctit 1.l.c'c;:,,i.,r;. (fl_ll ([el'is l)(]r Par(( nrisnla t.rltx clc pl:Lcet ([le cxllclil1cllt1tl)ll sLl 11111(lrt' crl tl itientilictir sr: ll;rl>il l tlnll (lc eslllr i(ientili((lrl c(m l)iLsi\:t '!l'l:l(lrc cLle[)() sil a ] it lil cletiin sentirrrient() (le ilrrP()tcllci1t (ltc tcnill tt' patl'e e't nlrtlcst:tres lie('Llcntcs tr-.i, .-rt-g".-,,1 Lll" ,,,",-,l.'alt' sc scntix !'nli'rll)11 -sLls " intentllt t'tlcllt l' ig..iit,*-. sintia'o.l()st illrl)(fcnts llentc it cllts itrclllez tle trr, .'l I I , , , , t r- t I rI lrl.t il)\i'lll' l "lr'r ' lrlt " 'n'rll't''''' Ilrl l:ts !i<isittt \i, i,,t.','rt,,1," ltPl-()\'ccllltl rtr:rl'lLritl ' 'P' 'l'tilni(l't(l frrl'\i'l'l llrtcie tlt tlu11r'tn<llrs (lL lti\ elil)\'(t 'l\ tlcs tlel ttlt(lttttient,) PlLfat tn(l'llr l'l l:rlt'l ll glltr ctillitl{rs l1'ltil]nl! lx Ir)i. l)cr() litlcs \cill:lllliclll()s lllll)sl(rencialcs l)Lr( ' 'in .rr,ll,, ,r",,,,t atpricllci()ncs illl('l(r!lllles (ltle 1lc('Ptil)il.l)asi\'llillcnt( (l(i (ltle l!1)' l)()]trllx ltlcctil'lt llsin rcl)cr( l'ttrt (lr-rc )'() \'lctil rrtc tttri<ret-t rll)rln(l()n1Lrl() cl enitlisis (lt lll trltnsfcl(jllcill I)llssc a tln "guntlt' l)lxl-l() -sin r])xI rr 'nur ,:l'-s,'lrl)icrk) .,,"r,ri"i",l""],"-, centr(' cl lr'1rl\rti t(r'rl)( trti(1' :n,ll llllt)()f ( tl'$'l t'rtr,tirntl IIl((uLl(l'(lcllr(nllr'n1()s rLtc
r
r

ri

tetirti

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rr.rtlicr:t rosecr stt 1-ltcltt" rct'ttri clc sr r'icLt. Jrirlictrl:rrnrcntc lrt crlti'r'rtlecl:tcl clc (trt'

(slill)it tli.(.lr(l()

I,,,l-rIr,I.rIr.rrIr rnli.li,,.

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Irus() cD evi(lcnciit (lltc l)r()\,rn1r (ic lt llll)rilill l.l I\lrl... lr,.,k.,,.r,,,,,.,,,,,',,,,i.,t,,,,ri',r..,,r,,,*,,,,,,. l)(n-unil cnlr)lc(l-LI (r(rtir-l .r.,. t" ,rt,tig.,ir., ., p.;r., p.r. p"_

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't
1\',AN(.:S t:N lJ!t(.(tl llRApt^ pst(.t),rNAL.t.t(.A

()r),))iu(). )ltiil slt srr-pfcsa. plt(s nLln(.ir hltia tcnitlo le ntenor esperanzl. en (\)tt() (luc n() er:l t.rn (l(,l)il c iotp()tcltc sus p:rlal)rxs. .rrna pecue:r lral_ -(,n srt t'rr tncclio rlt, l:rs ol:rs, l:sl()s (as()s (lini(()s nlLl(,\t(rn. ll ntcstr() tntenrlel.. (t-)tn() tcstlta in(lis l>r'rs.rlrlc <lisp<nc- (lc ull rr()(lql() rsict)at.l<'xai(r) (l.e c\pli(lu( l()s ruriltil)l( s
(

CAPTULO

II

EL MASOQUISMO

r''Pc, llcrs c firnr'irin l,\r\ , ,t( t.lPt.l r.lr, r,,ntr. r

sis. srlo elt le tctlicla cn (lLlc rrtiliccnl()s ntrxlells <lc intcrr.(,n(-i()n qLc seirn rlc lrr <rrnligut.ith l)s i(! )pllt( )l(-)gicu scr:i titctilrlc rrn:r

(.Dlirr)s p(r'l()s r'Ullcs se puc(l( llcgtrr.u los tlifi,r.cntcs sLl)til)os cic clcprcsiOn. l)r.'to. lr<lcnris. \,.,:,tc es el esrecto soltr.e el (luc p()ntnx)s ftxlo nirestrr etnftt

n,! r.lrf,'n(,t\k.t

o psit'olrigi (l()loros() ;C(inr() cs posilrh: trte rtcrtcllo trtc resLlltll -lisic:l l)Ltsccl( se;r slttisfltcc'to:l prilll <lc cllllI:'nlc-. cLtt plo<ltlt:e lruritillltci<irr. ctte lt ple(islllllentc slr liitticl'ttt cl en lctivrl rll( lltc Ixn-Ltnll l)crs(xl ) cn( tlcrlll-e tlt Frtltcl inlercs s!ll)\rlccllt('l (: gr-'l11 lil t'ttlslt tltl pllrct r'l t:'ttlr l)l(g(lnt1l (190, l9l. l9l9lr. lgllrr) Pt el lttlt;t (lt:l llls(xltisl)l()' v la rLtc st lontlttlrtn sLl senIrxkrs ]rs LtI<-cs (lLlt] st l)an octtt.ttir tlcl ')lisllr()' I:l nlas()(lLlisll)()' en (-11( terizlt(k) scr aproxitnacit-tn c()ll1() PLle(lt ti(l() lrris cstrict(). \' l)rinlcl. < ntcnc<tttv l'.t btistltterll (()lls(ictltc \' () in'()nscicotc tle srttiinliellttl fisict (-()n(ii(-i()tl{s esr: ():lLlrPri\'(i')n

l)(lr(ltlc tll, <1,.'rttrl,lcrjtriiio..tr.rtrxllstigrr (ltlc. ljn srrjrro lcs ()l()r!ll tltl sigllifitltcllr- dc llliluctl llll son r.,xlilir.trcls -r,l instrtll)(]nt() tl Pllril 1 jr,'cl. gcncllln rl,ttcr. lil clislllrcer cs llt ulrlicil-lt ll olrtcnciirir cle placct ,,.,..,. ,,,,,r,1r.,. P() Lln (ircLit() c( )lllplicil (l() cs llr rtte I) nlrllt)rtlt(j sc l()grx. F-:'t() ll()s \'3 in(li(1ln(l() r'e <tte cl llllls(xlLtis11() n() cs(aP'l k)lirlnrcrll( (lc k) (luc (tl I)si(r)llniilisis (\)ll()('cttl()s t'<tt\\<) ptittcPi) tlcl ltlttcc'r' ttrltl se lrrtll i llt tttt tsl)(r'lr) l))('t)()s tlt rrl .le .r.rs locl: tlitllt tlcs llltit lll los tlc gtria cl tllclt(l(tlillllicnto lrtxt'sos rsitrritos es Lt i"lrl.c.,u. lo <1r.tc ('i(-)n
lrscLrttllr

ln:t
c1.:

",tg,,.ti,, (lIt(] !icrrtl .rlllo crl l()](l c()11 tItt'rtlr'iirI (l(le il('\'x esti (len('rrrirrrt\l')n o)lili! sintr a,, ,,,a ,'l clisrlltr'et'r'lt n() (s L1 iDslr!llll('nk) plllil l; rlltcncitln r'lc llltctr prosc p)acer (ltlc <le lling!n lLlgO rtrc sc l1'pitc, irrsistcnl(]lrltnt('. sill 'L()t'l c()llll-lIst:lrl() con (lLle il()s l)cr,r1itilli .l,ira".'t.,r'," llucnrc, e'l ,:ltl nrastxrtisttxr. sinlplcolentc ecrrcilrts conrlicitrncs (n (lllc cl sttflirrrienl< no I)(l('(lc cxPli(ls( (lrl(' (fr(), st tltilir.t clisllac<'r' ststttllil. l):l11l lrtro llt iitr.rl]Lrl,.t lllal(..f [)xIll Ltn ,r,,,,,,urr',la,rr",,t.l (()ll)() si ficri llt tinicrt clr
lus olrscsknts,:L 1a lrcrse'c rtcit-rn. llor

lL l)1)r l() (ltlc s(l c\'llllen n()s scl-\'ir' c(nrl() illlt(xltl( (lispllceDlet(): ls firrs l krs la tlc <lcslxrltl:i, citrc lo Ttoccsos ctrcsliirtt (luc si cstlin nuis all<i lL'l pt irtt:iPtu) ('l lld(:o cs (l!'(ir' l Pr'()l)lc-

tlcl tLer:.

c'llLtslt (lLlc sll)) il(L- lt la:tt'tgitstia tle llclrtnctilir'r r I:Ls l'csa<lills srttiluicnro .tl lti,lortlclr.

titlrt:tlgunos ejetttllkrs' e lttl':nll-lttt'llrs en .entr',ll cs Ltn,t lltrlt "l llsito:lnlilisis t ttt'" tllrs olrligll (r)n (t:ll tr)(l'r l'l iolP(1xn cl tc'r'itLrio ck'lrr t1r.tt cstii ntlis rtlLli ttel cl!sto ('l (l (l(\Lt) ilriLll l)llrl('(l(l inc(ls(i(-l)lr ll()s l(]s!l .,,, ,,," l. ,.a,rr,r.-.'rr,,, -sill tL'se()' sin cl tiir'rr ir)c\1)licl)lc-. sirl cnll)arg() r.lci:l r-tn tllltrgcn n.fi!atd
'st-i

AVA\(.trS tlN p.()-f IitrAplA pst(1)ANAI_i f l(.A

ti r_

Nt

AsoQu tsMo

8J

(lLt (u.rl(l(licr t(xl() ott() tcr].ik)lio (lcl itr(\n]s(.i(nt!, rcsultxr.11 tilntl)ln inexplir'rLl)l(, Estc /i/(,lzl .lt,l dt-sttt es cl (Jrc cxigit.ti r (,\in)en tlelllLrIr !rn.i vcz (luc IIrr'llos rcvisrrclr el tlc,ttt lel dLtt <)ue iDrrrrlsu y s()sticnc los Icn<inrem_,s
l)txs{ xluistats.

Alxr<:ilclonos \'11 l Lt ttlcll clc tlcst.rnsllrrir. lx cllteg()1.x <le ntasurtrrslltr ,, (l)lstarrnI()s rtre lrej. esre tnuin() cn l:L litcriltLl-x s,lxe cl reru \t rrLr .,r rlrs ctrrliciones nttr rlili-rtntes: /) (.t).tn(k) k tlUe.e l)Lrscl it Ilitva,s del srliinticnt<> cs c] plccr (lirc(.t(). c()llt() sc vc t,n el lltsoctrisnto se)irrltl, () cn (,1 c:rso tlcl ntasrxLris,n() nur(.isistl cn <uc cl sLttiiltlirnk; ()t()rg.r rrntr iclentirltrtl l)11.rnterlt. .Si sLrfi. y Ir t.ler. .i rt,ht.. cl pltr<.,r.. si r.lrstig,, .ti cilmc, sl ,]e (\l)()ng():ll retucli<r <lt lrs cicllti. \, nt(. (lesJ)r(,(1(.Ltl)( tlrl lliisl]lo. ctli()D(.1,s. sov clili,cnte ) rnc (lrL,kxLrs jos rlcIls,,. e, rk,c.ir, tllrrur. n:trclsistili ,)

ctrrrrrlo I;r nrtte no es

rilliln. (lenll.() (l(, flcr(l (iennrin-f.r nt.l\!^lui\rn() l()r.ll l)()r s(,ntinli(nt() rli.t'ttlr:rlrilirl.rtl: ilnt(,() ilts()p()rtiLl)lc tle lrr <.rrlP s(.i!)1(ulil tttitig.rIl:r t,.,clilrD tt'l:r lrirsrrrr-cle (lc (.isli1l() 1..ll rc,trn.ilr lrl rllrr.t,r. l.ista ,a.gl.,n,1,, .l ,s. I.rlritr-'rl (lel tr,lino lr.rs(xlris11t{).lrliga rr una arrrl.riieci,rn ".."ra.,,,..n rle, la r.rac tr. r'izrrcion (irre llicilllos ntis rrilte. vtr crrr ltr nt( f i\.it(.i(-)ll irrt irutLrlsa llr ltirs rrrrtLr rrr tir. tlel clistle<cr prxlri s<,r rilnk) cl I()gr() clcl tl:tccr.rlir-c_t.t. r..r.<r lrr rltsrirrrr<iort dr Ln trf)() especlicrr <lt.tlislrllrtcr (lrc rl srlict() l.:l)c ltLrn l)irs. l)()r lu( \lr;r l)ltflL-. si I)rr.l a()nscr\i,1)r)s cste :rnr>iiftrrl (lel I(t.))irrr) i.lsrnlLli r))(), l() l) r(enl()( excltrsivltnrcnlc lil cL: no ilplrr-liifn()s clel lcnguajr rrrrrrlr.tr litir.. ltsiir'rnlilisis. .rlt(lL(,s:rlricnck clt I:r nc<csiclti ck: clil,.it.tnc.r cl.rrrr.nlr. l:rs <llrs rtclicionts rent.ion:rrl,rs Ilr (r)ttl)r(.nsi(ln <lcl tttlrs<xrisnto Irlt evo[t.irlrrir n()litir(,rtcnt(. (l(,s(le (,] ltl( )nlr'! ) L.n (lLtc sc enl(,n(l11 cxclLsj\ llr)lcntc (.()lll() rlt,rir.eci. t,D ltriDtcr Irrgltr, rlt lrrs ltrrlsiont,s scxrlrk,s. htrst:r l :rttrrali<llrci. cn c1r.re Jrel. un intc,'s crcr.rentr^ s,lrr'tl Pllrt'l (lLe cicr'tas sittirci()nes inter-r,:rs,r,.rri.'s traL,liticas licncn s(r)r( r'l suto. <tricn. l)allll ll(litl)t:tfsc 1l cllll5. () l)ln-:l ((nttr.lareslarllts. necastla tl.lln\ lrrr'rrrI l(l tkrloso (n l)li!.(.ntcr() () l)i)sL.itr lt(ti\.lntrnlc rl (lisl)liL.cl.p()[ lenl(r. .r (la( (.\t(,.t.U,,lr tlt,llit.cril s()il)r(si\it. [,.s l.tr.c.s trrc t,tirtizrtr.t el cal(1ct st rr:rl rlt,l tlls(xlLisr]x) I(),lltn util <lc ilts lnclts lcUriitut,rs pllli la ((nltln_cn srr!r tlL lrrI rlUi sc lusca I() (lisl)l1t(.( 1]i(,r.() (l(, 11iqtrl tt tut titio lFt,,,Lt<l. l()l')l)) . (n (Jll(,cl nlts(xlLlisnt() cs I)(n-lit -lll grlill(11(.itin scxtlrl ([ue pl-()(lu(.c. lstrr'rrrk.srltrllrrriciiostlrrlra)oslulrLl,-.lltlrl,.,s: .ltristt tirlcl prititiltiodclpltt , r'l ( l9-l{r) \. lul)l)iL.i(itt. sit()i1d.l,L t,NIst11( I92()) lllt l:r triDtcr.:r r,,rtr,,l. JIria ttlht th,l l)nlkl)() (l pl (u.. l-rcrcl Dttrstre cn cl jLrcgo crrr: un nio ltlrliz;t ( rrt r'r'1Lrrrr(',lr( (()rl Lll] ( ill-r-('tc <r.re l]ircc crcslrrrrIc1. rLreg() rcclrpe l1x -rrl t,rrl,r . ,rrr. lrrr.rliJttr,t.st tr-()r.crlirrrit,nr r.,:.rr,<I,.r.t,, :rltor. ltrj(J sU (.()ntr)1. lil \!tll, r r ,.)l ,1rrr'l,r r:rrlrr,sr- ltlcjtr)rtr sin ttrt,l Plrlitl lrr.cl t_tttcllr p.u..t irnrr_ ilir1. lqrr.rl t rrlrL.rr ir. -rrr('.k) (rc cr.rxtirin (rL, ,l-ru siLrcion t.L,.l tic"(rr,r'11;r lrlr ltrl .r l.r |r,rr'Irr ir'rrI Dc-tt:rl (lc (.irl.lils sitLaci()ncs fu.1lLln)i-lliclls (lLtc l)
L t Lal sc ltelllr lo <uc

,.ient(), cl escaper.cle Un srtiiltient. nrx\,(.. Cill(,'oriit est

Jlr lrirsctrecie clc <lisrl;rccr sir.ro logr:1r..

nrcriiantc cl strlri

Ic(eliit rll.is olrio qrrc el sujct() lt.ltlrse clc olr.iclltr l)ero (lue sin erttl)irrgo rc.rrtrtlrr Lrna v (fl- \'cz El sujer lepltr lo cuc srrliir-r pitsi\'lu't)rrnrc pala eckrririr rrn rl<rinio srlre l() lftlLrliitic() () pillri anticipst lt su rrtuencia. lls:t linc-e cle corllpfrnclcr por <u se lrusce kr clistlaterrlcr() tiuDe !(,nlinui(llr(l cn la ohlrr iicucli:ur \'r'Lclve a str ltrlieuclu en ljlliiblciu, stttt)llu .j' lttllt!5lltt. tr':tllaj() cn el cttc sr <ltitt'rn.r.r crlrt'(' .llrrr\tr.l .lLll,,t,r.ltr!'.1 lil (lLl( srr r'c(l r'rin(l() cl stjel( ) as s(l)l-ct](lirir rrir' trntr sittrlcir-rn <rrr' clcslr()rda sLs I)r)sililirllilcs lriolrigitrrs y,o Jrsicolr-rgicas (lc rec(in, 1'kr crrc Frerrcl r-lcnrrinl iingusti.r sci cl sLicl() sc llnlicil)lr Drcnl.llnrcntc ir l() (luc trrcliell scr la rc r'rticla cr llt sitL:l(irir1 trxul)liiti(ll. lt (()n\'()c lcr'<l clc Lrnlt tttlrn(l1t graclLIr<ltr. (J \e:l (lu(. l)()r el ((,lu()r iL (ltrr lllg() \'Llcl!i\ lr :()rltrrntltr ill \ui(,t(). stt. tnrls(icttc)rntc. lrit:D(l() (lr 1t(lclirnlfsr. lcjos rlt cr'rtar l<xlo trrtlrclo <tr kr rlis l)llr(cnlcr(). salc lr llr l>tisrrrtrllr cle ('stc reIlr iIll('lllilr (l()lllinl(). A ntcstl() nr()(l() (lr vcr'. scguir rcl)iticl)(l() c(rnr() Lini(.1 cxrli<trcir-rn rlcl rnes(xlLrisnl() Lril (lill(nsr(-)n tlcl llisrno scxrrrl v lilniltrtsc '-t l,a,.qdl at tt)1 -ltt ( fi'cu(l l()J[r) irrrlirtr lrc[11> tlitj() .\ ',\ l,l l)trll(Dtrt t't'ottintict' rlt4 ttlrsorl//ir/,/{J tltt rn.r linelt lrruilrl. Lr rtt(rncnl() (lc l r,lirlx lrr'ir'rn firrrlilur:r. l)il- (()ngt]lr v rc(lrair cn csc llr(rn(r'11() llr rrohlcllitir'lr lttrclrr rrr:is irttotttrtttc (lLc ((tstitLl.l cl <cn1ro clt'le olrnr .t prtr'tir c[, I <ltlrclrr clrl, los vcinte: rrirrro cl nsr(lLrtrn,'

irli)rtl] Lrr:r iutgLrsti (lLrc to cs s<ilo.ruscnr'itt <lt gr:rlifir'lrci<in rlc ltt trrlsir'rn sr' \trill sin() rltte tlt'lr(rtt['rlt ftirtzlis rl('\lruali\is (lt)( illllctltrilt] \r inl(,gri(lit(1. l\ ()lri l)xrtc. t,l rrllrsrxtrisnt,r no rLrtclt rlt'srirr'rrllust,(l(,1 slt(lisnl() ( lllltrtr. l99lr (;r'ossnrn, l9()li I;rg1r(lrc. l9(f): Lcrin. 1990r Siks. l99lr Stoltrrr, l9-5) no stilo 'rorrlr<'t'l l)Llc(,r's(, l)Lr('(l:l (r)tctrr (lu11)l( l :rctucion u.t:rr tuistrr rrI l irlcntitl<:rtir-rrr (()n (,1 Irl:l((,r (lLtc rrlrtit,nc l:r ta|t,jtr srirlicrr -ricrrLrs nlils(xlri\f.\ milin li sr)ris. Lr t,ttlirli t,l rlrrrcr clel s:i<lirrr '. rsirrnurlos

con el olrjeto. se irlt,rtilictut ctr i,slr,ttl1is (lU( (\nt I() (lLlc lcs l)irsil lt cllos Dtis rr]()s , () lrrcrrt Ilr osr'ilr'ir-r (,n Llrt nrisnl() sLticl() entl-c le trrkrr<ion tle lrne lt sLt l)atr!l.l .r ,lrt! Ix)sici(-)rt nrlls(xluistlt t rrnlr slltlir' sclr ti-t<-tr.ttc -lirz:uttL () l)()r(lu(. (,1 lllil\, l(t\t]l, |cviertl t:trlrl)il sLr t( )l ( ttrc lrnrllts xrsit ion<.s ' rttc,.l.r sttvir l)1uir rrLIrl)rir lrrnt.sls slirliclrs (lt(, n() l)\re(lcr) s(,r'lr)l()-.1(lis. silt()
rortrru cl sLi({() c\l)Lrirucntit. r'Llrrcl< es a,l nlislr() <uien sc inlligc cl (1tstS(). :tgrcclir gocc sliclirrr ()nlnil)()lrntc rIl srrrcrrr' jrrtlo al rlur'cr' rrlrs()(lLristl ck'srnlirs<'<ltsliglrckr r,rr rrn pctsolltjc rrxk,foso r.,nr'lLft'te<k clt csc rl)cr\,1'r. llstx rnrplcitllrcl tle:l li.n<lnrcrr r.s lo <1trc st lltlr rl,- (.rl)lur.r tr.rvrs

r'l rlrtcc: ck

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\l]ll

tip( )s l)Ii \tAs(xlUtsl()

{lLisll()

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st

AvAN(.1 S t.N l,Sl(l()'l l:RAl'1.1 Plil(()Ai\AI-l'l l(-A

lil, fAs()QUlsM()

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lirtir (lc 111Din(r'iLl. fls clerir, I1l nl()i\'ci(in inclnsciente (lLle clllPLljll lll srrjr't, rrl clispl:rccr EI clilslrttn-i illtsr los (hsli1)s stll)t)()s (le c(nl(lici(nles (lr'\ir) gcn(]ran(kr flrntlsis Y C()n(lLlctlls D)ls(xlLlistas. )'(ltl('alulllizil[(n]()s ll
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),'1.

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Iil strfiiuiento. la priracir-rn clL'l)lllacles (lt (lifi'rcrltc tiP(). lil t()lclil-l(i1l irr)lL'rl cl{)l()r. el esl()iLi\nr(), los:tclrs tlt sar'rilici<. I)Llc(lcn scrvil l)ltl1l lcxn zlI u-tlr irlenticilcl (ltlc ])crtl)itil ll l l)crs(r-lil I e l)l escntll l'sc c()lIl() \tll)tj()r 1l ls
(lL'rllis.

krs clcus cle su grancliosiclucl. constitrrr,'enclc instflrmcnk)s inrlispensables para olrtener LrD cirt1l i(lenti(h(I. lln canrbio, en el sacrifici() o cn cl esfirerzo no patc)lr-rgitos. el suflirnicntr. pr>t rs inrportltntr que sea. n() es l)Lsc (l() cn s risr))() sjn() (lLre c(mstirLrve cl pt(( j() (llre l1t pcrs()lrl se r e olrligcl lt Il.(gaif. niirV ir lr(s:t[ \(\'(), plr[ xla:riz:r'krs olrjetiros (ite Ie s(n] illrPa)rr.lnes. L() nlrri()r llucsttlt qLre 1.)or'rrreclio rlc l:t <ontlur'l c\ternll n() sc rtrccle iLrzgr si (icrts ll((i(-res s{)r't () o() s()n exprrsi(irl (le ltlrts(xluisnl(). \I1,, ,lLrc ell< clcPcnclcr:i clel sigrrificeckr tlrrc cL slro ifi< io tengu cn l:l flntasx. lil suPr.restarnrentt rttiis l)rr1) ilrll()r parcnlxl. () llr lLlllistri l)ltrenl( lllcntr (lesintefcsxcl. ()
Lr generosiclerl. () l lrLlt()linril( i(in en cl rleccr. o cl s<riflcir> r'cl cslirerz() en la uilitllncilL rle t u.rltuicl til-ro s()ciir). r(ligi()sn. polftica, r'icntfica- pLc(lcn [e

Ll.rtl.r

(ic.tlrs c()nlicci(es iclcrtlizlclas. Plrtkin (1980) lrlllii <lei scl'ltilllicnl( ) (lc


l)( ri()ri([:(l ticl,,qlte

Ilrirlil

isi;tcien(l( ) ltsi (lcs(()s nxrcisislirs clc t'xrt'r,.ionltliclltcl. tle grltntliosi<lisplaccr cs urlilicltck cottto ltlttclr:L tlc Irt cxcclttoneI (:lli(lil(i ll(r (lue sc tenchie (n (tlllrll() e fitaicz:r i:irlt <,lllcnt1, o:r l.t ti<lt'li<llrcl :r
srlt F)l

'sLl-

lersol-taliclltclcs 1)lts(xlLlisl1ls. l:s lo cttc \(r))()s e1 1l(ltell()s qtle crcaln situllci(n]cs en (lLlc s()n [tcl]1171Ll()s r llrtllrilletlor. ltrsclnck cle mncr pr()\'(xrlti\ ll rtn:t rlrlginltli<lacl <ttc Ies ll,tg-t t,-'nlit'

l(ilnzn cielts

t slrcr'ilr]t's.
( r('Dlrt.

.'l r'lr
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<rrtl<.r krs rttrrLckrs (l( irl!estig(l()r cttt r.t' hltlrlt lirrtr:tckr tn sr.l illi-ltt y-, iclealcs tip() \lrtrie (,ttric- tc,.'ll.tz:tll:l t(r(l iiYll(l cc()lla)ltllL.L. (i 'lrli. lll.rllUllrr)te. \'i\11 tn a()n(li(i()ttes p[c(tLl-ills ]'ltrrxstrl) al st csP()s.t.l Llnll \'i(t rL slrcrilicios. Es.ls l)r'i!.tcionrs c()nstittran pallt l Ia ptr.ttlrit clc clut verclarlcr:lnr('rle crll tlD ilrvcstigll(l( )1 . lc stl'r'ltt't PlLlll ()t()rglse rtltlL i(lenticlltcl cr.te tli: lr)-lirlu conscgrtir r lrlrt,.:s cle (lcscLll)lilllienl()\ tttt jarll:is tcltlizltllrt A ,altrt (le

I n cjctttrlo (le estll ('(n](li( i(ill ('r el (lLlt n()s lll()slllll)il tlll l)iD\('stigral()r tr) c') (lrrlll)() clc llts cictlr'i;ts lsices, <ltticlt I)ill: \('lll (lLl(]

r.l

lr:rlllrzgos cicntific<)s. (lL( sc le ll()strul)xn cs(lLi\()s. st xlelll)11 1l tlnll \i(ll llli\L'rirl)lc l)ucs ,s cs c()Dt() l()(l()s l()s geni()s tlc l ciclcie lulllrn ririr.I( 5t c iist(n(i.l ill rl)iin(l()r-r() tl,rl sulrinrienl() cstiLl)aL (l(.tcrlllinat(le Jlor<r.tc sln \tu c l( (lrail que llirlrcr te:'ignrt,.lo lr !c$e sinll)let]lcnte c()lll() Lna pers()r.l lu.i\. \ill

nil]grin Lasgo clue le pcrruilie{e lcanzr cl scntinrient() clc e\ccP( i(milli(l(l rlt'st,rkr. Crlro clict Anzicit (196u). tlt cst()s cltsos ha1'gltlrificltcin. cliriltizrr.

h linert (livis()rill cntre cl o)as(rllrisrll(, I1-tr (r isl.r \ ('l sa,-rificjo, cl cslirsrzo o ll rtnrlntir rtte iurplican llr clettl'sa cic rrnr, irltlrlts () rlLrt \()n r(ltr(ri(l()s l)irril lll ()lfel(,()'l (lc cierllts l)lc{s l..l (li l( r|ll( l.r \('l)lrslt .'rr rlttr', (n (l lr)lts(xltlislll() n.lr(i\istx. el sLllfinlient() \'e1 L l,)\.r( rlr( l() son llt 1rr'ttcltlr- (rn gcst(). (iLc l:t I)('rs()nll sc()tlcce:tri lttL.tlt.l t
r

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r h lgrt'sir.'iclarl rLtc lu enviclia ror cl grre tlc krs paclres rlcsrcrtare en cl slriet(). l)es(lc cstl conctrciirn. el g(xs (le los p.tr.lres. es-:rc < ilrltcnr el p11)\()(it(k) p(n' lil csccnr >r'inrali.r, scrirt l:t r':ttrs;t cle J:t >crtltrlrrt c ir--t rlcl strjeto. N() (lll)en (lt(lxs (l( (lut cn (,clsi()nes es 1sr. pcr(r sin (l(jr cle t(ncr en cLlcnt (lue n([r hltl'tttiis pt't rttt tt<l:tnlente traln(lLlilizrt(lor'r:ttlt ttn sttjet() (luc vcr a lrs )lrcll,es f.l()21n(l(). aLrr (Lrrt(l() t[lnsi)1-irI]c)tc I)trcdlt dcs l)cr'tl'sc Lln sci]tilllicnk) (le e\clrrsir-rn. I)crr a rnclici<-rtt. txr11l)ilI. (ltle cst('g()(e cle Los ')ltrlrcs no selr trlilizrLclo p(n-s)s. inr'ltrso sricliclrrctte. (()nl() c()ntf:lI)!est() l pli''lr(irin 1l l (lLrc (()n(lenlln lt stts hijos.
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I-a xut()l)r\ ir( i(in rlc tlaccr I)()r scrrlir)licnt() clc < r.tltrt la ttrtlirnr>s vcr cot-t lluiclcl crr trrir i()\crt ri,.' alletlcrl tlc fo lt rtt s 'h-'ct(ll P( tl) ttllr.lr<i cle lrn()r'c\i1r r1(r!i()s1r. r\r.lrttlis tL ('s(11 .irtt()rlLrl()l()gi:r i)l(-scnl:tl)it tlr rrrtrllt,.'t (luc sc hltl)(r (!n1\'cl.li(l() en r'('ilr'r-i(lx] rttr rrrcli:t cotllllrltr rl.l(lit l)llrlt:r rrrlrrlll.l nlienllirs (lLc p:rr'.r I()s clel]Iiis cril (lc grrln gcncrosi<.lerl. Iin utt ti.tjc <ttc lrizo irl cxtrtt,ct(r, crr rt'z tlc (\)rrll)rrst Llll ()l)j( (() tttc lt gttstti l< lizo Illtl llt he_ rnn. llr (ltc ttil) rclirl()s tluc clllt Ilttllicr':t (ltst(l() t('ntt. I)t[r1tc Llnlt st-

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en (lua,s(.s()sti(,nc el plucrl.: sentirniL-nk) (le ser (luc (lirigc cl l uccjin. cl cuc se irli( il)it. \, 0() cl qrrc l:r sult.c por.sor.presl. I.ll ()tro (lcja clclser atDcnazrnte _pr_ trtlis ttrr, llLge sufr.ir porcrtc (lel)e ajLrstlrst a les regrrlrtcioncs (tc el nrits() (lristil l(, intl)()nc. l.ls un vcrclecletr ut(fin.ziLulient() clcl ltsirlrrislt,, lxn ap,xle.rr'sr-.r[,rr<rrell. (lLrc lile l[tLrriiti(r). 1*nsti r.,tiin(l( )]( ) rn srriucstlrrrcnlc <lcsea tkr l tlttccntcr.. Nltis acle]:tnte ,,.rl'cr-rnxrs srltre cstc nr"a,r,,,ia,rr,, rlcli:nsirr al ( \:Iitl cl l]1s(xlLislll() c()llt() jntcltk) (le c.itntrrl clt llt silLli;(.i(-)n iI-lLtDltictL.

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ilslrstll(lo fl'ente a esa aglcsivi(i!lcl Iruscue el sufiirrjenkr ctlx Lrnl fi)nul (lc in tluc ir culpe y 1r1r)()r pol p e (lel flgrrr:L flLlental x la cLral lclre. Flsta lncr inl( rsul)ietivl corlo explicaci<ir-r clc le gncsis clel rnasocuismo es ret(mrx(la p()l \l('nikcr'(citrcl() pol SchrLcl-Srrels. 1982) qLien (lcstc (lLrc la :tctitrLd p:uen lill Ir()stil cs intcl'nlrli21r(l r' cl sLrjeto se nrallr-itla. s(nlretin(l()sc -v rcltajlinckrsc .rntc el obicto c\tcr-n{). l-()s padrcs sl'rrlicos tlcl lutr.lr Dras(xlLlista sr.relen clelar irl)ieffa l:r tsp('tnzr clc (c cs posilrlc ol>tcncr rrtrr v rcclcncir'rn clc llr cLtl:r:t ir l[\'s (lcl utrslcrilici(). Es1>ecificlrntkr nllis k) ntcri(r'. p()clcnros er](1)ntriilIrs siguicntcs srrlrti>os clc nlirs( xlLlisnr( ) cn rcllrcir-n x 1.r intqrsul)j({i\ i(l](ll

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2. I.i)nlut d? c()ts?,!!!ir ttutr tlal obfekt.y'r' Dtotl( (r st! l)rc\LlLttt. t:r\ tst urrliti<in. 1l (lilrlct(ilr <lc Lt <['str'il r:rr cl arltr-terkr xrrlcli(n. l:L (\r]cltc l nrs(xlLrislx n() lrirtil (l( cvilar tl ltterirt sirn) (lLrr cstli (lcstirlll(lll rt olrttnct cl rtnx rlc (fr() y. csl)t( i]lnrcrlc. slr pl-('scn(i:I. I)iLl(1)ud ( 196i) rcliltll rl (1ts() (lc Lll] i)ll('icntc cr.rc lc infirr'rtrt. ((l rr. \,,rrris.r. (lu( \irrllI)r( t-tLtr,r cnlcrrtt. crr rLrr'hrs n1l('slrrs fisic os. tlc los clrrc sirt cllll)rg() rt() rtltnilicst.r rtingtut tleseo clt: lilruse. Ilefirrr (lLre sLr lltll(lrr,cr.rirl rlc lll. iD(lLls() sr I\cr.r .l rllr. s1ist1t(e 1()(l()s nlis (l)ri(lr()s,. lil prrr'icntr' ('sl:i cn(1rrl(l() a(r (lLrc l)1lrc()Lrrt cs(Lrclla sLrs slrllirttier-ttos. I)lllc()Llr'1 i() enlirrt(lr (litriLlll(ntt c(nrt() tllr (ats() (lIrc en(tlt(lr clcnltr clc lo rrrt'[-agrLc'lrc hlLlrie dcsc'r'ilo r'ortto.llt rrsicir-rrt rtlrhisrs llr nlirs(xlLlislil". En estlrs (()n(li(i()ncs. [r xut()1lgre,\i(-)rl r))its()(lLlis11l cs unlt fir ll (lc s(r)()rn() 1rl ()l)irt(). llr Linice firrnl l.lajo lu citrl i'sls n() al)xn(l(x xl suido nns(xluistx. ltlrlins (1988) li hcclro hioclrpi(' cn quc .llr rr,-.r.i,-'n 1 r)lll-ltcnioricnt( ) <lr una cleyrcDclencix (luc scx r ielrlc. rol. lltris 1)cncfiicla qur

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IIAs()QUts-!J()

93

s(ir slr li)rnl. cs unx necesi(l.r(l vitlll l)alsicl,, p()r I() que el sujet() se aciaptarir ir lir l)irl()l()g:r (lcl {)l)jet(). xun l pre(io cle uuklutilulsc v clc inlligirse ttxkr tiI r tle srrlr-ilnienk)s con tl clc no pcrclerle. lll sufrinrrnto puerlc ser tirlnl)in Lln lirnrlt rL: r'incrtlo. (lc ((rp-utir Lrn tstrrtkr r:nrtxional c()n cl ()tr(). tln cjernpkr lo cor-tstitr.rlc la gcntc <lrtc sc lrlint' prrle suliir', p111 c(rrpfiil'penlrs. []s el l)laccr'(lcl cn(Llsrtl-o (()n Ln -urrS(, .r trrn cl tue se l.illtcntl. cn vrlll1t(ler() alxezo agriclrtlce, (lc c(-)rrr() r:s cl nrLrrr(i() r rlc Ilrs pcnrrrias personales sufri(lxs.r" 5c rc-rrorlr.rcr L,r til)() (lc rncul() lil)i(lirizlrckr crn trnlt Inlclte () Lut pirllre (luc c(rrlirti(i l nio o l clolcsccr-ttt en

(()nli(lcnlc clc sr sull-irrricnto. fil hijo e. alrrezuclo ror cl erxtt-clcl progtr-titot, ( )('('rrlr(l() en el nrrncl() cle sttiinlicntr (lc a'stc, c\l)crinrct-rt:t cl irrtinir rluct'trlt l cnt'rrentro en ll intinri(lxd. clcl sentiricntt cle scr ulguicr-t 'ir ilcgiltrkr rlltt rt,r'ilrc lus <onlklcnci:rs. l,o <rre crrecla inscfilo cn ll urcnle cs <r.rc t'l sr.rfiir jr.rr-r l()s (\)nstitlrle una firDl (lc llsegLlrrse la Ptcse-ncilt <[:l objtto. l)or cllo nr clc

conlr ciel olljcto por las rrrntlucras h<tstilcs clc ste. \glcsir icllrcl hacil cl olrjeto c1ue. cle ser cxpresatle. ilnten.rzLrit Lln? t.ellrcia)n :irrbi<tic senti(l c(n,o'it:ll. hs l.l relci<-n rlc sL,Iisi(-)n \.(lc uLlt()(lcnigt.aci(it.l (lLrc critil)lccen 1os segrrirkrres cle trr.r[rricr \(r1.1 ,,llt,r\ir]tLtnt,,1t.,ltico o reli giosr trt el lcler. En csl()s (.1s()s restrlt:r notultle llt s()flstica(lx esrutiflclrci<->n rlc Lrs n<r'intienkrs clcli,nsilos: el srjck), p(n-scntirse iltfi,ri(n.. nc(.csitJ .lpltntill.lr Ilr lrLrt()estiltr lc<lilrntc lu tirsi<-rn r.olr unlt inrlgen iclclrlizaci:r. pcr(). p.11 (()rtslnir a,st.r. sr: (lrnigr.rn v s()nlclen 1t t(r(k) tip() (lc iltllilllrci(res: p.l.lt. lLrtgo. e tr:rr's cic llr lclac.i<-rn r.on Ie figrrra irleulizurllr trrc hlrn contriltuickr u
t r-cet.
r<

lrtrros rlcjarnts lleler'por la sintp[ilicacion rlr ctter <Ltc tl llLs(,.liri\r. sL r-r,lrrcionlr sicrttrLe (\)ll I)ers()nirjes sl'iclicos. ustittrtcnrlo l r'llisi< I\lr't-l.r \.r-

tLrrrr;rs<xrristlr.

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trlrtll)ia'n tni(-)n entre cl()s nrxs(xlLislxs tr.ticrtcs. gracies el

tic r'er:tr'lu-le rr,rttscntlt< ir'rn clcl .sc,// rllu'lrcle V l.estltLl.xr llt rtocstitnlt hcricla, ( )l)\'iil tIcnte. no lte\, r'llztil] plllll:ltl)Llil.('ste ntc(.nist]]() cx<.lrrsit lUentc lr la rruier yl (Jur la cxpliclrrion cs igLllllc,ttr lr>licultle:tl lrontlc.
.llt!st)(lttisDl() c( )tur t.fi ttttttt ?tcUl)(rtLt tlt,l stdisu:rl suict() se sucriflc lril((,r scr)tir rtr iult tl otlr. l)rr lcrtr cullr, .rarr lrr'erlc strfiir. Us cl l)irlr ails() (lc (ir 1ls ltnrtsilrs (luc sc l)ri\.!tl rlc ltet l)1Lril n() slisfir(.(,r cl (lese() rlc krs xtclrcs: o rle lrr 1t<,rsone (luc rcnL,1(.ilt ltl cnr.rrcntrr scxual >ltr..r r.rslrg.rr lt le lt[tjtr. () renun(iitn r slil V parti(il)l .clc Ltr-t -r:rseo <ltrc cn relrlitlttcl -kr (.()) l-r !lLt(r L.slll s (lcscrrlr lll('cf- (()ll tltl rlc lrrniner tl tlttrcr cle l:t >cr-sonlt rlisgrrstecltL. lln xlgun()s cusos sc tucrlc lltger. lrl srric.iclio corr tul cle trn.uinarlc lx vi(lx l ()ll().'l'ttiltxrs <r.si<n (l(,(\)n()(.cl.rl t.lrso c[,un l]\lisf. .rr.olirnrl:t rnenl( l)crlufl)it(lit. trrt cr(rntlo sLl ltellntrD: l( (r)lDLllli(\-) cire sc ilra lr c.sltr le clijo rue no kr ltarrr clc l)l1l,t((). tlnil sctlllutil ntcs cle le Icl sc t.ocit-r dc gasolin I st rrcnrlir-r lircgo. lLlricn(l():r los ckrs <llrs. Fls cl sLriciclit stirlir lrra ,[ .r',,r1,.rl,lt..rl i,tri' (l( I),,r \i(l.r listlL nr<rlltlirlar.l tlc rlesrxtrisnxr <rttxr IirnlL cnt.irlrittll rlc slttlisrlr. cle

scriailr cue cirttils ntulcres, lujo la infcrioriclarl tlel conr>lejo rlc castrlci(rn. sokr kr yrutrlcn conrl)cnsar u ll.lt\'a,s (le nllt1tctcr ltr itlrlizr..iot-r cle rrna figur.a rrrrs,:ulinlLr .l-lt Lrni(')n rrr cl irlcltl llilic. cs lrrrs<arlt ltro rrn rrritockr mligic<r

xlrr lrrt

it ixr r clc ulgrrnlrs

lt iglrjus

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strflinric ((npxrti(l(). tl>Iicncn ttn stntiuricnk) ,.le intimiclucl. clc c,s1.-ti,, (1)nrl)r'ti(l()(lLreg,-:liifi(xlcn(le-n(iasrrrut'rrirtitirasclttn(Lrct[()lisi(1.,1/a/stxl istto c()114)urlirlt) ploctt't't ltt tttkit tludtttlc al sttfiittticttlt <lLrc \r'(1 s cs Ix nicu iclicicllrl cluc les clterla il cit .Ls ruachts ilierr()rizcls l)(n-L11 rlrriri sliclir. rrtilizlul(l() a srrs hijos pltr: csc l)lrt( e' c( )rll pensxt( r-i( ). I)('r-ltr() (le est:L nr<cllirlacl cle l)Lrs.Jr tl sLrli in)ic'r1( ). rttcs clkr c()nn()tlr lil rlcscnti:r rlel olrjcto. \'xlcnstcin (1glj) relxt.l cl .xso (lc ut-lt ltr-icnlt. r'rilttllt xrI rrnrr nLrclre (r)nlr()lir(l()[1r. l)rL[r](l()11t. Pel(). rrl n1isn1() liellll)(). fLcrlc (l(' rlrrc(r. lll sLrfrinricnto ilre(l(i ins( t() cn lir rrcntc c(r() plescncia clel olrje'to. lijrrriorr lr Lrn situil(i(in (l()lorosil per() qLrc gillrultizlr cl vincul() (r'.rsc. (.tnrl)i(.r. liislrcr. l9l I ).
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lit)t'Dt(t (la Ddulect l4 rletlizdci(in alolry(,/oj ciert()s rlas()(lLI\l.r\ \.1sr ('(rt1pelencia. sc l Lk )(lcs\'xl( n izir r \' Crcn Llnll iulitgen cleltrr.'. iltcla tlt sr rrisrro l)xr- nrr-ltcncl Lrn inlgcn i<leulizcliL dc un ()l)jck) r-lcl cual po rllr rl,. rtnclcr v por e'l r.ual sentirsc pl()tclli(l()s (llelliner. 195lJl L<esensttrt. l()5-i 5(xirri(lcs. li)5llt St()lor()\\. l9;5). (i)n tlll (lc r\perinrent:tr Lrn ssnlirrit rl() tlt scgrrr'1clecl. (lc (\)nt[.rrrcstr ngustis fi-rbices v petenoiclcs. cl stt l(t(,\( r'liirilr (rclrn(l() pcrs()nics clioses ltlttc los rttt sc lrrrruilllt. trclo con cl

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r('l:r .r .r,rL1!],,,,r,\ilr.,i(ail,l(l()uIr.Lt()itUst,)rn)rn(,s(l(trnlrnrrrt('rrrrrl\(lir\k,llirr,l(('l r,,,l, l\LLlrr rirr,, L(l(rr,l\ (te Lx n:r.i\irx(i(ln (1ucsLrt)r)nce1 prrrtcr'trtIcr l:L nrul(r r(d{)lo(tuc r^r.k.u.r,1,, Lr Lr r.r (l( .llft)r. Lr rri(i(-)n. (l(. scrlicncel iUr()r'(lrl (luc cscu(hir .(nrnr() \i(li' trr (.1 \LlIrri(rr(, l:l \11., r\rxtui5lr (\lr (lir(1() I)(n (l pl:r.crLLcscruolrttnier(l()rni(!l lr,r\ \(. t,||rl.r (. \LLlrrrk,rl{r

l)lLl-li( ul:l t)cntc i))l)(n1altc (.Lt1ln(l() ru Llltii l)crs()nir sr (.(lll>inen rasgos s:-t<licos ctn lirlticos: tclnienckr ltgrcclir.<hrcctatrent( tr(nc (lLtc Irlccrlr lu-r-uirltnrlt l fi-liriclacl rlc l iitl rt,rson:r ul nt()str..rrse srrilientr.:. I n rltr'ientr s()lilt 11l(,tcrsc cn r.alDlt c-lrcl \.cz (lre !,stltl)ll r-,nojlrrla corr lil l)ltrgjx, r'rt,rnclr tn llr r'lts rrn clirr:r srlll.io ll (lre n() tucr.lr r.e,nuncier. Crenckr la IIUr:ju lt Prcgrnlalre tLr(, lc pasalre ltsrrncllr rlt la l]Lrnrre ten hrrltitr,[rl }rra tsl( til)() (lc lx'l-s()n:rs: .No nrc ltslr ncla". rlc linlr <rrc no rlltlte xrsiltilicllrci ll st p.rr(]j clc lre<tr lrlgo tor clla. I)rr:fr-,lilr sufiil si crn ell() l()flrtrxl)il il lii per sr-r: cle llr crlrl st crrcr':r rcnger.. Algrtn:rs l)llrcjls estiin carer.lerizlttles. lr.tcisurrcnle. Ixn-estl triod:Lliclrl clc r incrllr: uno tlc krs ckts sr pr.it,:r rlc cuek;rricr >osibilided tlc pl:rcer l)llrit lllr)stt.ll-(lLlt: cl (fr() a lc lu alrrrinlrdo l rirlu cle urrnera itrcp:traltle. S(rl pefs(r1.rs (lLlc l-ccllatztu crrrl<rriel intenkr clc repara, ai()n l){)t l)r'te <icl otrri. tr.rliriencllr cnc.erttrsr cn st sLliinrient() lntes qLe

vengllnzli. cs

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l)(,flritil-([rc el stLPLteslo grcs()[ (lcic cle sentilse ctrl-:alllc. A \,eccs. rl (l( ci(r'lx ()ii'nsa re(il)i(l.t nl.lltrxt(). al)an(k)n() trllnsi)ri(). inflcleliclacl. etc -' l,r rtrsorrrr clccitle rivir Lln:l \i(h n'lal'g(le si trrn ellr (.stigll Jl ()tr()/'1l eD h lt:rli<lurl o cn l1l frtntxsll. fil ptopio stifrilrnen) cs Plxccntcr() I)(l(s c(xlstitlrve r.l lrtut con el (ltt( sc attalc:l l ()tr()
AR r'r(rrlI-A(-l(iN

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se trxnsli)rnrl)lL cn plllaentet() rller(e(l :t (ltre ellil sc cr.rc srtceclicra inesperaclemente rn \Lt |.rr-

Iiclprrci(rn.i" l)l ejcnrpkr n()s pcfluitc inr( )(l!rirn( )s <n ckrs clircnsirrngs lr:-rsi<us rlc] DLts()(lr.nslr)()r lx lil)i(linizlrcia)n () sc,xlrltlizlcion tle la lrngrrstiu v el c()ntr()l cle h si
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Si lrir:t llltsttr:l(lL. l)(.!.lz()nL's pLlI1ltl)cntc txp()silivis. llct))()s cslt(li(l() (1)n(l(l(1s ]' t'tntltsi ls rrl l\() :l isllr(l.tnlc nte ls llrotir'r'iolrts <ttc ittllulsen :l ls (lte (llle tlnlt t ()ll'll (le (r''ts lll(ficlLs()s tll ( c\islcll lLrisr. \' JLrn fcc(l()( itll(l() (llle c()l)il.ticiPCl] r:n lll Ls ('l'l-ral('f lo ircr rltntc r',r.' i,,n.i* t,rtan trD Pre\'l('nl(. ( \ll.tr(1tla:l(i(-)] \' Illr! ntcnilll l(nl( ) (lcl luxs(xlLlislu(). (\)lll() l() flilll tctllar-r''ttk rlis

tttrtr rr'

lirt()s irLrt()l-cs (lllLrrlt, 1991r llrennl.tn, 19521 llrenllc'1. 1959i l"itll):itri( k Hnl\" l)5 (llick -\, Nle\L'r. 19lt8r Naclrt. l()65: N<ritk v Novitk. l9()l l1)17)' Ils l() (lu(.s()sticnc Slltlt<l ( I()-5) cn srr {'\( ( l('11l(' 11 \ isi(')n s()l)( ('l l('lnll, (l(li(''l \(_ nrrlrt Irt trcccsiclltcl (lt ttnel'cn ctlentil llls nlLiltil)lts (l(tcl lll inltt i< tncs <lrc tlifc r( nl( s irrl()[es hn visto colllr cl)(ts (lc (lllr (nigcn ill nllLs( xlLlisn)( )' "/) \r'r-tlll rlt'r'ir tlt'lir:ltltlc los ittlrttlsos ilgrcsi\'()s \ se\till('s-l l( rr( )r))( r)( ) tlcl c'llo -es v occesi(lx(l <lc crtsligo-l -) ((nr\Ii(Lrir tlll'r /r tI lx rlt'l clcl :'.trcry-r -tr'llre r(:r(r'i()rl (lctnsilil clcl ,vtl, lirurllL tlc tclr. iot'llttst con los olljcllts v rk'ntltnlt ll, r r's, trtrlirl()s t(l]t()res ) ltllrciont's .lll( nllTilllles l)ri cl stlit'lr) lll (.rs() (le LnlL l):l(iclllc n()s iltstl lgLrns (l('llrs ttrtiltillcs filrttioncs (l( (tlrrl)l('cl llllts(xlllisll](). Sc trillltl) (l( Llna lllLl,cr tlc 'ltcclc<lor <le 20 ,,,,,,r,,,. sc llllsttlrl)rll)ll r'tn l lnlltsi clc llLle Lln l)('rs(),1ltit roclcrosll' clttc no (lL'lrrlll()rtlttlt<s Ix)5(si(,n('s I clc t'ltz.t r1(glii -t11 Ilr re:li<llrl cltl l l:l g( nl( (orr csle (()l()l cle licl-. ia truntcltilt lltil(l. itlnl() a ()tr:ls lllLrj('l'r'\ \' <rrr'. tloDrinetlo prlr ttn irltlictrlLlllc (lcse() I)i(iil elllt. llr fizal a l;l rcl;lt i<-rtl .r'rtlrl. tr'ri!ntll isll t'l r.:l:ict'r' l)rli(licltllenl( (lc tli \'i()lilci)n l_'lltltilsill (lr( r(tlr1i t()(l()s l()s rc(lllisit()s ra|a potltl'scr (lllill()g(lx dc nlxs()qLlistll: 1 sitrrritit'l rle ser vi<1ct'l1cl: t. (lc estilr t(111. clc rttc lllgo sr'tcecl en c<ntrlt clc su vr)Irr)t.(I. 1l((llPlll:lil(lll l)(n-inl(ls() plrrtt't.1c 1,)lrtllttl cl sello' l'c'rtr' cn rltttlt resicla el llltcet clc l cscctlt/ l)or rto 1tto clit Plilccl trltrtisistrt: tlfrt t'r:r lu clcgir-la entrc t()ds ls csclltlrts sitrclt tlcstatllL a[(lientclrcnlc p()r lllgui('r'r l)(xlcr()s{). n() P()r (tliLl(lLliLrit. [in st'gttnclo lrtgat. cl lctsonajc clc llt rilzlt l(llli(lil cl'l \cz (ic (l!lcrel-illll(itllJ i() (i!l( (l('sc:tl)'l c'l c'lcl t l:rr'i'rts s( \Llrrl(\ (\)rl t'll.t. t()n l< c!tlll sc c()l-ttratl-rtstl)x cl s(ntilllicill() Pcl'\e((ll(rlirr

l(t(). Lrnal (i( ls Iir'rrlts rlc r'nlir'r-rt:rt (l sLlriolicn) <rr'tsistc cn "lllccr tle nc ccsi<lcl r irttt<1,. cs (lc(il. (l()tr (l(] (i1-i(tcr rlltccntero l() (lLrr c1r rcliclrl es rrnlr rrcsrnr'ilr inclcstll)ls. lllly l)crs(1\ (lLrc rtltrcisizr'l lrt fnrstttcir',n. rr.r,- .c ,..orgrri)ucn tle str clr->lrr'iclrrcl (lc s()p() arrl. trre rlistr':rzrrt t.l hlul)r( 1r p rlet<'n llrjo llr ruliscltr (lc (ltrc cri() cs l() (lLlr clcsclrn rot<trc cot_tesxrncle rt le vi trrl rlc llr ltrglrliclltrl y le terrrirrnze. lil olgttlkr (\)n (lLrc cl rsallr hubllL <lc srr ohcrlicnci:r irl sc(). (\)n rrrc krs tit'rlrros c[. trn penitio o rrn grtrPo reli gi<rsr cnsrrlz.rn su sxcrilici() 1 lerrlte<I. :c I)Lr('(lc cnten(l.r (teotlr) (lcl l)r()(15() dc )tdrc isz.tckitt da l.t.lh!sltl!(kitl. lln Lrn l)rirncr rll()D)cnt() nr) n()s ('o(r)rltrltllr()s ntc tr,r !cr'(l1r(l('f() llllls()-

Crt<kr no se pr.rcdc lra<cr' nltle p.lrx illl)r(li[ qlrr elgo rrrrn-a, () ( Lilr](l() se tcr)le sgf s(l)renclirlo lol. lotkr lo rrrc cstli 1-ror fitere rle llr rrrltnllcl clel su-

sr lttrs( cl tlisrlurrr, sirr| (lLr!'.{rrt( \ l)f('\(rrrrilr, xrr Itl rtttsr Dllu)ticnc tn.l cU()lll clc pl:rcr| nilr(isislx. rxci()n.llizn(l() Io int!itlrtc <trr si ILrtrl (lcsel(l(). l)cr() lo <1rrc 1>rinr:rr-iltnrentc litc clcfi'nsirrr sc !(rnviL-fIc cn lrscLte.rllr ircli!ir (le (sir r',rrlitirirr rrir vr7 (lur se ctterLr lijlrclo:r csrt lirr(lLrisrll() l)Llcs nr)

n()s,

rltJ (lc l()s s:ltisf:raci()tr nar[(isistal. l)(n txrl,. Ii'na)r]rcn() crI (l()s ticlttl)()s: /) n.tr(isiz.r(i(-)r clttensivar /r) x(li((i()n l lx pli\ci(in () xl sLrfrilirDto (lLl( \r P.r:-rn l se lrrrscltcL>s lx)r(ltr( (f()lgllrt un scnlir)ient() clc (lLrc cs rrno r'l rtrc clilige cl i)r()l)i() (lcstln(). I)ar lorlcl nr:ger la lrostilirlacl l)llrcnll ) cl lrxlt]at() el nino sc ve ol.llig;rrkr lr tefizlrr rl rs-rccto Iilritlinl cle lr rclciirn. tcnien(l() (lLq cr'rl:rtizar lirs r(l)resrr)t:t( i()r'tcs (le l(): rlI()rlr(nt()s l)Lr(-cr'itcr()s c\l)( r'irrtcn ll(i( )s ('(nt (lk)s \ llts irrrigcncs tlc los reclrcs (()lll() pr()\ cc(l()l-cs ck plcr'r. Lis Io <tre cncon
sc trrrr.r'< p,|:r .rlr)t.i l:r lr'\' (1.. 1.),ri.rl l.L (ull :( cnrL(n(l(n I' rusr tlc.rlrLr :o s,..rrLul cillto r,ovrxurkrs t)()r Lr \r(1irrir.-It\i\ (tLrr.hu s(r\(l(, pxrr n(.grr (tu(. s.rl\o c\((t) (i{,rr.. Lr\ ri(rr)rtl: d( rlrf*r strLLrtl (n l inllL(],i () (l( \i)lir(ianr l!er'r \irlrt)1(!r)Lirtc t)(rs(nr.i\ .,r(r'r.Il./.r(l.rr :rn(( l.r r( n.,,.i (l(' lrgr ni(( lti, rrt:r' txxlrr,s.. Ir.Irv, 'r p(, )r\/(r/;.7/. /r/ (iL L.L (*( (nr flLrr\.iri( r l \ r(1ull;r se si(rn( .r1f1rl)l('. (si() n() nr :llLI()nr.r .r \ !. Lrn d(.c , , tuL .,, t, ^ llI l)Lrhicr ir\iciir(l() (, lrtrlx) prrti(ipir(.(nn() (()nfli(c it)rir Lrn (\rrn(n (lr l.r .!lt).r (1nrn) (l(' !( 'r li(rnr( :L \cntjrni(nn)\ (lc irrrp(rrDLi. rusr' cl rlprtLtl <1e l()s trtL\t()rnr)s Llrprcsi!()s)

J(r \l(l.L rr,^ pr(rtr n.rrrr l.i\ (t(( (,\t( cirrtrpl,,

sc lr.r ults:ttl lrirsl.r

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til]l(r\(rl(rtlill()n()sc\('ntilcttlrltlrlepiclclcsco:cllcl-rirlcntetlll crlt r.l rtr,r < l iir( 1. lt7tll)rl. .{tlclll:is, el tlrtc htcr:t rltl llntltsi:t (()n llt (lLte sc rLrstrrrlr.rl,rr lr' Pt trrrilirt (tn c()l1tf()l r-lt lo <r.tc en ltlLlicl(l (cluil -lx l)cncl:r( i()n ,rrr':. Lr .t,, iort tltl lt'ts<,nltjc eu ( tlcsti(in lltsalllt a ser glaclttacllr 1 i ltr,l.rrl.r .r Ir,lrrrrl,til ,ll ('l (s(anllli() illlitginllti() cr't':tclt' l-r tettlicltl PL-1

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AVAN.IiS tiN PSr(,()-t tiRAptA pst(i()ANAI_il tcA
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l|r ()s tn Lrn pl(iente cu\' ntclrs lc <lal>:r ltaliz:rs l>rutales. pallr lueg,r. turi innrc(lillxrlcntc. llerurle l lreo. rtxrjelle le cara. peirurrlc el tietulo tlrrc i<r lrt's.illr. lt'tntir-lr-tcl() t()cl() en Ln1l csccnil en crrc kr srstr-n solrre srr inlcll nriL'dlftls le lceliciela. HI pxcicnle tena tcnrlcnci. ye en la virla aclulte. u riurlrner rcl<irnes en (lLrr se lacia rltrrtr' paru lueg() g()zrr c()n la rc r'rrtr'ili:L<i<'n. l)e rttltcl-lr sintilar. tn l!rn()s (.tLs()s cle ltlrrsr serlral. la sitrrt r irn clc tnieckr cs cr()tizai(lt: se sol eclintcnsiontL cl plltccr l-)xm c( ttIill.r.est.rr. cl ricclo. Estl liljclincir-n v st:xrllizacii-l clctcnsit u cle lx:ugLtsli pcnui(('n. (lcnilis, neglr h ltlrtia lrrstiljcl:rtl ,v n() scntir relti:r cn ul-rtrr clcl olrjel() sii(li.o, elinlinntkr cl c()nflici() tcl)i(l() con cl ntisnto. l)cntr() (lc sst prrs l)('( li\'.1, []rrljner ( 1958) cltrllttcriz(i el nt:rsr xrrlsltx r (()l() I l.c.l(Li(nl <lt'lcnsiva. clcbicla a ls nc(csi(lil(lcs liltirLinlrlcs (lcl sric). .tlte c sit(lisDl() cl(, lrr txrr persona. terninitt(l() pot acleItusc trl suflirlrienk) <uc lc cs r.crLruritkr. AukftrzDrient() (lcl l)si(luisltr() <uc cr-e r'l (lLr l)fescntill)x Lllt l)il(.icutc. rttt.t rlt cLt!lts c()n([l(lals rciteracl:r. (1)nsistr.l (t !l(()sI.rrs L1,lt sus jel,s. pcl.sortlrjts <irc si I)ien elt tn l)rincil)i() rc( ltilzl)ll 1L \rc(.es l()s ct-lcr'llrelre rcltttlsiros-. lttego krs tcrtltinarl)t cnc( )lltl-ll n(l( ) lrtr':r(1i\'()s. Il]t sLtcli(r Ir(,Illttri! rcl t'l rrc:rnisnxr cle'sexrtrlizlrr unlL sitlrx(i(-)n panr rrrlletlc el cal'icttr.tcrsc (rlr)r'i(). S()(-) <1r.rc r.rna liclxc cl-11 pcrsegui(l.i lrot- rrr-r r.ezeclor. Ijlllr scntirr cl rr,.,.ir clc lu lrelrt cillo si frrelu 1>r'oltio. [jn Ltn nlonlenl() rlck. Lt licltrr st ,l,r l:r vu,..ltlr. ntire ltl cezcl< nlicntrlts (\ntliitar (1)frien(l() \'rlltrevc.rlc DIt rrr'r.r sirrrplilic:r \'lrilci()s1l l:ts ortjlrs". Ete kr <r.rc llr l):lcicttc lrclr liclrte:r los
jt lcs rLrc tctttie.

rlrt s rlrrlcsives () ailtsi()sits rrrc solo sonren crrrnckr salen (le csl()s cstx(l()s l n{) (\)nr() r'espucstll lu srnris clel nio . le reliclacl rrre rLornine lu virl:r r'trt<x i<rlrI (lc cs()s ni()s estti (x(l1l por la prcscncilt (r scntintienk)s (lr nl l(slrrr. I n px(iente (le N()\i(k s()slcn rLre .llt inii'liciclacl er c'l okr clel lllrg.rr',. l.rr rlc:trip<ir-rn (lllc Ililacn lts N_ovitk urerc('c scr leslltticla cn cxtens(): l()s s(,rllilllicnt()s clt epego 1'scgLrritllrcl clcl nir con las ligr1.as sign ificltt i\ xr, rrtr'tllrr'r lrsocieclos al sullituicnl(). pLtcs estlrr c()n cl (fr(). o cleseclo. clltllcr lr irt xollcrttenlc cl sLlrillicnl(). l,s (()n(lLt(flis r.rt<afirntatir.s c lnlunt(rs rI rrrirr irltlrcir-l-l (lcl ni() s()n c)il)ct-ilncnlxrl:ts lot-los lxtclres c(nlr,.tgr(sl \.rs \ ('()n) si Iir(][rn ctillrrles t(strLt(l:ls cn llnx l)ittlllt por el potler. I)ltcl<r rlut r'l r'rrtlol cle l nrtlrc solc el crrerPo \,lll r]rcntc del nio es lrl.tr'unre tlrir'. r'l 111.1, \' ll ltrnle lerntinlLlt si{ind() scnli(lals (\)l() poscsiones cktri rr:rrl.rr xrr llr rrlrrlrt. (()ll l() (lLlr cl nir en vqz rlr crritlerse sc ataLCI. (lLc cs rrr lirnr,r tlr'lrltrr'lrr tr l:L l1l(lrc. llrr-rtt-t lclo. e] r'incrrk de s()n)etirlticnt( ) ,,,rr csrrs rrr;rtlrt.s iltrlica siuultlineantcntc rl >lucer cle la ltcncion ruu u.trrs tlt.rlit;l rk lrrnt,l <usi exclrsit al lrijo, clackt quc cn est()s casos el p:r, rlr'r'strtL rlcsr.rrrPr,nlrr rtr't >lt'lcl secLrnlllrri< l)()rqLtc es cx(lLricl() () se Lrt()

\ovitli ! N()\'ick (19J7. l99l) lLiD insisti(l() cn rtre cl nio, ul lirtr.rrsrrr .rnlC lrr c'litlttl rct()t-nu ii solucionc,s (nltnip(f!-ntes. (lr(rncllr cl suick) lltllil ( r1 I)()rll()\'cr h resl)ucstlt :tli,criva rlcscecl cll sLs ()tl()s signillcitti! )s lt(

rrnlt rtlrcl:rlicllLcl nr:rs(xllrista tlc rnll'cnlt silLtxai()tcs cn llrs <trr: sc senliil in1 l)(fcntc. l(,<lijo: "Si t'stlis t,t'rojtrckr tont]tigo nO lrlgas.rlgo l]tlll() Purit li,. A l() <rrc cl nino tcsrrrtrli():,iFln{r)nccs t lt() \'rLs ! l)()nrr Il clrlrczlr cn le ltllnoll(lx!,. l, ltrrrtrillr'irln nxr(isistl (le tc'rer (lue <;lreclcr'cl rnlr orrlc Ilrllr sickr cnfrrntlrcllr prinrero rnetliltntt Llnlt Iltntilsil ntls(xl!isl v lrrcgrl ntccliante ()ll1l (lc n:Llr.r'lleza s:i<li(lt. Sk)l()r()\\' ( l9i5) ttrtlrii,lt <rnsi<lcr:r. rccogicr-rrkr rst lncx cle rlifi,rcntcs Ll)rcs. (lLrc rl (l(nrlini() (ltrc cl nllts(xltist:r cjcr-<e solrr-e cl ritr.tl .r,,,rlul.t-r cs rrnlr Ii-rne tlc olrtcncr Lut scntiltiicnt() (le (\rttr()l nligrcrt r'(lc lriLnli) (ntrnilll)lente s()l)rc rl rnLrn(l() e\lcri(. Iis l() (lLr(,s()sticnc (ixrcr' ( l9ijll) xL|lr (l(rien cl sLtjrt() irltcrttx rcstalu[rr 1t lLtrtotstinr \'rlucr:l(ltL p()r lcncr (lLlr] s() l)()11!r'rl sLrliirllicnl() l)(r_l)tLrtri clc rrn ol.)jcto crrrel V Ic(hitzltnlc ttreclitUttc el (()nvcrtir cl sufril]lieltt() el't cg() siut(inic(): cslel litrsl|ltrkr r tlItz:rck sc n\i('r'l('cn el lltoclo prcliticlo cle ltrrtrlLfiflIttti<ilt llllts( x lu istll. Fln csl()s cs()s, l rllctA n() cs le rrnirin con Ie nlrclrc ltrttoros:t sin() cl (1)ntl()l flntlselttkr s<lc Lrnlr rDlr(lrc r'r'rtel t'tl:ti-t (lLc irn:tgirtlrlilrnlcn(c es senti(l (1nl)() (lLtc'il() (,s l (l(rt itricilL cl lttlt<rrc sin() (lLre. sLrpLrcstlIllt:ntc. esterlr <tlrligacle l ltlt(cll() n)c cliente llt rrortrcrtci<-rt <uc rceliza ril nitir. I;t pLor rx'ltcion cle lrlgr.rnos rrtlolts ccr'ttcs 1r sLs l):r(lres pclritc fe\ cfiir (,1 lcntot :rl roclcr' tL, i,slos: cl lrckrlcscen1s pllsa s(nlir (r)lu() si ficr' el (lue ini(i l interltc(i(in aglcsivu. llna p.t(iente. ltcr'.()l-izecle ente ll nrlclrr <Lrc 1rr pcrstgue t;rll golpr:arltL. crrrncl<r

El scntin)ic'lt() cs (Le triLnfi) (nInip()tentc pol csta cxclusivi<1acl en rucrlt nrer<:tclo con el pluccl clc l:t ptcscncia tlcl objer v dc 11r prcfren(i.L ([e se expcritltcntl r]t lll r\('lLtsilirl<l clel r'ni Lrlo. (llenn (19lJ.i:r. l9lJ-i1. 19i19) htL rrstreclo (r-Ilrt trLllLrs (luirurgirl,\ , ,:lc otr'o tiro s<n ufrr'rtlLrlts Dlc(lin1c Ln primcr intent() (lt iclentiilc.rrrLrn r-irn cl agres()r. tlancl<l lrtglu l seclisro. (luartrlo ellr no es Jrosihle. p(r- r-:rz()ncs <I:l strpcrlr-r tle cLrlrabilicl:trl . o clc la presir-rn clel lll)icnl( el agresor -scntinricnt()s es clenlrsill(11) l)()(lef()s(). sc lc trlllc . se apcle al (\)u(lLlctits l s(xlLrist:rs. Fln (]stc set)1i(l(). n() rs intl-c(ucnte rlrsr'rtr tr Ln ni() (lLc. tlll)l()so ror llr :rgrcsir-rn pelentel, ul no porler llLccr lrclu ltere rcsronrlrr lr elle con lrgr-csiort, lrslr lr golrearse s ntisnt().'ltrlillos o<ltsir-n rlt conttrl.lltr (()rlt() Lrt1l -lrcicntc cLrancLr sc cnlirrecill crn st f:rnrililr tcl_nrinlLlxl p()t g()i reelse l (l)rz c()ntr:l la pater-1. (irnclrr<llr <Lrc <rrnclcnsablt srs gtnxs clt golreltr. str rtlic(l() il lLLacrl() ror-llr tLttttl)itzlt cxtern.. \'sr l)r()llil)r(iirn sL Ircrlrit'u cuc Lr Il(il scntir cull)l)le. (srigiin(l()sc trrccliente lu :rur:rgrc sirin. Unlr conrlicirin si|iil:tr cs l:t <r.rc prcscnt<i cn Lnlr ()crsi()n rrn nino cle.i rLn()s (lIricn. obligrtrkr roI llr llr:rclrc lr irse:r ckrrntir. fll)i()s() p()l- tcncr (luc s() lltelclse llt uk;r'icllrcl cxteln. tLCrl)t(') tr tcg r-lclicnlcs la orclcn ltelo cli tirnrlo: ,Finlonr'cs n() \'()\'ll I)()nrl-l:r clrlrcza soltrc la allrlltrlt. roy lr drrril trn lu calreza licr clr l r'arn1". l.rr rnlttllc. contpre nclicntlo cl scntitk cle ll corclttctlt rlel nio. \'l)r- (\)ntrrrrcstitt lo tLte roclra cotr.,rllir'se cn
L relrtcir-n crn la nraclre. Hl sLrfliuicnrr

(\clulc.

9S

AVAN(_riS tr., pst(i() l-ERAptA pstc()ANAI_.1.t(:A

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clefise prrx nti(.iprse ill rlra cktsific.al sL l)t.(scnLl.l \ (irrir(l(,rsli(as se puetlc rer cn la fijer.i.tr lt)ils(xlLlist:r 1t silLl.ci()n(s cn (Le s( fir( ()l)icr() de llultIrt() () cl sLljct() sc sintiri :rterrt-izlrcl.. Irn cl lilrt p1t, tt) (lt llt)al.)4l1l pr()tag()nist. trisioner.lr cn Un (.nll)() (lc (.()n(.entrt(.1()n. sc \.c rtlrli!.lltrl;t lreir ei lerf(n ll t(,t-tcr.r{,lil(.i()nts scxtttlcs tr Uno cle l<s jefi,s nttzis. rrrir'n lt,ofr-rcc. corno rrrrrlxr tle srr eprct.io \.finnac.ir-n c1c str p<,<ler.. le callz;r r'oltrrrl:r v l)Lcst cn rtne bltncltjrt (lc unx c(r)rplcrl tlcl t.:utrxr t.on llr r'rr;rl lrr yr'rf:rg.nistu hlra fctrirk tr'lr clisrrrta. Sc ini<.ia usi rn rclecirn i.txr r,,slr l)lllrttrtllt tol cl rrrtcnlo (lr (.()ntrxrr(,st:rr cl ten-<.ante e] nazi. l,cro trn:l \r'z I( rIIIiIIiI(IiI l:r grretftt, cttncLr llt cx l)t.isi()ncl. cs tnll pet.s()na c<t po<lct r)( i.rl. ll ll(.gil l Ln grn ll()1(l sc cltcrentrlr <rn cl c_t jcfe clel clrto. rerlLr , irI r .rlr rlrr rl sirl)lc rapel tlc rortcrr tlc nrx.lte. Cuancjo t,a n() cs ne(.rsr_io ,'l s,'lrrr'tlrrl,.rrl,,.l l'rrr'\,,. rtn I.l l,,lrLl,, i.l Jrrr,l:lB, rni.t. 1,,r...r .rl n.rzr 1 .,, *,

Lrs r;irlrls scxrlrles,. l;r lrisclrrerla il(.ti\11 (lc I() rlesagrrrlalrlc,crtno l.lra.tit. l)t11l crntr.l el ticl,l)() (lc srr a,tri<.i<-rn.

trxtsli)rnl(l() en l)lilcenler(). s,(l(nll.s(xlLtistlLs s(]\.xles L a tlislil'ttrs cstxl)lc(ir)rien)s sa<r.rtrlrst x (re tnfrc-r.isls trn r.s Lr istas ir trir\',s l)r1)l)i(lxri()s. tnrplerrclos v clicntcs. .lrenicnrlo Lllri urrplix infirrD:r,:.ir-n el ( sr)((r(). ptntr.liza <trt las 1)r.rs( xrL istlrs \'all()r.n (lc,latncrir ,rlixi.ril (rac lir jrr s:itli< lr se c.nlllle. cs clccir. ctrc r, r't .. sc e,r'tc tlel grrir-rn fijlrck r tcrrcn .r l( ,s "l)ril(1i(ltes ll<.os" cre n() se sLljctun al jrrcgo prcr:st:rlrlc.ict,,.. ' I., t, , , i,._ Lrrlrt lr scrla I-1ll)l.ln(.lle ( 1992(. r:ig. ll) cuantlo llrltla cl: la scn.iclrrulrt,r.r Irrrl,r'i:r trt .l r,ltsacluisnxr cn (lLc.sc l)()ncn ll,itcs (\)n1t-(tLllcs l)r((.ls()s;l
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r'l ttrc ltr srrfre pasi\'ltDlenlc: lr) l() (l()lt)11)s() St.lh,r'( 1991). cIre hiz. .n rstLdi() (lc llrs

ll sujetl>e 1, Ia tilt-zeb:r n s()p(n1ar cl castigo. le <lcca: ,J)gl ,r('01.1s'. intentlrncl. cle esla m:rnera nl()stlxrsc a s rllisnlx c()rl() n() atsustr(lx. colto ltr rue <ltninltlra la situacirin. <ltcnienclo. aclcrns. el placer siiclico clc t nfirrcr'ct e l:r nt;Ltlre. Srltecl Sc.lI0rer ( t9ll2. plig. (2). en sLr intercs.rntc ex[ren clel |nsocuis_ rr.. cit:r lr ckrs p.afirnclas c.ntre(rres clc Ia txpericnc.ilt,rxs(xraistar, Grecne r'(lrcenc clcfensr-cs clrl llx)\,intisnt() cle lilrcracion sck -firer()n:rr(iientes r:Lrsrxtristlt-. crricnes afi ]]an: .l)lrr cl stllIliso. el tener qrrc vltt.er. tligantos. r'n trna bltcrit, y ser orinlclo p()r-rnll l)crs(nlr artretllt puet'ic rr,rr.,r,.", un tir)ric,r) (le Itrrnrillecir-rn \'. en c()nse(.Ltcncia. trnlr cielicitsti \ ct.grlcnzl,. "an_ I.ln (lr()s la!-.tilt()s. llt'ergric-nzlt. crrizlis ltn. clc l()s scntinticnt()s ,,is c'itlttl.s. cs l r-;r nsfillrrle en placentera t lrrsc.:trllL. El n1s{xluist:l scxtral ctrc rn :rclo Lr.csccnillcci(-)n nls(xluist.r se Irai.c hLrrrriliar. orinlrr. lroar. r<e cletc,cer, itlill. g()lpelLr. Itn esa esccnitlcar.i(')n csta'ln I()s (,lclllcnt()s (lrc s()sti(itcn sL pllt ((r: l/) s(,ntintient() ()llnip(fcnte cle sr:r el <ue (lirile lx ucci(-)n. cl ctirr. nr
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l)ur(le lllsfilltlrr (lr llt()(l() rlrrc llt clrirllr l)rslt 'rclllizlLrs(] \'( )lLlntllIllll))(ntc. l)t- cllo, crrnrlo un tir() sLpcr'11 sLr rllic(l() rr errojlrsc rrl aglrr clcstlc cl lrorrlc clc la ltiscir-lr. kr rcrlxrs lcl)etil Llrt ) (fr-lr vcz cl rtrriricnkr. ltlx)rit llllnsfin' r(l() ('n pllr('('nltr'( ). L() nlu('slrii,.'l rlrrr.cr'rirr.'s('()l)li('nc cn los jrrt'gos cle Ios rttrrtcs cle lflt(ci()nrs. tltlcs c()nt() l lD(tt1l1ill rLrs. en (luc sc gt'ita (lc:lnguslilt ) sc gozlr sirl]rrltllr'tcartt('n1c. () cl rllrccr <ttc rrorltrr't r:l .lfen fllntlsnLt, o.ces ck,l ler[(n,. () cl (luc sr ()l)scrlx cn (lurll()s (llc sc tln Lrn l)Llcnte y sc xtr()jrn ltl r'cio. lis cl rnisrno yrllrcel tut- se cxl)crirnent frcnlc al tine cle t('rr()r () l()s (tr('rlt()s (lc tcrrrr r.'rr [L intnr'ir nrt'z< llt clc trrie<lo y c\(itr(i()rr cn rlrrc lo tcnrickr sc (()nvicc ct l)Lrs((l() lrllr aclcrrilil un sentirl)icnk) (lc a('I trol solrrc cl[.

cl rcrscglrickrr. sc c\citil c()n 1. El lccrrritkr (lLlr ltcrlx)s llccllo rtos l)enllite c(xtst1tr'cn cst()s llrL(-Lrtis ln()s sul)\'a('cntes il cicltas plii(ti(xs 11ras(xlLristas elgo <[rc las lmscien(lc: l//?r .slrdlqfu gaucrdl tlcl Psi(lt!isnt(). uu Dt?r-aluisnr) tratrJituutktr dc ltt uttgttsid. P rd ax)(lu'dt'sc d? k) lftntn(itiL1).1'l?Dt).1,x) ?rk) ( s?f icb (l /\i (i?i() (lcl pl.tcu. l)ol lo tue no nos sorpLcncle (lrc cst lxlrl)in clr .l((rLln !'n lrr trrtrtilriu. cn (lLr(] lo tclrickr pase ser lilirlinizclo.'[iuunckr, n-r'.1 cjcrr rlititlrt. el nrierlo a tlrcr'-Lrr() (le Ios nlis rtofirnclos (lcl ser IlLrnlan() . sc

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lr rlt'j:rr'<lc paclccer. pues rea(1ualiz1n el ltlar.cr ex>erintcnacl() cn lu uni(in r'rrn retlrcs () (.()n hca,tt()s c()n (l.ienes el LiniciirincL]a c()nslstlar en cn ( ( ).11-ilrs(, pilra strfiir jrr.rs. pa*t recilrir el c.rtsre1,, t.r el srrtt.i,tict_tt.. El lulistl, llcvaclo p()t Ltt llut)ln() sentiotick) cle c<,rttr,r.1.,..,r. el qrre strftt,. e \!a(,s -cfilcrza ina<h crrirllLl)t,:ntc est fimIt pe<.Lrliltr. cle vocLtl() n1s(xlLlisla.

p.c(ien tencr rcsistcncill a lrncknl'est p()sici().,

Irncre unninre le rlifi<tltcl (iLre presertn l()s pcientes (()n r-irsg()s,ras()par carnl.ller'. lres l tlitcrcr-icirr cle los crre sLllicn p(n strfrir -estlin irsatisicchos si sufrcn-. l() qlrc lcs c()nviertt cn llli(los clcl tetere,ut cn cl (eotrail (le l ()l.x rroceso clt clLmbi<. tLltlckr cl rlllts(xlLrisnr() es el ltspcct(, nizeci<-rn tle la pelsonrrlirlutl clejlr clc sLrilil r\lx)ne .r ltrs rrngustirrs cue el pa(le('cr (r)rttl.atfestll No resrrll lnlrecLlcnle <rrc t,l pro<ts<, tctilpLlti(!) se (l(jsarr'rolle en tks rll()llent()s- l'L() sir'ltIllr1r s(]parr:r(l()s entr( s. (lll(l() ctrt prrcrlcn ( t:lr (n -cLlz(1.)s l.n Pliorer lugirr. se lr.lr(lt (l( lr('(r (()ns(irr'rt('s lirs liiil\ris
(lLristxs

-qtrt l)attl?ttatlrc scxulrl lr egr<,<l;r. rrrc cl int(,r'l()(tl()l'Ic r'r'iti<trc:rnle lo r'Lltl sc (\rtvicfic cn cl >rinrer'<r (.n ariti(.ltse. <rrc cl objeto (lc:ll()r 1(, lrl)1rnckrnc pera k cul ltnLtnci rr,''trLrlo: (l(r( (lrs( 1lr(li(tlcnlcnl(.nlalnl(r-lcr. ctr.-. lil r'r.i(lct defi'nsiv() ) grllifi(iln(( (lcl nlils( x lr isnl( ) sc <lt.lrt. Poncr'.rl (l(s(ul)icrtr) l)xr:r (lLc cl lt< i<'trt,t (('ngir l(unrr rosilriliillrcl <lc clcjlrr'<1,.,r(l)(tir stls (\rD rlucllrs tlc lrirs<rr(ri.r r.lc sUliirrrir'ntrr. l)cs(lc csllr I)rrsp('(ti\'ll. nlrrllr It:rt <1rrc: rc( llll)llrac e le itlt'r'>rclltr'i,rrt rlt llrs nrr f ir'lrciol-tcs i,t(r),ts( i(,t)lcs Iln scgtrrt(k) lr.rglrr'. r'rr.rnilo r'l 1lr,:ir'ntc tr'llt <lt, llcnl r'rr sus Lrrr'clLrr'ts rnxs(xluislirs ur sclrtirnicnt() rI r'rrcio. cle il(,li<it cn le art<r,stinlL. ck linico. r.'s tlecir. ctIrrck lll c()n(lU(ti r]r1s(xlLristll rs Lll) intctt() clc lrrtrntttlttr lt irn sr,/ llrtlrlrlc:rntc (Sk)l()r()\\. l,)li). rlc (r)1rnrr. r(liltlc llr (stitllltrcir-rr r t'l r n,:ttlo rrrr rersonlrjr:s sl'rcli<<s irl,.'rtlizltrios, Lrl scnlillli('n ) clc PoP,,.it,, cn llt vicl I ltr'tirirllrcl (n-g1rni7!(lll. cn t()(l()s cst()s csrs no rcsulllr suli(r(.nt( ,lLrc cl prtcitntc scpu por ru l() lrl(-c sin() rtrt rcsulta indisr<,nstrlrk solrcioner l sitLx(i(in <lt fincl< <lr.rc irrnrrls lrt (onclrct rn:ls(xltist.l. A:i rrrDro cle P()trr sit!c inlirrrrl1tL :rlgui( 11 (luc s( sicntc sin fircrzlrs <tr< ,.,11,r cs rrrr le lrncrllill (ltr('l)1t(lc(( \'ir (lLre llri('lttrlls rt() s( rcpar'('ist lrs rnt<,lrLrs (()nttnu-lt'.1n,
r'l llr'r'r screntt' l.r fttr j,'rn clr'l nrrrsrx Lristo n( ) Ix litjrii tlcs>rt nrI r'sc ,:le l tl)icnlrlts pctsisli li t r r':rlicir'rn (lll(- \1l'\L l\.rr.r r']l(nl,r, rr,r l)rn\,r. lis.r(llri rlotrlt cl vir<trkr crrn r'l ltr'lrl.trlrr v lit (rnttcn(i(in eltrxirrl (llc 'sl(' l)r()ve('pgrnri(t harslll (r( r'l Par'icr'tte t()rle su r':Lrg() l.s lirnciorrts rr-tc (lLtc sc l)lrc(lir t()lc]ilt sin l r-ll ns il ()t i: ltlcntc cuDrplc (l l(ritl)crtll perr con [,] clcnlrsied ngustilr cl i rlcscnt r' ia nck r el signiiit'ricLr inr'onsticnte cie,l rns(xlLrisrn().

irc subvacen lr lis ( ( )n(lu( lrs r[- lrrrtorcr'jtric io t s clecir. ttrc r-l l)ir( i( ntc pLrgrLt rct-cue l)()r (lctris rlel sLrlriien1r clcl crre sc rrrcjrr hrrv lrr pl;racr (lLr(,sc rllitne. o Llnx lrngusli (l(,()lrr) Iip() crrc st, intcntit c()r'tt[tr'(,sll. l,ltr rllo rc srtltrt inclisrcnselrlc (lrc cl l)ircicnle rivrncic cl scntinri(,nt() rlc < trlplrbilirllrcl <ltl <ttc sc tlclit,nclc. () (lLr sr (()nc(le crn cl tcn-<-(lr(, [,()(ilsi()n(). v lc si gUc <x'esiontrnrkr, lo rrrc c r rt llr fi'rbi(ilillrtllc lrxl:t (l('(r)nlr()lllr ll tt\'s (le pr(F vo< lu , lrltrnt b:tjo srr clornirrio, l( ) (lLrc lcnl(, tLr,t, strr'crllt 1t l)csr (le l cl
,

AIgo ttt lo (lLrc gcrclillrrent('n() sc l-cprr' rs (llc ilnilliz.lr cl signiiitrLrl<r irr(r)nscicnlc (lc tnll (()n(lLr('tlr pxk)l(igi(ar cjcttttlo. l:r strrnisirn.r rrn.r -ror' l)1lrcj1r pl()l(-rgi(- llcrll irl]rli.it.r lir ('xp(ctl1i\. p()r l)ilr((.rIl tcr'.rpcute. cle rlrtc sc el)itntlortr trrl trnclLrr't;t, l<r <rte sicrtrprc cs (all)tir(L() p()r cl ll.rrirnrr

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AVANaITS

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105

r. tlrt( s( llce, scgn ssl la rerspct.tivu l).lj() llt crrxl el :Lntiistil \!ll()rc ln(\)ns ('i('nlc \ () c(nIs( ientcJ]lentc la c<ttclUctrt (lcl pt(.ienle a il (lLle sU lnLerpl(rti_ ci<ir st' eliclc- N() hi\ intel-(.ltIhio ltrDlllt< (lue n() sci rn inleul() clc infltrir s()l)[r'ei (ft-(). s('1t cn sU Iitnlasa, en \lts sL.ntiDtitnkr\ () rt su (.()nclLl(11 r\l(trr:r' (.)ae l.s ltnlrlislls crcirtrrrlr)s r. .ncLtrirriLrl(l rrr't;rrticlr, srnr>le,rrrrnl.. (ra( .t clt'rir <rre tflltlr,()s (r(' n. hetcL iL.(i()s c( )n'ra(.i( )rt,, ra.. ,it,a inrcnt.*l()s (:rlltll l() (lLlc elgo signilir.lt rrre no s,,lrr.cittoncrr()s gr()se_ l)xr.t eI
t l rrsrtr a su llLlt()n{)))il. l)cr() sct.ll r l.e,l.. ilrs:lntcntr., ,,,a,n,,a Jr,,.1..,n,,..,, Jrxltr rr>r'ftrcra tk, Ir, rlrlr, lttr siclo nrlr,sl.l clilrnztt l.r.ontinilrn iirt(i{) nu(.slr()s

(r)t))r). u-)it incitllci(iu it lt.(.erl()..llnIis un:r jnterpletit(.ilil rlel :tnlisf es lrr I r'\r'ltsit:lttcr't(. Ltn (lcs \ rlll nicn( ) cl<l inc<rsclicnte. l.llntl)in I)()sc(, Ltn s r)r'(l() (r))xti\1). urr:r i.<itcirin:r (crtir (ci(in. il deiilr (re h.ccr r rr re1i,zr

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rlrllcnte nucslr() es<lLctLt cle \'1tl(r.es V cslil()s dc I.irllt. trre n()s pl.()l)lclD:ttiZit ll()s C()nlinLuol(]nte sr>lrre le tlili,rcnc.il cntt.c cl l)it(.icnl( t,nos,rlr,rs. t,s,,lte

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iltlrntltr (lIt(, cl r('l]l( tlicgUc ltt |c:tfirltr<l (lc sus l)ca(.(,1)(.i()nes. Jlgr) tlln llr r otec.r rl(}r. rlc <li_ sr i.rr rnr,s (()llr() l:r5 (lu( ()clrsi()n1ln los rlrc tir<,r.zlrn lt crrc r.,l ltio,lr
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l.st() l)()sec (r)ilsc(.Lten(.iils: (.uttl](l() lfirl)ltjllIlt()s (.()ll cl l)i(.icntr llls n1(fi rlt sLls c()n(lLt(.tils .l:s(xl.islits. s(,itl:t,llt ckl[,rcnte si Lr] n() l)rr rlt rh'sritrrlirclei,stl\l)lt(,-p(r.tnli(L).st, I.c inittllr rt,r.clcr )lr tr.tcct-i,:r-r rrrr'r'l rrrtrsrxJrrisiti() r(,[)tcscnl ]):tl.:t i l r]ivcl clt,srr tsitrrisrrr<r irrI.t,i <ltro. si rr. lrLrrrlt ]taccrkr sc sicr.ttc cn Ilrltlr itrtr.cl l(,11tl)ctt. ((). l() cL11 se rcl.Lrerztr. sls t( n(l(.Dails ntas(xlLtisltLs l)e (,slil siluil(i()n sr-rlo sc .rrrt,de silir cn l:t lnc(li (l.r ( t (lLr('rl lerapcLrlx trltnsnrita. (.Lr:rl(lrricr.r r1r.."" l,i lir.,,,a clc har.crkr. <uc l;ts t r rtlttctlts lDS()(lrisllls lLer()n I)ilslit (.se lt)(nncnl() Unil ncCcsi(l(1, lll s()lL ,lr'Ir.'Ir|, ('II(1!IIr,,l\.rr,t lUrl(I(nlr(.nl.tr\tt.t.l(.ii,n(..Lltl'tr.llr...,lUell(.!,ir.itr(.r))lri tlt splcrtlcrse rlr cllus. rtrt, se tr.rl>ejrrt.:i (.l (-sir (lir(,(.(.i(;1. lr.,r,o .,,t r.r.tir. Ir rrrt. llr sitir Lntt c:r tt<.tcr.isl ic.l c[,] lt.L<itntc: I)cl-scgLtirrrc <lesclc el sLrr"nr,1, 'lrllr'.1.1 littrle cxtcrn;r si t() (uIlpl(, ltrs cx.rt,rletil.as. L-r Itr.acloja r.n (lu(,5c ,rr'rh. r,r'rrr-r'i. tn cl trtl.ienk) rltl ntasrxrrisrn. rs (l'e s(, r..-pr,rtlrrz<.ltn ,rlt._ r,r. lr.r,, t.l rcso clc llr >cr.secur.i<-rrr ltt..rpi,u1i(. r,rlcl strtt,r,,,r-r. ltrs risln:r..,t rli, r'rr.s rl< t rrlrrrlrilicLrrl. te,,()1.L, iDti,ri(.i(llrcl tue tlic,.,>n lugar a srr strrrr lrrlt lrl, ) I s l() (lr( ir r)UCslt() jtri<.ir srr'trlt, (1l (.icrt()s trilti|l))jL;nt()\ nl:r(.it(l()s r,,r l.r I r r r r . r I r ( i ( | <icl tclit1.lcLrl:t. cn (lu(, cl pttcir,nle (.ll ll)ial en clerk)s il\_ lx ( l1r: |('lr ) IrrI r'lt l.r tlilttcnsi<-n (lcl s(rlltCtiDti(,nl() ltrits(xlLtistA.
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I)ijinl():. iil c(nenzrtr el c\rncn (l('l l)lirs()(lLrisnr(). <ue tstc clcbilr tliit-(luells )n(li(i()ncs trt (lLc tlstrjeto cae reitcriL(lllrncnlc cn tl sufrirllient() sin (lue a'stc sr l() l)usca(k). (r)nstitLycn(l(). en calll)i(), el resrl l:Ld() de i rl ( nntisnr()s (lr( lr (()n(lLl(en al clisplecer ,ns .lllii (lc cual(luier inlr:rc'itnllicllrcl c()nsciente () ir( ( r-lscicnlc. rlis ll:i ck'(u;l(lLticr pllLCct (lu(. rrrrlicrlt ol>tcncr en (r)r))p(,r'tslrcia)n rr el rlislrlltcel. l)trr:t Irrrrltrcr'irirt rlc (lispl:l(cr. sin <trote clr l)llrccr lc()nrl)xlilrIc. (lLr( n()s sel)1trlr yll <lc l cln<l nre -rsirluittr brsi<a cltl nrils(xluisur() cn (luc sic ll)t-c hay'LrnlL vigen<itt <lcl I)rin(ipi() (lcl l)l1l(cr. ) sclt ulgn til-() r-lc lltr<cr (lLlc rL('()nll).lnil 1ll sufiilllien1(), (lLrt (\)existc ((nt a'l scxuill () nafcislsl. POr cjcrttplo . rr -r))lrs(xlLrisllr() (lis rrn tlispl.tr't,r'<rrc sc rj!itil r))1,(liirnlc otnr rttlis trllctblc -.[rl()(itsti.{() l)lt[l nlinrir aull)lr. I{cl()rlt(rll()s l)x[l l)(]grc\rlr cr't rlLI(5lr() riizr)nirlirrtt() (l trillxi() ///l)iricitiu. sitltlttt .l't!tgl/s/rl ( lrr(u(I. 192(r) I lrr l(,\is frct(lin: (lc (luc cl \1) cs (:rl)z (lc irnti( illxrsc li siturr(i(-)n rlc rcligto gr(ils [cprc:(,itliirscll \'\id1l nrcntt. sltljcnri lr sL cn(ucntr() iLntcs (lc (lLrc srrjil cn slr (lcsplitgtc t()t1ll. or_iginlinclrsc Lln lx(lucni (Ll(f1t (l(,tngtstii (lLlc x(Ill col]to sctiltl cl<'pcligr(). I)itt'ltelr,.l: ,Altor: Itir.'rr. trrstitrrtr-'url rlllr,)rl-llrlu l)rr,Sr(s', cn nLtcstll :Lr.ttrlt-r's,. r-r':tti<rtr n().1(trxr(lt il <ttc srrlrr'cr. ngtr unir (l( cslrs \ttL|ll(i(,ll(s tr.lLl llIiti(rLs (l(, (lcs|irliltiirnt(), sini) plgvcrl.l. (\tt' csl)cr.-rn(l()l1l (l)ilg. 155). f.n l()(l() cslc tllrbrtjo, li-cutl (lcstc l rlifi'r'cn< i.t cnlr-c l1r.lng!r tilr art()nr.iriL.r rttt sorpt-enrlc 1ll srj(t() )'le "enusrilt scrill, <rrc surge (l( Lltll l.lrisrrrltr activlt rlt ltrrrclkr (luc l)Ll(lirri rcsLrllirr l)cligr()\(). Lrr rlisljrririn es (lc llirs( (n(lcncilr. irun(llr( los ti,r'rin rs \ l:t li)Llx(r(in n() scirr l()\ lniis tjjli(cs. lin <1i<lo. lrrlrLt[ ]nguslir ilr)(u:ti(', (.l ',1)rr! ( i(-)n lr .1(nrtLr\ti1l scrltl,, r'clccir (lLc cl )'() llr c1itc. l)lr-( (-( ri:r ul)i(lu'ir (st.r (lltillllt c()l)l() si cstLrvict bj< t,l crntrol (lcl sui(,ft). (()r() si \1)luntritncntc pu (licIl I)r'()(lu(ir unx irtl]usliit rc(lu(i(lll pllrx (.\'ilrsc unar rnar\1)r. a()nl() si fict-ll L11 ('lculir(l()r. tn l)Lcn c(()n()nristlL <rrc, prcficrt Llnar pe(lLrcil l)r(li(l ntcs (luc (frlr (lLrc Lr llcr'r i l (luicl)11r. Un rcrlitlcl l ngusti: tllitiga(ll (lrc strg( c()rr() scn.l lirlll)i(-n \()rl)r'(n(lc 1rl sLrjcl() \ s( rlcsr'nr'lrr[ nlr p()r cl iut](i()l1ln)it11(() al(r)rnlili(() (lc tn l)si(ltri.rlr,r Ln,lLl( tllr.r\ r'rl)rL5(,n(.1!r'rncs, \'sLrs (()rlcsp()n(lic1('s r'lrrglts clt'ilte(t(). se pt()(lLr((.n r))i-ls itlLi (l( (lrarl(luicr c()ntrol (le tln sLric{() () institxill. l)crr si r'lrs bsr:rrr<s ert llr (riti(1t .ll ntl((nfisnr() inrlicackr l:n l (lcsclilxi(),r (lLrr I'j'cu(l lt:trt'r'cliin:'iscrl()s el (r)nccl)tl) (l(:lngtstiir s(trl n()s gslrrr)t()\ pcr(licn(l() lo tst'nci:tl tle lo ttrt' cstl-l (n JUc,,: ll tlifi'rcrrcilr (rtr('trnlr r'rrrlrciit rr't (lu('('l rsirrrisrtto t('\ulrit s()rl)r'cn(li(l() I)(' eslirrrl()5 trurtlliznlcs \'(f(l (()u(li(i()rr cn (lLr( c/1,)r;//lN(,(luc /tl sllltcit;tl lrdu nltl i(.t t t l t ?4)!tt'(!] . :t, c'sct!(lrt(! n l.ts t (l)t $c ltlr t)t t(; (l ( ltr(lictz! u ( I )rrd t I tl I I utrl . c()t t I t tl)l t ) c t l( k) u L' t t rla. l-() triLurllilic(), vlt scr (lel)i(l() I>rincilrlnrenlc a kr lrr.rtrtl tlcl hrcho reel. r
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ploclivr a ll flseclacl y e la traicirin lrrsitr-. srn -rosruhclo el .cnrttrr:trtientr,. es clecir, acllnir:tci<tn (lLre sc sicnte strpttestrl lir'el cl tor al rlr-re se consiclcnt supcliol ltl plcrio suje r. sin (l(e cs(.t a(lnlirai, ,n \< i.lr, tetlc solrrc la l)areir (()n\iien(l():l sl: en lrlgtricn (luL- ten(lr l()s lrrlr()s scntinrientos hicia cl ()l)ict() ri\'.rl. sin lx ngrsti narcisistl de creer <tic sc he r'e el ppcl (le t(nk),' l no clcs,. ul'il rue sc le cs infiel, es clc(il, sin l.l rnictLlacit-rn c<rt rxLts faclorcs (lLle. il sLl vcz, cacle r.nl,.r clc cllos r-crrrite lt strs rtolilts rrxrtliioncs cl,. gncsis. sill t<<k clk nr esull erp)icablc ll celolipi:t. ;rl

rrtrrr.

,,,c,.<,

il.i:

t))cn()s ct su li-rrrt ns lr.lilulll.

IiN ( ASo ct.NI(.() t)l: l]()r,lA

A -A HoM()srixt,Ai-rr)At)

l, i.rrr.rrl, , fr.Lltr.

rlr

i I \rtL.r( i(-)l

,r ll(.s.r,[.

l.:t c'aL,ncitt nkttria l,ttsit)tktl quc alirnrt rrrc k tcrrickr r' u rcurrir la cn((tl:r)()s r,It <livrnas patologes ( I )sesi( )nltnt(s. dcnttt,:lc llrs rrllrlcs <trelrlll()s (l(ltnern()s cn trr curlti r'linico lor'llr intcr'rletrrcirin sirtttlilicantc:r lll
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\rrLr,,r

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inicilr rtn dia cn (ltlc l)() sinli() (lc\c()s (lc lcrer rcl(i()ncs stxtrilics c()n sL l]lar rrclt. Irr'oso tlr.rr tlkr scr'lr clcbitlo I trlgrrtr.r llortt<.rsxrttlirlacl <lt, la rrre no )r:rl)rii c.sllr(lr) r:lle:rrlrr l:rsltr (.s( lll()llrcr)l(). I;rr. l)ril]lt'tLs srsj(rr(.s (stt\'icr'()n clorrrincls >ot llr lrris<rtcrllt trl-aLlstinlr <lc rrr.tcllts tle srr strprrcs{lr ilclinlt <ion lrrrroscxtr1. Al nrisnxr ticnrl)(). 1()(l() esrr crl rnuttltrlo trn Lrn-t clr-:r

l:r cucslitin. lTnl pcientc c(r\lrozo su anrlisis pleslr clc )ir Prcgrnli ( )l)scsj( )n:tnl c (ef(lr clc si t ll nr sct ltxsclrr:tl.1ll-lLlstr.l tlLr( \(

nic() pir

(\xrlinir

lrrnr>sc'xrlrlitlarl.

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cl

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r .rr.r (lc (.il-r\ (..rt).r., (J(..f.r",*",1 ':" tlcr.ir. clc j. trrrrrl.r t1,.,.,.1.1a1ii,. f,, f,, , ni*;:':.a,,i, '".r'n,"u. ., r,,l.lul,,'

('\1,(1 l:rlr\.r ,fr',r,. r,, i,r \k \itrifllrr \\'. lin (l lan5(1rrs() tlc tr'llt scsion en rLre LI I)irci(ntc nre lrlrll'r rr tr-u clc nj nrir)x)\il tlc Io inttlnlinrlrlc rlre Ic luccio t'l llLrso rrrc trrrs( Ll-ri(-) (lcsclc llr sesir-rn rLltr:rior. v lllri(,nr[rse rcli,ricl< t l scsjrin ltrttcrior-\'r-I tjst.l -r kr clcslrlectivli ctrc lralri:r sickr str trlrclt'r. lc scnrrl su <itsco tlc tst:rt unicl:t rtl. ill (ucr'ln) cle ri rtltrlit' rtr':r acari< i:trl.r v rccncrlr. Inrcclil:rtr'lr clcs rtts strcrilt (lltc estii L()n Lr) ltluir lr rrric lc rrr'lr-i< i:r sus scn()s c(r cn(-llrc

,,,)l'l liil';,.X,,,i:jll:l]:] l[-,'l]'iii:'nri


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1

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lr '.rl ,tr, .r, l.ll, llr, ,. . , ,t] ,lus , ,ll1 ,. rlr' ,'\1,.r, ,rr.r .r lr.rll.r in,(.r.r.r,l.r ,,,,, ,,,,,.,,,,,.

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1,, \(.r.r\l .,,,,,,,,,,,,.

stnsuliclutl. S('(lcspirl-trr.rngLrstix(lir. l)ucs p()r pr'rlcrx \cz ticnc l() (lue (rce scr trnlr utliflllitcir-rn clc- tr.rc cl('c1i\ lLlrnlc ls trlre sl cLrtrPo clt flr rlruicf. !,rl (se llt()rt)cnk) sr rrtc 1:rirtntr:r'r lli chrclrt sol.lrc i cl tcrtrr l llt Irrl,srxrr.lirlerl no l:hlt cst:l(l() rr:)r)clr s<strnic[ ror tlcst,os (le lxl nxlurirlcz. c(n() l l)l()l)i l)arcienlc lrlinlr-r rl<,rtlt cl r.rrricllzo. r lls rslrs et.tLn nrirs r.ottrplictl:rs v no liabrilt si(l() lt)i l)r()l)i() scnulnlirnl() r'l ctrc Itabie gcnclarlo cl surno. hln ()tf()s tnllin()s, sc trirtlrl)x rlt, rrn lrorttos,.,xrllrliclrrcl cltrc rlirttc|o Ii:rlr.t rcne tr:rckr cn l:r crrlr'ir'ncil lr:rr l.r firrtrLt (,r' tcnt()r', rtn:r r'.2 rcsrrr,:br:t)rrtlrt tll)lr cllril l)rrrrr-l clcit'nsivu. ) ri s(riillill]i(Dlr)[rrlucsinrrlerncnlcllirlriulreclrrer Crntril\tir lr tsr'rinr (lc l(\inlirr l lur-r-el]r r(r: LL |ciresitin. pclntiticnckr quc kr r1r.re hastlr esc r11()nlerll() cra intclc( tulrlizalau'rn aprtteciet.t en k) otxtriflcst() clel sueno lrejo srr filrrnl ('er(r(nlr r( kr rcprnitkrT (). cr clrlllrir>, n() se trtil-

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los
Avr\N(_tiS

li\ pSt.()..liRAptA pSI(_()A\^t_t

r(:A

l,- NrAsoQUrsirlo

109

l.ts r''.x.r'rlrr, r.rs Irioulrill.as y (lc l(,r nr(.LJnisru^ .1,. 1., p.rt.i:;;.-.u,..t,r,"1r"n ,h ,rrt, lr'-r.,tr,t.r,t .r \,r\ l,f(r .l).r, i,n)( , L I,r,.)r,n;., :;,,: ;:,,;;,,,;1.,,,, r," ,,n,,

rr)\( \rrI o lrrlr,rrsexLrl inccstL()s(), orlc ]l lrgr.csir icllr<I. < cl e lrs flriilts n lit )(,rsr)nllli!l.t( clc Ilr ncientc. lll lnxlL-l.illl clr krs sLrcrios nlLr, 1. krs (l( t.rlL \ (lll(.tt;lt.t (lr sL inflrncia Dc 1tcr.l]titlrr.t _(lctr() (lr f,r a"l,,,,r,,.1ua'._" l(.(r ( t , ( I ( (,II ltLl(,stl-lts (t)nstfLcci()ncs_ lirn,:rrntc.n cie ll idcll (lc
, ir,r\f,rs (
,

l:r itlca rlc ttuik) l hotxrse,rulrlicllttl <.r< cl rr,,nticto clt 1,raart.,n,,, nri s(,r\'ln pam enc.ul>rir.clcsers Ixrstilcs. Nr,.rln.nl. "n,*r, ta paci.nt" rnc clispcn sr'r rlcl cslircrzo tlc hltcerlOs c()n\LlL-lltc\. st -tngrrsti.tlr.r Ir,slik s puts terua rr.re ellos puclicran 1i,,,..r"rt.j"l'," "an,nriart,,a ,.ligra. vn)Li.;. l)c(, (lc cLrxl_ rrricr nrantrl no <lcjaben cle estlrr cn l, ,.,,,.r,ii.nii". "l Siur1rl",n.,rt'., l()s rctcnirt, .in t rfrr'<srukrs en Lr) l)rillef r1r()ttlent() par.a lrrr,go s lracr,rkr Fls clccir_. lto cs Ll l).l rt h,l)rinri(i()( (lrin(l() n()s uce<.lilteluos;rl tritucr at clel ntilisis. lu Jlrr.icntc tuccl<_r ( Dll)ilI]z:(lil. corcnznclo el k,lti(,r. t.lr)tl)lun (rl)sL.si()n.int.. .lu .Lrc pirclier.lt r.rsrtt rtlgr: clrrrnc el cntl)ilrilz() tjl P. T,, \l nti,llt,,,i.,np,,..l ritcnsiflc<-r llr 'rrrgLrslIr c[' crre ptrrlicr:t n() (]Lertr lrl nraricro. aa ,,rr,,,n,r."ra aral,rtr,, .a, ,,ia_ r. r:r rrlrlig:rrle lr Lrna separa<.ir>n jLls) cn cl ll()ltcnt<) en l1Lrc tt.llt." fr,,,,'rf rlrrnrIr. l)lrLrt enl()n(.cs l()s tern(r-(\ lr, )rr, ,c\Lrlrlus It.rlrr.ro ii"".,r.,raal,lrr<,f" ,u r r tlt'it ttc irt. n() p()t'(Lle llUlrie[rn sl,.l, r]Jl),)r.l!h)s siDr, llrsir.rrncntc por.<tre tl trrrlr.r:rz, Ia hlbe tc:rscgrr.:rd. en sr iclcnti<lacl fe,tenina. rf,t",ir". lr" nu._ \rs l)f(1)(Lrl):lci(1es obscsir':rs c()ntril)Llln a lurccr resar la hotncse,riralidatl lt r s( sun(l() pllln(). A parlir <lcl nacirtriento clel lrijri se inici<i rrn nucvo rt,r.r< rl,r .1 lirs rngrrsti.s lri.r.c.nclr.i:rt.as pusllr(m l a., .ir,rr,,i"ri"l clc Is se sirrtts Yo, il csil llltlrrl. ten.r scli.ls clrrcis c,,u..1 a,,rrin,r,:ii.ia,r.t. lrur, r.tl cltlris rlc cecl oltsesiOn ()rr.() (.()nlcni(l() tcitil,tticl clc] ,,,.,-,,,u.tt,,.,u., .r( tuils( n (r) t() tlcfcnsa _cl lllc(.llnis)l() tlcl tlcsltlltzartrient,)-- fi,a.,, ,,n" a_ar)lr(,r( i()n.:,uli(i('rtc. r)ilrir rn er yrrorrrcnlr n() cr:r trt() r, ."2,-,,.t ,it ...,, tr,,

pr(:r-nl.llr,rl .rn.li.r. ),,r In,(r,,rr,: ,,. 1,,1,,,.,..,r,,.,,. ,r(.li,f. rl,. ,ri Ilrrg:r rir.nlrcirir,r.rcrcirtllt cn ks c'linrtcs (lel :lnlistil <lctu.tirr rltrc. rlll(, cn l:ls l,r,.ne. novclas pr lir[rr.rs., s,ltt ,.lr.lntt,nl.rn,, (lUe t()(l() lo crrc st ie pr.esentl .,.. coartecl:r, nr Itr)trrJ \( (tt\ef\ti,ntst.. ntu trrotlujo il l)rnsltrcn le tl.enslcr.ctcilt negllti\.11 l)lj() (lut

rror oclinclole en()rnle !.el giienza. Sitltci(-)n n() cxentil (lc ir.onar lo rtre cn ()It.()s plt(.ientes lcrrticrc clel rrra r r- tlt krs eslircl.zrs .lar.a lraccr trnerger io clcsagraclalrlc r l co'nc.ienci. cst
1'.1

rris l;ic'1. (lLre ttti inter\ cnci(-)n labi. sici. llr cusante (le lil cristaliz.rci(in 'i:. tlt, Lnlr crectcia en lil p:tcieotc. rlinckle sLr tin: escnicr En csre segunci<r ( irs(). |l flr't:ls.1 it<,uscxt:rl n() I.r cstitru 1)1.()tcgienclo, r r,, r..lr. .l. .l"ra,,, Itr{ c'( rscl Lr:tlc-s inceslt()s()s. clc rrn t.:rnsfercn(.ia er.tic./ Ilstu\c enI()nccs irl(,nt() lt t()(l() kr que cn cl rlisr.rrrso (le Ia pacicrte pLl(liel. in(licur till cos. l'tl-o n< ltc- ne(esxti() tltltr clcsr'cl r,.lt rlrre r,ipiclamcnra a,n,-;l 1-,,en"rntia^t,, (r)ns(icnrc p1llecier()n taies f:tltlrss. (lLe se c(rvir-tier()n cn rlrsesirnentcs.

respresta clxrlr cLlr'll p()(l ser

e[

p(

ll

caLrsa

n qu xcl(lLixn rin cxra'lctc[ (r)sesi()n1nte Y, cn csPeci:rl. (lc este sentinlient() cle (llc kr tctui<lo solrevenclre

inex<ttllcrttcnic. !ln est plciente exist1n (lctcmrinx(lxs crecn(ias trlt-tgiclts ltcelca clc que si pensitba algo. cso ilra a crurrir. I- l:ln c()n()ci(lx ()rtuiPoten(ia clel pcnsa ntient() en ella ltslrnra l foua conr'reta.Si v() sicnt() lllg(). es c()tll(, !lnr ln
lLricia)n. ,v (lespus ()cLr'rc". frlrsc clrtc la paciente guetclaba

colll()

Lln tes()l() s(]-

1,,

.lllr

k lrtsclrra A esrr iltr-. crcr t*ar.ientr. t.cirr

cret(). (lue ltlrlrilt cLtltivack crrn plecet rlescle pt<tretie p:rr ((nIst:-\'ar tln sentinricnt() clc prxlcl rlre l rcriliclcl. per() (ittc tnlt vez c()nst[i(lll c(nll() (fccncix rcl(lLriri(-). (\tl() cn el c:tso clcl lrirrencliz tlc lltttjo. tln ilLlk)tll-llislll() rr.rc lu Iraclr iirn(.irnur en c()ntIu sLr\'. l,1r crccn(Lr (nrlniP()ltnlc. hij tlel r|ini ipio <lel rlrtccr

r rlcsctl:i <le set c recla tn

sr.t

inici<. ttna

lcz

clcs-trcntlicla tlel

act() (lcsclrnle tr.rc ic rlio ()rigerr. \'c(nlvcrti(llt t'n nticlco nrislo clc stt tirtlta rlc ptnsrLr. trrrrr'nzti pr()(lLcil'strs ctc(tis r.tt<ttlilic<sr si tcnsltlta (ltc se il)x :l ll)()rir'. un(lLr('cs< nr firgre clcsr:rLr. cl lter'ho tlt ltelrtllo pensl<lo cra inclir'cl< cle rtrr iba lt sLr(('dqr. Fls() es lo <lrrc riclte(i(-).()n llt lrr trosexrt iitla<i, r> r'on le rosilrilitllrrl clc <rtc stt tnttrinr()ni() se rottrpit ra. o con t iertls icies hi )oconclrlc:rs (lLrc pr-csent(i cn

(fr)s rtt()lttettt()s (lcl trtrlnticrtk) l)c,-() (lue cl('yclrl (ltc st' il)ll t)1(ni[. () lt (()nlt:flitse cn trn:l lr(nll()scxL11. () (ltc sc tcrnrinril srnritn(l() (lc stl inxti(l(). () (ltlt tllLlficl1] t'n cl patto. nil llc gl :tc]iuarrn()s (]l cx[ial(r'olrscsirrr rlc ess tr-ccntilts. Hltl rltclla gentc (ltlc sc scl)l(r () cs lr(),D()scxLrl v kr vivt clc nrtr\'(listintll nrllncfll. Iin cl (its() (lt nLrcstrx l)lt(icnlt, c:t(l:t Ln() (1(] I()s lcrll(r'cs tfll, 1l st \'cz. tlspil-il(l() (lenlf() (lc

(fr-il serie (lc I)cltsllr)licrtk)s (lr.t Ic lclnrinrl)n (ln(l() stl callai(1cr LIc ins()p()tI lrlcr .;l-is tcfrilrle tr.rc rrlgo:ts lc Prtecla Pasat'x url!,..cs ttl]rt |trg[icnz:t lollll... clcspuis rlc cso no lxrclri'mirr il rti(li( rt l (arr.ll". sov trnrt tlegcnctrt(lal,. "iltri vi(Ll (stli l'r'Lrina(lrt!,. \erclclero sistcnr ctxlificclor ('n (ltrc es1s crtenti.lr.tt' tttl)an (\nrl() l)Llllsl?tttatccts. (k)llln(l() (lc stl (1tlll:t (lc ltorrttr-a atr.telios pcn sitnticltl( )s (lLc s\ccsi!xrncnlc iltan octtrantlo cl ( et'ltr() (le stls P1c()cLl).1( t, )llcs. sistcr)il c(xlificll(l()r surgi(l() l pllrlir (lc lx i(lenlifi(rci(irl .()n tn:l rtlll(hc ([tc c()n\'rriil l() c()ti(lin() ('n nr)ti\'o tlc l D[is inlcnsx ngLlsti.t \' (ltlt lc l)al)ia tlanstirn(li(l() unlt rcprrscntll( i(-)11 (lcl ftrttt() c(ll() rllcnaznte. I'ln el cas< (ls cst:r pxcicnte sc nrc fLre lrcicntlo e\i(ltntc (lLlc ls str<.esivrrs olrscsir'tts restrltlrlran clc l rticLtlci<-rn (lc (lnx selic (lc clenlcnt()s. ttrngrrno clc los culcs er tlc Jxrr-s r.itrfl(icntc 'rltr':t txltli<et tl cLl(lr(): s(il() sL c(nrrl)ina( i(-)n les prorlucirt. Hn efl'cr

I I

l. l-lt cckrsitin sint()t1ut()l(;gi( ar 1L\'() hgr rr't Lrlt tt()rrrcnl() (lc str vi(llt cn rrre r.rna serualiducl hltst tsc inslantt s<firclrt hltb:t logftrclo l)fir\( n-r\,' parlll (\nlvcfiirsc en centrl) rlc stt nrLtnclt ernirit'tltl. llrrllsll?n(l() (()!l sLl (]o'l prrjc a clLrc sc pregrrnlase s()l)rc sLr (lcsc() 1. solrre tockr. si sr scxrutlicl:ttl era la cle tne pcrson:t .clccente,. A csts rqspcct() n() lcstltil)a ttn cltt clcsdcltle (lLre sr xl)uel1l ptclnil. uluier nrul pctlurlracla. hubicl trltnjfi'stltcl() slt tem()r

ll)

^v^N(.is

IiN psl(ior.liRApt pscoANA_,r.IcA

ri

r.

M^soeursMo

I 11

nc'r tr )n Lnlls lt lrigas cn an c()n\.ersacicin sr,re ir.ur.sextaliclacl lrlrn vr-: iclo jri(.i()s neg.rti\1)s, lo que lc llcva a preguntarse clenlr, tlt,strs clrrllrs si cll cs scxr1rlnt(nt( rlcccnte-: -N, r.n.,c, r,i ta,tltia,n clc sr.('s ltr r t:osrxralcsi,". lis intp()sirl( Ll(tcrntin-rr rc .x.it,r ..,n tlrl <.rnversa_ r'ion o sl-lo se lsLst). CLralclrrier.a qrrc sea eJ "r clls(). un.l vcz firnrrriacla tal I)r('grnlil. por cl heclro cle clcel en c] tocler intuitivo (lc sU pensxQ)icnk) pl r.rrtrri l<i otrrlto, \ porqtlc.ltt.lu e flt d<,c? ciat, c()ncltt\,_e: .Si <u. ,,ry lrloscxrrI. si tengo csu intuici(in, es clue rlellr..,.1,r,. y .1i.r,",, rri x, p,e>".a.1
r

(k (u( "scirs rnil plrtr c(no tu .t.r(11e,. pero he un hecho casual. r;[ ntt,trl ,(,sl() (liurn() cie un sreo Io tlue agrcgil algo clccisir.o:
, r r:r.lir
ixr

llg<> ccltri l]rh:l estil_

rsicluismo cree c()mo p()sil)le: p(n(lue alxa trrci lo h<rrille pLre(lc ()crriri la pacientc pasa cle una fobia a cleslrrollar unll p.lni(r)ix.
L crcenciit uratriz flisi()n:ll. .si esto sLtccdi(i, a1ua puecle pas.lr cualqLlicr Cttsa,. exrlica el cliD) de I)(rrr<>r-cuc surge ! pafiir (lc ciefi()s a(()ntcLrnlicnk.,s

r.n

(lll(

s(,

nr( )l)(.nt( )

sigrrienre.

|slJs I)lrllrlr[rs sino rlc ia tnirucle y.el cstrcnrccitn ient( ) clel ltcltrlkr rue l:rs sig nr llr',1 r'r lr I lcr-riltlcs. J (i)ltslrili(lo clc este nxclo el h<.rr. ie hiu<sexrralirla(I. en lx )tentc rlt.nUr.sllr l)li(.ientc pltsll genet:t-Lln pr()(.es() cltrc no p<xlni sinr l.ek.zallr lrrrscrrlri 1>rrrcllrs cle <uc lc glstan hs nrLrjcres, les ohscn.alli en l,r,,,. t,.n.n ,1,-l, lltr-rrrr,'.(\\u(lrin.lt.,i r s lrr,Pi.rr rr..r, r.i,rr,s. \ (.nt(,n,(.\_ ,rl igrr.rl ,,r..,.1 ltrxU,r)(lr'r-(i,.tluz.l(1, rn :rr srntioJoga_ n() tr(lx[1i cn clesct ltt it. c.r I r si Iut rr r.lr..lusilt <lc ella. y p()[ en(lc gmvc. kr tr-rc en relrlichrl lc paslr e tocla ttrrrjr.r'rr lroltlrrc: (lllc sicntc lrtcci(-)n p(n. los cle su pr.opio gncrrt, rlue erl Ilrr.r ll() ll i)lr() rasg(). ini.lLtickrs los corltoralcs. I I t)it \'(z <r-rc lo Icniiclo iit(lc(.t:nci.r sc>irral. lt:rjo ti.nt clc lrto_ v ru,rlrrLrtl-- rrrttlc rrurLir-. ylr-lil no ltay n.is garuntias..l.oiias las segrrriclacles s,, r,rrlr.r[ :rr (irntr cleca lit pxcicnle: .Si lLtst:r IxDoscxLlli pLle(l() scr, _cn l.lrz,rrrrl,, t.l ltislil,-, enkntccs cs (.ucsti(.)n tle cstltr alen a l" espel.,r clcl 1tr.<ixi_ tlr,, sr((.s() lt()rri)l(, (lLlc en sLr trnr i<.t.irjn tlclte ol:lligatoriertrentc slltlet enir. l..r lrlri.r ,r l:r lrrrros(\LlJli(1.(l rreplreti cl clrntit-l< l rrls filtias. (lLre n() sc_ t,ttr rrr rr'rrr'rrliz.rr rr'rn rlt, la prirtte ciel (.()gnitivislll( ) 1s()ciacl()tistil_ i l t( rirs su\tilu( iortr. s rlt ti,nsit:rs -crr()r clel al.rrs< rlt Ia tcorlr rlcl ciespleza -crror(le ttna tcestlLctrrac.it,n ri(,1)l() (k li.nst\1) sit() (\ )nse(.1)enciL clr I<t cLre cl
rr

(sl( (its() cl clcscrrltril,iett. (le rn pres.nt l.,.scxrrlitl:tcll cstit asen l,r(lir ( n un creenci tlxtliz pasionlrl clel tip().alg() lrrrriltle t.lr l srceclrr r ves ,r (l(.s(ul)r'i,. (lrecn(.i ntatriz (lLr se c()nstrLye l tlir!.s (lc nril ruensajes clcl tr r. rlt : "llcgri lt sll cllsar )'se cn(.()ntr() c()n sL Lttaclrc rrttcl.ttt,. .estal) ll,y l)icr | [ rl(..sr'Ulrit,rrm Ln clincer",.se ac()sfu.) clescanser un rltk) !,{uv() Ln inl[ r(, (lr(ll().()n exple<i(-)n <le lx-ri,l-r rsrrrrlt-,.1, l1,)r cl \Ltj(,) (lcl)cn(lienlr lr.r r igl (.sl(l() lltecliv(). El nio pLrcrlc n,, salrr 1,, <rre cs iu tLr.,nc. el cin_ , L r . r'I.rrrflr'r., p.r l. rue rl pes() rnl(x.i()n1ll 1. clerivu clc l scrrliltic cle

l(.n(i:. Adclniis. cn est:t llil(.iente. (r)llt() cu ()tr()s clls()s cltrc ltcros tct.ticlo olx )rtuni(l(l cle unalizer. la iclclt rlc (luc tlg() tcn.il)le ()t.rrn.cclc inrpn,r,iso _,n

ArLrello qtre n() (lcl)r ser Il h<r<sexraliclcl_. <uc no clelcr ocrr rrir. l)(,)r su tislta cruliclacl cle prohilticlo y iror-rorrrsrl _rone_ cn rnarcha el pro r cso tlc r igilancia en ltrs<.tr cle inclicucl<.es tue testitnoniaran s()l)[e sL exis

en la vich. )'a qLLc xl)rcn unil selie intinita cLrc lnantcnrlri cn c()ntinLa z()z()llt.a al sujet<1. l)c igtrel nunera. la ranlirbia (lLc lparcce .l plLrtir (lc lx ntLlerte irlrplcvist:l cle un scr trrcliclo puetle tener sL l)xsc en el sentitrlient() (lc qLte .si <crrni<- eso, crralctticr'c()slt pLc(lc sL('eder". N() cs la ntueltr cn sl riu\ltt-r, ni le pr'clicla clcl objcto pr'(le(t(n. sino la rrrpttrra <lc' lrn sentituiento clc segurir-larl t'llL ilpc]-tlrrar.r la scrie cle lo inesltrmtlo ],sllricstr().

n() (\)nsigno, trrrs kr <rrr clesco rcalztir a<rr es s(il() Un cicr) sccl(r'cle kat lo'rtl l a-l t tl lsfi11ldc it)t ttl clc srrs rbscsirlcs-. (r)Dt() p()l_ ( )ntc('ilr llc( lienl )s vi\'i(l()s p()r sus xrrlrcs entcs clc <1ue ella nacictr liga do a l scxrralitla<l-. y <le sus clcscos ctliric os en unu siiLracia't -llgo col>lit'acla por la serata< ir-rn <L: srts xtr-lrcs.t'

lllc ()cltn-c kr <tre no clclicL ser... es -.lo terrible,. ,si lgo tlrn tcrlil)lc ()cLnre, cnt()n(es crlLlclrricr c()sa plre(le src(! clcr,- poncn rn rlllrrclll Ln proccs() <lc l'igilancilr (lLtc cotviertc crrakrrier coslt cn lt<rrcllo trnil)le (re se he tlcjtrzgaclo (lle va s()l)rcvcnir. Sistentil organizeclor clel senticl() (lLre cs l)llfliculat-izu(l() txnt() p(n el)is()(li()s tlc su vici
pesionelcs

Cctx vc-nros en el c:ls() (lc nLrr\t[r lr-lLintr. (i(jrt.\ (r((n('Irs


<trc piens() ()(Llfrc,, .si

11t:ttri(cs

-(lLe l.t t'sttltcltlrd

L1. su_Jti

l()

r)rir- r)rspr-AcriR

y Iir. stiN'r'ILx) DIi {liAr-l)Ar)

((nvicci()n (lLc sc licnc de <uc algo rcllll]tcntr cxistr rst inlluen(iurt>r cl pl1ccr c(nlr() por cl clisplacer rllc sL rci)tcsttlt( i(in sglt (itl)iz cle -rrodrrcir. t.ll llr('taotc k)ln c(nltct() crn cl rrttrtcl< \'(\)n s(r ( Lttr'p() trll rs clc ls scnsll(i()nes <lc rlltccl o dolol rr.re a-sl()s pllx[r(en. l,lr [rr'.tlrti,,n n() es ni neutr.r ni unilil)lcr srlc tl Iirnck clc lo crre ve, rlc lo <uc oye. clc kr crtc ltrtclc, tlc kr tuc pelra. <le l() (lue le gust. clc kr ruc irlovicnr clc ll
l-x

tllt tlnto

cencstcsil. sc inlp(ren a<r.rellos cstinttrlos (lLtr p()sccn le c rrelitlarl rlc scr' ltla (-entcr()s (). p()r ql (1)ntrltri(), (l()l()r()s()s. ttl pler'cr y cl cl<l<r acttiltr-l fcc()'t:lu(l() (iert()s estnrul()s (r) r-cspect() al reskr. contribLryern<kr a rlcllnir c(tl() lral l() (ltc leng ess craliclcles. l)cscle cl crrnienzr tlc ll r,icllr el iui(i() (lc sxistcn< i:t cstli srlclcl< ls sensa< roncs rlc rlltccr 1, tle clolor. rrlac i<in tLrc se ruan3

r. (lx(l:r vc/ qu( n()s rclirrlnos I

Lrs

.rcenrirs nrutrx(s lrsirrralrs r lrs (lurx)s n (tcrcmri-

quc nun(x p()dr:in tr:r(hr(ir (.\ir.lrnrcnlc ((jnx) cstiin irrs.rit]s 1:rs nurtri(cs inc(rl\crc)lc\ per\) (lLre. xl rnen()s..(msliruycn --{ n k)s rannir)()5 e IieLr(l rcprcsrnt]( i()ncs inlc rrc(lils. (lcrldxs.

(lrr! n()s DCni(cn rprl)\inurrx)s csts.

AVAN(-IJS IJN PSI(J('I'IJRAPIA PSICoANA-'I'I(,A

Ir_ MASOQUSnr()

r1J

r'rtrt r-jrr r,lt ltrsivarr1entc


\ irl(.r)l(,nlcntc.

trlo clispla<.er 1 pJ:rcer clacios por la significltci<in. Si lrlgo rlucle- o si procluce pl:lccr. cnt()nccs existel v cLant() nlis intensos st rrn rr<ullos tank) nta\1)l'scrat h c()nvicci(in solrre Ie ealiclacl <lc lo <ue est rLllr<lo <ls esas cualiclacles. El srtrgil)licnto cle la clpeciclacl clcl rsiqr.risrtro r-lc ( (r)n(xrr (lLle algo existc indepenrliententente (le (lre o cluellt, es cler

ticn( irr,r .u.ln(lo el psiquisrrx) se llxga c(tplejo y cl (l()l() \, ei plcet no l pultir (le t.eccpk)res s()ll,Il'itic()s sin() txtll)icn. \ l)ri,-

rr.s rrrt golrit'rnrrn el inconscicnte. cn rloncle x(lul intpr(,gnril lilelncntc. sirr rr'sllitlirncs. CrrLn(l() (lesllrr()llat l ()p()si(i()n pl.incil)i() (le ltle<.er it,i:r.irs rrirrr ilrirr rlc ealiclacl en bltnttlacirntes sobt? k)s l()s princpit)s dd suc(,ul)strlrtitt) l l9l l) cleja bien estallecicl< (lre el in(r)nscientc se r.igc tr. el pri !D( r(), sin rrre tl scgtrnclo sca krllal(l() cn c()nsiclcrr.i<in. I)ic.e: .El car:ictcl lttis cr.lr':uro <lt' krs plo<esos in(()nscientcs (teprimiclos). al crrc cacla invcstigaclor no st lrrlittilt sino vencinclose :t s tisnto cr gran estitcr-zo. l.esult:l cntcrarrrtrrtt rk'l lrt'cho <le cue en cllos el cxllnlcn clc relitlurl no rige -rara narla. sirro rrrt Lr lcrrliclacl clel pcnsxr es c<lripurecla :r le reliclcl efcctila extcr.irr. r cl tl('sr'o lr su cumplimicnlr). lli lc( )ntccilnient( ). t:rl c()lI() sc (leri\ siu ll.ls rI l r iljo irlrt,rio clel principi() clel ple<.er., (prig. 2.i0). I:l lrlt(i()nllntieni() inc(xtscicnle aJlrret.ea <lc rste ln<clo rcgrrleclo sirkr l',,r r'l lrirr'ilrio rlel placcr, v cn l s(')l() tenclrlr clrlicl cl rlesco. Esta trrnt.cJrr rorr rillnlr. llrsta 1920 cs refiuul:tcla crtrnck F'rcrrcl l)itsu a [ec(n()ccr l.l ( \i\l( nr i,l tI P'ocrsrs (lue cstl'in ts ll clel principio clel pl:tccr cn cl se]() ,1,'l rrr,Pr,, irr(()ns(icnte v en srs ra nr itlclci{ )nss nt.ls (lirc(ias c,.t cl prerrtns r ir'ul( \ l:r rrrrtlt.ntir. Cntltio tcr-l.ico rue, sin cnrltargo. no nt<rlific rnlL :r'rrit.rl.rrlrlt lrls rrrx.csos inc()nsciL'ntes v la cle sus clelir ackts sotneticl<s a su

clt, ltr resin. ser-r un krgrt> enornte, kr quc estit t,inculackr a atuello rrre st,tllnrltine senti(lo de lealitllcl. I)eto iLlnk).r cse scnticio clc rellirhrl tersis lirii si(r)rl)re Ia tenclcnc ia. rlilllc rlt- lrcrrcr.clr u l()s (lislint()s srrjctos. cle JLrccr rlr. x'nrlt'l ll crcencia clc <tre algo cs real I rartir tle l:r cLrlitlecl rle rlac.er <r rlispllrcct (lue s\l tepresentirci(in gcnere. I;r rclltci<-rn estlccll entre el plac.er v kr crrc pasa l ser l(.tl)tit(l() (\)ln() r( ill cl placcr guienclo 1' sclcccionanckr e<ucllo <uc r' a scr crccll c.rrxr tc ri(,r(l() cxistcnci- hlr siclo larganrcntc (r)n()ci(lit v g()zll cn Iu actullirltrcl <le ( ()r1s(.ns(). l-11 expresi(in "pcnsar)ticnl() (lc rclllizilci(in rlc tlcseos, seril l:r fierl('l('lr(l('r'tcix :r (fecr c()nt() qrre es rcal lt<rrclkr rtrr t.ausa rlaccr. I)rlr cllo se Ii( n( (lur lel)ritnir. pr()\'cctllr. rcnegr. ncgar. har.cr Lrso rle krclts los lucc:rrrisrrros <lt'ti,nsirrs cle krs rlr.re rlisponc el psirrrislt<t. Lo rlesagrt<laltlc lien<lc ,r st r' t lr'ltriclo cle llt conciencia. pc,1) talnl)in r srl.c()ntt.ilft.(,st(lo cn tl in (('n\(itnlt., en el rue se ftll'ican realiclr-lcs <.<nfirrnrc l <leseo. A este rcs r'(1r), l()(l() t'l t|abejo clc l-'lerrd s<lre cl principio clc plur.er tuccle ser rnten ,lirL trrrrro cl intentr rlc clur tirnclntent() l1t tcsis clt <uc krs sLuios v l<ts sllrl() rrs s()n realizlcir-n cle rlcscos. l)ef() espccixlt)lcntc cle cstltltlcr.er ls lc

il

lrllzca

c'attificctcb L'n el prcscnlc de suc(,(ler psi(lttc(). Es lo qr-re velnos en los sr.rcn,rs tr.[ll)1-ltic()s 1' lls pcslclillsr l() terni(lo aprece ((rno 1'e reulizeclo () cn pro ceso cle rcalizacitin. f-s I() (lue txrrrl)in c()nstatamos en el deliri() petrc(Lrl,ri ), en rrre el sLlicl(). tslrliend() cl .ltxqLre. pas x cl'ccr qLle eslir siencl() (r)jet() (lel lDislll(). \'est() hxstx un gra(l() trl <Lre llcga l c(nlsh-lrir la escenif)caci(rn lttcin:rlorir quc l< r'rrolrrr. L) en la Iriponc<xlra. en tue sc \'an falrricencl< ctn vicci()nes srlre lus suct-silus cntr llc(ll(les (lLre xruenazaan l suie). As cortto l)arv un penslrnrienk) c-n el que el (lese() gobierna (le pen,nicnk) (lc rclizaci(')n (lc (lese()s-. cle iguel menere cxislc (fr-() tipo-pensasrrnrient(). rle irrnfl lrrcirir-l clc k tenrirlo o. nrejor an. p('ns.mleltlo de rcalza.n dL, lo toui(/r. cn cl scnticl< clc cuc acuclkr'cuc pr'()(lLlcc !lngu\ti.r. rlLre sc ttnrc. sc tftlnsfornlir en escenillc( i(in presente vir icla c(rll() rclrl. Si cl pcn-

slln)icnl() (lc relizirci(in clr clesc<s tlelirru l realiclacl 1' la hlcc nlinDc; ,1. cle iguel lnll11t.r-11 rl l)cnsn)icnt() (le rellizxci(in (le l() tcr11i(l() segLrr.r Ir ((rr\'ic(i(in <le <r.re es rcxl. (lLc c\istc k tcrnirkr. I)(n ()tm paffe. si en el in(()nscicntc htrbiera s<'rkr pcnsanricnt() dc' rculizcir-rn clc clesc<s. l:t lr-rgtLstia (le (str-(i(-)n o ls rnil firas clc lls lantrs terr()rizrntes n(, tenclrn cul>icla cn ('1, scrun sirnple c innrc(liatnlcntr clcscchlt<l:ts. Se hlr hlrlrircl< retfi-ri< u rente clel .sujtto c[lrlcsco,, I)lrrx in(li(rLr ((-r]r() Ios llcclrnistlos clcl tlcsco ticncn su,ct(l() il t()(k) ser htrnrano t'c<into cktri n.rn su flr n( i( )nxnlicnk ) l)si(lLi((). ,vlt tttc l:t ( )rg:LI)izaci(-)n a lll qLrc hxl)ituxl nlcnlc designlulx)s c(rIt() I)ers(nt1 no rLtc<lc rt]lis <r.te seguir. sin el rlrcn()r (()n()cilllirrlt(), ks cnrirrs (lLe el (1ese() lc irttgrltc. Fln igull senti(l(). llxv un su cl() (lel (lspl.tccr ( uYl cxisten( j.r n< estr'i <lach p()r nin-an cnte pers()nilicir hle sino rol los rr'<rios nlccnisrtl()s (ltle (leternrinltn tlte Io tctnicltr su-t r ir i rkr corno reel 1 ectr.nl. Si s()nr()s c()nsecrcr1l(s (()n lat crrnccrcicin cle <tte k:s l)r()ccs()s inc()llscicntcs fincionxn lrejo la ckrblc rcgulacir-rn (lcl princil)i() (lel I)lllctr \'(lr kr <ttc estli ll-ts rrll cle ('1. cnrn<cs n() h.t\'()tr-() clln)ino <uc el clc refir'mlrlur'. l)(n scr l)urcixlcs. tocllrs llts cxplic:tci()ncs (lLre c()n(cptualizxn l()s ii'nr'rren<s rs<ui<rrs norrnalss l petoliigicos cxclusi\'[r(ntr clesrle l:r pcrsrcctiva clel (lesc(). I)lrra t()llrul un solo cjcr:rplo: los sLteos (lr mLltrte (le sercs (lreri(l()s no scr:in sicnrpre leflei() (le cieseos clc tr.tc cllo sr-t,:'ccla ltltrt (lescnll)rrxzlltse clel lival cclpico cxrlic:rcir-rn (lue Irrerld clieu cn l 1l-la ( 1r)i J//(r)(./s l9(x)). cs clrcir lrntcs (lcl cxn)l)i() te(-rri(() (le 1920-. lul)r.'t(tci(;u r/s lln n() l)()(:s ()p() uni(h(lcs exl)resan Ln() clc krs nr:is gran(lcs tenx)l-cs (le Ll inlnnci: el -rcrcler lr l<lrcikrs <lu( l() s()n )(l(). proteccirin v ulivio flentc al clt lor 1 ll angustie. ftentc dc sLllllinistr() \'itlrl \, (lc stisLr(( i(-)n sexLral v nar'(isistl. fll scntinrient() cle irrp(fcncia-(lcsx11)irrf). rrl cu,: f'r'crrrl (licr.r lrnl),,r tlrnci (clltl-1rl rrl uli<ltrlo c()lt() l)Lse cle Ll ilngusliar scel. r'ecla vcz (lLrc es

cl ilr(()r)scirnir se escenitlclr. sg rc:Liiz cn ls itril \'arriilnlcs (le Ios rcliglos a [rs rue (llrcclll expuest() cl sLrjrt() p( la tiltr rle la inago rearcxcti\.11(l() cn scllrLrantc. Lln c()nsccLrcncia. cr1ln(k) se

lt'.\:k)lrt, .t(t(h)rstit(l()c()ntoocttrriettdoctnt<t'atocurri(k)(tutliz.tdo)_cs-

lrhnti rtte cl slren() () l()s snt(lrrlts

s()n Ltna

llr
,.

AVAN(]IJS IJN PSf(JOI'IJItAPIA PSICOANAJ-I'I'ICA

lrl, IIAS()QtllSII()

ll5

r(ilizll(i(-)n clc rltscos. () Unrt tr-itnstcci(in cntrc el (lese() 1 h clclcnsl. sr estl ligitrttlo un() (lc los casos llosibles rle lo cluc c()rlstitLye unu <omlinatori rrris :rrrplia. l)ueclcn hlerse inicia(l() por le lrsquecla clel placcr ([irect() ) It'rlizru-sg stc <rrn trna pe'crrea clrlil nreci<-n, < en el caso cle qrrc e-nrcrja clis.llrtccr secuntlltrio porclut' he_v tenclencias cr.rc sc lc ()p()nen- llegar.se a unrr lillul (le conlpr()nris(). Pcr() txt)ll)ia,n l)Lle(I.-n ini(iame c<t\\to lspldc?r
Lln (Lcsc()

l)rDldri()-no secunriarit:l
rcrsccucir-rn se

privilegilld cn l1r pcsirdilln en clrre l:r entrcl.lzl rrrn llrs rlil lirnuas cn cue el sujeto apllrcce csc lttrrlo clt clllt, pr \r()lvcr ir rccnc()ntrlLrse (()n krs ptrscgtrickrrcs. y Itrego volr',. r lilrrrsc clc ellos. y es en rrnu scri( inflnitil. I)or'igr[tl rezc-rn rcsrrlta rlitr;U iO intcntr cxl)lic1 1()(l()s l()s (Ltar(lr()s ()l)s( sir)nlntes prescntcn bajo ntocleliclacl h ipr t rnclri:Lctr. tenx)rcs (lc itu -se I)ulsi(ln. crl()tipis, ctc. c<tx; si fLc[r lllrnteni(l()s Jxrr rrn clcsco crrc se eslrrilr r'rlizrrnck cncrlricr-tlrnrcnte. Lo rrtc fitc exrlit'ltcirin rrnivctslrl entcs rlc lki.s rtllri rlal prttL:ipitt tk,l pktct t'l lt)20) no ')r.recle c()ntinuur tcnicnckr cse ce r.r( l('r'unlr vrz (lLre sltl)cl]x)s (llrc cn l()s pro<esos in<rrnscicntcs n() rigc ex(hti\.urr(rltc cl l)rincipi() cicl pleter () e (lcsc(). Sr-rkr trn cicr'1t Llt( )n):ltisl( ) (lc nu(sl[l lc(niz:r(i(-)n lrace ctrc cl Prirtrer Drorlckr <rre gLa ntcstt1) pct]s.ll1llct'l ti) lDt(. ( l rcltLk) (lel j)lcicntc scil la lrs<1ut,cla <lc rrn significlrr-kt in(()tscienlc ( n (lr( sc cslarx rexlizlln(l() un (lcse(). Nos llenrrs ac()stulDl)f(k) tnt() a l)ctl ;r ( r) (sl()s t'nrinos (llc lxs in tcl prctlrci( xtrs llrs:rcltrs cn cl ltrincirio clcl pla, t'r son l:rs (l!re sc n()s <ctrrtcn nlis Iirilrttcntr:. trrntl< c'rr rcaliclacl lrt rcltliz t ir r t[. rk,scos ], It [clizltci(-)n dc k tclrrickr el senti(l() (lrc sc (l1r c(l() rr';rliz:rr.kr. r'oor cxisticntl< yli- se rel):trtcn -sn cl tcikio cle lo inconst'irntr.
>to clcl rlaccr. c()m() sc ve cle ntanerlr

c<nflictirrr- \,(lue(larse en a,l. O ptr) tlitr'irsc Ln lrltcmllncilr entrc el l)lincipi() rlel phcct y cl rnl'rs all:i clel print i-

(lt: rna slrpLrcstlr pulsi(jn (le n1llertc qlre serr lx (lLrc (r-clLri llls lltntasas terorillcas. l)ero inclcpcncllcntcnrrntc (l('(lue st Plrnk) tle particla te(irico fic rl inarlccu<kr. clre hiciera sur-gir toclo tle la intencionlitlacl ltgresiva. cptc tcclujcre sus cxpliceci<tcs al inttrjucgo Pr()vec( i(-)n, iirtr'()vcc(ir, el cxmP() (lrc intent(-) encutlr-cr-ll pertincntei el clel strjcto qttc sttfre en vcz clc gozltr. Igr.ihr)rntc La(:ln. x prsl-(ic sLL reenrplz() clc llt ntr tl ir'ci<'rn, clel trrnflicto I cle toclo lr (lue pxltir clc stc sc rleserc:tclenr. \'de Ln cstltrctLlulisnr( ) l() gicist cn (l(s l tc()rizllci(-)D pr()glcsx x plutir ([t cillcg()r.ls t l as( el](lcnllcs, un t<cl<. srl)() (lrc hltlri rn nr'is ulL't rlcl clcstt stll)jtti\1)r lcclefini<i c'stc c
lriz< clc l olrscsi<in rlc rcl)cti(i()l'r un.t ('Lcsli(in rcllcxitlltt. SLt lititar.ir-tn cn r'sle pLnt() l)rc(is() cslLl\1). sin ctrrlrargo. en Ilrtcc{ll clepcnclct clc Llnll tnli(lx(l rrti<a: lu olrscsit-n rlc rel)rli(i(in l)(n l iirsislcr't(ii (lcl signifi(l1c. .r)un, sl i'slu tireu algo clc polsi y n() re(luiri('r.t clc una litr:rza rltrc llt irttprtlsc. Sin la \ erticrtt( (l(l fi'ttr. lt l:t r'rtrtl l,ttt rltsrr'tc ialre. loclo cttctla tl'l llrl.l lrr,,lri rlcl inlluncntr clcl significentc rtitttcnt i'pota- o cl,.' Io I'cal ctP1l tllter'io c[' sr.r ol-lr. '' I)(n nucstfl l)rlc. rcsult c\i(lcrrlt l)()r tl tratlltlllicnl( ) rttc ltcallanrtls cle llrcer rlcl lcnlll (lLrc ,.ll nlis ulLi tkl clcsco no inrrlitrt cl trlt,:erlc rttlis rtlLi tle l()s irl(t()s. f-s l)tr( islrrrl( ntc rot cl lttxlcr clc Irs lili'r.'tlrs. en eslc cs() (lt I()s (lLr('ticncn e1 scllo cltl <lisl.)lltr'cr'. cttc st inrPLtlse Iu t'()ttttttlsir-rtr Ia rePcti ci(-)n. fllt (sk) sc1linl()s lrclrtl, no lror llt ltrclltt'ititt a le palrtlrrt <lcl tltltcstrr L1'tllr,I)!rr(lr.r r['r.rl,,ltz,l! l,r ,rrglrrr(r]l.r(rr,rl \'rl,' lr'rlllll( \rl rll\l\l(ll. l.l \'lr <rrc rn el rsirr.risrtto lltl ltlgo. llt r'rrtlitl:trl rlc ltli'(1(). (ltrt n() l)Lr('(lc scr-rc(lLl cirkr ni l siinifi(Jntc ni u llr significacir-I. n()s l)rrc(c eitlt( iitl l)rll cntcnclcr <rt cs kr (lu('nrLrcvc ll jrrcgo rlc lils r('l)resrrr(llai()ncs Y Ilrs trrtsli)tnl.l(i(rn!'s (lLrr stils r"lut srrlicn<ltr

l. < rrrr. o us

ru-t-

Dlr- l)rrsr() \'r)rir- pRrNcrpr() l)lit.

pl-A(:HR

l)(s(lc csl.r perspcftiv. r'csrrltu inclisltcnsalrlc clcsarrollal una clnic <lcl tlcl rrincirio clcl .llaccr. n() p(n(llc eslu firrla <le olgenizar lo ps rttirrr rrrr-rlrr (lcs\ inculrse clcl plin<irio <lel rllrccr, (lc l()s cntrelxz.r nt ir nr ( rs r( ( ll)r'(xr)s (,ntre 1lr11l)()s, l)rf() s l)()r-(lLlc l)tr lLn()s srrjctos el placer. l:t lrrrsrrrctLr rI ii. sr'rkr (\)l]stilLlye Llnu dbil ct)rricntc Lle agu (luc slltgc cn llts rlri( l:r\ (l(r( llr tnornrc rocu clcl clisple<er Ic rcrnritt. Vicllrs lr>llrstacllts -tor l:rs r( l)r( s( nlir( i()n('s cle peligr rtrt rkrnrinan cl l)si(luisll(). Jtor la crccnt ilr rrrr: 1,, r lrsrl:rt t'trlclo \l cstli ()cLnicn(l() () (luc cs lo tire oc urlir:-r inrltli,ctillc nr( ot( lrst.r pr()lrlcrtli-rtica clcl lll.-s itllti clel princiJri() clcl piaccr cs Ja purle cle Lr .l,r.r IrcLrtli.rlr trrc solo prrrlo scr cslxrztlt. lltrcs krs grrndcs lrislrr'ialcs ilrniiris. l.r r.rrlitlrr'ioD tle los sintrrrs.,-lc ks suets <Lrr.:cluron (lcntr() (lc Irs rrolrlt s,rrlL ir1,..s rr lu rcfirrlu<ititr (lel I920. l)r()l)lrotticlr rrrc nlrc.e la ol.r tI Nl Nlcirr. rrrrrrrrrc su .()n(cl)ci(')n cn(l()!{rt'lis11l le lit'icrt srrltsiclillilt
rrrrs :rllli

si |)riltcil)it) tk'ltt,r-1,;t rL enttlo cs clciclt c(rr() ('xistcntc v gLlt lil (lisl)l1r( cnltr( \ /,r rr<xltr<r'ir-rrr clt'l Psitirisrtto. irllcnlii n(l( )sc r-,.< lrezt lo ( (ld igrtek's tlctrrtcr()s Ltl(lLte ) t o sc sigltn .tll lur l,rt k ipit /t,/ 7r/c c,r'rlctcntrir c()n sign() c(rrtmri(). c)l()t(('s rnl)ars iirttrlts lrltjo llts cttltks sc ot'gltrize cl pen sarnricnl() l)si(rxl tcntltln rttc st'r <'r'1Lr:Lclrts crt ('rl(l sLricl(). r iinclosc llts lrlti cr.rlltcioncs l krs rr-cck rrrrirrios. lrcutl st o,.ttl-r clc clcs;trt-ollltt c\lcrtsltlltentc trnlr rlc ks >olrs. cl rlcl yrt itrr'irio ,-lcl rlltr'ct. \' solo <'ttLtrr< io cl tltlo. (1)t I() (ltLtl lrlr'iri unrr Ince lr rrrlrrntlizLt itt,.'tltlrt'intcntlr tcspttiltr l 1tr'cgr.trrles clcl til)(): c()nr() cstl-r irrs(r-rl() cl tlisl')Lrrcr'. r'itrll,. s son les t rct'tcis lttlttl-t(L\ I).t\rt'_ nalcs tttc l() s()sli(]ncn. co|ro sc I)ltslr rlc sts rt Lrs lltrrtltsias pr'1icllltlcs (itlc crr clrdlr sr.rjrto rtvisl,.'n ls p<.'srtclilllts. les lrtnltsilts rlc pcrser'tt< it-rn. los lcttttr tcs h iPo( oncl'err rs. l()s s(nti licrt()s (le irnl)()tcn(i. tlc irttl>osilrilrtllttl. tlc inrt(

J5. Iln ('sr('.1'rrtLrlo. irili'rilrrLicntLJrr(rnc (lc L,\ r(lir!r,,( (L('l.rrL.Lrt rlr rlt's11'rrclet:c dc K.rn. r:\ liL i,)st)irir(i(,r rk'esrt Lr rlLrc l)resiilr su ()1n.r yir (tLr('Lir .r1('g(irr (lc i(, r.rrl. (iclii(l()
L

orno kr rnrrrsilrli

. :L l:r (trLc sc .r(r

c(l!r ix \;1, ) tr

\ r

rrr.rr(rrriirl(:1. no rLtctlc Ltlricrtt.r' 'rnU

r,,trr,

I lar

AVAN(.llS l:N PSr(.rrf Iilt^PA PS( r)AfiAt.1 t(,^

rlt.'r'rrrcil-rn'/ \iir,elenrrs al tclru de las creencias l'r'rittlices en cl clrrttrIr sol>rc lrr rtlrlirniclr. l< nr r'rrstituitk., _r'la tlesctivlrciin clel inconscientc pelr. cle dl()rrcnl(), [()s lenus <lel ntasrxrrisrn<t ]'(le Ltn lltlls:tll;i clel clcscct n<ls lrn het'lr< rvrrnzr en el lp()rte c1e prr.relus.l nlrestr.r tesis s()l)rs l.r c<npleji<lecl clel

CAPTULO

III

ir).(rscients y tle las firc-rzas (lre l() nrrcvcn. ls crlxt tara cntcnrlcl cl psi (ltistt() cn l.lrr() ()rlniztci(')rt rxrrlul;r cn (lUc (listiDt()s si\tcnLs l()tivi\'i()rt:rlcs sc r'ltn rti(ulirn(l(). sufi-ienckr tlLDsti )fluilciotlcs en el pr()ce() clc lticrtlcir-tr.

LO REPRIMIEO, LO NO CONSTITUIDO Y I-4. DESACTIVACIN SECTORIAL DEL INCONSCIENTE INTERVENCIONES TERAPUTICAS DIFERENCIADAS

!ln estc (alpitul() ()s pl'()p(r]cIl()s cxl]rinxr illpLlns ctcsti()nes (lLre pLlerlln scnil tic lirnrl:rnr,- r-kr tarnlr) J)irir ult;t tcra (lc ll cLrrlt rr)lrro par:t rlelinrit.rI r. ul-rics s(m ls llriltil)lcs tiln(i(x1cs ([rc cl tcftlpcuta clclrc d <u trlil, p|c ralanclo ltsi cl leffcr() part tl <aptLIkr sifluiertc cn el (lLe intenlxrem()s rr()sll-rr (luc cl trlrtllnricn) unrrlilirrr r' rL'is allli rlc liI)litlrsc a ser uoir !D)I)li( i(ir (le lrr concicnci y rLte tlclrt lert(lcr, pr;r str c(r)crcntc (r)n lil tcsis clc <1uc cl in<rrnscicnte es dctrnninlntc. Lrn uro(liflcl(i(ir-r <le 'stc. A fin cle cntcn<lcr kr (luc slr(e(lc ('n ci trxt:lnricn). cn (lLre l() interno cicl p-l(irnt( s.: cr)(-uentr con kr ir'lerno (lcl leirptutll, rn (lLr (l( Ls c(tctcisticl lr Y ritir tu(les dr cst( cnccnlto cl ptrx eso sc trrl|li en<:tt'tillLt hnci.t ttn nrtrlifl<'ci<it'l clr la petologa o llltr'i un itccntL1tci(in rle l Ilistlta, (rtltrtrarent()s I)(r-rc vislr el papcl (lLlc (l(scnrpca llr reelitletl extrrn cn la gncsis (lc l pat()logi:1. Si el tntlr))icrll{) e5. (,lr I()s li'rt))inr)s (l( Ilulinl. "ur 'ltcv() (rrttitnr(). r'i co l Ir;rv,,J']cogrcsis, (lilciclrnllr. S., 19i()), ent()n(cs cl estucli() (lt l:ts <nr-li ci(n1cs (lLre interlicnen rn l1r (r)nstitucianr clel rsitluisrno. espccialnrcnrc el intcriregr) inl( rn(/r:xl!-r'n(). pl-()\'rc clc rt nrtclek cic r,'alor it-ltpretiltblc para ror-lcr oricntlr[nos s<ll< l;rs tircrzs rlLrc io<itlen f)r qttc sc pr((l: rccstrLctLlr.lf sn Ia t(lxlli. En lo rtrc sigr.re. cl le<t<-,r rlclct':i tener c( )ntin ulutlcn(e prc scrtc la fcllrcian cnlrc el tcraP('utu v cl prcicnte c(r1'1() tel(in clc fonclc cle los clesltrrollos (lrc \'arYilr()s lreticnr.lo sollc Ilr relr'ior (ntre cl nin(),v cl rttecli<r (luc c()ntril)tyc:r c()nstitLrirk) l)s(luicrrlrentc. p.:l ir l1cien(l() Ixs trilsl( i()ncs c()rrcsp()n(lirntes (lut pcmlitxn dili'[tnci1rr. rarafiescanclo x \,innic(xt, .ll .ter:prLltx sLll( icntcnrrr'rtc l)ucnrr (lel (lu('Iruc(lc llrger lt sct lcr'.lpe\t.l (leciclicllrnrr'ntc r:rk>. No >ortr<'(r'clrD()s (lLre cn lir l('r'piar sc re(itpilrl( L inllncia. tenia,nd()sr ec'ccso gtL<ias il [l rcgresi(in Lna rc\iviscenci:t cle krs lrrnlct,rs cst:l(li()s e\t)hrti\'os clt lu nlcnte. o rlLre c-l pecitnte cn psicoxnlilisis sca el nio cn \'ncul() ((r-l figtrrrs .larenl:tlcs represc)tcl() 1tl)(n'il p()r el itDirlista. \rr, n()r(luc I:rs ((nt(lici()ncs qLre cslLr(tL(iln cl r:irrtis o ticl slrj.tl), s()l)rc t<rckr Ia inflLrcncin clel (fr() cxtcrn() pttlsional lrlc(ti\'() y cliscr.usivo. qtte estlrvi(r, rn prescrtes en lrr ir-lilurcia. \'uclvcn .l estirk) cn rl l)fessntc (le l terxpia, d lill

ltttlo qtrc L\t d t-i|c,tt -t' to Ix)t er)c citit tl<'l ptrsudo. I.ln llr olr|l fictrriianu cl <rntlicto intri)sqlrico rs

l.ilLls! esencirl dt

Iir

lts

AvAN(lllS li\\ PSI(iol'lit.1PIA PSICOAAI-'l l(:A

rN'l

llRvljN(:loNlls rl]RAPtlf icr\s I)l':RliN(llADAS

I 1()

lrr!.luslilr ) h rlrtoLoga. lll llroclckr estlrlecc unlr cl:r[r sc( Llenci]i ciefio till() <l,. tl,-sr.rrs ilfr'tsi\()s- cnfriln rD eontltcliccirt (()n ()tras raprc -sexLlallr: ! s( rllir( i()rt('s tite toclitican es()s clesc()s corrro ina<eptables. Jo qlrc gencre anltusli. (l(ltrnrirlnclo qrre el clcsetr selr rcPlilrli(l() t'<r.rc tlcsclr (l in(()n5(icn-

t('

r-cirl)irrezc clcfiru'naclo. conclensaclo con

la dqfns1r, irajo la lirrma

cle

sintirrlrs Scr tlificil clcjar'(lc ver lil rclr\'.rn(i (le estc nr,clcl< \'sL

(,n()r-nte

)rxltr r'tr"t cDten(lL-r l()s !lllt()s (llic I c]r-riclr nos prcscnl:t. l.1l (tcsti)o rgsi(lc r'r r'lltr krs orgencs (le l()s elcnrcnk)s (iuc a()nstilr\'rn l()s l)xfes (n ,'n,''i ( i()n (l(,1 (()olli() ilttrps(lir'() t. s,rlt torkr. r'rtinlL it-rritlc ll rcrlidrl estrlrlr v <Llint< les prrrias ptorlttccioncs clel psi<ttisnro nlais lllli (lc lo ruc se .lf)(ntir (l('s(lc el cxt(,ri()r. II.r51 ll'191. IicLl(l <ltrlru tr-<lit< tr trruelLr r1r.rr sus )lr (iL-lrlcs l)istri(ls lc jnfirnr;ilio - <1rrc lrel])ilrIr sirlo olrjer clr sg<lLrttr,r l),,r
)rrle (l(,Lrnx figura signif)c.ttir:r-. A pitir (lc (js( l])()lIcnlo. cl rcllr r-efcl.iLLr rr turt realiclrl trtnllizllnte cs l)Lrcsl() cn lrla tk'iricro, llcgirnck I'rcrrl l:l c(r)\'ic(i()n clc qut- sirs lltr'icntcs se lrLlk)rngiutaut. Ilrlicrtn cl rectcrk int Pttls.rdrrs ltor stts cltscos. l,tr flrrlrrsl.r inr.i)rr:r.ir..nlc (,r)tr.r (.)t(rn((.s cn l. 1!,()Iil.
lirrtl:rsilr
t1r.rc

parcceli:r t('neI rnir gcsis pft)pirr

(s

rr:is lt<llrlttla <lt'tsl:r tonr'<'ririn (n(la)gcn <L l:r f_lrttrlts: lrlrio llr [>csiir (lc] rnstirtt() cl ta'llin() (lre rrsa ltr:r r'nclaverlo cn kr l)i()l()gi(\) r jnnllto- cs tlct -s,.,cs ir'. cle.rlgrr ltlrsoltrttrrnenlt inlcrn(), sc.tlcncr:ln llln l:r\iis (ltrc cn(rrLrrtflt) rtt;is o ttcrtos iri)())1) cr't l rclirl:td. ll lll qLc (lrlinliln. 'l irrl( ) cl (lese() corno la prrhil>icion sLugililn cle algo intclior al srirk) As, cl r;r.lisrtlr tlcl sLrl)ct\1) rs c(siderilrlr) lrrr' Klcirt crnlto origire(kr rn llr rroyrilt ;rgrr'sivirlrtcl del sujcl(), rLrc tcsultlr scI cr rnsectrenc'itt. il su \'rz. (l(l instilrl(). I)ts<lt rstrr pcrspcctivl, Kl<in es Iicl r Lln:r (l( l:rs lirr'lrs c\ist(nt(s (r-l Irrtttl eslrcck e lrt rcelitllrtl: stlr (lcscnrlx' ttn plt.lt1 sc<uncllrri() (rrl -csl)(11() irl ((ili(I() \ x llr .rngustiil LncrL tr.re rcflejrr cl irnItcr qLe tu\'() cn l..lr'i t'l tr:rlrejr> tllas oll ?l Prit(ipio (ld pld(ct (1r)20). I'cr() csc 1r':rlrrrjr clc lrrt ucl r'r irlcnr'ilt, en sr recLr'ti(-t lllisnl:r, sLs rsr'illrcirnes respe(t() l pxl)cl
Lr rrl)rcsertttlntc

l ])rlir

(le la

pLrlsi<-I-r. ,\1.

Klcin

rk ir

0n(),lr(rr l() c\lrflIo. L 1thlit'itjtt. stt()tt! _) duNt(slr ( 1()2(r) clilelctr,. i.t sD Irl ,rllllll:tt.l o(',lr(-)1icil ), ilnBListill rc.tlisilr >r'orltrc itllt r())t() ( r)ns( -lrngrrslilr rr( ll(r.r (l( ill]r r'('irlidrL(l ll1]l(rzltlc l:.t1 |il )\)'1,/ tlLtll()2)) enLtn(ilr l cor r ,.le cllre <,1 yo rlclt li<li.tr <rrrt cl t,lirr rr, u rrl.r I r tle< ir. los <lcseo. -es (. rrrr,rrls,,. . r'rrn (l srrpeqrr \'('()n l r('lid.r(I. () serr, cl yo (lel)('cnfrent:[ a Ir rrrlr'rr,,. r'l r,lLr. rr.r'o. tlll)ilt. .l Io txlerro. llnl,r*rs r.D l.r Lllt.siit c()nl() ccilci(),1 csraillll!,nic enrltigcntt ,,/i//s tcarlir.l.trl r.rlr'r.r r r.rx,l tlt'l ()tl() (1)Dl() (l(tcanlinltnte s(nr. il par!_tif (le esc nr(r
. r r rr
r

cxpe[itncilts (lt lils r]cLlr()sis triturliiti(lls (lc farrrr1l gtriltl)ln l re-Ls fI rirrrr-. Pcxr con<ltrt,e (()n cl r'na(l]l)[ilri(nl() (lc llr Jrrrlsi<irr (lc ll)Lrcfi(,. irlu() irl)sr)lLrlilnlentc ilteIn(). Vltir'r.,cs y r)t:rlizltL'i()nrs en cl inttri()r (lc (]se tf lr,rr rtrt sc' r'r'rtocltrcen etl l()(l()\ l()i cs(rit()s (l(' l,r't'ttcl <lc'llt <l<cllr <[ l<s \r'int(. :rr irlgur)()s nrr)ll)cntr)s. sc intlinlr pol io intcrno ) (()nstitrci()ltirl: c
lr' rr;ts

.xltr'n ), l() iltlr:rl_l()

(ir)liur)z

l)rtir (l(

sitLt:r'irres ltitr)):ttic;rs

c\-

'

l crtllrtniclarl [Icnk), ].s lincas qlte polelizatl'ttl, c(l r()(11)s lls rr'licalisttt<s esinlrltpsqtic() c()ntli'to l fltntsilt \'(lel clc 1r.ia,,".,Ai,ia,, t.,rs'rltrticllrios lil rcll_ qlc ptlc(le clcsc()n()eer' sc n() r'alic['z ctlt'l grintell c(nll() llrgLltlrentos. jl,i".i"..i"nlp..l',rrpteclrr ctcscle ttn ctligt> intern(r' (lLrc Ir cxteLn. !tir't Ptri,.,,,.,',,,, qtre lc ()l(g trr) cic,t() sigrrificautl'utlt.-]-l:lll,.:' , ;";.;;,ir:, "1g,, cxtcrn:t n() t()(i()s l()s sLitt()s expcfilncntn Ix lllisltl'l rcrt' l:r lttisn)lt rocli<.itil (lcl pLrlsi<lnel 1 <lt lrr .i,,rr. ,,,," n lt;r) cstr'lr! ptr() in(ltl)cn(lictllt .eslil([(r (ft,lf']x(l ll l() inlsl-n() priolitlacl r,,nt,rsi,r cle..l. ltis cLrlcs etlqtricre r.elot. lisra (()ndLli(). Llnx delcl ). ) n [itiC( ill)li(.ll(t.l lll tl:tt.tllli(I1f() P:ii(.( ,.,1,. t., el nals solxc ".,..n.,. tlxllsti'ricio clcl ,,ri,-r,,.t,, a,rra.p.l,-r,r .le ,lstc, I(.) intero() 'rrjeto' tr"t:ulicnti clcl cl<ltrsr <lttennina ' sirrl,,, f i,, tiiu".iia xrrlrltic. cs l<t tttc Iil ltlnslefetlcii )'tcs Scll )) ccci( llls lx( ck,'cl lnali.t, st-rlo rtna plrtltltlllt l)itl t'l nrlsll cnci Si ,f,,.',f,,,1,, t:ni,, lt ls rect irttlcs tlcl l-rlrlitt' rt sll c( )ntllltr (lcl (rl(lriellk) l() (lttc t\()lLl.'i(in lll ll('lltr"ll' (l Lln listlt se Ir:lttllicrl( l)()si(i(-) icnt'- qtl( PLlgnrt I)( slsLlrgc cn a'sle. ('slx[11 i.llliJ(lo p()l-lllg() ill(('m() ticl >rtt lr()c(s() st:ntcill1( itl li,.j;,1u" tct'tninrt suclttlitrtkr si ll<' sc k: rrlrsl<tlizlt (lLle'igtlc trt't () .l.lr,,n,,ll,, lririkrgico clc crelcltticr (ngrinisnl() !cgctrLI inilllxl clcttrlllillil(l() i( olcntt g('ll('l ('\1)lLrci()ll lll.llcll(l l)( \lrr l)r()l{llLlll;t illttrn() _ llt lcll_ i,n ,ut" >,rsicii,rl rllLtt '.lilc.lltc "'tt't'rt:1111 Irs tLte tilsiricl-'rn llt cs cle slo Io ()tr() lllisica llt cLlsll c(ltll() lirlrl t xtcri<'rr ra1:rr.'re,rt,,.l,t l)()l' c1 (lq kts gntsis cLe l''r sirl(' in((,,rs(ittllt t,.L;r,';:;i,:,,l ,l.l'rri,1,.,1r,,,', i Li iarrtrrsirr (lLlt (le llngllstixs l:ts (lc sIls sticl() -ra,rfrla,rr"a,1"a,,, " a',,,,,,,t,1", al '()nlli(1()s (r)ttl() ()r1:Llizlt(i(-)11 l)xt()l(-)gi(:l lliau,ral,,n,,ran sLr scl-. ((,rrsi(lcrn(l() ('l (ittli(tcr ltltLl Il)l izllnl(' l"erc]r tcllliclatl (l rlc ttlt illlpllcl() xltc rlcli'nsir,lt. tcltctioll1. (1971) son (19(r5)r'K<'ltrrt zi (l9J2x. l()J2l)). llirlinl ( 1951, l96t{) Winrri(1lt ()l)itl() l)() (ltle si cl i,r. u,f ,rrirr,,, tttris clcsllcrtclrs rlt tslr gtrtltr' lilillt scrllrl'r lln lr;isice' (lc(cnlrinlr t'1 'flla .i';.,;i", ,,,r las nccesi<Lt<les (lcl nir)' cllr) (le tr'lttl<lrrikr st'trtiuritnf(t tttl Lllrrll)i(), si st' :tclitrtlt il s!ls Il('( esi(l(l('s 1rt-ltltttc <r'tl cs nil(tltxl l-irncstltt. ,u. 1rl.,",1" sc[ (,)s(tvlt(l() srikr t()n cliflcLlltti tlitrlo trlljeto tlel 0r()\(x1L sint()ll1:ls t.l.,".., l"'tiuir,"(i(in -l l:tltlt r'lc <tt<:tit s()stict)e t(lLri\rtlcrrlt Algo (lJlrlinl I')' lg()ti lig' i,,l.f,,r,,t i ,try irltcns()s' cl l:t<ilit lrttctlo tl ntctu('tllc fl'i( t's crntlt Winnic(ft: "fll nt,.'cli< .llll)icnl(, cic sc i(litl)la c\lc!nrr isi(lll (lLlt l stlcccllt cslr I)r()\ prtxrso tltclurlttir'(). I):lil (ltlc stl'gcn ,,,r,, ,n",r"a,, e xlrcll)11(latlllentc sLliil ll las (l)rl)iantcs ncccsirlacles ("llll (si{lir(lcs 'lll srttil atlltlirltitltl n('{ ,, f,,,ri..l.l l)r()(ts{) (lc rtlrtdtlr'(ill (lLlc cvr\ IrLlirr l)(n lril nt.r.,-r1,,'pLleclc scl l)f()\'isl'l p()l-Lll'l Pcrs()nll Y Llll;t ((tn (l!ri() [)c(l()s (r() tctrq'.1 ()trlts Prc()(Lll)ll(r{tlts' ) (l(l('('st'i(lcntilic:t(lll \:rlisfitllis' ol('n() (lc rllodrr tlLlv l.rs ttr'. csirllclcs (lr stc sean sclli(l:ls ) (\r('rtlr"lr(' l" (l('l r'i"rl rl)'lx lii)' A'ltrt 'tl'li .lr','rrtttl l)r,/ (\;r lr.llrrr.rl\crItrrlrlllrrl'll)t)r]rl't'll:t af..,,,r, ia" lirrtcirill tlc 's( )sti'n- { lrr r /l / l! ) l'r ' ltre t[Lt llLrerlo' (rlig 21)' clrc sr.tficicntclllct-lte l)Llcll.t' 1 cl ":tnrtliste sLllicicntcl llclltc ) Wi,rr;.,rtt rtfirnlrt:.ctllr' 7'elzcl clijo t]t) \ll scll)iniri\) rr'itntt: I:r!tl(i Pl-ill)tr( cl') s('xLlales tlxtlllls tcnirL lllllrn llertti'tic:ts (lLlc t()(lals l!s Ptfs()llils l)ctls(-)
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rr,.'nt< rlc ks crri<lrrtl<s pr,ri,rs rl. llr ,rrrkxrrrsc,.lr..i,r,l. ;rj-;,; .,,t a,sre. rnc_ rlilrnle lo <r.re (lelx)ruinl ,nl(,nsiljcs r.rtignlititrrs,, rrna scxrrtlitlttcl (lLlc nl lli ()tl() sl)en crtc se estt't l:rr.oclr.rcietrtkr. l.ls lr clrc dcn()llin .t(\)ri (lc litun() se rhr<t i<in gt,nettljzetla" ,',

l^t,Pl-rtr,.ltr tl')'1-.,1()9ll)J, p,)r sL [)xfte. en el flno r.elal<.:r<l< tl.al)al() (lLc Ltr t.r n tct-l p\l!1 ,lr,gi.l h.crrlilnlt. en srt rel()rn(),srltre, l.tetcl, lllucstr.r l!s (()ns(,(Lrct)ciils (llc tLt\'() el lrltand<nr p()r pirtc rlc stc clc la tcr. cle lt seritttion: llt rec.rcl:t en cl cnckrgcrtrrrtr,, cf< Lrrt.l l-.Lrl\r,.,n .Lrc rrr.r.lescle el sLrjc to lttt ia cl extei()I.. sin vet.sc el pltcl <ltre t,l otr.o clesetrpea cn la crtsritt ( i(')n rnist))x clc lo pLrlsionel. l.il dcserr.olkr cluc sfc,ctirl cn ,i?,zrrs7in1(lunt(,nlos /\uit Lllnt(tntjtLtlt \/\,.U\rrr.r ( lrtlr)l(,lt.t tlc l:r stthrr.t.i<jr nO cn"cl itcl <lc l t'r.r (l(l .ll)u*, ).r*,\(r,, \ir,, cr c1 rlena tlc <rirna cl clrrlt<. lltrr'esrcr() r)(n. lrr Icplesirin. clesc<n<>crck-clc <rre sc clirigc scxrralntt,nre l nirj< cn cl llx)

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r.lriln c()I() pr())tipi(\) cs cl cs() (le Lrn Pal(ientc nLcstr() <[r,tt cicsclc Ftqrte,, Lrn c()l()r (le PiL'l ! ttnr ct.rIuc r,isto por su p(lre c()m() intlecuatlo -tena (lue c()nsi(lcro inrlicios clc inlclioritlrrti-. Cttrrnck> llegri a l aclolesccnci, Irrr c'l pu<lre clcti<liri trrc no rlcl>:t cstu(iirl ptes.nttnc:t llcrrrtra ir na(i, \'(lLre l() l]rcjol. scria (luc c()nsigujer.r ur-t tlllltj() (le p()rtcr() cn lx .l(lninish rlci(in Ptil)licll l)ues. P( l< tenos. cs() lc ilsegll_fiit Lrn ingrcs() estlLl)lc v tln Pr()lue!irrn rrrc cl lrijo strrr irrDosihlt (le pr()\'tcrsc p()l s D)isnn). I-:t rlc>resii,n cr,rnit.r rrrc desaroll() cste l).rcientc, \ (lLc le (y,n(lLlj():t luscar'cl tlalan)ien). no erlt cl resultrk (lc srr x.r'rsivicl(l \' :lt(lLlc\ el objer ni tle une renuncia por cr.tl rr r.lc lus lxrsilrilirlircles (lue Iir viclu Ic otlct sin() la (r)ltsecLren(i:r (ls lcn(r (r)nt() l)lsc \ lLrn(l.llu(-nt() clc slr icleoliclll<l el sctrtirsc tttl sct inicrirlr. l)entr() (lr est liuca dc PcnserDicnto. ktlts los c.ts()s en (lLt ha lLIIli<l< t:tllas clt los 1'llttlres cn c'srcculltliLri tlellcit l)inulriod( nurcisizlr< ir-n -por zrrr rrl lrijo lt ('()nr() \'uli()s(),:l rl >ol iclcrtt ilicacii) (lcl stel() r'rln >erlrcs clesr:tk'izckrs- scrun cntcnclickrs ('()lll() lr\ft)nr()s ror cllieit. Es tl crLso tle ttn:L
<lrsticrr inlcrn() cn rtta(lfc s()llela c()r-tvirli(') 1r sLr ltii;r tn cl lcstin]()ni() <le su <lcslt<rtr' I)csclc srt nxcirlri(nt() llt l) cicntr sc cri(l en la Ir:rlritrrcir-rn cle scn icro, no rutlicnclo pratcti( rt)entc s.tlir (le clli l)il11l n() r))()lcslrrr ir llr firntili cn (rr\': cs lrt trrltclre tntltaillt;t. ((,rttP-tr,rt1t[,s<,trn krs hijos 'lt.gitirros-. olrselr':rn<kr los cLrrurlt:trios ]'rcgll(,\ ![r( (\ t()s rc(il)n. cl rlcgio ltl rlucillttt.et( fll sentirnicnt() tlc inli' i< r'icllltl. tle ilc gitirrricllrcl crit lrt nrirtl clt l ruclrc lrejo la <urtl lrt triG-. lrsc tle
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li(i()n,cnlrc'llr ltsirrrutologe qrrc es cl Irrocluclo cle tletcnsas t(.ti\,(llls p(n. t l (rrlliclr> rnxl)si(lLi(.() r' ;r<r.rclltr ctic rlcrit.a <lc inl cletcncirtn en cl rk,strl1llo. cot] h c()nsiguicnle tccnic (lili,t.cntc (lc t,itttuicn) par.r carlu untr cle (strs l)1tt()l()gas (Sftkrrru l,aclillutn, lgtil), 5). Iicli la r>lrra <le Gccl< 1. llg. ( l()49. 9lil. 1913j. lt)9J) esl:i cletlir.;rrllr rt Lrr.rrr l>srrrecllr tle esPrciiir r[i, lilx) (l(' intcrvenci()ncs s(r l.ls a>ropiuclrrs ltara le ctrrr:r tlel clcs:Lrrollo er,,rlr lr\ , ' ( tl 'lLtL Lst lill]( i(,ntn(1., rl -ra1.a,rt" cn r.:tcla nrtrrt,nlo. \.iL sett pl)r(lltr se lr.r rtrtrl.rri,, (l(l(ni(l(, (,r) , r(, .1 ({.rl). i, f),)r,l( lr.,'ri-nLl,, , ./ r , , I rn,l (lu rrlr,'l r ll,.r'r,'l .t.l'r( un.l ti.Hti,\t,rn I rt cj(ntpkr tuc krs eukrrcs rLrc lraltlan (lc trilst()rn() tor tlf)cit <rrnstclr
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I)si(.()anilliti(.1t tlt'los ltitos ltos se Ita lrr'r.llo ftrr.Lt.ntL.rltrtrrrin:U.!()lll(r.l;..Lst()l-r-r()s p(). rl,.,llt'it",,.triskr-nr)s r.r clctt,r.rci.n t,n el rlt.s:r.1-rlI. rr tlifi,r.r,nttls l).lt()l(Ults (lur s()n itttil)Li(lxs tr la fll.t clt,l rlcrlio c.ircrncl:rntt t,l I)r()\ec_:(l sUjr,k).lrLL._ ll() rrre su crrlucirtr cn clrrla ctaptr rctr.rir:r.e (Cctkr. lggll KillingDxr, I9l3r).

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h I-)-r otr:rs pe;logls (iert.rs Iirlrirs. Irixrconclres. nranoirts. etc. frlnsisi(in I)(r-plrrtc tlc Irts fi.r3ulas srgrillclrli\'s. clesclt llt nris lcr)rr-lnJ ll)irrn<i. rlc Llnlr irlrlgcn (lel slri(t() colrr rllril, en pcligro, y tlel rtrunclo cotlt<r illcnalzxntr. rnLln(l() flrnte al ,:r[tl clclre estlrr siemplc er] gLrtf(lia, crc:l un srnliDlicnt() llisiur clt lgLsrii (lur cclosira l)lrjrr sintortlits (lLlc li(ncn .r sl.r c()lll() su cic. lil suick) sc ll:t r'onstitttrclr con un <l1l,.it ('n cl scntiLuien) (le stguricllrrl brisiclr lrrr lrrll clel lrnrbient<'rn pr()\'ea'rstl(). Scnti]rient() (lc scgL ricl:rcl bl-rsii: < clc crrfllrnz I)iisi(il (S1rD(llcl. l98r) (lue li('nc (lLrr vcr ('(n'r l()s o(lc()s ll:is rrrtirntkrs clt I:r rernrrlitlecl \'(ltr('((rt(li(i()rti llt erttt'r'gtnti:r clc l.r. Lrnt,.r.t. rlu( 1,, t).lrli(ul.lril.rn Las ligrtles signiflclltivils -rttc<lcn, >or lartt(). hitl)tr I:tlluclo. ctltltr-ttrrrr sr.t su (irusir. cIl iP(nTlrr.rl srrjctrr llrs trrtlir'ioncs (lrrri l)crr)lilen clcs:t'r'oll liltrr'rorrcs cscn<iles pe|lt cl firrrr i<rnanricrtr clcl ltsitluis[Ir l)ert ctt:t1tlo no: rc-

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l)ii rln(ir-))s (D el i)(1\il)licntlt rL Ios trut,r.t,. (ll(,(r)l()(l!:t el (la,fj(.it ottto cjt' tlc srt con<cptiin ltsicrtato[rtic:r y tcr:tl)(Ltti(. r.Lrtlts :rl lcntlr (l( 1. :lut()Lstilllil (l(e crx l (lLte (strl)ll rn jtrego r'n krs clos cjenrtlos <uc cor.r sigDir)5. l.:l ilul()estiltlll cs lrlg() c()nstrtil.s(.(.n cl nin() llisicernentc ltot le
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It |irrros rr lir)( i(lcs tlel psicluistno sc 1-roclra pens;tr ([e sc tetl cle Is clc le lrsirrrkrgit r'l.isir'lr ,, clc tirnciones \'()i(.als talles (.or))() r)te,I()[ia. pcl.Lcp(i(rn. (rn)lr()l (l( llr Drotilirlecl. etc. En rcali(l1l(1. la relercncir cs;r clrpeciclacles nrr-r ( lr() rr:is (r)tr]l)]ciils ((),)l(), p(r-cjernpkr. ltr r.egrrllrctrilt tk, l trtocstinta. clt I .nr'rr'tl:rl, o lrr r'Plrcjtllrrl cis klerar.r stu. r) li r.ilrlitlrl rlt.l rlcscoiN

rtrir.r't rrli,rrar

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ni c()nx) inflnit() 'n st r)lagnilrcl ni ctc l(). \,quc peririt. rluy \( inscril)a en lr nuls profirnclo tlel rsiruismo el sentinrient() (le (lre el sLrfri lricnt() pLrc(le ser (l()[rinacl() v tcrDrin] en alfln r))(nnent(). Ahora l)ien. r(F es l() qur lc pltsa e ltn ni() (luc p()r I)crtLrrl).l('i(in (lc i()s p(lrcs rs s())dj!l() il l: c\periencix reilerlr(li (lc (lc sL lllltlcstitr crecc ) n() tcninJ cn Llt Ltp s() ({Lrc sci tolctllc'l Crlnclo cl nrirlcst l)crsistc P()r'(lLc l()s I)a(lrcs n() silrcn r'rnro tr'11rt(luilizr'l() (), f)ror, s()n los <rrc lo I)r()t()(1lrt, cLllrn(k) cl nin() llolir ]'en \:ez clc ser (lrlnlir(lrJ l()s ()lr()\ signili(:rtiv()s rer((i()nlln (rrl sLr I)r() l)iil ilngusli () (()n ira \'\'iol.'n(iil, cnt()n(('\ (lu es kr tue (lLc(lli in5Lt() un sLr psi(luisnroT I;r txptri('n( ilr tlc <1uc la ungusti n() ticne inrites cn sLl lll.rll nitu(l o en su dLr.rcin ),, solrle krclo. (ft( utpliCat t!n.t sitt! ak)tt lrlg*)i.r Pu'dcs\ol.tr ld dlt:usld. lu iru. kt hrrla dtlobjab e.r/cr,o. Fls k) (lLrc enc(mtLLIIt()s eo xqlrell()s px(icr-ltcs (llrc sc lltgusliltn lLntc lir tngusli pu!, su l)r'cscn( i1 rs cilPtlt(lx (()rlt() (lLte se[i:rln-Lrnr:l(l(n-lt y (lLe n() tcnrlrit fin, rt qtrc temcn Lrn (Tisis (lc 1lnlLsti1r rn ll (llr, (r)n la lgomti)l)ia (\)nsiglicntc, l)ues irnginn rr 1()s p()sil)lcs lestig()s (l( llrs nrisns conr() (riic()s. no srlir'itos ni (lispLrest()s x yll(lxr sin() (1),))() ligLrs te lls cLrtl(s sicntcn vcrgiiEr)z-l ,
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1.,) rlu( L'D l)rinler lUuir clclrc pr()\e(,f el ()l)ielr) (,\tcr-t().rl nio es cl lrp:r, , irrr.rrttiL tIto rle,l lnllt,slrr rsi<rrltiolrlgiL.o. inclrt\() inl(,s rlrr., l Irrllcrnlilirr ll.ll( r\r\f.l t(nr(, t(.lc\':l(1(i.1. l.l ninrr no lrrrc<k..r(}| sr ri\nt() nistrti:ftrtcl. llr (r,i rl'rr, r.r frtrlsirrrlrl ni (lllllllt las angrrsli:ts clt srr: tint:rsits.ltcrroriZntes. ui cl rl,,l,,r ,lrr':olrlt.rit,nr.cn sLr (.1(,rp() c()ll() (r)ns(.(.u(.ncilr rlc tlivers:ts t.rrrrrrsLllri,.rs 'l i{.r\(,(lu( (\iitil Llt ()l)ict() e\l(,l.l1() (lLlc 1lP.l(ig(i(. <lrrc tlisrintrllt el Ilr,rl(,,t,U l)sr(,rl)i()la)gi(1). (lur lrege vivil rxl)rri(n(i.ls (,n (lLlc cl lDlllcstr n()

r'rxlificrit cle nr,rc[r r)().rn]lu\t,.lD Ic lir (iliLlJ(l intcrnlr v (-xlcrnir.lllnt() llr firnli ill ((tx) l()s it(1)nrrcirl)icr)r,r\ lI.l\ (r)ti((i.rn(,s. Asi. r,rI tjcrttlirr. <rt:trrrk (rn ni() (lc)r r(j:tli,/: Linx trrcil cs(()l.t' ) li(nt el sentinlicrtt() tk <qr.rt tl ti('nrlx) n() lc lrlcenzar. si sc crt('Lrerttril (()n l!{uicn (lue lc tnsrilt .lrutno. P<rngrinrn()s i lla(erl(,. o "}rr tc li:rgr cl tli l)Lj() r)Iirntits tti hccs tlrl rtrsrt-. r "l lr:rr'enros jrrntos,, ().ltil(-es l)rirrr(r() (s(). t(nlls lir rilel-icn(l1t ]'lLrcg() ltlt(('s ('s) ()lr(r,. csJs inlc cnci(rtcs c[l .r.lLrlkr lt pcrnliten ir ()rllllnizn(l() rn l)crsl)rcti\'ir solrrc kr lrlelr'elrlc cle Io r'xigi<kr l)c!1);(lu su(c(le si sc t:nclrcntr:l rntc l)(lres (lrc sr ll('nrn <le ansicclrrrl r cli ccrl ,\'1rh()riL viencs )'rc L tlir'es1". (). cn un nivcl nlLlclt() nl:-ts g(netirl _v (lq( isi\'() (lue estos eiclrll)l()s (le la .)r'tuea c()li(li?ni(la(1. si ('uirn(l() ticnc (lrc cn carr t()(lirs las yi('isilrdes clcl litlirr sus llce r( a nl ient()s er'(-)li(()s rl {)l)ict() incestu()s(). su agr('sivi(l1rd crr cl rir'.rl . cn (slrs c()n(li(i()nrs Ial il(1ilu(l (lL, l()s p.(lres cs (lr ()(li(). (le titti:. rle ltnrrr lrtc l scxullli(l(l cn el.lulliriir, ;cs )t Ir-cr.i<-rn clel ni() frcntc r sus clrsrrs uD l)t[() pl()(lt('t() (le srr psirrrisrro o clt rcrtclt tle- la respLtest,t clel olrjrtrr c\lcrn().r'ttc krs ntjsnros. ck'l;t lrr[-llrclr o int()l(.rr(il ntc l() rllrL' c clclrrlrrll (,n su r)lrn(l() (rljr)r'irtrrl' lil l_ililo rrr> t,s ni (n1r vi(isitr(l intclrtrt ert srr lltlrresis (llk:i<lrrrrr. 197611)nit:urll)()(()cnsLrc() (lifi(xci(-)n n1cn:rz1rnte, kr <rrc sc (()nlJ)r-u(l) p()KlLre (Lrxn(l() t'l rrctlio rxtcr'
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39

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IN I IJI{VIJNCION]JS'II:RAPIiUI'I(]AS

DII:IJI{IJNCIADAS

125

sco. Si cl ohicto clcl clcsco caccir>na cr>n rler'cr y resPtest.r 1lg1sc1 -1 lcrJlrzu ni sol)rccr-()tiza-. el nir lt k)ca. l() acxricia con placcr l picarcla c()nrrli(c. A sLr vez. si (l (r)jck) rirul contenrple la esccn (()n )lerxocilr cl nin{) sient( cl rhcer nlrcisistlt clc Pecr.rcos tlittnfirs s<lrre tl livul ctlipico, lo (prc lurx)rtigL cl suiirricnto cle llr glan clclrl clc sulrt'r que 'st( \e lieva l lrrtc clel ler->n cn la replrfiici(in cle f:nt-s. " Iil (r)ict() c\tem() prrecle apac'igtter la angr,tstia clc clLrtslt intcrnu r) ( \tern. llLrnlentlttlll r. inclus<. ser rl (lLlr. llr ptl)trxlr. l-lr iltlt tle s,lti)t'.1 l)iiI(1tI.il rnlc ('l cstu(l() em()ci(r-lal clel nir k misrrro l)l11 lx llrltlr cle enrlrlia clel tc -r.lr]c [rpcLtar c()] r(spe({o l sLl pacientc - clejlr lilrr:rckr irl sljcl() a c-\igcn('r.ls tlll()rionales qre le sol:lrepas:Ln. Si l:r f:tllrt crnl)rit(l tlcne lr.tgltr en los rtroclr:s (\1s(i(Llti\'()s (le la caxrcitllttl dt 1()lrriu y cr>nltollr In lllgilsli. gsti r'lt>lrcitllrcl (l( ,ir Lrto:rpacigurnr ient{ ). l)() llega lr organizrrr-sc. Ilirn (1959) (lrstrr.(-) ll inr rlc,l nio. cLnrl<lles u sk,s Lln significaclo. lrr'i['ncklos rensebles. cs clccir sillri>r liz-ahlcs p('I ]r)crrte (lcl riro. Esli funcirin "r'rrIincnte, clt'l; nrecic. rrrc Ilion ( l9i9) (len(nnin(i ,c cr(, Lln pr()ccs() en. -cnsLcri()-. Posilrilitu rot lo lren<rs. cl()s ticml)()s: l nraclre sc kktttific:tt con lo <luc el ni,, rxpelirr(ntir y se'lo tlcvtclr,'e trilnsfi)nr(k) cn irlg() (lLrc l len(r illl()ril un significlr rIr lo sta tlci rstuck, ruc lllnrr-r tcr()r'sir n()!l)l)re, (lli(r), l9(r2). (lrccrros (Jrr'({)n ell() Iri()n (llt (Lenta de cslld()s Dtcnr;lcs en <ur la lnsietl;Lrl no tie n(' rri rn ()l)et() ni un:r rtlriclcirin clisccr:ilrles l)1llil cl suirlo. p(n i() (lre n() x.r'nrile ningunu clefi'nsr. Ansiccllr<[ i'tfirrrrrlrrrlr crre rs l:r ('ril)ta(i(-)n (i('ur l( nsi()r) rllcttirl rlesotg:rrriz:t nIe. l)cntr() (le Iln llllu_(1) (r)nccptrlll rrlu\'(iii'rcnte. p()r I() (lLrc 1 r-s g,1in-r r:rlrlc, cl conceJ:rto de.s)stn, I l:nlclitt,Q (le \'innic(ttt. lrlrrclc taltbrcn -r Lnu lirn<ion <iue cr.rnrple c[ ()l)jct() extern()] l rlc cllnlrr tankr cl suiiilli( n) fsic() tonro cl psicLritr> (\\innj(r)tt, 1960).') I-lplilcl)r trul)jn (lestl(i lu inrp(r' tiu)(r.l dcl objcto cxlernrr pilrx ( ()ntr'rln-cstaI la anguslilr clesorganizltnte: "A l)rrrlir (lc ell(). cl pr()l)leml cle l lonrlcl. <lel rtporrr. clel btlitt4. (lcl lpego. rr) lt((uer(lc ('l l((1(n (tu(, 1( )rtrfos solnrt.rckr trrL,!{,Iinull1rcDr ug:t rrnu rl,lr['lt,rrur.r rrrrrrrl:trloInclc.tnr)(,(lrlinlrr(irirl (tu( ()s (stiu( e\pli( lncnrt reiiri('n(1(). Ir(, (l ()tr(). (tI( riLs|r(l('ir Iir rtlx.r(nr (l(l irnxli5lx (1)n \r pr(i(n( l()s el(r()s(tLrc p()tcn l()s if()s (lt\in.Lr l,N(t,i \iIrr)\(l(s( l)i(rr(l(). llrr e\( t)ilrrrn,.rr pirniiulrr. l:r\ ((\(\u(rk'irs trlo (lrl!('rrtcs I).r.r ( l tr r, ('rr(( (1( .r (l .tn.Lli\1rl(, r,L.(nr.rl.rrn,rlx\r(!\1!r(tir\!lrrrt.t:jir.(irrr\t)r(.ifrll\lii(jir(1.(() ( 1r1,, .rr,l. .r\ r, n ) r.rnstrr( r.r r)tgxri\ ir ir jrw,l\ ef (). yr r el corrtrrr|ir,. l.r. rr)scrvir ( ( n1 Irxn(tjlj '
l)(n1:rn(ia (lc

ella nio.:t r,irc con ibilo c[ x(erciu'rien) rrl <lie

\ll (lLl( c()ustitllve el li)n(l() qLlc Pennipta sillll)lenlcltL'dcscslttlcltllllotc '' (l-apln v te L-stc truLlnlllisrll() nt) sct la clifePe. con castellan())' cdici(rn eo 1J2 cr.r l che. 1981, prig. 127r piig. qtle lllenci()n(i()s tltores !trltes lts Par len(i imp(xtilnte resPe(t() LrLpll-1g]re ( l9S-) el-tlaLrrttl Iicne por h sexttrtlida<l q\re ('n ftn.rlli dc et.tcrgrt pur:t. no liglttlrt. itttplanta el ()tro.-ll ('l sliel()Ir() (lel)e ser lelllif{eutcrlcl'll!'tllitird().
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si('lPre el clcsclr sul\'ltcente call't vez (lue lx'rsl)c(tivx ')Llsclll-1in lo rlrte llatlt Fretcl cn l()00. ct L'l itlt(rIis xntc llL xngrlsli. se enclcnlrcn pl,ttL lrii (' l )s slt('/ir). ( ) cLiin(l() cx:ttninltl.)lt cl r'aso cle St ltt cllct. cn qLl( 'ltrilrti. srr sr.'ntj:trient()s Prrs..rtlt()rj()s lt stls clesct lttlltrscxttles' Sin clrl)ilr go. S<lrrelrer litro r.tn prclrt rue le llltc:t ltlglttla dc llts t()slls qttc tlespns l' r:a llr Protltrctiviclatl tlc stts l'antrtsi:ts. l)r()\'cctlll)ll. <lespllzltbe l si,tll.lizella cle ,r(rrirles fir.llts. Si st ticllc cn (L('ntll l() (ltrc cn l ltctLr:rliclacl sc s1t6e s(')rc c) ltclrc rcltl r.lt Stllclret no se .>tterie tlgs,.tlotcr e) .>lt>el tlctisiro tllte cl-t su rrIrgilt lrlvi(11)l] lxs l()fitlls !l (ltle s()nleli(-) e str hiio CttlLnrlo S<lttclrcr tclt tuntrtss pctrcctlt()li:t 1 <tte tlr.tc hrtll tttr I)irls petscgrticltlt. ('sl:ll)11 reu(i1ll1(l() en slr tltlirio. (list( )rsi( )n(llL nrenlc. I)ir llrn( )ic luenle. cicll;l l-cllli(l1l(l irislirtica. lttrn<tre eilo r lilet'lt t()(l() ll) (luc gcntrir srt cnli'tlnecltl' l)cro le siltr<-irn t's tr)cllve Itt:is cotrllir':ttllt cttancl> el stict() li(n.j qLl< (list(si()nltI le rclllcscntltc ir-ltt clcl ttlljcr llgfes()r v vcrl< ullt l.lticno plrtcue cs cl nicr ol)i({o (lLrc :roscc. Sllcngolcl ( 19791 (lcstcll <t't<'. al ser el peclrc rr llr n]lrclrt ctrc ill)Lts:t ). lltiillIttll lisiclr yro lsi,. olrtgicl't]f ltt irl lr)islll() ri('l))P() l: Iigrrllt a Ia tuc cl nino citle v<lrer cn l)Llscll (lc ltlivi< cacllt vcz (lrrc cxf(rinienta lLngu.sti:r..cnk)nc(s cl nit ricnt (lLlc r(nllPel (1)n i() (ltlt cl lta experirrt'ntclo r <lelre. Ptrl ttcccsicllt<l .lcsesperacl:t. (llptxr ltl P[()gelrit<tr -deli r(!lLatttk- (()t() lr(r('no. Sirltr llt ltrrltgetl nlental clt- r.ttl Jlrocttillrr lluentr intensiclltd clel tetlor l'1 ra1rl'clc a,vttcler rtl nio t'nfreniar l! xtcrr()rizilllte

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i,i,r ctre lcsttlt,t,r cle lrts errericncilts tle ser rttt r'ntcntlt(l( ) " ' C(1 l:r finllliclecl cle s<lrr'.'rivit. cs)s ni()s <lellcn lttllnttner en ltlgttrtl p.ll1c (le stt olcnlc la iclelL r.lclilltlc clc l)il(ltcs l)Llc'rr)s Y lll l)r(l)csll tl:litltltc clri tttc torllr cl tclr.l tk lor 1 rxliri se Irxnstilll.Lrr'l cl-l l)l()r. l,a nc'cesitleti tlesesllerach clc;tli'rrlrse a l,r [)]'ot1t(,sal (lt xtclres lrttenos v alnl()f()s() es lll fitente clc llt uray<lr lcti\tenci'i :r los.sticrzo. rlel leritPelttlt cle <lcslucr:r llt trlnr iccin tltlirante" tpiiu' 539' cu[si\:L c]el itl(-). Alrcl-{i Sltengolcl: '.\l1is tr(1.. cs)s ni()s' en trDi c(nnpLtll:r c()n si(-)l.r rt l fcPcticin. se tlir.igcn lt ()tIll gente (ltq s(l toltLlfll(l()fe-s.()n (pg (lte rrnratk>s' 5'i2)' s scritn t51l \'ez ellos tinr.r experitlir. tlelilantc cle

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f)etenHli|rxxr()s cn ()tra frrnci(-)n ciei 1-rsicluisnro t.rn centr'.rl cortto lu que s()stiene el cleseo. P:tra F'rcucl, corlr el (lesr() sLlrgl cle [e prrlsirn ----elcr))cnt() limtr(fe entre l() fisic() v lo psquico- cle las zoms er(igenas. para extcntlelse clesrlc alli lus nr.is cliversrrs activiclades humrnas. el cicseo estalr tse

Ilr relxci(-)n el tittrrnricnr. Bxlint o96i) alcrtlr r.citcr.acl.re nre :r(.er(.x (l(, lrerle scr.ilrtrognjco. r.ulrattttetizlulclo l pr.icrtle (lLc t()) crrltal;ilizlntcs (lcl :n.llist y les IIL<c sr.yu..r :r tr.:t,,is cle l inlr(r\(.(ci(-)n y lar i(lcrliz:tci( )ri <lcl ltnlilist.t, >,.res, .s,,., on ks llte<.nislos clc ilt'ltnsa nt:is c()lltnnlentc rrscks en trral<rrier l)itr.eiil en (luc Lln nticllll)r() o>rrnrirkr. cllil. tiene <rre licliar con ()u.() (luc cs:rl:lnlt:Ltlort.:nte p()der( sr . rrig. 107). Agrcganrlr>, "A<rri solo l.trrscir scl-lrrllrr tuc le pccrrlilr.r.lcsigtlrlrLtcl cntr-c un xnalli\til tltriz:is l* asallackrr., srgur. rle si. <Lrc kt sllc t<rcI., Lrsr,r rlo s lgngLlalic ( intcfptct.lci(rtes tn lrlrsolLt rrsistenr.ilt l. Ltn l)ilr.l(ntl. ( t\'il nic clet'r'irin rcsirlc rntrc atrcnclgt cl lcngr.Ltjc- lti)1u.ct-ll(,ltr(,ntr ..1()c(). rlt'l rrnalise () ll)lrn(l()narr sas rrcsecs (rc i\t(ril, intlitlr ctrt cr t*rr>rt: lrnerticrr Jr.r .rlclnzlrkr cl :irc tle Itr l':rll: lrlisi<lr" {f):il.l. lOr-) ( iclt()s Pxci(ntcs ilt lnre nl(. l()s (le estru(tLt..1 tllcltn(\ )li( _. (.Ll,lt-c,pc( n() <Lr Pt,<iben (lLte ei t[ltllnlicnt() l)r()sl.csa () (lue slts tcrl)erl;rs prcscntan l:l[s lcalcs. se iten-(r-izn no solo trtr rl <.onf]iir< trrc itnplic.uriu cl tr:tcr srr irrslrris,ir(('i(in ;r l:t ltz sin, l>r^rre crr. Its rlrrce scrtir (-lrrcnlcs (rc trne figtt'r l)r()l(,(1()rlr. l):trit r]Lltt(ncr la iclelt lizlrc i<in clcl ter.rl.rcr.rtlr ncccsit:rn Ir(,llsllr (luc l t,rncllrtta clc ste <lrclcc.c a rrz()ncs clc lrucnlr t(.ni(.r, quc e. i,lrell r,l l)i( l(.nt( el <rrc cst:r Iullanck. l.n cstc senti(l(), cs nrtaltlc \.er. criDxr krs paritlllts licntlen lt ncger l:rs litit<.i<ncs r la pato|rgitr cle sus tcr.rr>cLrtus. I)or. rfrir l):llt(,. si :ntc lil ngUstir (lrl peticrrtc. el trr.rPeLtl l.rcrrrr:rrrc<.r,fi.o. in_ sr. rrllc o ltlrilruyc, llt rcsronslrlrilitlltcl :r :r<Lrell jLtsto rn el motlrnto en trrc de_ scsx llrcltrrrcnlr-- sc lc picle.lyu(l. ilcl.1 rle Drenel:r siDlillrr.r Ltn()s ltaclres crre r'rrllclo c'l lrijo r trclve u crrsrr itcrick o hr:lillecl< cn lcz dc <.ui<l:rrlri le rccibcn r'r'ilir'lrcl.lr. llrcit<klc scntir'(l,e k s,ccrli<1. es lx, sL ctlpit. Cutrl. cn el fr,l:rlli(,,t() cl tclirl)eltar 1(.titat (lc cstl l)l.ncftl n() lien(,(,n cLcnfl (lLc. vcces ls rrrrlisrt'nselrlq,scletel el ticntp() en ctrc sc upa<.igrtr le angLrstilr cle acuel ( n (lu( sloricnlal sllieto l cxlnrint criI lrasirkrsLt prticil)1t( i(-)n cn l c ,l, rr.r r.rrsrrl (l( r(r)ntcci,riL-r)t()s intcrl)rs( )n:Llcs. ,.,,1,, icsLrlta.l,, Inl tcn.inl l,r,ulr, rlrtrl,r ;ln!rstii, \' rir. llt r.r.l-rj r(j )trtt-r s,D \.tl)u .'.tl cs .\( Dlrtir.i
r'r'rrlrrr cl nalista lrts :tljlt ioncs

grril(lo. l)()si(j(')n loclriu IlIis cli!l lx cle l\1. Klein. cn ([rjen cl rlescr> cr (ilsi e(lLli\iLlente lrl clcser aninLrl: clrtclo qr.re c\iste un ( ( )11( )ciD)ienk ) lnnJt() rnconscientc cle krs cilganos genitalcs srrrge lu xl)etenciil pol cl lglno <uc s:rtistrrl lrs s()licitaci()ncs (lue cl psi(luisl)l() ecilrc de las zonlrs clrigenes clcl pr()pi() sLrict() l,x llDtirsll inc()ns( icnte sc r'rtsiclerl (()r))() (r)rrelllt() (lc] instinl() \ (le llrs rlcrrr.rrt<irLs del (Llcrlx) lriok-rgico (Isil(s. 19t,u). l'istl enckrg(nciclacl r-lcl <leser se (n(uentr. s( )rl)r-enclcnlelllcnte, telrrl)ir) cn Llk)res (luc conx) \I''innic(ft () Kr)llrt hilce'n tnto ['nfirsis cn cl paPel <]uc llr :calirlacl ex tctnlr rlcsentpcri:t cn cl clcsrllo clel indivirluo. (Irn(l() \\'innic{)tt. en su tr.rl)xj()
-)r./r)/r/ril/

<ie ot,gutrizlrcir'>n

(lcl sujrt() sLlp()nc Lln .ver(l:r(tcl o .scf netr.rlirl, esrontrireo. (luc cs illx)rt(k) o clefirmltclo P()r Ln nlc(li() inaclccrlttl< ,!'f nattual cue rc sr.rltlt rccrnpllzlrck) p()r Lrnlr lortlrcitin rlcli rsive. cl .ilrlso sli (\*innic()tl. 1965). Su teoru (lr lir -regresi(-)n irl servici() rlel vo" r'eflcjrr csa conce>cir-:n: cl srliel(), (lc{()utt:L(k) rt (rt rtl()rrterll(r (i( su (lcsrr11()lk). <lelrc Iiiccr ttn: tcgrcsi n trrupa'trticll rttc lc rclrtritlt fcl()r)r.rr cl <les:t'lrllo intcrLlrrll)i(l() rlcsc[ <l rtrntcr c-n cuc la clcfintrcirin tuvo lrrg:Lr. p:u-lr rcc()lr-cr alxrnr Lrr c11lin() (lifi'rcotc rrrc le Ilcve a llctuirlizlrr Ll <uc cn l helrr ro pr()\'(rf() per():lx)rtir(l(). ,\lgr) c(lti\:rlcnte cn( ( 'r ('ll( )s cD lllrlint ( 19()S) con cl coner''rto <le "lrll. lr
sica".:rl

dcl ) t' lnttitts

dc, /Ltlr.rt.1' t

crdtttk'l1) s,r. llihla (lc (l()s tjl)os

'lirrlu I clnicr llos sclllll llt imp(r1lln(il tle las iclcrrs (lc Winrli(1)tt () clc ll:llint s()l)rc ll defirmaci<-n <luc srrfle el srr clcseuntq por le acci<-rn clcl rncrlir cn (luc sr clesarrolll. El concerto <lc,r'cglcsirin xl scr\,iLi() (lel ),r),sq revcil (.(xt() [)r(i('(litfrttcnt(] liP()rtltnc cn cl lrirt:tnigrt() tlc Pers<n]irllr)cs.:<'r'eraultcnrc trt\rn)lttiz:r(lals ) (listirtt.(s (lr-x(tef()l)artiars llrtr':tcllrs ror la olrscsi!i<1acl. la cs<lLrizoiclu, o ei bt<xueo llli'ctiv(). I'cr() l r'erclarl qLc e,r( icl-r'u11 css Irnrltt la r irncs rt() (lcl)cn cegatrn()s cn ntreslr() rcc()n()cintient() (le cLrc irupli can rln ll<> gratlr rlt c()nccl)ai()n Drtur-lrlisllt r()usscittnilrni: el l.)trr'r't slrlr'jc crre cs <lt'tirnrrlrtl<) p()r l() e\tcrn(). lLlg() pr()l)) (lcl sLict() ;tti'.t itr[usccdtlt.'nle l)tteto .t'g.u'urtzat(k) en su ()l'iljc,r l cxisten< ia. l-() cxtcrn() se liulit:rra lr ser un "nlcclio fu< ilituckr" y. si no currrple est frnr ir. qnl()nccs s()l)rcvicnc la patologa.
Llt c<'tccirci<-rn lrrr'ltnianl cle L :tlietat it-rr rllnicnc est: i(lc1l r()r.\.\c:lt njana: cl scr htrnritllr cs xlicnlrd() I)()r el ()tr(). cltstl?(l() I)()r cl lcnguic (lLc ic olrliga a transitar por Lrs.clcsfilarler-()s (lcl signifl(.rnte,. Crstrecin inr.rgin.rlr-r por cl pcso cle le ligtrl.ir clcl rtnrt castracir-r-l ('stru(t!n-lrl P<x el peso rlcl icnguje. Su concerr'ir-rr-r rlc la ori sc l)lLs! cn rtrt llt fitnciolt clcl rn;tlist cs Ia

<rrc

ya n()s lrenros Icicr'i<lo:tntcs.

r.l

1,.ll.r

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AVAN(:liS IiN PSI(_()l liltAPIA pStCOAN^l

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t\'f IilivliN(-loNlis'l

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l-lcAs oll:liR,iN(llAl)As

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(l( l)(Irnitir'(lLre el (lcsc() elleri. cit(Lrlc. sin ()l)trtnlt[o. Nrrtvamenle lo cxter,r().r)r))o ol)stcrkr. clirrrr. clistorsir-rn cle algo bteno rlUc cstart eD cl sLjetr) (rr() cxistcnte l (u:tnt() pr_()ces() (,n circLtlalci(-)n. inlrotaltle I ctncli<.in cie rltr('ir() sc lo pcrttrrl>c. N()tal)le c()ntl)inxciirn cle Rousseu l)relt(, ittct'n(l -l() rlc algo (s (lisk)rsi()nad() por h cultrrre y cle Hcr:iclit h persistcnci! in- " nr;urrntc a peslrr- clel f-luir inces?nte.

,\ll t\tr, t^ I Irll)r,t |, vt:l)o

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rt t\,k,

fls suficientc rrtc cl meclio rxtcrn() n() ()l)staculice.rlg() (lLtr est.l[.r lseguta<kr por !n pl()gr-rnrir intcrnr <lcl sLjrk) f:rcilirecltr- o se re-r))c(li(r 'qLc llp()rtc l() que <ttierr' tle elg<r (l!rc vrrvi r).ts lrlli Y st.tr ]11 tlt?(li() Plr)t.'atlt sit cll no existe? \' lrcrttos st:xll(l() (lLlc lat tLt()t:stilttil n() sc (.()nstrL\'c (l(s(le l(l(nlr'r), (lLtc el tr >ltr igrrr ruientr r cle lrr lrgrrslia r((luicrc (le:llg() r\IL,rn() qLle llr rrrttlttlc. \'elntrs rrlr<lt (lu cs l() (lLr(. sL(c(lc cor: l:r./)olclrirt tlcsc:tr-ttc. Sr sLele accptr (lue (icas fLlncirnes !ricus o rlcl suterlri ruccictl ser r['sr'rttreacllrs por el rfro. (lLre cicrl()s astcclos cle cstils stl)estI.tclLras nLn(.1 s( hln (leslrn()llil(l() () (lLre hitn:itLr <lclcgeclas (.n cl ()tr(). 'rrto exi.itc tlifi, Lrltlrrl rera llerr' lr lirnrk cst.r (\)nacl)(i(-)n solrrc llr r'r:lrtc'i<in cntrt. (l()s psi ,lrrisrrrrrs t'(,\tr(r l()(lls llrs tl,ttltrsirtcs rrrr.rlt clllr st rlerirn. Lr til y l,cl tlh'tlt))j) \'cn lit Lr)nli-[er](ia X\\l { lgJJl)) Frcutl r.lirr rrn yltso signiliculrrrr: .rr)(Jt('ltntu\() Ilr rnr'epci)l] tlc ttrt cl tr sr clcseroll lnr-un pt()(cs() (le rl.trlttttr'ion intcrlr. sin elll)1lrlj() c()l()('(i Ill i(lct)tifi(.ltci(-)n ctt< lttr.or rele\.lrll('cn slr (r)nstitu(i(jo. Itcienclo lo lnisnto cn clttr.i<rn l sLtpc.)() () sc:. cl (rl)l(1() (,\tct() ilttetr'icnc pasltnclrr tr tixntlt plirtc <lt l:r cstLtrctr.1r. n<r sollrllr(-lll( (( )r](lici( )nli ntk rle rot sus il((l()llcs siDo sien<lo ((nttl)()nct1te. Sin cnll:tlltl. n te pccl() lrl cllr :lalr-r!tlr L(r() (luc ltrct'lr ltlgo (lLte n() tr\ jcll t)i Ll( r)L'sis ni histriu: h:lre Lna titctl! rrriginlrria (lc (nerHi. Lln resen,r(, LlLte Irrtgo st'rcJ)afiira >r[a les nLrcvlrs crltLtctLtr.rs. l)cl.( si la pulsi(in cs (lilrcnte tlt l itrslinto. cst() lt() (lepen(lr (le (lLe l)lscm()s l)ll)liLr cle pulsitin crrrndo el instirtlo ruccl:L l)j:rdo e trn olrjelo o ru.rnrlo lt(i(luier Lln:l cierta retrcsent:rlti lirl:rrl, sino polttre r'l ()ft() llLllnll-l() lr<tir,:t v clcsr-olltt csttrckts ptrlsionttlcs <rre \ll1 srr l)1rfii(ii)-.r(j(')r1 L,slrltcl t tllL' D() r'xistctr e:'t el sLri,.t(). Al ruslx,(t(). l-trl.rDr lrr'( l()8-, 19()21)) ticnr el llt(,rit() clc ser cn psi.rxrlr;llisis cl (lue ltrt rcli)r

rlrulado lll rllet.tPsicol()g Ircrttli:ttr prx n(l(lil'en a'st el poclcr ctel tltro en l' cotlstttu{itt (lc lx Ptlsi(in en cl sc Ilrlll-lt El instint(, (1)tll() p(nt'r1('i()n'rlichcl recrricre (lrc tn otr() ItLtllno ltensfr.tl':tlll. l)()r llle(li() ds ll \ itllich(l (lcl (()nt:rct() c()rp()r11. cle llt clttici;L qLle er()genizx, alcl 111()vilnicnt() cie llrazlrs ctrc ill-l-st]:ln, <ie la rirada clue lt:lcc \,ivir )'crea cierl.ts enl()ci()nes. l lttcgrl. rlrerlirnte cl <liscrrstr ([tte e\()(al v reestrtlclLlfll l() it!-Itefi()r \' (ltrc ltrrb? '()tt ?)t t s/dsr) l.t t'utl(l.t, rl'd<t (lLre n() est cn el sll,ct() ntts (lcl erl(Llent() l-()s l)dres trJnsn)itcr) r'it'lirlr-1. rlc:crr 1t) ti)tic(!ttt(')tl('lu !(ttt(itictt sttt) l4.l)to' d th-l tl.|t\lt-- \'g(ncr.ltl ,rlg,,,ttt ltnttt l)r, Lxt\ll:1. Si s()o)()s c()nsccLrcntes (1)n esl tesis clc tttc I1l./lrlclairl clgsunte se c()lls titt)'e en i(lentifi(ilci(in c()n ltt (lcl ()tr(),v I)llj() stl iaflLcnci. (ltle el ser lrtllllrtno sr i(lentiiic (()n cl ()tr() ((rtll() //c/o (l?s.'It1la .\'cttc rccilt cl irttpacttl lil)i(linizlLnte tlcl otxr. se ve lii irllP()l-t.lncilt (l(l( le\ iste (lLle l :'tjct() lc prtetlan haltl ror'itrl<l cr1 stltr'tc [)al(ll(-s ('ntLlsillstJ: (lLl(:rc illll)licall en l(,cl(): \'ncLl()s. it(\)nt(](inrier)l()s. ectivitlrtrlcs tll)il c()l)li(li. tlnl slitllt ((nl il)lig()s, tln es (lel)()ni\ ( ). tln clisc tsitln. ll lt rtttre clel rcctlir rrI r rlrli\li( ( ). Ll] ltc(nll(( illlicl-lt( ) pclir-xlir, etc.-. !ls()s puclrcs \'rin (rcarl(lo tln rellli(lll(l atla(1iva prtc's hltn llp()fia(l() pxi.l l i(lcr'ttillcrcir-)ll LIn \'igori)s.t Iltncitin rlcsente (ltlc c:lte(1iz.t a csx rcali(lil(l Ahora. <ui' llusrl si 1l Lln() le l(x'Jr()n Pa(lli:s xl).ll-lll(l()s. (leslitaliz:rrkrs'/ lrr rstrLrctur'ci(in (l('l sLict() dcscilrl(( (stllr:-l en clfitit. lllstll lx ris:t. (lc l))l ()ll-() l)lrll \tl (le I)ilr ll (ril c\islcn ( n'grl llzi (l()r'cs llirrlt>gtt()s. I(1lticrc (lllL'(('lnlr.trt.r (1'nlPllrlcttr (r)tl)l) \ \llnrtllc sin() sltrr<ll< I t)() illliallnlcnt( (lrrts (ltle (lt('ricn llpilf{xn lx P()Y c<rxr nrrr.Lrlo i(lenliti(xt()ri(). llil\ lrllilixs

tcnciiiclcl tlc rcir lristlt ltacttla clcsepatct-cr. Fll ellt. rx n[(lt() i]i(irtl innt(). re(lLicre str tlcsarrtllltckl, sr.l tntr]li.l n() estli linlitrt(l rl lai (lLtc ttt\() cn sLls ()rgtnr5. stls [i)tl]l1ts <lt tttllllifestltcit-rn l't() csl.in I)r'( li nlnll(1ls y sillllcrttcrttt lttego sc <lcsllcgllrlln () sclillll r(Prinli-

clas. Irltr (nlrl)(lcfn()s, trD snril: el sLli(t() (lrvl Il)rts lllLlsLLllllI ('s I)r()(ltlct() clel hrl.l h tillittgl )()scc Lll)i nlrlsa v cnetgirl nltlsctlllLr (lLlt es igttltl rt le clcl tlc rrilscul()s es(Lrlili(l()r.i. sicn(l() :'irlll)lcl)ltote a'sle llgtlien (lLlc ticnc rcPrinlirla )' (()ntcni(lar esl ntase l cncrgilt o. tnlis lritn. stlls n() exislcn cn cstt stl,ct()7 Ha) un l)us() cn sul)()ner (lLlc l() (ltle n(f.tlll()s (\)llf ) llLlscnte en Lln l)1t( ientc cst,l,

ri ll.rr
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lnrir:r ll(,r:i(lir(

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cic qtre rrxllrs lus r.()sirs csti]n cn ((,rstxnr(, UU)

r\

cn rcxli-

rL t)('r\i\l( (i. c |r Lridtl lrxl (l(l( Il)k). l-h (sr(.crlillo. lir inthcr.r (l(,t1t, ,r, li.,..,lr(Llrll::rrrIcnr0e\lrLl(1rrllinr\\(,1)r{l.x(irrrc5iIlrlrrr.r,r(c\rc()n:ll(:r(nlr(, 1,rn,1.,, r,,rj ,L r l..r,.rn lrrLt cirl .()n((t)l,),.|1.(ii.I),, (irl du\r, l).r\.rn(1,) rn r rl:r, .r\lr).r sL1

, ) r,-t,,,r , ,rL tl:r ( ntrc l.r nfrcsi(ll(l vluLltrrrrrn.l,r.rc:p()rr,r,I() r)jnYxriirntcqUL,(t..r [)ixr ., r,,1 ,t t'r,-.' Ir.r(i(,rs\rl)t(ti\iL5(lcl (lcs(r) )i\ (lL.ir. LrnI Untdr(l lr,r.rcdentc (tu( Pcrsr\.r Dc

aunqu(. r(Prirri(l(). crt <l in<tlrtscisnle. l'll /rll l)ttil(ltt! <ltl tllo t'tclrticre cle rrtri s(' delicrrc )lt ltn;tlrrgt:l- l)cr() tl() (!)rl() ltlltt.tlt, tlcl glt))nllsi() n qo pxl Pl(li(ir'y clcsrtrr'oll:tr lo cxistentc sill() I)illil io(\nl)()mt tlcl otto la Jlrtl sir-n, la crlor it ltlicl:r cl, la ritrlitla<1. el I)lltcct (lc c()llleI el Pl(cr'(lc l.ls (lis tint:ls ti)r,r.ls tlc scxr.tlitllttl. lin ()tr()s li'rnrin()s. Plll' t(rl)ilr lg() (lLe t't.i un cl (fr() \' (luc tieoe (ltre acltlttilit cxistcncilt cn t l sr.titto ) (lcs:lrl()ll:lrsc. l,() (lLlc se Pt()(lLra( l)lisic1l ll)cntc I)()l (l()s Pl()(cs()s (lLlc PLle(lcll tlistitrgttir'st: lor ttlt l:rclo le i<lentit ic:rt i{-)n: Per(). at(lcrllli5. P()r l()s ('lc()s cstilll(tlilnt('s estaLl(tLtlllll cjctllplo. llt catcs (lu( cirtit\ rctivicl.rLlL-s tlcl rxrrr gctlelan cl) L-l stict() -p( ricia del ()ll() c(x-ttril)tt)'e (lL'Ill!llcl' (lecisi\ ll l crtlr el ('r()tist))(); igr.rel va)c pxrr lx nrir;rda catgltla tlc (l('se(t-. flsle cfi'(t() (lc l llcti\ i(lll(l clel rfro <1tte-

Iio

AVANCIJS ]JN PS(JO'I'IJI{APIA PSI(-OANA-I'I'ICA

IN'I'IJRVIiN(]IoNIJS'I-IJI{API]UTICAS DIIERljNCIADAS

tltllr) psicoenaltirrr. rlifi,rencia cic k insintirr :rniurI. cro <.entrr Irrrcitnl pulsional \' (lescntc, ticnc (lLe ser entcnclick crrnto algo <ue sc ( (rslrlr)(r en cl encLlentr() c()n Lln sc,- pulsionll, rlcscltnle. Al sr.rjer no se lc ( )lr( ( (' rinicxn)entc rn sLper)'(-). clicrrc tlc contencir-rn cle aguas plcns (lc cnergir. sirro llts aguas y le energa urisna. N{) es ste el htgr pnl clcsulrollar ls
tirrr.
rrr<xlilit:rci<nes e las <r.tc ten(lrnt()s (lLtg s()nteteI nuestrlrs c()ncep(i()n(s s(,

(l.r r( gislrir(lll cn cl sLrjet() n() sillplcnrentc c()l11() representacin recLcl(lo sin() \t'.rttr./ituai(in, es clccir, c(rn() (apacidaci (le p()ner cn tck), cle eiecut.lr un.l ( i( rlr x( livi(l1l(1. I,: iilcrr clc un cll() a!rt(')n()nt() reslrlra clc h persistenci.r cn l:L (r)ril ileu rlrrrr tlc l rrrnccpcirn tle un prat() psquico celrack srlrre s ntisll<. rle un rill('isisn) prilt]xt'i() sin prcsenci.l estt.t(tur?ntc clcl oto. La afirntacirin <le quc cl <lc st'r cs el deset clcl ()tr(), c()n lx c()nn(t1lci{-)n lcani:Lna (le qLc cl ()tr() r it rrc u nristificar y x licnxl Ln sricto (lcseante. no llrcc jlsticix.ll heclt() (le rLrc cl o/lrr inlcn'i(.'(l l.t cotlstl,ickiit .),('slntct t'atcin dd ser lesaattc. cn hr lintt iit dcse tlc. nuis /lri la lls tcttiiticts dcl lt'sct. l)escle estx prr.spc(-

lrh cl psirrrisrno si cn vez cle hablar (le -ste ((nln) ente (err.r(l() l(, pcr't{-i\r:nr()s (r trnlin()s cle intel..srl)ietivi(1.cl (DLnn. 199)l es clccir', tralrejsernos ,,,n un rrrlel< <lc. por kt llcn()s. (l()s psi(lLlisnr()s cn intcrclcpenclcncirr prrl
sr()rLrl 'r

jLricios cle \,.r1()r sin() cn su afL'ctivi(h(1. La irn.Lgen del analista clsic() nls xll.i rle cualqtrier maLnifest?ci(in clc entLsiasm(), r la clel analistt quc se restrinBe J l)()ner en plalrras el inc()nsciente repfilllick), c()rresp()nden .t esta conccpcia)n. Pcr() ,v si el pciente es a)guien (lue mils (lue blocuear los sentilrienk)s. que reprinrir un clese() existentr. ticnc rn da'licit en lL capxci(la(l (le entLlsiJsn).lrsc Y n() porcrre ello pr()cluzca culpl o persecuci<in, n() p()r c()nilict() entle un (lese() y le pxrltibici<in, sin() porque careciri cle figuras iclentific.rt, )n-l\ ) L\ cleptimiclos. clesvitrrlizackrs pllnl quirncs n1t(la er:l ctirrlantes -peclrrs pez cle rloclrrcir alcgrr'1 llxst.r en cst()s cs()s tlue el anltlistn scrle csto. que srr xllilrn clescril:r a<kc rraclu nrentc el cst(l() nrsntill ciel pacicntc? Acaso ruos de Ir:tlrlarlc ncutrltnrcntc. c()n orninrlr 1lf('tivi(lx(I.:t un p.tci(ntc f.lr.r (lrien csa r(titu(l (le krs padrcs lrt siclo lu (Lsa (lc su irtlt tle vitlitlti. nr teptoclrrce Ilr c<rclic i<-n (lrc sc (lcscll cxlt)l)i1lr'1 en lu clifi'trntr-t ,-rn hl iclel rlcl 1lnlisti xli'( tivxrlrentc oeufr() -insistimts tre nelrtraliclacl val()rtiv1l y tkultutlid1 Llli,clr zF- srlrgi(-) en I-'reucl anle pa(icnles (llr( crilrl r)lay( n-it:u jll rrente pcTsonalicllrclcs clc les <rrc hov sctr.r Irr.r(-

ti( c()nsi(lcflf cLt't't< htrdarlita. c()n Lrna e m()ci()nallidar(l tLuultu()sr. c()n intcns()s an)orcs Lr ()di()s cn ll tlanstcrencilL. l'lrr clkrs (liscn(-) una cstrutegiil

l).rr( (( (luc lrr clcn<ninucirin (lc Winni(()tt tle nrcdio _f i.tc'ilittttlrr-. (lLte (lL,strLcu r'l lrtr'lro clc rltrc kr cxtelno n() (lrl)c ()l)st:raLtlizer kr <;Lrt cslti conto r,,tcnti.r litlrrrl cn t,l srrjet<r. <lcbe scl (r )ll)lcntcntal(la crn l:r itlcl tlc tttetlio TtnleL,dor, rrrl sc lcf ioc a l:l lun( i(-)n cle aporte al srjct() p()r peme rle lo rxtctn() (lc .r,rr. ll,r,rrr'('\t(.n') I)u((l(. 1,,11, p,r \t nli\lr,).

(ir esk) (lLcrcrr{)s clejar sentetllr lil lil1litu.i(in (lrc vcllos cn t()(l1ls Lrs In)si(ir)ncs quc s()stienen llt iclert clc rn ser (lcscalnte lLItt( )gcncrai(l( ) (l!e \ i( r)( lr scf Jrcr-ttlflreclo l)()r el ()tr(). Ntrralisnx ingcr]u() (lc Lln sul)ucst() ell() (.lslrir(l() lx)r el ()tr() () lx)l-cl lcngrrujc \in r!.ncr t]n (Ltcnt-l (lLt c. cl ()tr() y ci I ru]rLrjt, los (lLlc c()ntril)Ltvcn para (lut esc cllo sc gcncrc. I)()[ est r.rz(ln n!)i

terrpa'Lti(u: les errsl<-r cn cl rlillin. lcs innovilizr-r c()rp()rxlnrentt. les l)iz() rcnsrrr sobLc suri srntjDlien)s. les corlrni<ri explicaciones inlclc(tLlllcsi cn slrnrl, Ics .cntii" (jrur )ci( )nlllrucnte. I-ll cf(t() estrlrctLlr.inte (le 1.rl m:lr1() ter-xri'u1ico solrrr- el psicrrismo (lcl l)acicntc. nr:is ullli cle los <rlenirlos srnr-tnti(()s ttansnriti(l()s por el enalista. lrlra scr pcltinentc l)lrrx l()s px(icntcs quc l)r'csrntllt l:ts t tltctcristiclts scrralaclas. En anrl)i{). plltu lxs crctc]-()plrts rlcsrrli'ttivizdlrs, Irlir l()s <ur- srikr pir:nsan tn vez clc psnsar'/sentir. Lrn ter'retrta fio. ccrclnxl. ctfllr-l(lil(l<; cn

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Si l: \'ilirli(ltL(l rlcl clcsco. sLl fiterzlr. cstti ilscgLllll(lu (lesclc (lentr(). si cl cx-

trrcrlc pctrrrlrar. enk)nces sc cnticnde (lue l()s p1.ti(lxri()s (le tl t x ir'rr l)icrscn (llle el ltxlistil clclre nrenttntmc ncLtl1) n() stik en sLrs

cl roi cit iclttLrrtsc() (lc la l)crs()oit screna nrs allii cle LLs crrcitncs, lo cuc harc cs lclizar l litrritllci(in (lel .rei(ntc Cl<rnclr.rsrn: el ttit el dc' fitttciondtnicult) t\ltocioltl (lcl dtlulsl.t la t1lt't1si rlkl .lclt,.t.t,d tpo d<, tttt<tL iot t<'s desltlt gctcltts- (lcb., csdr nto.lttl do lx'cl (bclit\) lat'.4)lti(o persc.qttk). lll 1lnlistx n() sc puc(le l)ennitir cl ser e[r(F ci()ntlnrcnte igr.rel crrn 1rtlos ls pilcicnlcs, cs clccir. tlejalsr lll'r'1tslfr' Dt( )n( )(\)r(lcrl)cnlc p()r sLl crtfa( trr( )l( )gia pttsonal o po[ la catat'ler'ologu Ptr,rz(l l)or la cscucllr rle reltcncncilr ccrc.r (lc cLr:il es la irlcnticlcl iclcal. (iarac lclok rgas individlrlcs r.tkrtrinltrilts, clc r'ol Jrlrfi'sionll rttt le Jlevrtn. rlt '1() p()(as ()casi()ocs. a rcfizlrr le petologa clcl racicntc. I'cnscrrlos cn tlos extrcll)()s: el lnelist vit1, lliperLftctiv(). exl)lr)si\'(). y cl analistx (listilnte. fr(). intele(tralizlr(l(). A su rcz ulritr.rcnt()s (l()s tip()s rle lacienlesr el llana(r),v el
cs(luizoi(lc con bloqrrc'o af(li\'(). I)enscmos xll()ra en les posilrlcs cortrbinu ci(ncs cntre csos lrnrlistas y cs()s p.lcientcs. AlgLrna cle les perejas fi-maclas

l.r lNr,,,l()1rrl (tel .rh:r inrcnlr(l() r(,(lclin lo5 disrinlos ( :rdrrs dcsdc [r p(lspr(riv:r (t(. ( I l)(rrlr() (lr tstu crnricl]tc. l()s tr.rlrirt()s (l(, st(r()r(^v I r r (r , I , I \ lrln Lle llr\lr irt lir)ritc el ' ,.rrrrIr,,,,rr,,,trL.rl t,]Lr Lr (lini('ir _! ll t(nifx d(l trrtlrnri( ()quc(l(fllrltl rr)(xiekrcle l inr(r
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ir\)lic.rrn pr.r el PiLcirnte Dr:is rlc k lDisrlx). iatr()geni. Fln c()nse( uEn( i.r. r'esrrlta inrrrescinclible l' finxlttltcitin tlclt .! dal lardpeu /ll scl{rin cl tilx) (le pa
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(r;r nrrl'i/ r.r:i()0.rl <lc este tip() perlrrit11 entcncler cacla uno dc sus sentr_ lli(.rrlrs llllr i.rlt: (l(,itrrp()tenci.rr fiente al !lnlisis. la sexrraliclacl. l()s cstl(li()s. t rrrrLrrrr'r' ir( ri\ (llr(l (rLrc iniciltsc. renunciancro nruchas veces antes cle enl '

n,, lt. Irr.r'lDitir' sopofiar cl clinta fio clel ILrgur. y cuanckr clerpL,, .1u,.,, .. <;rrcr:r rtivct.sitaria le tlista<ljtlrn con el lrguntent<t (le que sel.lil rrrrt rlilir'il rrrrr l I)e cstil nlaneIl1, llr rcprescntacicin clLte el fire ,,,nstrrttntlr rlt si nris:xr, clcsclc ei inicio cle sr r,icla. era l c.>lteicnte ilgujen iltl Jn)l( rrl( ,)ltit trtst-quir l,> riUe ptrlit.r:l (lcscr. ")r) tro pueck sinctizill)a st \( rtrrri(.nl( lrliri<rr <lc illp()ten(.Ix. Fil ltrxlcr gener.etix) que n()scc Ltnlr c_ern
11rrir rrr)tr

st, irltilriclr en et nl<trenkr ntismo clc sLl sulgintienk) no polqu( lrlya algo rttt.Jo roltlta. es clecir prlr conflictr. sin pirr la crnviccin .t" ,1,,a n,r .a lcnclr:i el pocler o los recrrs()s pers()nlles para llevarkt a ltrren fin. Comr ,.'jcnrpkr Dtencion:lreI()s el (.aso (le un pilcicnte que c(l)enz) sU anhlisis a (\xrsccLencia cle rrna fobi severa que Ic lrul>ia a<rrjlclo clescle ll inlnci. ya tlcsrlc las printerirs scsi<>nes expresri clrrclas rlc ctre le puclier:r lryrrrler prres cieta <rtt'ri l>jrn el lrnljsis IIrlta rlcrtr>strckr elictjYiclacl prr" ,r., g.,r,a q,," <onrx1. en ei ctrso cie i'f no seria as por<1rg se tratal)a rlt algrricn <rre ten_ tlr-rr glrn <lificultucl pra c()nt.L llc Jo cue le <r<urra y kr,1.,a 1r"r., 1rr ruclicra clecirle. L,l c()nlienz() cle crrcl:r scsir-n a,r,r.iit,,, "1r,i,r,..lr"i par.rr erl Lrn lercla tk lo srrplicio plrcs ie (l(nninal)a lx c()nvicci(in clc cuc ci nlttcrial <uc -lrcliera irl)()'tr scn' insuficiente. a pesar cle lo c.Ll1rl tcnrrinrlt relatltn(l() sLtcn()s v s_ l)c(1()s (le str vicla iniantil (lrtc I nt lllc plrccan c()s y csclarece(lL)res l-J hil)()l('sis (lue ltr firr: al coricnz,, rlcl rr.rttntiento frr.-,1tr.... lr.rlllta cloti tltrlo tor el ltic.ck lr (lu(: y() Dte rrt,lr\(,. cttr( (rt(rs r.l;()nc: p,r-lxs (ludas rltt( cn el li)n(l() tcn] lespecto lll ln:iliris\'it r)li. v(l!esU it(.liIu(l rle pr.csen_ l.1a\( r si iiiisnt() (r)tl() in(.a(prz erl I:t {pi(.al :i,.lI()dcsctlificllai(-)n rlelrnrlr.r plLr.t .rI)Iir(rtI ilI re(scguiclor. 1,parr ir-rs1:ri[e i.lstinlil l)cr() no perecirr <rrc ltlli resi (lrcrir l()(lx la cuestir-n. y ni siquier <1uc i,rcra Io nris irnportanre Halia un s(nli)li(ltt() cue ilrplegnalu t()(it su vi(l qrre sc ltallal,i en la lrirse cle srrs 1 l(,1)iils ))riltiples v lenuncis lrl cleseo: l s(,c(nsi(lctul).I dl)il. iDtl)()tcnle piti.x srrlx,rr cLlltlqrier ol.sil'icrrkr. Iil pacientc rc-<rtrcl<.r algrnas ana,cdot* telililres crr rLre cl sentiD)icut() (lue transntitix el ptrrlre cre.n()s()tr.()s n() p(xieDl()s,. c()n t lst'ntitkr agrcglttkr cle.criuro sc les ocrrrrc qle yarl-r()s lr pclcir crrseguir tal (r)s;r!". lx.nsr)tient()s qrc r.ar(.al)an Lo.t .recn(.i. blsic riel plr(L.e. t..nsl)iti_ tIt rlt lriJ n).ncil.\ rk,t.lLs, t. lus tr:is inrixrr.ruotes. si qtc n el p_ rllc ni t'l rcicnte -l(clt.ts tLrvieruln Ia )en()r a()n(.ien(i:l rie ello_. cle ijrre srlo krs r f|{)s. los ejenos :r lu itrnrilia, tcnian la r.lLt:rciclacl tle satisftce srrs cleseos. l,anr , lkrs lrr vicllr sol<l p<xha crnsistir en ,-esignurse y renlrnciitr. 'lilt]ll)()c() sc le clei<-r ir un cntpatllent() p(n-(luc su saltd supuestallncnte

(Il:lnrl() ('l sentillliento cle inpcxencia d<rnina al sujet(), ei (lesr() pue(le

l)rzir. Senlinlienl() (lc "\'() n() pueclo, qr:e, l ilniculxrse con cl (le "srv clbil,. rl:rlxr luglr a sus Dtltiples fobias: rlel>iclo su jDtpotenci:r y debilirllcl ctLrl<luier perscln:tjc c<rn el qr.re tuvieta el rrli'is nrinimo conflict(), o clritlquier as pecto cle la rcalidlci que del)ia encarur. temrinxl)L por ser sentid() c()11() avnslllaclor.'r Cuanck el sentimiento de iurotencia c(mr() creencil l)isica se rullicula con un cilcligt> f<-rbico. en qr-re lo central es la c()nsicieraci(in <te ios peligros clue ccncra el sujeto. el nliecl() clue toclo ello procluce estit clackr por la crlparacirn (lue el srjet() rexliza entre sus pr<4rilrs fuelzlrs y las rlemnclas rle i reliclacl exle(),'o c()n cl sLrpuesto p(>cler cle sus pcrscguiclores. Si el strict() siente qlre no )trctle l-ucer naclr, cnx](cs t()cl() lo exteior e i,l sc rDagnifice y lrcltlrriclc 1>or.lel ubnulacJor. La creenci:t "1rr nrr ptreckr...". \',t se.t qlrc ltLylr surgickr ccrttc <lefns I Pxrtir cle Llnx p(lhilrirr<in stlpcry()ic.r -lxL[a lLplucar al perscgui(t() e iulpe(lil ci castig()-, o ralu clisminrrir lu culplt xrr un .p<lcler hace'r, que sg 9,1uip.rr.r a "pocler clalr o lt vcncer al rival eclpico, o <1uc provenfa cle la iclentificacit-n rrrn pacltes (lle se sicntcn ilrlp()tentes. o cle la rsrnci<in clc llt lcprt.sentltioll rlrte inocttlan paclcs nalcisistlts (lLlc n() l()lcran n() ser ell()s l()s ll)ic)\ qLt( krkr kr 1>tteclen. r'rul<triera qLle sea lx conciicirin cle origen, una vez qrre llega est:lr c()nstitri(l (1nnr) nratriz en el incrrst'ientc, clcs<le all gcn<rrrr cacla tno de Irs senlin)ieDI()ri Ixrticrlirrcs rlc iDtpotcrci;r cue prrel>lan I.r ,.r'ltit.n ciil (lc cs)s l:tcientes. l'lerrcl c<nsiclcr<i (luc el sentinlicrlto dc inrrotenciar <les\'litl ien ) -l1il.fkigkail- er ]. lg() trn cci]t1.al en el clesittr<lkr clc krcla pcrsonrt (luc .r p.rr-tir <le clla sc p<xlrirr cxplicar la entcrgcncie <le las firmus prticul.rrcs (lc lx iln .iLstilr. "' Hxl)lan(l() cle h situaci<in cle pcliglo qre (lespierta la angrrstia scal
r5. lrtiliTilnr()\ l:r(\|r(\i(j cccn(ixsnrirtIi(r.pu.xnlltscr,l .tntul()rlarslr(f.rl l()(luegr1o tlrrt pnxlLre. \ ,rni]l)11(, rl (Irt Pos(( fn.ilB(l,r () scir (stru(Ir;r (lrr rr(ti.rnl( opcnr r nnr.'s de strs rlrrtntos lL,t,l:r tros elultt,:nt()\ l.J !r(,cn(|lr tnxlrir..(nl]r) r.nd,.t pritn(lll. I.n(:r Icr)r.rr i.7..r(r( L ' lino)r' (iL,l:rrrl.r.iir\ (J( !)!e()1 p()(lcr (ilr rl,\trrLrr,nr tutt!t) ttit)tsrR,tli.l <t)n).1)]sc'k,It!\ -L tr.rrc: <tc prrccsos tlc l).rh(ul.rIlzl(rarr cr trrc se .Lrrrrtrlx 1()n,,tr.r (r((n ci.rs nrxlri(cs- l'or or lirlf. no sc trrtrr rlc:tlgo ptrr'.u (ntc i(ltxtj\(). Lrnqcc:k,\(l \u.(nllponcnrc pri,r(ipxl ,, cl <rrc Ir otorgrr csp((itl(r(1.(1.:in,) c e:lrl(1UI1r5 (l( signrll(.1(l(,..rrglclirs
neru.

\iernprc.()n i(rrs( irtcc()s. +(r. lll 1nin() .d(s\ xlimicnn ) r()ncl qL(ren Lr c(li(n-)n (lr Annnr(n1u sc lrx tlx(lLr(i(k) lriro\rf[.r1tiur]c cl sienititrk) rlc dcs.nprro. c:rrtn de irvtrrll, dr s()(,(nII). Hn esrc scnri&) rcllcix.
rutlt,cuudarrentc.

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(\nrte}ir() (n (lrre liL,L(l usll cl rrDrin(): (l sucl,) \( siuntu.;r.erle (le r\1rdx. fi,D t()(k). rl lr nri,r() n() rc(r)flc \r)llrr( nrL ]rtcrltc ()tI1l (lirr(1r\n')n (]r! i\iv.r (n hs (lcsrrip.i(,ncs q 1(U(i xp()r1:l pr cjcnrplilr.rl el (ir(!pr() (l(,//trl./J,gl,(,it. lr) L\r.r(i() rntUx), dr i/)r|okrrl. [r vr\u)(jr (l( (tLre rrr si o:ro rl lir(trnr(' ', pr(rlc.irlir'(ir Ir c\i.tcn(ir (tu(, I;r l)ul\i(-)n lr rn)r)()rre (lcsllc rl rnrr, lr(n. I\n cl lrc(lx, (lc (tu( n(, pu(dr. de qu( i'l (\ irrrl(t(ntc. co)n.rs \e rcqrcr( (l(l olt(0 (r tem(), (Be si lxlt:r ,l(rr(r:r scgrnl(l() licnrp( cl \urrriori(ol() (lc drs\lLlirrlr!nl(,. (l(-(l(.s.uul)11), dc (urrn.i:r dc s(,.(!11) l)(n'rn(). si se rr(()rrrn 1r: clc rpkrs llcLrrliunrs r ks Lr( qrLc c:re hllce (lcl trrDin() LlillL)r1!ki! (le\'icnc ne.csrrio lrl(lLr.r1() r(nn() irp)rn(i d(sv:rlirrricnk) (vase, txnrl)ia'r1. Coslx Prrcir:r. 1992 ).

l!l()e1 scnrid()qrt1rlrlril\)\cl()s(li((()nitrk)sl)ilintlil(\\

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r'tiRvliNctoNEs l ERAPtiul-tcAs l)tlllRllN(il,\DAs

135

(la( lx)ne en nrarclta llts fltntaslts (lcstinlr(las 1l c()n[r-llrrrslarr](), lllnlllslls), a lrrs (re rlt rtrrri't .ilrrsirnes,, (lae n() s()o un sit,-rl<,trrrr clcl jrrici.. sin. el rcsrltacl<r tI L clcser (.V. tl.. v(r. XXI, pg. 3O), cn este c:rs rlcli,nsivo. Altta lrien. si sc (.()t)lpatr la int)ortancie rlrc el concc-pto d e t Iillkigkcit ,rsurrit cn l olrra ll.eucli:rnl. espe<.ialrentc :l fr.tir (lc lu ciclrcl tlc krs vcin_ t(. )() l)uc(le t))en()s que lllrlur l atenr.irin el p<r<l lteso (lre tirnc et lx (l .i(il I)si(r)anlticlr. Or'il p.ccle ser llr -zin cle cll.? Sir,plenrcrle (lcs(.ai(k) r. rlis lrit,n. cfectr cle rrnil (.()ncepci(in en (lLr sc cnfitiztr lo ()pucst(): un y()
vrsl() (()nl() p(xler()s()? Si t()lntl1os

habla cle.apreciacitin,. (le .estinlaci(in,. es clecir cle l() (llc cl suict() -l,r'cLrcl tvlrlu. no cle una conclicir-rn objctivrr cn lx irtp(fenci1. cn ci icsvrlintjcn_ l(), ((ntx) principio <ganizack llisicr clel psi<uisnro que cletcnninarli ltrs clis_ linlils_ f()[)l.rs te1)]i-lticls l>ajo las rLrc se puecle prescntlu I angLrstia. l)or ello li( r(l Ie atril)uye se nr srjk la cusa cle la angustia por le piclicla clt objct<r silrr <lcl anltelc clel paclre v clc llt creaci<-n rle les rcligioncs t.V. lil.. vt1. XXI. P:igs. 2i. 30), as c(rl() cle l nsieclcl srciel itl (f[()_ (luc (.()n(ht(.e -tent<r (()ll() precllts()l.x la c()nstituci(-xt (lel sentinlicnt() (le (.ulpl (.57. /t/.. \,(rl. XXI. I2i). (lc El senlitnicnft) irnp(fenci rig. c()nstitltye cl lolcle soltrc, el t.rel sc ()rigilrit l1r angLrstiil (le castra(.in (,S7. l:1.. lr1. XX. prigs. ijU lJg). <lLrclk

r)rlrterial en el caso clel peligrr) realista. y ps<uico en cl clel peligrr pulsional... (ltt'stt L'slilitctctt sea arrnect es indifrel e pqtu el rct tltak... llanretnos Itdlnt.ilicali\ Ln.t situci(')n (le (l(,svalituicnto vivcnciecla, (Frerrcl. 192(r, pl,rg. 155, l:ts lirrreras crrrsivas son ltas. les segtrnclas clel original). lr<.ti;nf(). ctl,cnctq

s( l)rcltunta: .CLrirl cs el ncleo. ll significativiclacl, cle la sitrraci<-rn cle peligro? llvi(l(,ulctnente. la apreciacin cle nuestras firezas en c()rnpuraci()n (.()n su .lirgnit.(1. lx x(h)risi(in cle nuestrr> clesvrlimienk frente a 1. clcs'llirrientr

l)ued()..., es metrlx)liza(lo (lentlo (le un c(iclig() nxrcisist qLle lo transft)rnta cn "si yo n() pue(Io... y() n() \'.ll!l(),,. Pero l peslr cle que el sentimient() dc p()

tencil esta'r estrcchlncnte ligaclo al narcisisnrc lc> rttuestta 1a alegra clel ni<r rnts (rd.l a(l(luisicia)n 1rx)triz () urental-. sin clnl)argo se trata de una articlrlaci<'n cle (los estructur-as psquiclls cliferentes. con lt cual retollll)los tlna cle las tesis centrules cle estc librr: l.t cslnrcturd mochtltu'clel psitttisl1l().J'l4 4r ticultckitl de cu?tpole tcs cala ttnt con su bistori4 fleikrultit'o p)-opt- As, un sujek), xnte Lrn p(xlcr cluc evala c()r() (lLc lo supere pucclc scnlir tried<> *es lo que vimos c(rn cl pxcicnte al <tte nos reterintts trtis:trila- o ltacer cl ccntr r:ie esa experiencie cn cl scntirlient() (le infetiriclacl. inclticllt la vergilenza cle cuc krs <lcm/rs se enteren cle srr inlcfirrir:lacl. lgttal sttcc-clc crrn el
sentimient() cle (nllnip()tenci tt tc pt ttcle tener c(nIx) clltctel prevalente para cl strjeto cl scr una prucblt clc stt sttpetiorichcl. tle que valc tnris ctte totlos los clcnhs. rut'elkr Jr con<rristar le clnriltci<'rn tlel testigo plivilegiaclo por tunk), rcjistr'() <lel nrcisismo-. () c()nstituir ln cltfensa ft-ente l la persecu cir-rn: .no hay natlic cltrc pttc<la hacettne elgn tipo clc <lao,. Aun < uancl< 1l fin de llx)strl' cl fcn<iment cle erticulcitin (lel sentit]rient() (lc inlp(fcnciil (()n las estlLlclrr.rs clcl natcisisDx, o con las anfaustixs fi) l)i( ir-persrcut( )l-is, ItaVrtnros lt(enttrx(l() los csos cn tlttc la c()tnl)inrLri!rn sc procltrr'e plcvalcnlerllentc a()n Lrnlls L ()tras, es flccLcnte qttc ttctttra sirttttlttlcatlllcnte crn lrnrb:rs- [ in casr Particrrlar'lltente intcresantc sc proc[tce cttan(l() cl scntimient() cle irlpotencilt (lrc sulge por el fracaso rcal o itnrtgtnuri,r en rrn lirea [cstringi(lll clt la :Lctiviclacl clel sujcto stfie la transtirtn-rcit,n sc (X). .. . no pr.teclo hltcct natla,-. Y ltteneralizacka l)L(lc hllccr tll c()sa -.Nr go cl .no pueclo lreccr nuri", vivirk s, c()n citrictcr l)s()lLt(). sc espacializu en el scr-ltirienk) "est()y 1rlrllpx(l(),. Est PaIti(ullrize< itin cle llt ilIP(fencia clc-penrlc. veccs. cle ciertls ( il-cu nstll ncias vivi(lxs. Asi. un ratiente, cacla ra (ltc fLcra l1 cifctrnstan( i:l c.Pce r\'(:z (lLre scntia .yr no rr.tcckr,, -cttlltlttiee\'()cal)a en st lltntc Lrn Irtntltsa pr'i_ liclt <rtc crrllrjt[l a cstx c()nvicci(-)n vilcgiada: ser sttficatk pot un petscgr.ticlot ltotleroso, l() (lte lesLrltltl).t, tntrc
()tr1rs r-1lz(rtes,

tlt'srk q,l 1111;gn2,) p(n.cl inslin) (lc nlLc,t(: lir clcfle,ri<nlr y. ltrego. rr.,ryccra solrlt,cl tcho tockr el por:ler <le una lgresivirlacl que pugnl por exterioriz:rrsr'. lil lx.lr(, kleinino es un pe<uer> slntLr:ti (luc pr,r1,..:ta. ciisrx.ia. tar.. sc tI licrrrlc. l-o nlis elejaclo ursiltle clc la irtragen cle inrpt,tencia a lu cue lrr //// .lh)s.qk?it clcscribc. Algo sjtnilr slrcedc para la psicoiogrr (lel y(): p(xler.()sos (l(s(.()s in(('stL(rs()s. n() Il)cit()s p(xlcf()s()s rlcscos llrstiles v tlccnisrnos rlt, rIli nslr rrte (()rI1() (enh-() 1k l !-,r7.(,r (rt.rn (1)ntinL.lllrnlc -cli\.()s L:(:rr, l)()r su l)lrtc. c()n su ltr-rrr:r le sLrltjctivirhcl y al ufeoo tro J:rocla teltro, (r) (Lrr (ill)i(l:t ill senti,li(,nl() ck,intp.tcnci:r,,rles\.lir.ient(), l I: \.i.,.(nL.i.r rl.c lircrrrl r'irlrlrr'fl bujo la clenoltinacin dc I Iillkipkcl. Se nccesital)a (lc lr .rillr(l( 7ir (l( llilrring (195.3) plrre <uc el c()ncel)k) clejasc cle scr unlt rnctl lllLr\, ,. .rl ,lr ),1( tl() inicil rlc l \,i(l y p.(licrx scr.r,rlJcark> prll c'(c-n(lcr t(xl1r
rrn,r J!,urlr

iV. Klein. pr.ejcrrrplo.

.l

yir, ,,,r,.,-r.,2.,.1,,

(le ltx)l))ent()s vivicks cn

r'clacirin crrn Ltn paclrc narcisist

(le iltrp()tencilr lt() s(il() cntefgc en l:r c<ncict_ i.r, r.rrtir rrl.rrizrrrkr r lrar.s cle tirltiplcs mictlos. sino (lLlt sc encrent(t cn l1l lrst rlt r i.rlrrs tk rr-r'si.ncs nalcisist.s, c()lllo e cr capttrkr dccric.:rck .r irs t|Jslo r()s tlt rr.r.sitrrs. En cstos cttsrs cs 'ilrx)s cl resrtltaclo clc clLtc el .1r, no
r

tlt li,rronenrs. lrl r. tinti(.nl() in(.()nscientc

(lre par.r (lcux)stf.rrlc srt fttcrz lc apretaba (()ntr st pccho. lrxlel'tnclole con lrrazos ctre el pa(ienlc rcctrcrdlt c<tx (lLle "ertn gn()rmes,. l;rs crccr-tcis solre la inrp(fcnci clcl sLtjel y st c()ntl-partidr, ls ct-ccn(is (nn4)()tentcs. ri()n l()s extrem()s clc trn clirensirin <ue tirtttta ttn ttas lirnck cle t<clrr lrt vicl i\cnt.tl. l,() qtta to(b sldo s( pkuttad a priitrcr lu!lo', .y dc t tuttr ittct)tlscialtle, .ulte ctukluiar.leseo rs si scr.i c.tp.tz da rculizdrlo o //r). I-1l respLcstlr lr este inter,-oganle. captl(la (lcntr() (le un ca)clig() n.trcisist.l () Lrn() pctse(Ll)ri(). k llcnr;i tn cl ttintr <aso clc jbilr c <lc tlokl narcisista y. en el segr.rnchr. (le trrr()l () <lc alir,'ir- Fll scntiltricnt() (lc iD)P()(cn( i. ),) n,) ptreckr... (X, lo rFre sca)" cs, cnt()nccs. unll cretncia mlr'iz rl)iertll 'J h parti ct!lurz.tcilt, a hs mil inraginnci()ncs I.lntlrsnr,lticxs (ltte vro clotanck cle es re'cifi< iclecl e le X.

1.1(r

AvAN(-tis l,N pst(:o'tliR^pA pstcoAN,\Lillc

INlliltVIiNC()NESltiR'\Pl-iU'l'l(-ASDtl:lrltLN('IADAS

131

ia)n (le xlgLn()s ritL1lles ()l)scsiv()s, (FLe n() son si|'tple ()culiat irjn e l:r con< iencia cle erlgo rec harck sino intentos clc crear un sentinliento cl< <lorttinio solrre L:t realiclacl. Es la ftrncin rlrre rleseutl-reltn ciert(),\ clesplaz1[llienl()s xl (lct.rlle en situtci()ncs (le angusti: ante U1 viaie en alvin, la t)rctir. Lrk rsitlltcl rlsesir u en el-.rlfcgl() de l:t Drtlctl: () cUin(l() cs nccc\iri,) Jlrcs('nl:r- rn escrito ante Llna aut()ri(la(l (llle se tenlc tlnr rr-,nrrios -profesor. etc.-, suietr> el se <lscsir>n c()n )()s !peck)s filtrales tlt-l tnisrrx lrtilrfitos. de'papcl, tipografa. enculr<lcrn:rcic-n. etc.-. llst()s rlcstlaz.rr[rentrrs -lil)() lrirscienrien el r>bjetivo rlc ser rcullamicntr la concicncia <le Jas replcsentationes clc la ntLrete o los persegrriclores. rxplicari<-rn.l la qLte hrlbit.xlrr)ente sc ill)ch. Nleclrnte la crncenrracir)n en lts rlctallcs clel viljc o en l()s ispccl()s finnlcs dcl es<rit<. cn cse .\lrcf .t'y') ler h.tco prciL'o (ld l'lll<'. se ltl(lLirrc un scntimief() clc clrminio rrrgico solrre una rcaliclatl fiente a llr cual t'l sucto pitnstr <1uc no puecie haccr nt<llL. l\)r tilnt(), lnlis (lLtc nt(.ilnisox)s (lc tlcli,nslr I lil c()ncienci- srn cieli,nsas, en (]l icnti(l() (lre le -ocultaD)icnt() Irt'nr<rs <i:tckr cn (Nr() trl)ilj(): pr()ccs()s (lc tfir nsli )rltxci(in (lue gencritn tniI rrrorlitltlrci<-n en el inc()nsciente, efl este cils() la crecncia en el pocier clel su

(n lil cstrLrctLrrx(

lrt clcfi'nsl c()ntra el sentimiento cle imlx)tencia es un fact()r tnlln,rtJntc

pttes' ltl ttsltrrar rlrcs qrre generan Lln.l relaci(in sinll)iticll soblePr(lect()re pni(() crtlnclo el olliettl en lirnei<nes (lcl suie). se exP()nen .t qLle rite entre
l)rotect()r n() se encuentra plesente'

crisis cle Plinico t" 1't insn'll ansieclad )t r\r )!l't* rt 'rn' l'r se,-tleilrn clel ohLl.' ,ep,,raci,-rn qtlt exr)erilllentllrl 'tl8(lr'\''r\ de (ltle \e le\ h'!z() crecl qtle e(41\l:('!lcnc'!J jr-to i;xginar iamellte pr(fect()r es

ils

'.,'rt,,,,,

enc()ntr;d() ct-t algr.lnos Pacientcs c()n crisiii

litutiliitr rr'tc ltclrxrs f....r-rai, garltntiza segttlicllt(l llnx c()nfigurllci(ln pletcn(ienl()s ge (le
P'illic()

cs ll cie tt:t mil(lrc ltcrr()tizi(Ll lnre [l-l Pa(lre Pr)en ()c:tsknles violentt' Ill hij()'/x lnira al pache clescle el .1.,,r4,r. p't''lrc te ( I lvierte p'lr ",,,"n,,r^nte. taa,r. ,i. l" l)a<lrc. iclsntificild() ( ( )n (lJ 't Por lt qtlc cl

ir..,,iir,,.,,ra,,,.

t,r..u.,ri

-n()

con la el nio.'lt en figtr xlnenlzlurte' st'llrcricn.j trlJ :'irllx'\i\ tlciensiva r)rs lilerte )lllo c( hii( )'/ ciel q,,ian, iitir-r<ut cli'llil. ilparece rlnfe los ojos
nr,,.tra

,,,.,.1J l,ri',,r,,

'1. t-tnr(,, rc'tr.rgi. frente l peleguicl(x l-rl ,raclre' p<rr stt .,l.r.,,"..,.,i cn el luj", 'r \Lt p[()Pi() Ierrrlr' dest Pr(fegerle clc la figttra ""u.. ir,,.;".r,1.,,.t,tt-ri l'.' sir 'sorlllrr:t Pr()tc(t()r-l'' c()n lo qtre rcfuerz'l i.,.,r..r,r., y-lil llr)P()r'n('ii i,,.r".n,.i,, s()l)re el cxrllctcr a,enazntc clel lr,"egtricl< 'lel cle l:t lrlt(lre- () 5!s \cp'llltci')n (( r-les (le n'l(iici( estxs iui,u".--n p"uit 'ttalqrtict st pare'ie o cl tcrapettt:r' P(n cjcrlrplo- hat''in s':nti el i,i.,,.<r. t,itii,,',,r.

\, ;()r

t({() ( lllci( htl1xf . 19U6).'I)(' igull nrlrnet-l . lrnte el scntilnient() cle ir)tp(fenci.l <1uc prtxlr.rte l:r ruucrl (l( llr) \tr'(lleri(k. 1 fclril if.litx(i(in (lc )os :lrcrarttilos rlcl enlierro l rnisrr() trcnrpr) cuc distrten *(lis()ciarr- clel clokr cle la pi'rclicla pcrrniten ucl(luirir un scntiI)iento clc clrltinio s(r)rc Ln:t rc-lli(la(l (lLlt: (on !t nlltcfie se llr()stf(l cstllr prlr firclir clel poclcr-del sujek). I-x hipelx({ivi(l.ld crnto <lctensa l)iisi( (luc presentln algtrnas personas ticnc esc srnticl(). y:l qLe sc crce, grat lts :r lttulle. qtre toclo re plte(le: el nt()\,inti(.nt() y Lts nril activi<llcles en lus rttt st'cnrbarcJ ci sujek). y a las (lrc vlt (hn(l() algtin grackr cle s<tluc.irin. se ( .n\'r( en en prlel)x inxginilril d( sr p()ten( iil.

i({(, (n feltgrt,

-lrt '' t, r,i i".p"''ttt t rrltr iuntr'le (ltre en el pr()legi(lo se.(lesxn('le el senti", tl'l 1(rJri' 'l'tn ,r"rri r.t. 'r,,r.ln,ia. ello expiic:r prlr rLl es I1.vcnttlr'l(la el tepo<lerosrt iigu ;;, ..1,, i"".it(.i,,,n 1ti 11 5ilbiosis con una -,rhora
,,,f.1"",a1,-,a

t ,r \1.\\ l)l:1. \ \

lVt \'I'r, t)l Pr)''l \( lA: lrl I t( I f \' (O\t't-l( t(,

lll s('r tillie nt() lsico cle p()tcncia pllr enfientaI l()s (listin)s pelig()s. rrrc l:r lenl;rsiu y llt reli(i.rd captucla tlcscle l: llntasilr- \'tn gcner1(l(, ( s llr] ln1)(lLr(to <ompleje-stir cn (lue la identitlccirin <rrn plclres p()tcntcs o Lr lorrrrr lr.rjo lll cull los pll(lrc: represenl(rn la xrrencia clrl sujrt() c()nstitu, rr'rr clt rrr.rlos rlecisivos. L()s ll:lclres prretlen firllar'en lir()vcer un scn(lluien t lr.rsr'r (l('l)()rencia tlutto p(1luc cllos ntisltrs n() l() tiendn c()nr() p()rqre It,tr..rrt r rr', r'irl suicl(, (lue es inrp()tcote. lln relacirin x (str) ltilu(). nacllt nlis lrrl(,lt n(, r:rrlr rllrstlcrrlizirr el clest<llo clcl sentilticnto de poten( i.t (lLr( pil' \r,h, r,rr^
,,,rr'L r(.rrr.i.rr r I ,.rlrrr'l(, ,n1lr(l1)

s,)l)r( fslir difra.n.il cntr( nte('nrsnn):i de deti,nsxs ! dcinss <n cl in 1rl ,runx' dr l,\ sisL,rIs nnri\l( i()n:rl.\

.pr()tcllt' (lc l()s l)eligr()s (ltlc 'sltl)e' llr <r'te le.pltsa l Pacientc' a 'stt- El pciente l)lej(),,.," .ti.ne, ils rcspLtestas llccl'c! cle <tl lc convicue (le rrneru esPectllvcces a r:l inicialurente tn su engr.tstilt v sint(nll'tl()l()gii' tttesri'n rc'si(le en tcr''rn<lttl.r l''t tlcl. al',t",a raa,, il c()tl(lici(in tl(j tt"'tt"'t"(j <l llcslrrolkr clel stts objuriros r'lc ccntrLr c(nll(' air,rr,, Lt ,"rrp.ur,t tenienclo ' 'Lt.a,*inror'r,,, .le p(x.n.ia clel plt<ientc. llltct ttna clbltlcki|\ lt'lttIlp(''(ltlc (le el cle la imltgen lx)lel)cix l.,tnattct. e\':lltl!n(l() cl nl()l)Iellt() y llt filrla o.r. - itrllte le ll.t .llrlhtll!l' r ' l,1'.-t.,,i, '- Prc(i\.tr.rh.rr h cliterencia enlre trltsi()rn() P()r dficit y tr'rsr rtrsitltrnthr' r selt t,r.n<i t,rr (1)ntlic;) en cl prtnio c'c'rttt" qtl.<:rt'rrlr)\ ' c'ttLli(i ks csclrs Kl(in Nl (lc cl'rc'rt'r't' ,-ln r.l,,.in l sentinlientt P'tcn(ir 1 (le s c(1]() iuutgcn tlnl clc a,, ,,|.,..1 sLlltt(r, l)(,f .lllBLlsll'1. sc clesrtenclc ( ()n lo cllal' ,.,,,.'",. t ..' ., .,i,riruv. .,1 t-,ll.lr -icltntiIicacirn Pr()-vcctivil-' e''rsc tlc plnes il"'"l.,"-,i-,tn, ^. lt.t1 trn t tnpr 'llrecilllietlo clel y() :Il clcsPro\ de illlp(fcnci: cl stntillriento (Klcin. crs() este t:n it)'i61. t*.nrs . r Dtistu< )- sinl nDicnT' (ltte el cr clescle fllla Do restllll cle trn <li-ficit esfrll(ltlral -llgo inlcrr'i lo<r'rc lt cllte se rcn(rncia p(n-(r)nllict() P()t 'llgllstilt' ['is .i. t't'tr:t'i(,n: l:r "ig,, " 1., i,l,:r lr,'trtli.rll.r rr'rtti('n nlL lil llll('llJ/ 'lt ,'rf,..,i'.n '.1<l'r p()r el telr()r ((Lle rtprcs'nla el rilal eclpico' iol.rr\t!l(s .""U,r(t.l\ i,. rl.*n" no irritr al " ,i,r..4.r,,,,u.1rr"" ri sttictrr. clcleniiv'lnentc c(ll() ilrlll()tnte Pxrll (lc un] i1 l3 clLrsrl es t[ttl's tle rltte cl c.nflict. Atttr rr'r
f

;-'t..8.;i.i"'

''rlrt:r

ti

AvAN.lts tjN pslco r RApL\ l,sco.tLlt<.

LItVl NClONri. )il,1Pr:UT'(

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l19

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Ir:rn(i(), nueviLs ejcnlplilical( iorlrs \, \'xrir(cs sir't (i(c sc:n Itrrscltcllrs pcrrr tlrte r':rn surgitnclo en el tluir (lcl trrtaluieoto. Si enlrecrnillel]urs .rccnc()ntnn(l(), es lra stlrrayar (lLc ?Ln(lLe n() se tftrta clt trnu l)s<rtecla activll con\(iente. si cltl;rr'r:o c] ir)rpir(t() rlrrc rloclrrjo crr el plrcientc l el Icrlpetli cl nl-lisjs (lc la sitlrll( iln crrc firc punto clc pl|ti<ilr <lc kr qr.re luego constitLrir'.i lrn.t:r' ric cie clesctrbrirricl]t()s llct c(nt]() clelrler'lk) (lLc (leterlllina (lLrc se rcscatltrir. rcenc<x':tnck. Ir 11s lL olrir r1r:urqr pxslrriir (les pct cil)icl( ). '[ercet tigrnp(), <le llr gentrrlizltc it'n: testttttctl cle lo lecttickr cn l()s (k)s l)rinrcr()s tiemp()s. ltlronr bajo rrn:t li-rrnula crerLrla lr cl pucienlc t tl Iet'e pr'rt11, esllc( li(.r l)irrir cx(l1L l)icicnte. (lue sinleti(c lo cscn<iel dc lt(lLcll() (lLc sc lirc c-t:rtrinlutck) ,.()lt() xnac(k)f.1. l-irrnrtrl:rs clrl tipo <lc: ,flnortccs. <tr:tn<hr la ltll\onlt (luc ll)c es illlp(nl.lntc se \':1, () rr() IIt('c()ntest:r. () rtl('(lcstien(le,v c\tii en sLrs I)r()pis (()riils tlejl'inrlonrc rlc lutlo. o sientc () picr-ls rlifi'rentc..., cnt((('s !r) si('nl() rlut] nr) l)t('(l() lltcr' 'l:cllt. :tr.'inr;ttlr trn s(ntinricl'll(t (l t[,slininr. <lc tlcbilirlcl. (lr ill]l)()lsr1(i1r. sicnt() (lLrc cl ntuor[ ss vi('ne rl)iti().. ct( .,l () cnLrnci.l(l()s (lLrc 1)ue(lcn exprcsrrsc Irejo h tirrrra: .\lc rrirri l nre tligo. lxl c()nl() r))c cleclr >lr,i o sellt l rr)is)x): irr() l() c(rts(gtri[is.... n() cs Plrra ti.... r'ti l() intcntes.... ((l,n() sc lc ()crtt('-..,."'
Si hcrrrs insisli(l() rr l: inrp() un(iil (lc Ir)s tres titnlp()s cs rolcrte rtlgu o()s t)lt( icnt('s (icnrlcn lr fi.lgIr('11tr la crtcr'ien<ilt. ttrcrllinckrsr' <'n ia ltni'<(i(l1l sinjU11r. rLisln(l() a( ( )nt(cimicl-tl( )s. n() srt(n(l() c(rt(lLsi()ncs (lLru ncrrrri tlul l_cc()n()(rr r.lIr nrc\ \ilrilLntc () !irti(il)ir' sLr en)ergrnci. Otr()s. !in (lttl)ir). (s(all):r,1 rlc l:r vircr'r'il sil)gullrr. se rcfitgiltn cn fi-rrnlrtllts.tlcner:tlcs r':r,r'irl:rs clc (()n1(]ni(l() (r11()ai()nlrl, irt(('lcctLlrllizci()ncs (l(lc cr so ill)strac(i(in I)r()lecn (]fl (1)ntrx (lcl cncLrcntr() c(r'l I()s li'(I()s. I)()f (fftl Pafl(. csJ l]lurlllJ lLt)(lert(iir l ftrnciortlrr hltjo cslrs rlts rttrrllrlicllttl('s ,-I() srtn cxtltrsirrs cle los plt(i(ntts: l(ls tcrarpcLlls x(k)l((('nx)s (lc l)t()l)crrsi()res sittrilres, per(lin(l()n( )s cn l:l n'(d(f o pusencl<l ll)i(lxnrcn(c a ls lirtrnules gtnr:lltles.

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u\ln :r l,* iln(- (l(, l,r ((nr)rrDr(.r,r,,n. tr,n,iLrl:r(i,nn'\ tirl,PU(,(t:r. rr.ultrn tlc l.r 'ri'srIrtl .( i,nrcs (1.1I)(sirnricnl<, t)r((r)rr5(r(rlte. rrrt rrLrntr 1;,,clr:in lrir(ltrrrr (\:r(irr r(!r(( .(rn(, L\l.in i s.ritx5 lxs rnliri.(s in.()rlscienlc: D('n) quc.()rrslrltl\crr. ul rtrc rrs. nlrrcsetrIrrri(nt: int(rnrc 'lI,l.,,l(-i\'l't''.,.|l.l*|\llll|,'l',lll\'lll,

.rLgt itc r(nrnos 5(.1(nicn(k).le.tLc rlLrc inr,,r,trrrr. tl cll .lrs/rr/r/.r'lrrl/rr,./: ( r(l:r \ ( r (trrc n<r rtlc Irrtlrs lrrs crg. nlcs dirrr,)s n (l(1( r r)rin.r(lir (,r(r((i(-) (' srr Ii' rLrLrr ln csolrrr<Lrc Lrr tirr

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1,i3

lrrtts cltl sentinricnk) (lc p()t!.nci, <le cflcac.ia. cl<, lcgitinticilrd. lis lo <ue rk sr:rt.r Nlurkson (l99J), qLlien slr \icz rek)nra lu itlea clr,li)ll)in. sin cnrl).rr_ rt, rrr r,s L r cpe itabitr.rrlrncnte sc hx(e. Anlc las olrcrvirci<rrcs c.rticas clel r:r ( r( rl((. ilnlc sLrs rcclrlr<rs sc strrle r.rsltontlcl. l) (.()D el sil(,Dcio no cO_ -tlLrc rrr'sr.,t[. lll .(lLien ax]lll ()t()lglt, sltr) (lLc a(.irr(,it el mcnsltjr: inll)l(.it().(lad()
IInt irrl. <lt' trxnsfcrenci.l ncgativx, (l( rcpetici(-)n (l(, l)utr()nes ne(lr(itic()s. I)cr() rllr( l(.nl()r scr ntal clt()s itLin: trt rltslr ctttnrlt el l)li(.icorc litnc r.lrzon? llltsllr ()n (rc neliccntr>s el placcl trre ticnc cn cn(r)ntliir a] anltlisla cn ttn till(), (()n (lrc destaqucDt()s el Lrso clrre hce clc la sitLil(.in cxternr rclLl pxra (,lrlt Dt,l' s:tisf)cci<'tn lt.lrcisistit () s.i(liclll Ctccux)s (ue acletDs <le cst(), qLte ln)(lrli scr tr':rbejlrlo en un scgunclo tirlltp(), el Jtr.rntcro clcltc <rrnsistit. sinrple ! (lir('( tiLltl('ote, en Lln (ient [rsr(rl ri/-()n, cs ((l]() trsle(l rlit-e". 1. crnt lrllth rlirr(isisl;r tlc crre se csrli IlLis lli clel Iticn 1 rlcl nrrl sinr .rortlue la hrr .(sli(l:l(l ('n cl r'ncrlt \ cl r.csrct, llel scnticl< clc rcaliclarl son ctinciclentcs (',r ('sl()s (:ls()s c()n la iltp() ncil clel rlesr<lkr (lcl scntilnient() (ie p()ten(.i, clir rrr irr r lr.gitinrJcla<[ tlel tnr:iente. No se plre-de utiliz:tl cl rrin<.i1tio vlirlo <lc rltrr' lrrs rrrnlcsionts c(xltrittriutsfcl(]l(.i.tlt,s ill)pli(.itrt sr,ri()s l.icsg()s (\)lll() (j_\ ( \r l).r,.r s;rlvagtrltrclirt cl nltrcisisllr ilcl ltnlisllt. ,\lrches vcr.es sc lu8untcn_ t.r rrrr,r'l ,rnrrlistlr n() (lel)e ct:clcr a 1:r dcnranclr (lel pa(.ientc, r.ctugiinclose en rrt,t lrrrlrL !{(nclll (ltle n< rlisc,lrnin.r \i,hrL-,lu(,til)r, (le (l(nt.ln(lx sc tr:ttit. l't,r rr.r , , ,s:r t s llr <lcru:rntl;t tle ltntor. clcl pacicnte \. ()tra nlu) (lili,reotc h (lc rrr.trrLl.r rh. (lrk. r() s(, lt ristifitrc lrr expcricncilr t rlr tttc rro sc r)rcgLrc ur. (r )n(lll( t.t r'r irr(.il (l( l I(ritl)eLtat.
rrrt trsl(tl <lcfir1rt. tal c()Dto le cst()) lIl()stt-lrn(l() (.()n1itLrllc-ltc, :xrr elkr nO l( (()l]lcsl(),,; (). si n(), c()n intelprctltci<xtcs en qllc se senltl cl <.ar:'tttcr resis

gIlltrtl a llr <r.te tiencle totlrr trraria sino que (lc])e f()t) esper'fico clel trutr)ricnt(). l)l plrcicnte rccor.rej los Incns.i(.\ y l:s ( iriunst.lncias qLrc le crearor.: un sentillient() cle impotencia, ast u(r)l(r .r:.rillutli l lr)utillci(')n continua (lre ltacc cle ]u reprcsentlci(in de s uistr< r rrl tlt,strtcrtler la cle srs rtcursc:rs y clLpt,rf cxclsivllr]lente sLts insU 'al()rilcin ll(i('n(i.ls. fll tratxtuiento clehc recrrperar tlr r.cptesentlcitin cle potencia clc,l n,f st,lrltcla l)rj() tucnsjes clest lr lificantes, lIrjo la fijacic)n ;r expelicn,.i.rs l ril u liil lctrs, ltaj<ll el tcnt<tr.:l l.l aut()ltflntra(.i(-)n prtr persecucirir-r o por ctrlpt. St llr cnftizacll tantr el ltcclto rele\,tntc cle cue el sLiet() nicJ.llr lx castracir) rttc sc lta rlcsatcncliclcl (lre tiuDl)in i( ttir.qtt ld t) Lttslt.t!Liti;.lls clecir. quc P()r trrltrr. I)()r ()nletitltien)..t ll]rns..t,cs imp( )tcntiziI]]fes. pr)r liici()l-l .r c(i(lj_ rrrs rttlillckes cle llt reprcsentecirin clel .rzl. sc lcnlrio p()l.D() aec()n()ccrse Ir rtrr.si sc poseeSi p:tftc ilnp(xtnte nt l cler.isir,- cle la crr s<l)Ler rcne er -crnnckr cl tstcnurio cle lr relucirin ter:lpaLtticil. (lue cl I)u(iente prrcclu rivil le experi(n(iir (lc (lLlc cs (-.ll).lz <lc huccr. l.t,ctifir':rr ut nlisttr cuanrk i.ste sc erlrrir(r r'J o sr'r'oLrLll en tnlt l)()sici(in iDtrlectIrcla (\)DstiIu],en nt()lltenl()s estructLt
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El seor 1.1'. cs rn h<Drl)le joven (Le vicne al trxtalDicnto p()t severos sintouas ttrliccs: tcme salir a la cxlle, no pr.recle entrar en cl netrr ni sulrir a un xLrt()l)s, lc xte[r()liz la iclea tle (lue le pue(lx sol>evenit-Ltoa tqtlicatclix rtrc lc lleve !l uni nrrclte s)itir. l)eri(-xlicr)lcnte le cituinan pre(,Lup.(t{F nes hipoconcirlcus fales c()m() el ter]ror ul inflrto c> al cn( er. Cuancj() liene (luc lrgLrr(laf en la sala (le csper se rngustia con la icleu (le qtre la secrctl lia puc(la consiclerllle un.loc() lxn(lue nccesil() vcnir actr.. Fil c<rtienzo clel tftrtrnic-ot() se calrilctcriz(i por le engrtstia <rrc le proclr.tcirt el c()ntarck) c()omjg(): e!'ittl)x l))inlrnre ul entr.r () sirlir de li srsin. hacrt lltrgos sjlen(l()s, rt: peti "n() s, pr(ti(rrurntc lrntes Llc (()nlenzlr'ccl tl:tse, se cltteclalta erl si-

lenci() c()nlinLlacin clc cltcl una cle lis intctr'cnci()ncs, con agitacitin corporll rrre tcstir1()rlirLl)a su intt:ln(luili(l(1. l,os relatrs quc hxc de sLs rela<ioncs intcrpc sr )nlr lcs n() (lejl)n lLf.lxr' cluclls rie (lLrc st sentia ilnlen:t z:rlr: I>s c(nnp!r()s rlel tllllrir lc rttitltbn (()n Llsti(li(). l stcgl'() lc tL_niir in(lLrini, sLr pxrejl ('rir insensilrle y l senta Frn tem()r clc ttte le ill)an(l()nase y clLrclalxr (lrc le (luisierx a pesar rlc l cleclicli<i<in v las rulestfas cle arrt()t cLre l le clispcnsalrit. I)cns:tl:t c( )nscicn teDrcfrre (ltle yo n() lcnclrit interts cn l rucs seeuranrcnrt hltltr l)1r( i('ntcs Dr.is infcrcsantcs. C()n rcpcc) il la irt:lrgrn rtre tenil (lc si misr< cl rlc ltrolrrnrl;t instisfrr'c ir'rn: crc4. en c())tra (le I()d.l evi(lcn(i: ,v cle lo rrrt'lt tleclt su pilrejlt. (lue el tnlt Pers()ni lll. Al rcspcct(), se avcrg()nzlrl)! (lc (luc )'() fijrse nri xtenci(in sollre c ttiLlqttient cle fi))l:l (lc su n]riz slls (ls8()s: ()(ui)lrl)rLlt sLl l)l-c()cul)!ci(in de] llr()|)cnt() -llr () (lg sLrs lllan()s. \Ll cstltLllt. el( sc (()nsidcr:tl)it ttnrt l)crs()nlt -.'l:Llltl)i11 ( ) intcligcntc f)()( l;r histori (le'l-l).. rec()nstrlrjclu con cliiicLrltlttl, pttes el D)iilcrial (lue !POrtlrl)x xl prin(ipi() eriL cscrts(). pernliti(i. p()(() l l)oco, il clcspcjitnclo tln csccnilrio rr,re haciar-r conlprensil)le nlucl)()s (lc los rrolrlcnras cLrc Ic actrejaban. El (lLre (lt(Ll vcz (ltre p()sxl)x h r))i ruclre It:tlra sicl<: trnu ligrttt lruy l]:t)l(igi(.1 (lcfi'(1() o pallt :iLlicLrlizarlt. EI pa r(l s()l)rc l elu ltlu haccllt 'l,xr tn ( cientt, recorcl<i <1ur Lrnd() ssl!l)it ilsusta(k) cl t:tclrc se lrttrlul>l )' c()n t(frl faltx (lc cnrpatl lc nrostral)1r ([le l .nunc1l ILtlrlL teni<l< ess ritlicultccs,. Naclt tlc T.l'. rla lrdecul(l() para su px(lrc: sl r'itlicLLrl infltntil l pllcer cn jltgrLt'cr'.tn c()(lificlt(l()s crr<r itcliri< (le (lLrc trx .Lrlr r('\1)[t()s(,. tr] in(lLlict() clesrLtlcnecltl qr( ro I)()(ia qtc(lrsc <lr.tielr>,. Aclctls. trrt ttltparatlo tlesitvorelrlcnlr'nte (()n Lrn()s l)l-ittI()s. lrrj()s (le un lltrn)n() rlcl plrrlre. (ltlienes rpLteslilnrenlc en crn1lrn ltclus las cltliclaclcs (rc l l le t:rltalan. 'l .l). hala incorporeclo esr nLrnera clcnig|urrie de nritxrse, ltrcjr.ricio gL<> lrel tn rrntra (i( l (lLl. (lcterr r inrtlr:t (lLle cll(lil vcz cuc'cletenirt stt tcn,.i,rn en
Llnl (rtn(lLrclr. rtl estl t ) jtricio clccitlitkr rprio't. lcutrioxl)a P()r hx ccr ullr c\'!thraci(-)lr neglltivll. Al istnr tiel)rP(). por rro-vcct it'rtl cle Lr ' pini(,n (lLrs lcnr (lc s s(r)rc los cue le Kxlcltn 1'. sollrc t<xlo. ror espcrar ciel ollLn isg() ()

lrl

AVANCI]S IiN PSI(:O'I'I'RAPIA PSIC:OANAI-I'I'I(],\

INt'ti Rv Ii N(. roN Es 't E Ipur-tcs Dllrti l{INctA DAs

14a

i(l(, ( \lcrn() (lrtc Drlnitestase la rrrisullr actitttcl htstil clcl pa<lre, tenllinallll pol scrrlirsc rcr-seguickr y er,'ergr)nzado. SLls tet-I()rcs aJ tttetro -v xl aLtobs n() terrrr rLrc ver con el esprcio sino con estar rtcleaclt cle figr.tras a lls qte sentl en cl cspacio- el c.tratcter ltetrrro lltsliles. Haba espacializaclo -ul)icacl() rr()rizllote (llle teniln hs personls qr.tc se encontralllln en cs()s csPl(ri()s. ln t lrso srr ter< a tencr una crisis cle anglstia v "tlar el especl:icttlt, ctn el restlturkr cle que n() senta a llt gcntc c()nr() c.tp.lz cle ltyr.ttlarle en un estrl(k) de rttcsi<lecl sin() quc se lurlerurt c<tlt haba heclro cl p:tthe. l)oclenrts clccir qtte T.P. no lutl>:t lttlcr-ririclo Lrn scntilllicnt() (lc .xccPt,l( i()n l)alsicx", cue es cl (lue pemlitc <ttc- un nio r ttn adultt n() cst ()l)servlrn(l() (\)ntintturlente rasg()s perciltles en Irtsce cle I() in(lcclla(lo. (inlx) le (liic rr Lrna oportuniclacl. <lespus ctc clue trte tlescribicre lo -tcirrnorhl <tte se Irlru scntick en Llnir feun,an] s()cial. cspeci:tltrtente P(n-c(in)() ila resticl<: 'Si r.rstc(l sicnte antes cle llegar la fiesta r1r.te krs cletr)lis le vrtn tt rir-r-ctnlr> kr Irer'u su plclre, ent()nces es corrrplcnsible ruc- crttpiecc lllinl'se. anles (le ('r1lr'arr. trrtarn(l() (le ver si tiene !lna rttrrncll cn la r<tal por lo <rtc terllli,l.l cn_
tr ttlrir'trlola,.
t

senta persegui(l(). le lrul])iere vuelto a retrarr[utizr c()t)]() halta hecho el paclre al ubicarle como alguien que tcna tn.llos sentilltient()s hacir los <lems. En caml)i(). nris indicaci()nes knlabxn. entle ()tras finlas. h sigtriente: "Debe scr nrul.cloloroscl scntirsc trn nrel por dentro, tan in.ldecuad(), sin pocler clarse cLlcntr clc tue pesc a t<xlas las peielrs con su paclrc, xl final ternljnr,.lccp tnrk ct'l'lr irnagen cle uste(l la qLc f'l lc trensntitu c()ntinua[lente: qre era rtralo r t<nto o feo,. Estc tip() dc inten enciones. en qrre cl analista haltla iclentifl(acl() c()n cl scr stiiente. e pesar clel csqucllltisn1() con qr,re las presentDxrs. Lcstrltn plir-ticrhrnrente ilnp()rtrntcs pera acuellos pacientes qne han sitkl scvcrarrtenle I [xLnratiza(k)s.

SNr'otv l gtsl ott (ir.:NriRAt-tvA

(i)n estc paciente lrttbiera siclt tln clr()l (itq nos lrrllii'rltns clctcnitlo en lrrllr tn cle sts insatisfacci()nes () tcul()res cn lrn nienl() tlc clcsh:tccr el sr l)u( sl() (lesphzlrient() quc harl rlue cucl:t r-tn< tle ellrs ltr'iet cn cl inconsr'i( ll( ()tr() teDror () insxtisfcciirn percial el tr.tc cncltlrricra. N() se trilllll)a de cacllt iclea <lrscsitnntc c()Dsciente cnc()ntfar rrnlr |t l:rcirin uno 1 Ln() -por ( f ri ('n ('l inc()nscientc relacionacl con clllt por clislinl.ts nl()(l1lli(lx(les (lc sillllolizlrti<-rn o cle contigiiiclacl x<()cilti\'- sino tlc Ltnl rePt L'selltllcil) fll()l).r1 rlt si 1'<lc Lna l eprescrltaci(in gkrbal clc (\inr() cl (fr() lc rirarlt. ltpairtlelcl r tr.rl l:r nrlicuin;r proclttctiva cle[ -rsi<ttistrt<> r'a cleclttcienclo t'onst'cLtenci-r. r.rr li( uliu('s (lue t(nnal)an h firrnra cle sus tnicclts c insttisfllcci()ncs. lgrtaltrlente, l[rl)i( r1r esta(lo c]escaminltrlo crte cacla r'ez que 1.P se scnta ( dticll(l() P()r hs tigrrr:rs <rrc Ie rrleaban o por m lc hLtbiela clic ho cue clacio (ltlc a'l cfiti('l)a (hr1lnr('nte los cleml'ts. ent()nces sentit clr.tc los clctrts le nlirllln crn la llisnLr ir('lilr(j crticl. fln pri[rcr lugar, pot-<r.tc lo tsencial n() ere <t-tc l no purlit llr l'crse crtto;tlgttien crlico <t agresi\'() (:()n l()s ()tl-os v qtle ltlvierrl (lLc re l)rinrir ('sta representacitn cle s 1, lucgo la ptol,cctase en la liLrra exlern.t. N() ( lrilirl)il <lc une proyccci<'rn clefensivrt -- <lcsprentlets<' cle une itrragtn cle s r'rrr c-li<rr v bostil y pr()vcctrl en el <fro- sino tlc ttna iclentific-tci, ,n csx..rrl:rr'. r'n <ttc no clilerenc iel)x rll ()tr() cle s ttrislt: el ()tr() lc ll)ir.rri.r.(rll(, ,l st rrilrrlrr s nrisux. Si l se cnsiclcntb:t fl'o, torpe o krlt(), trts s(ri.tn l,rs irrr,rgcrrt s rtre los clenlls poseeran cle 1. Fin setrntlo )ltgar. porcr.te ctlltntIr r ritir;rl:r :r lts tletu:is para krgntl. t]t(rl)entne.tnrentc. slil tle la silLt.rttrrn tI r Iitrr:rrl(, (r] ('ste cas() s n()s cnc()ntfalll()s nte tln iclentifi< :tr i, ,n -.)r,r y(\'li\lr , r'lLr r'lir rrn clcscstrlckr intent() (lc c()nt[lrfestar Lln sentitDient() (le
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l)s la risnl finra ruc en el p1l(ienle (lue ac:tl)trn()s clc ver. en el cue 1l iclca glol>al <le sel inclccrucl< le hacl rcenc()ntr.Lr falkrs en cualqtricr r.r.igt, tlc s ntisrtto cuc ccntraran sLl atenci(-)1. de ntanem sintilar. en la fitnltacin clc ticrts icleas ( )l)scsi( )nntcs. inleI!'ienc tn pr()(cs() tle plll'ticr.rlarizacl,in I p.rrtir cle (recnciils rttatritcs pasionales. lln csle:lspcct() cl snkrllra tuecie ser entcntlickr c<nr o<'trplinckr el tnisltr lr.tgltl cuc cn les granrrticas gencrittivils se ()t()rgr r las tlascs profericllrs pot un lreltlrtnte: snt()lua y iiasc srn el eslalr<in ltinto cle Ln ploces() gcncrirti\'() rn (luc Lrnii ti-rrrurl muv ulxtrctiva sufre trrnsfin nrlrci()nrs y encuentra sisteltrs clc clcnrent()s (lue le lan (Norglnclo es pcciliciclecl. Asi comr. en el cs() clc la gletutice. el contlxtncnte fitnolgiccr cs cl qr.rc cleternrina (\inl() l fitrsc ser cle({ivrruente lxrnitncilrdlr, () el c(up()ncnte gr:'ili(() <tiru< srr-li cscritx. cle iglral rnanellt en rl ('s() clcl sntcla Lrna creenci.i lnatriz terminar enc()ntftln([o. ntecliantc rclas cle pamicularizacir-rn. en cierta imegen clc rn pcrs(rlit, cn cierk):lspe(t() cle la rcalidacl del cucr-p(). al "firnenra, cuc lc seNilr'r .lt: \, 'p{,rtc l).llJ cri.t.rhzrrrsr,.'' 1,, 'f ejerrpk). la crecncia l))lllriz in(\)ns(icnte .(()rr() peligro" no existiencl<> en -(r)\'illente cl in(\)nscicntc cn csk)s ta,r_min()s pr( )p( )sici( )n.tlcs. l()s (llte n()s vet)t()s ol)li, gld()s 1t re(Lrrrir pxla trxnsrnitir l icle- bl.scr en el cloruinio espccficr> que cn csc n]()men) csta'cn jucgo para el sujeto. (lue c()nstitu),t su ficr cle atencir-rn por las z()ncs que sexn cuerp<t, h lncntc, l.rs rel.l('i()nes intcrpers()nalcs-, eruellos clenrentos -cl qrre sicr-rckr 1>r<4-rios clc cs()s d()llinl(,i sitlcn pltra clerle tna firrma plLrticLtlltr. c()n lo (pc t<xllli prr><lLrcir, si sc trrt:l llel crrerpo. ll cleen( iat .v()\' x enlenrtar"l (), si se tnla dc lx nleute, el penslrDicn-

l()(l{). si y()

i,r rrr| lt' rtsultaba ins()p()nrhle. lln terter [r.tger. 'por encinlll tlc l<. lrulrr. lir insisticlo en <ue era l el (lue criti(l) ]'qtrc P()t es() se

;0 I-rs rcgl:rs (lc I)iri(ulxrizll.i(')n s()n k)s pr(xesos n'l()s (Lr;rlcs \(,Dr(,du.(] rl pxsaje (ics(lu lir iD.Ll!ir g(nr.rl lLrsrrcl rus() pfli.lur'<r(: uqrrJl.r pr(,([rrc N() s( sinrtle s leglus de .(,rrcsp(nl(ie (iir (nr( d().i irnrilo1r()s \x c\isltnrcs. si() (lL gerr(lir(i(-)n (lr 1() plrti(1rlxr p;rir (lc l() qLr(r rsrri cn un ni\ul rniis irl)slr.r.t(). liD este scntid() sr 1r.cx]n inls 1)icr I Lrs,r)tr(r.orrcglus. u lus qrre sc rcilcrc Yrn I)itli 1l')j0) tn sLs cslu(li()s s(rnc nr..r()(s(ru.ruriti y grxrnti.ls

t(r

AVAN(,lrS lrN PSIC(fttiRAptA pSICOANAI.i.lCA

IN'I'IiRVIN(]ION IiS'I'LJRAPI:U'I'ICAS DII]ERIJNCIADAS

117

rltkt

i su vcz. Ll consecuenci rle la infl.lrccin. l.() il')lc-csllntc cs (luc Iit tutr-iz trrcclc Irrlter.sickr rlovisllr .xrr cl cliscrrrso l:rcnlrrl .< uiclack. rLlg() te vr l ()(.irlrir,. pclo lrcgo cl scck)r (l( l)xl.ticularizil ( i(ln rcsultll rlcl c,tclrrsir'o rktrtinio clc cxpcr-icncies ezaroris cn l1t \ i(l clel su j(l() lit ltLlct'tc rlc trn ltltigo cn r.rn rcciclcnlc tr pol rrn cl-rnccr clc ()tt.() set.cet (:ur()i () un.l pcl<ule tuc cl suicto \i() 1 lt, irlplr,sionir-. o It<l t.l ltrr,r lue]jt, rI llr llr risa. cle llr al<Lrirrtia tlel inconscicntt en cl ])1)cesluient() (lc reprt:(,)lirci()l)rs. []na truellr rllis tle qr.rc [() cxfcr]() y lo intcrrro tl discrrnt> clcl ,)tr() \ lr l)l()(lL(li\itllrcl clcl in<rnsc.icntc sc iirlic.LllllD prrrr 1]r,nrrrr las prr
i<lrr..s pxr-ti(

() a enl()qLle(.er,: o en l:rs relciotes intctl)(.rs,, pllticularizilr c(rlx).rne \'t a al):rndon:tr,. llrr una llistorir geneltti\'-h..tlsfi)rnlcj()nlll <lrre va clesde la crcctr.i,r llr:ltrir l)ils()nul lrasta Iu nuLnifesruci<in esle<.licu. I)()r p(n]er otro ejellrrk,, rk srlt .lricc lo clrre nr> clclte... alg<.r tclriltle me v 1l ()cLlffir" se recoLre cl crr rrrirto r['ltrticuler-izci(in l)stll llelrr a .tengo cncer" <.rrri lrijo se va a lrrrr r,r'-. l)c r'st ninc,'u Ln s!-ntiD)jent() tlc cultalrilirlerl sc pte(lc t1tstir.l]]lu.(1 llll l(lll()r hilrlctlrtclrlco l)ues l() lelli(l() el <:incer- scra el aalstig() quc (,s,
nrrlt's se ltoclr:i

(()

,\'()\'l l)cf(ler l! llellx)lix

\ n[lrrtc,

rr) sc c()nstituye

el Lonflictt intl.rps(lu ic(). (]Lrirn(l() se cllrl)iezl .l l)cnsar (lLlc el srje r prtir cle un ()tft). es cu.rn(l() se pue(le entrcvcr tlttt ltt tut-

t:ttstitt. los lcntot?s 1el srttttttt ptrcrlcn scr hts dal tlt. lCriLI cs lx crrlL.tcristi(a de cstx pu)iog p()r i iclcntiiicci(in? Qr,re ar:rr((t (\Ilo llg() carxcterilrl: se trl (lc personalichclcs flicus. olscsrr.rs. ,.rrn lirrlirsas pa[.r()icles o hiprronclriaclLs <lesclc la tenrpr:Lna iDflncia. l)t()l()gii lllrc c\tr(ctr ril IncDlc -))Iis l):i tls sus \'!riinlrs lc,r)liti(;ts, rlc qLre )ir lirl.)ilt \(il (()n un ()l)iet() Lr ()tr-()- la reencrntlrrntos. trn Llts tliii'r'cncias llcl c:li(). al c\lln)inl[ lx pcl s( )n:l licll r(l rlc sus rlclres. I-o rlue n<i signifi<u quc no hlrya exai crlrrcir-n rlc Iu patokrgia pol el conllicto o <Ltc cuanclo sohcvcng i'stc no tclrsione trnlr ncLrr()sis lrtst:t csc tll()r]rrrtt() lLuscrltc: () (lue n() existlr p()sil)ili rlrl cle interlcnetrilci(-)n rntre sint(nnxs p(r'i(lentiticci('rn Y sintoras p{)L con llirlo. cttrr rxp(n(lfenr()s lllais l(lchotc. () (lLlc n() intervcngn las f:tntasas (lcl suict(). crrvo rrLrnck in(erno, rlrVilrrttcnle. n() rs (ol)i ritic:l <l!l (le sLts
pltclrcs.

ulriza(lxs.

l,r,vAN r'AMtt.:N1(, Di r.A RIiptsr(')N y rrrrs-'t't ur:rris

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tN(.()NSCIIiN',I-1.

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t(,N

l-,n la corrlciiclacl <lel inconscicnlt rlelrcrlos ([iflcncir, p()r k) ulen()s,

l.rr irlc'rtilicu cjt-n c()n ligut-lrs p;rtokigicas tlcsctn-ree rrn tl>cl clc plimc r.r rrr:r!lnitrrcl en I:r gi,rrcsis tlc l<s clistirtrs <.rtr<lros i rr o l<-rgi(r )s. I_()s ()t()s

tr('s (\)n(lici(ntcs:
r'or r-r'sron<lc il i(llcll() rrte ltlbicncrrtitnr'ia frrc r't'lcglrckr lrl ina()rts('ientc lxr la lrngrr'ti-r rlrre prrxlrrclt str l)rr,ttnen( ill cn eclrrlla. l)rccisinrcnlc l)()r(lur iLr'rtes esluv() en l
l.()

srltlr rlilcil cscilpiu-: lllLtn(l() fi-rlico u <lrscsivo, clc risioncs p;rr-:uroiclcs, clc l)r( ()('ul)it(i()n(s ltipoconclrilrclrs, (le senlintieDr()s cle r.Lrl1>lrlrilicl;rtl. clt vrsrrltcs lrrtristir'rrs s<lr'e los peligros rrrc k'r.rchan v clc ctno clcfen<1,.:ne cle cllos. l{( l)r( s('ntltciones (lue \,1u1 itupregn:tnclo cl tsicuisnro. (.()ntril)Lvcn(l() 1l l g
rt

\ijtrili(irti\'()s envLelven xl ni() en (ln ll.lncl() rle

ls

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sis

t[,

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lll.l cl

It

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rlt' <le ll que tienr c()llt() cllLtslt cl

lt tllntrsill ), (luc g]cLcnlr:lt srr errrcsir-rn c,n llr sinlrDarlogir qr.rc sLjct() (Kiras \' ()tr()s. l()9.J1. Or-igen tle I()s sinl(nnits rtre rcstrlte

CIi-

o sr'xtrrles. 'lrxl:r ltr ter:t tlc- filrr.ir-rn (l(,.\iD1tr.\ (,D I.'l(-It(l (,s a)l(,t.i().i sus est_ rlirrs srlrct. lrr iilcritiiicacion (lue c()nlienzlt ir (lrsl)Llltt.lr cn l <lcltllr rlc kts tli('z lrr; (ulruir'rilr cn 1921 c()n l,scolo!1t d? l.ts tt ]stts l oJtliss dcl x) (lrr ril t',-:1, l',,r (.11,, (n (.1 (.r\r, lr.rniro rto L,.lLlLlr.r rrr.rlr.r ,rr,,,k.n Ir,rlilr \r(l(,1.r5 r(l(.nlili(.t(ioncs tlrrr intcr\ inirr()n ttr lil crc.t(.i()n rlc su rnrrnrkr li.rli_ r'o l{r'slll,r sor'rlt nclcnlc (lLe en Ln cals() tlln c()n)plel(, ). llinuci()s() (.(nll() .jUJrrilr, Lrllr'l:r lristolilr r['lrrs iclentiflcacit]1.s. l()(lLtc(,ncl )(ltenk) itdr.t1, .r l.r ltrz rk l.t f)r(,1)i,l t(,()ri1t frcrrtli:rnrr. scrx iln[)cnsil l)i(,. Ilrnrltrro ti Jlrpcl <ie lrr irIr.rrIiIrtrrr rr t., lrr li,tlrci.n (lc sitkrlllrs ticnc pcs() cn llt (r)r.il klcini.na fx)r(lrL \( solr'trlilr.nsirn lo intelrto, el intcr.jtrcgo cnlre l()s instint()s (l(.\.icla
sir os

crnllitto l. los trol:rios

irnJttrlsos :tgre-

conr'jecilt. rgsrlta r(lccu(l() cltnrrrin:rk sc(\rt(lilrianrc'tte in(..)rts(iEnlc. l)f()(lucl() (lc l<r rrrc sr' (()n()(c c(rD() ftl)1ltkin 5tcult(latrtlr () sinll)l(llentc relrcsirin. lirc lo cue <cntrr'r el inters tle l rlrt licurlian (lescle str' (()rrirn zrs: l<s rlrscts sexL1tl(s r llrslilcs <rtt'(,ntrll)an cn c<ntrrlitcir'ln (rt llls lcprcs(,niitci( ),tcs <rlici:tlcs" clcl sLtjcto. ('s (l((ir', (r)n Ilts t1r.re It'penrtr-ln t(n(r unx i,ugrn vll-izrdl rle s ntisnr. crlrn upafilr(ls clc l:r rrnr:icn<ia. F]s cl conllicto Psruico, pr)r tiur). (()nr() l]r()l()r tlc la lcpresir-rn (lur se (lirige en
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ttl)a,t < t ))t-iL'.'tt!()-- | . l,o )r!t uuiatttl(.t lta' i] tct)t


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lsc

!t I lt': lo rluc nrrnte estLr\1) en


r

l rdticnt'i.r

sc hallu iicti\,1) en cl incrrscicntc l)r(xlLcicn(l() rfc(tr>s. St cxistcnL.iu. (lLtr lLr l'c(1)n(x i(l:t >trl Frcttcl r))ris t:l r(lii ))cntc l)()r ncccsi(lir(l (lc (\)])cfcn1iz. sLr tc()r'1 (l;reu(1. l()li. l9lilrl. le llcrr-r l rirstular l.\ t't!)tcs(; ,)t*itttltLt t l'inttttlittl c<tlt<) el Drc(ilnisnr() ([lc l() pl-()dLcc. represlin r-igilirLria a le qtc lcr't(i()nr en Lrnlrs p()cas ()(1tsi()nc\ sin l)r(rirn(liz:lt cn rlle, p< kr tlr.rc

il Irrr
l9u('

un.r rc\isi()n rlllpliir ricl l(1uir

(lr

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(fros.

llli (l(l

AvAN(,rS IiN PSI(:O fIiRAPIA

PS

I(:OAN AI-l l l(lA

IN'l l,Rvl:NCIONIaS 'I ITRAPIiU I ICAS Dll.-IiRliNCI^l)AS

119

lrr'rlltncci(i c()t)t() uir() (le I()s teulas frettliltnos lt la espcra <lc se clesarrrll.l l{( ( icntc lc nte. y gr:r<ius s()l)[e k)(k) e l-aplenchc.r hlr siclo oltjeto rlt r,. r)( '\':r(l() inlcr's cn trn intentr cle clariiir.ucitn.;r llcc( )n( )ceot()s c()mo ()riginlrixlllente inc()nscicntcs. por ejenrpkr, ias ins Iril)ci(r)es (lrc flenera la ccir-tn (le Ltn otro qLle tr.tnsntite xl suiet() cic it\ rll)r(sc-lt:(i()nes eilrgl(l;rs (le fect() sin (lLc l() tr.1r)snljti(lo llry:r xrsa<lo .rr l:r .rrrrr'icncil ni (le Lln() ni (lel ()tr() pf()tfl()nistll (le l escenl r()nstitu)cnl(. rlt.csas inscrircioncs. Si los paclles, xnte lt presc-n(i:l cle gcntc ujcne a la lrr rllilil, lla(cn sentir all sLjet(), clc tttaner altsoltrtantente inc()nscientu, -r lr.lv(. rlt rrrL litgltz lirada tprehcnsive, o clr rrn k)n() (lc v()z xngustii(l(). () de la n grtliliratiirn ciel cuerpo. () (lc lln cn( ucietil nient ) (lc lltscs. qrrc hablan rltl !'((in() y. a c()ntinuxci(-)n. se retlcrcn sin tparente eonexitin c()ns(.icnte (r) s.ls siniestrus, cn cl inc()nsciente tlcl hijtr clLreclar cl rlr< inscritr (rnn() una ll g(ir ar)rcnazirnte, siniestru. [.]n l conciencix no lllry nlrla (llte r!'prcsente l r)lf() l)l) cste (irriicter; incluso le il'tlrl.lcu lx)dl:i ser Ilt ric l:Ls con!cn!i()ncs \(r L i:rl<s cl ()tr() c()llt() llgtricn anltltie 1rl (luc se s:rluti crt un:l s(,ntis:r-, l)( .( ) rl sujcl() scntir lngLrsti,t ante su rr<rxinticlacl fisice, sc tt:nclt:-r tcnso carl.r \'( z (luc tr'arspase la clistancia tnnill)r llr cluc rlelre t.star, o lc llelrle o lc mire. l(r'lrrrilri su c(ntr.rck) sin sal>cr tlue lo estri lrlcicndo y ptxhi scntirsc' lg()l)iad( ,

rr en la crncienciu tlcl strjeto per() (lLe es lo rlecisivt en Ii ()rganjzci(in (le u i1c()oscicntc !'(lLlc l)r(,vienc (lci ()tr(). En estc senti(k), grn plrflc (le k)s in l! rclurl)ios clel sujcl c()n el otr() sc inscitren (lircctalrlente en el ineUrrst'ient!, .fiottld sack es dc ste. qre luego scr;-rn la lrase plra la creativiclarl clc este sislentll. Si insisfirx)s en la clcnrnincirin de oti,qitrtrio1l(,nla ittLotscientc cs l'r'.tr'.\ rlcstatar le necesitltrl cle nr confirn<lirlr) (()n l() cron()l(')gicr entc .rnt(ri()r, (onlision que vicnc <lcscie l'reutl yr qre st h:rbl<i rlc epresi<-r orrgin:rri.r () pfiDil a. c(nu() tilr)rl)in se ll he trr<[rcitl<- c()n)() tienrp() nteri(n .rl cle lrr reprcsi(-)n secrn(l.lriir. ()ri!.\irur(.tmeltte trc(Nciantc sigDifica <ue ettrelkt rtte se iDscribc cn IID r)l(rttcnl() (i(]telrinl(l() cn e-lpsirrrisDto Io lIr'c rlircr' llllllente cn el inc<rltsciente. sin <r.r<.havu nscripci(io c()os( icntc. (il.un perte ctt krs inter<anrlrir)s cnl()ci()D?les, pulsi()n!lles (.ntrc cl suict() y sLrs ()tros:iignillclliv()s, sexn skrs los paclres en la infrncix o ll plrrejlr o el tcrapeutr en lll vitla clrrltrr, p()r tirnl(). tt ctnktiL,r tdad, ticncD estll cu:tliclrl clc scr rigin.r ri:Lrtt(nlc inc(nls(i(nrcs y firntlantcs (l(' in(()ns(icnte. Ntc!an1cntc. <lebenrr)s agru(lc((r a l-aplantlrc cl sepurlr l() ()r'iginari() dc j:r crolrg y el dcstacar rue .la rcPrcsir-rn originlril cs unr nrinrulll in\( rin.ihn y ur.r pfinrrre lijlrciln, ( l9ltl. prig. 7li), y (ltc "...kr origin:rrio n() cs cscnci:rlnrenlc kr crre vicnc prr ll)cr(), sinr) lo cuc cst:i cn el firn(lirDl(nt()l a plrrfir (lc all. en ntoclo a]guno sor prcnrlt <Lr< lo o|igir'tltrio cst prescntc, <le nrtner:r l)regnxnte, cn l()s c() llenz()s. l'c() na(la ticrlc rle inrposilrle (lu(j unlr silrilcin ulteri()r, eI xrl:ilisis.

,
(

r'l tiltc, cn t'l rttetrr>, () cl ()tf()s esplrci()s rrlrl:rrI;s cic scrcs riyirh;s in (,Ils( icrtclrtcntc c()ll)() lu)lenazantcs Algo quc estt'r en sL inc()nscicnte, (lllc rrrrnclr lLre olrjelo clc cr'lcicnci, gcnerllrii ltngustiat v u<vinticnt<l dcfensivos. l'( r() l() ( )riginxrixmente inc()ns('iente, t()l))lt(l() en el sentitl< cr.te acaltaDtos cle f( (r)tl()(cl--lrr qtte nttnClt estLrv() en lit concicnCie- n() eS S(')l() Cfi,Ct() de lu
rnllrtrr'i clel olo. El prr>io lirncionur rlel inconscicttc
c.r.cu,

pr llrs clistin

t,rs li)nllxri cn quc


)

c(rlll)int reJ)resenft(

f)r() sco(). l'ln cste sentid(). el t r t ts(' ct t lc oig 1 rtrio.

rn sU l)r() conscicnta es lUtal llt.icluila prolttctoftt lc ni(

)ncs. nLrevls prrxlrrccitlncs

Micntrirs qre llr llar'trrrl rcples(')n sc(.Lrn(lril r> rcpresitin 1 lnstcri(,i (1rn(it() l()s esf(crz()s clcl Jlsic<-r.inlilisis co s( prilter:( xrce, 1,kr \,l,lgrn-rriJ

tt('ttl( in(\rtscicnle c(nIl() pr()(luCt() rtc ll clcativiclcl cle la flntsi inctrns-

('( tll('()cLrp(') lttego un lugar clcstlca(l() rncrcecl, especilllltente, los trrl)aj()s tlt' l!1. Klcin, cn lr rctr-rllirlucl el intcr,s se estll (ent[tn(l() cn tor[r l<l rrrc l<ts

l);r(lr( s lr:nsrritcn sin clrrc r-ri clkts ni rl sUjet() tenglrD l tcnor crtt-iclrci: tle (l((,(.sl:i s.e(lienrk. l)csclc tk)llxs ( t987). (\)n su .()ir(.cpk) (le ob(lto tlz tslt'tttttcioturl (lue (leir slr huella en cl sujct(). Itltsr:r l,lphnche ( l9J7, 19921). ft)i)J), (t)D l< nttttsctj<'s ettitrrrllcr).s, pasanckr por le extcnsa trorluccirin cle ls rricnrlrrs tlt Iu cscuclrr tlel .szfi ins.liltcla p()[ K(rlt, ltay unit continLt re lIrr'rr'r:r r'rr (()ntcxt()s c)ric()s ntLl) (lifi,Icntcs lt lr<trt'llo (luc DLlll(.tr cslLl-

,-' ( ,rrlt .ri r.r (kllodcc c)(lr l9r8ll-t)|[]rlrr. l,)l.ll). ,1 \i.rs( l.rrr n (j()5.r jn\'e\tjs(ir-)r) 1r)cllp\r.()l()gic;r (tr( Silri
i'tr( sr )rr, rilrr.,,r.t

ttlekhnr:lr{l!)S6) huccdeLl

p()nfr sn jLlcl.() l() ()riainlrri() en srr (,.!?/lci4 lrlisnta' ( 19U7, piigs. 157-15U, cursivx cn cl (n-iginll). l-ir it))p()ten(ii (lc l(n))arr rn (Uctli l() r )rigiti rii ul)cnIe il)c()ns(icntc (tI() inscriPciirn ftn(lalnte /a, inc( )ns( ientc {lc n(r)nscientc I r'o clel in.rrnt\Len te, cs clccir. (lc sc(t()res rlc ste _v n() (lc sL c()nstitLrci()n inicil- es clccisivlr p:u'a enten(lcr (lu'srceclc en cl trxtaDticn(().rnxltic(). L() qre Itilcc (]l analista, nuis rtlll-t cie lo cuc tlicc c( )nscientcr)lcnte ) (lel signitlca(l() rniflcskr tle srrs inleapet:r( i()n('s. tlc sus preattntas o clc tualtLricr ()tr fi)rrll (lr intcIrcr'(ir)n ta'(iri(11. [()s:lli'ct()s (lLrc cn i'l sc il(tivan, y <luc rlor,'ilizln sLrs c()nclL(ixs c(l vez qLle entfa cn c()otaL(t() con cl pacicnte, van tcnienclo cnsccttcnti. p-rr'-r stc, cn ( uy() inc()ns(iente se ins( il)cn esk)s intercan)l)i()s cn tank) , ,t igrn.ri.rnlente in(-()nscicnlcs P(r'(luc ni ltltlisra ni prrcirnr(,salrn ttrc esas influencjls [)()r ()tt:r f)1Lrte sc tstln rrocitrcicrl(k) NLncir ms vtiiicl:t lir exIe -ttLrttllls sitrn i t t.()ttscet t la o[i+itro p.r'.\ retrirn()s .l llls inscrip( ir)nes cn el p( icnte <le l<s intcr<arnbi<s psi()n:lles en el rl(nDrn) m()rrlent() (le lx sesiln. pLrcsto (lLle es lo tlte se hullu rtts excluiclo clc l:r c<tnciencilt (lc illt)lx)s pr()tirg() nistis y (lrc en( rtcnrra str ltrg:tr en cl in(()ns( ieltc sin pltslrr pt llt ( r )nL lun(irl. S()n rs)s elct()s inc()nscientcs. cstlucturantes, cn cl I)tL(icntc. cllrdcls p<-la rclacit-n crn el anlistu krs que ntcrecen la truixirnu.ltcnci(in, por kr cluc v<fvererros sclrrc el te1 en cl captulo 4 ("!ll tratalrlient(): a0rpliacirin cle la
ctncic'nciu. r Dt>clifit ltciiln del inc( rnsciente,
).

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(l)l() r's (r)tr(itrgtnte. <[re no lLry. un oltjcr pr.ecleterDtinacki y scgufx(k) l).r.1 lislil('ct lr ll Jtulsit'rn pcr()..11 ltisnt() tielp(). se sLlp()ne (lte el tlesqo s ('51.(rr,r :rs(.gul((k). l)c[(), (lLt sLrcr:tlc si cl cleser (iertit \ cspr(.fi(.1 lns(rll)_ r r r r t lt t stt,. ro cl cleser en gcner.rl- n() llegri I o5i1.".1 Fll icttrtra ctr> rr.l .l, Lrs rtrrln.s (s c()nstitL\,en(e (niginlll (luc exclLtl,r.y r.t() per.lllttc Llue st lrtsi ilrtut (fl()s csl:l(l()s ent<r.irralcs y Iits rcnrcscntci()nes <rrriesttrclicn lr'\ l (,\ \(l( trl\ r:rr.r <uieries c.l nrrnckr lirc registtackt <rrrn<r -rcligr.os<r. ellos l. ((,rl(, inrlnf( nl(s r. ilttlriores, n() es (lLc replituan la represent.rri(-)n (le los
I)r( )te(.t(
)

-leprc-si(in-. (lU(, ( ulll(k) cl clcsc<r y cl pilcer. tlrrttuscuck s<tlrrr- cl cucpo gcnitl <lel <ttr< rr() s( llrn inscrito 1.>t-tes, cglu() (lijit))()s utris arri[, sc izi scintjr (]rc represcrrl.rlxr sirlo ckrk>r 1. peligr.o. l)c nrilnelil sit]lilx[, uoil cucsti(in cs re.rrimir cl r|. s.. rL' .rternicl:cl c,ncl() a,ste, rr -rcs:' clcl tllrct,r. crrya realizac.iti' enfici l);lll, gcncftl <ulplr Jror sentir.(lLle se LsLl(pll c[ lrrgar rlc rtltttli 1.crrc es pxr_ rlLtrtr clg dese()s Iivickrs c.rtto incestLrosts. (luc si Lnll rulrrlrc ltizo scntil.(luc lrs ll 11r', un castig() cie l)ios. rr-l suplicro, clue el urro tirc lrorrrlr<rsr>, quc l;r trtcttci<in significr-r:rlgo no cleseaclo sin().tsrlt)i(la (tln lesignLi(rn p(r. s(rlinri(.n(() cle OI>ligaciirn. L<,rluc sc Itx /?s././o t)rli1tura0)t<,1a <,t cl _ t t)tttt'i?ttta es le maternidlcl conx srriiiltjento ). l() qrc n() sc c()nstitry es la tlr.il('rtr(l.lLl ,i rnt, ) I)l.l( (.r i(JL n()s t1 lr1()stran(l() este exlllc (lci pr(r)leDtx (lc i() n() (.()nstitrido (.rr r,l ircrnsr iente? (JLtc llL cstl.u(tLll.tr<.irin euxrc.ionui rlci sLtick). IiL c()nstitu(.i(in rk srr rl<,sro n() est.i grntizl(le. Gcneralnente se ltace lrincapii, en
<1rre

ccttstiltticlct:si cutnd() el sri(.1( c()Dj(la. con cl Dtrtnrlo, lo ctrt, krs l):r(lr(s l(. lrxns'litcn. cle mil nlancrs que esclpan x la c()nciencia ([e un(, \. rfrl)s. (,s cl sentilltic,ltt() cle.cuiclacl< c()n...". enl()nces lo rlue cltrerla inscriro cs (lu(, l:t (r)lDi(l v la sexuxli(la(l el tuund() s()n fitcntc (le pcligr() y no cle tlrr ), rtr'. Si tr:rnckr cl nio v (le excursi(-)n c<>n los colltpacr.()s (lrl colegi(),,()s rrrlrt.s r(cilten lar ir()ticiar c()n angLlstil y x partir cle csc nu]enk) c()nvtert(.tl l(xl() I() (l(c erlcontnrr cl hijo en filr-:ntc clc pcljgrr>. enkces los uontpan, ros, r'l r':rrnpo. cl ri(). la (.()nricllr, la noche. cn vcz (le constituir representaci() rt s clull:rrlas rle la ltntici:ltci(rn <iel >lircer rasen e scr pelig:.r)s I evitr. a (.()rl tr()lr. Si el encuentr() (.()n el clerp() clcL hontlre es para la njt. ([es(lc (,1 ('()!ri(rrz() cle su lltis tentprto:t infan<.ia p()l el ntcns.rie nir l('nl() . tncltirza <le rlokrr. clc invasi<in-espcr.ialn)cnte displtccntcl. <le eutltaraz< y sutji rriL,nt(). (le sUciecl:lrl c inlt'cciirn, eslas lcl)l.esentitci(tes l-rr(xlLtc(,n ) tu its_ < t l)Litjl <lel cuert<t clel lromlxc y sus genit:rles (rnl() lucnte cle placcr. En r.rn nirt,l r::ris gcner.,tl, c'l cdio delpeli,qt.<t ptrrlttca lo tro itucritkiti tlc co7^\ t,(, I)t't't't t Irt< i()tt.\ .leI c(jdig ) daI pldcer. Iis cliferente tlue el cLrcr-:xr <lc J:r ntr.rjcr o tlel lrontlrrc scln plrm cl sujcto ()l,i(t() (k desco l,<lrrc rol cuLte () pcrs((.r.lci(in -<rnflicto ilcl.la eliluinr. rk l:r r'oll(icnci cse (les(() ),frnci<nltr c(11() si n() cxistieI.
trc

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( rtlr'i ( rr (\)tt;tr't() crn la sexrtalicl;cl. (.()n

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lr()s() y p()tenter estilri rcprescntaci()nes han cstad() ()riginarixnrente pri\,,tdxs tlc inscripci<-rn. I)e nock qLe l() n() inscrit() n() pLrc(le confiLndirse c()n l() (lLle 5 lnsrril)ii) inc( )nscicnterllente sin qre el sujeto supicra que esk) estaha sttceclienclc

originari()-. existiencl() cntle inscril)ci(in ()ri{inari.l } n() in\ -inctnsciente (r'ipci(-)n unx reiaci<in fir:,: tte nte lncDte (le oposicirilt: la scxueliclacl se pLredc inscribir contcl anlcnrznte _y n() c()ln() cxpcrienciat dc plecer, r-l crxttltctr c<n Ios paches se ptrecle inscril)i[ ()rigjnarilrrlentc c(r)]() clisnrptiva para cl psi (luisln(), p(n kr cuc la Plcsencill cle st()s no sr. insctile c()ttr(r iirentc cle emtr, pr()tecci(in y clc racili(eci<in cle Ilr angrrstia; el f;rntascr puccle inscril>irse ,.rrrno pcliglo. c(ruo deslxr-(le v l(). poL ejerttplo. c<xrro luente cle llacer eroggn() () nalr( isjstt.
[-a no inscrilcron l (lLrc n()s cstl(ll()s r('liricn(k) cs c'lr':Lrtrenrc ciifi rentc rlel trrnctlrto dc lt'clttstjt t.ll ((nn() Ii cnlrnciarr l,acln. pucs 'slir (lesigna Lr n() inscrjp(i(-)n (lc un signiti(nnte tr.rncltrtntal, el .nourlrrc-clci ra<lrc", rr.te estblecera cl c()rtc e ll rclrci<in (hral ('ntre el suj({() } llL ,rnacht fr-rlic,. rrrr tc (lLe p()sil)ilitirri:l 11r ( rlrtrlL(irin sintlx'rficlt. l)()r tlr11), il() c()l|crilxxl(ie xl tip() <lc cxpcricnci;rs y ('s(lucms (lc'significl(ia)n (\)n (lLc henx)s e'icnrplificuclo la n() ins(rip(i()n. en (lrc sr tratrr <lc:tlgo <lel orclen tk' io vivcr-t< il sttlrjctir<r k.r <lrc cluecll t'xcltriclt. P( (f Prtc. L:r(.n h:r corrcllLci<-rckr el c<-rcepto cle Iorclrrsi<-rn ctrn cl oligtn clc llr psicosis. llticnlllrs (luc nltcsttl) (()i](cpk) (le l() n() ins(rilo tirne rn clllii(lcr D() l()(illizx(k) 1l r.llr cnli(Lr(l psi(()l)irt()l(i!icx. I)lLIx (r)ll)pli(r Iits cos:rs lttirl rris. l,acrt. c11 sLl tii(ti( rlc crlYc|tir-strs l.'rrrizltrr<r ncs en ll r'ercltlt,r' lectt[ rlc licLl(l pilr' ctcorDtrlglu-ils c(n() tri(l(nes ar Frcutl rtl rtstr cle krs rsicrxtnaiistrts. sr)slLv() <1u< lo ttu- l rl,.'nonrir:th:t lirclusi<in corrcsronclie rr lu li,r'ztrli1,,q freLr(lian. (Lrrn(l() ('ste tr'nlrnLr cn l-r'crtcl sr retcr'1{ cxl)li( ital nlcrltc lr rrlgrr <1ue cstrI(l() irts(rik) r[ (lescstintr((] l)()r cl sLirt(). (inrx) s()stlr) l.rcLcl ( 19ui)r "Alrore lricn. rxistc Lro.r rrrxlltlidcl ricfi'nsiva rDLrclxr rl.is cni'r'gicu 1'('xit()s. quc c()nsist( en (luc cl \'() (lc.\cstit-.t Irent'et7i,tt. acl:lra cl trx([rcl(r'] le ri'ptesentacir-rn ins<lrrtable v sc c(rl) (l)ii.q.59). I)(n' I)()11lr r()rlr() si Lr tcprcs(nllr(i(in ntnc:r lthicl':t c{ )nr pltrlci(l( ), ('n tnt(), l'rerd h I eru cttittt,q sc rclicre explcitarente ill lechrz() vi(renk) (le Lrn.r rc[xcscilt.lL i(-rlr rrrc s ltu si(kr ins(rit cn cl psicittisrrxr. ricnlr.ls (luc en Lrrc:rn cs la D() ins( l'ipci(-)n (lcl sillnitlcuntr firn(lxlI)cntll del n<rlrre-rlcl Plclrc.

el

(s (lc(ir Lullt lttrscttt i.;'

;1. lrl(c fir(rn f)].r s(\((n(rr (tLr.:rL (cflrrrr(, (l(' li,rchrsl(nr (,nrr:p(r\l( l! l(nta.lr1.\ lreLr(lixnrt ,Iixl rir ig:r ni )s (le \ri()s tc\)s (1. frer(l urr tamrnr) rlu(] cstx rn cll()5 l() l)rs(irntc ur'li(rrl.r(lo ((xr,, t)i.r Ir(crl xrlrstil,(.rl)l(\ n ts. r(n))j(, n,) (1r\rrrrir .rlli nr lun.ir)D (lrl irr(,,r\ricrn( (lrstinrx (l(, l() rct)rnn1(l() Iegirnr()5 t)(r'duD()srLrkr kr rLtc iur cl r(xz(,n (l( flLr *urin-r rx) s(r)r, lir t\r.()sis. ,r srlx'r. (tur'!'s( trrrh() \'relicrt x lir jrnpli(..x-)n r)rtls nc(esri:r (lc sU
li(rrsurlri.nt().LLlnclo.cr.lcc.llen() r(n()(krlursitosis:rscl lcurrrn() l(,r-(.,'/i/,1( rl..l(n. l(Xf)l). l)t'rg ;is sc hu Lrs:r(k) ((rn() l du.(i()n l.r qc rpxrt.c cn hs.rik)s ll. Sigl() XXI. 191;. t).(i. I {j I

res. 1 l:r rcprcscntaci<in (le s c()lrt() )'el.\:t

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el inconsciente que llen<i de perplejidad a krs analistas c[, srr li(.rrl)() v (lle tien(le a ser (lei,t(lx de lackr por la (lific(rllr(l paru incorporadtr rrl rrrnirrrtr <le [a teclr''-L 1-rsi< olrn:rlticil S(':.tirnc rlLl< rn riefl lI\rn]rnt() el ct)t rk1 r clc l'iclipo sulie una \, icisitLcl que va nis all:i cle rrn;r sirnple fepresirn. Alir rrrr rr.rc <lelriclo a la t)lta cle satisf)cci(in espeada. a rrz (lel frcast cle l< rlt. sr.:r(kr. cr))c restrltaclo cle su ir11p()sil)ili(i:rd internr. v por ia urnenaza r[ ( irslrir( i( )n. el cornplei() (le E(lip( ) sufre un sepult.lrnicnto ry des ()d -t.'nlctycu lr ttltt ) tlfuxcs-. un; ve(li(lsn cler,rlr.r,''n." Y rel.u.r: "l'rh, cl lir()ces() clcs (r'ito cs nrs qt-te Lna represi(in; eqLlivle, cLu(l() se c(rrsLlm icleahlente, a untr (l( slrucci(-)n y cancelaci(-)n clel c(nrple), (p.ig. 185). I)cslnrcci(il y cencelacion s(rr l(,s cr)ncept()s xllclidos p()r FrerLcl par:r descrilir un estacl< cle <rlss en el iucrnsciente que es cliti'rcnte (leL rnxntenitlicnt() (lc xlg() rn esttlo de repre' si(lr). (lnx) se clelt: cle entcn(ler cst()'/;.Qrte se lxrrra trclu hlrella er cl incons ( i( )t!'(lc l()s cleseos eclpicos 1 sus telnol-rjs, qre las rcpresentaciones y afctos. l.rs l:urlxsas que l<l confirnl>:tn deslplrecen (le a'l p(r'(olnpleto. (luc cs c()m() si rro ltuhicren existiclo y qr,re ctt:nck en \rrr f)cr()(l() lrltctior cle llt vitla vuelvan .r r(,ilri[-ccer strs crrnstelac it.nes fecti\ils sc I]irta (l( i,rscril)cioncs I()lxlmentc nu(\ is \' (llrc n() liL'nen nach que vcr c()n lis anteriores!' La expcdcncia clnica l)iu(1-('('stiLl en c()nlrudicci(in con estu idea: h tftrnsfsrencia, l reacti,'acirin clel P:rsrrck r infltntil ror krs .restos clittrn()s, h.r( (n difcil aceptrr' (lue alg() tlln signifi ( Jti\( ) l)c(le (lestLl).lre(et )tuhrlente. I)cro rue se l)ric(ll ()l)ietxr rl 0titsis ,h ( \.{L llf ai(in qLrc ]( )s Ifluin()s ('teryt t tg' t rlr\ .r LIr, h r'lr7l /,? /c' r i 3 t- impli'. |rrn. rro clinna lx cuesti(in (lue r trxvs (lc elkrs plantean Freucl: alp c1r.re est ( n ('l in('(nrscientc pue.le pardcr li@rzd .kur e cu5ltlttit-uito pt?t(:ttcia act-1, r. l<lt rr n<fallc pues apofiu unx concepci(')n t()tlmenfe (liflcnte (lc [x s()stenrrl.r >{)r'i:reutl hilsla cse lr(l)ent(): I() i,t(()nsciente c())t() c()nlintaurnte J(li vo, >r jlLnrkr por cr))erger. rlr>clttcienckr etect<s cleir'ckrs. lis rrna prclicla cle firerza I cle p<rlcr clicientc en lx vida ps(lLri(ir de ciefias .r,rr'lt l:rt irnes i(lertivo-llfcctiv.rs (Ic k)(k)s los rrrtt-es iLceptan (le lrrclxr arrnrrrc rrrr lrr trlicun clentr<r dc lln oLrrc() teririco qrs d cucntu clel tnrttcno. Asi. 1\1. lilL in lrlrle rlc l r'uelta l pc'rc>clo cle lrrrrgco clel stlisr< inflntil. crn kr qrt, irrrrlir,r rrrr.'cste s(lism() sulie \.i(isitLldes, pasanclo pr roc:ls cn (luc esti'r plll-li( rl.rrrx'nl( :rcti\'() y (frus en (lLre se halla en un segr.rnckr plano. (). <rltnrh sost( ll( (l( :lrt,.'ls u|tsieclacles clc le posi<irin rlerresira sc acti\rrn ls <onstel , r,,rr..,1, 1.r xrsir.irin p:rlanoicle, eiio signific:r (luc st sc Licsu(fi\.. ltl nten()s
t

cosa' el c()ncepto de tr(rlrllrente. en otros nl(rtllentos. lln este nrislr() ofclen cle (Inrrr) It-(i'n'\'ii.;;.-':,; ;.;;.; t'.. J.l .lc'"rr''ll'' \rrli) \( rlu((l( cnr(n(ler cs reeulpl3zad() por ()trtt ,,,f,nt,, il" qu. rig,: piercle supremricie r:n el psiqtlisnlo' ftlerze qtte [Ll\'() en stt llx)r]lento' ,,r*,.'prra -Pir li,.g,, u,rlr'"t a rel(lquirir t()da la y cltsactivase s('ct()rial<xl.a parte. si ei incrsciente no se activase pilsi()nales' El ser huestd()s variaci()nes en l()s ,, r.n,..- ..',"n irrr1,,<lsillles Is qtlc domin:t el estx () en rlltn() prcs.l del <rlio. pitslt pQr nloorcnt()s Perioclos (le cslr)s estll(l()s sein qtc Irta se rk nilico ctte lJanrlttt'tos an)()l Y n() y persecLl( i(;n estttla odi< el si ,,r"oa-,rrg"niirai,rncs cle la c()ncienci't, Ptles ni siqttieru el,stte() xlcanzar p()clta nxdie en cl inc()nsciente ,li.rrn en l)rz()s dorrnirse p!)dra no ".iiit,r" nio El vigiilncia' ,l;:;;:i"tt. y clistrlirlLrir le rtn rcllt<i<ln Pcrsc!(rt('ri'r' " rle i ltclrc c()n lil (ltle P()c() inles halli tenitlo o gn,el l1(rlentl) Lie ['l cntrega' (llte cic reqtliere 1I111()l no prxllit hacerse el ()l)iet() tenclria cue atll()l.tiglrrlr' qu..e ha expcriller.rt:tclo frente al i,rii .i () ltl4lCtltt asttttk imtckntl iltcottsci('nte desuctit'tt -p'u'cidl ;i;tI". "n,,, ('()ntrircci(in d(] Lln la c(nl]() tl('ttlc.._ 1tl (.tlltaltl<lsl1. (le llilnerll elll(jltntt 1l cl tlloen sc )e.oPtltrt' qttc (le tlel relailtt irin LLn gr.l(l()

ur,,rr,, nrur.ulrr l''sqtrt r))clrr\() i;nli;rr;". li'r:;..r,*..,t,pl'''n''-'n P'rr\rIr'tn5irr)rtctlrrI l)ll('ll(' lll:r: iltl( l)(rliLn( l JlgI I lJ / /1ft''t//(. tlte 'e tt'l'tcr'< rrc\r)(,n(lcn '.i.t,.,,tp.'. llts t()(iils en introclttcirnos l' ..'"'l'rs Ltilizrn()s rara .i""".'tr'1" lLlcrza (nlscienle ltcti\'() pier'(le ,.rl-rclici,rncs .n ,,t.i Ilg,, qtl( esltt\1) en el in( plrrqr'tc pltxlLIce :tntl(lcct!'t(llls crrnclicioncs l.rs -,"t.. ,',,r.,,., n;) e)cllclltr (re (lescril)e fretLclianrt se hlla cl est(l() ;'il., it;.,.':.'r:.;"ii .t 1,, '','"''ru" il-IlP(fcn( i l)llr1 ilacer sDitT ortra cl lrostitltllslrlo, cn qtl; ei lactllnte antc I1 (lesrtctivrll cl (lescrlri ()' (erlrliuil P()r r.,.,r.1,i.f ,,f i.',, i rtrvrlegirtl' I .icl clesco l lltctante

rnlPllt

(lc tl()wll)y' va nt iiliacitls .".,,r,tt""f nl:rs g.',r.ral. k)s c\rl(litts() clnici an -va r,,rr* n p't.ii.i" iel olljctrr libiclinell de rl)its tr':lscen(lL-ncilt aul()res se rc quc esl()s 1()s ! qua n,r ra tfltta (lc l()s grncles treLlmiltislll()s
(leia

ltli(l()s Per() qte n() fiercn sitl() clc xlg() qlle tr.nscLlffe (le nlanelll o]en()s pitra rcxlizr slr detittstrcirrr l:L rlnte .i"'pt,,,it,.tt.r",i,rs, cl nitl< r tl x(ltrlt() , ,l)lcr() :,rgnr,rr.rli\, ) en tlru h resL" impl)tcCi interi([ y ]ir fJ .r Jel i.1,,. "r," \ll (lt{r(1i\''n(l') inlP(l((l''til)letll('nlE i'r(tr) ,,,n*t-, -., 1,, rltte tl,. el 't tltse.
1.,. .l.

l in.,,n'. ient('' It( stl('tllrll,rn lti'l l:l / i//(':qrl'?ll )neItli )\ l cl<n. trillaci<1rr gkl.)al !,ste filx) (lc l)r()Ccs()sl rltr:l l.'s qtrc Prl ,I)i l'r (le('ltlcctizll ,L ,.l"s,rtctirtc;tis('ctt)t'i.tl (d iltLUts'"lit ' tl''n '(.!() rsstrll'r(l(' a Ll cltlorosa rlebiclo (lese() ol:liettr prlr el tirin en el seno clel inconscic-ntc del y a la tlccrpr.clltce,. (les;o j" frustraci. ).r,.g" ,,"1*f,, .rrerr(I, 1926) q.e el

quc generrln angusli oxlcisita' ,".',L,.:,,1n tle aqlrelles tinci<nei clel sr'rjeto I r:spcra ciel ejercici. <le hs rnissr'tiel< fogro clel plitcer <tte el iuJr,l,t ,r,,t (lifi'rentc cle "f.i, (lesacttY tcitit t sectt'ittl lcl trctntscctces

), \ 1 .r.i. r,,r.r .rl t)ic(lc parg. iSl ( lx (itlr.Lr (r) ,r, ll,,'1rrr(rr,) rrciu. tx'rso frx.lrs() irsc"l li)n(t()
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o rrlt ctir,rrs d(nDinantes quc pernlane( cn ()rgxniz.ln(l() la vicl cle fantasia y (rrr(lu(J nrxnifiestl drLrante gran pxt.te (le l1l viclu. llsto t's kr clrrc el psicoanrilisis or()str clescle sus c()ntienz()s: l cotr]pulsitt h repcticin (le (.iert()s rk st os o lirntesas. L() ([le (ietenl)in(-) le eceptacir'tn p( )r piu'tc cle Freud clel trrrirro ,trrrrrplejo, pala rcli,rirse ll (rntstehci()ncs t.rn fierterlente ctrgdas dc (l(s('()s () tenx)acs tlrre el pensarnient() y l ac( i(in (\)nsciente puc(lcn cntenrl,.rst rrtto trensfi_rn:cirncs clcrir lclas cle srr presencia. l)er() alLn palra est()s rrrrrrlcjos" hay' oscilaciones cn cl prxler e inllucnciu (lle tien(,n. I)(n.titnk), xrl rrn lu<lo pcrsistenci ),(k)llintncia per(), p(rr el <tlr, r'ariaci(n rlcl grecl<r t[' r'srt pcrsistcncia y cloorinancia en (listint()s nt()nlent()s. Ll |lrztin cle Ia persislcrrcirr lr cnc()ntr(l() ltn)pli.r jLstifl(:r( i(in ),n() ntcrccc que nos cletcnglrmos cr r,ll: nl'ts <tre pltr-:r lrcorrler llrs fircrztts innr.clas: lo tertitnitlo nt setiste i lr r lrttgn c()ltt() lllta cn pcna p()r arl( !nz:[ sll nlctrl l() trlrun]iilic() ( tLl.l L !r[1(, I)Ll{() (le Iiicin (Fre c\ig( un tftrl)jo (\)ntinu() (lel l)si(luisl])() plll'u inrentr (lc i(lcnlifl(.x(.i(ntes c()n el t lrrlrorukrl el cricligo <lc significlrc iones -pr()(lLl(k) rr'rtligo cle krs pcrsot-lrjcs sign ifl( ativ( )s, rlc llr inlltcncirr cle la r.oncllrct dc sl()s s()l)rc cl sllir-t(). .le Ll nra(luinlrril cl-cllti\,.t (le lu flntasia inc()nscientc- l)aio r. l rrre st tapta rl ruurxlo intcnro cl e\tcrn(). un \icz c()nslitLri(l(), rlctc'nuinr rrrt,r'lrigrn lujo srr Prxlcl cstrL( l u'r'.tl]l c tcn(lenci()s() ctrelttrict (,sttnul() extcl. rr() () illrn'l(). I-o rrre restrltl. en c:nll)i(). nc( cslrri() <lt trt cxtncn rttis cletallarLr cs l l'511',, i(-)n srck)1il clcl incrrs< icnte. C) sel. l vlrt.iuci<in cn la firerz.r tk srrs crnslelr'irrts. iiackr qlrr: el reso ctre Ita toclo cn llt tr(r_a y la r lrnitlr t'l fenr-meno clc corrrptrlsir-rn a lrt rrrctir'ii-rn lta rror'<xarlo trn rlcsctrick hLtliro clc actrlle. I-a (uesti(-)11 ts rlc trrst'cncltnci plrra l l)sic(f(r-li-r. \'.r tLrt jrn-rlo ul (r)je{i\,() firn(liutrcntitl rlc clcslrece lu ltrtrrlsir-l-r il l rrl)(.ri(i,,n, t s r['t i tu<clifl< ar k> crre est:i itrscl-it<. sr, lrltr'c l <'r.t<,stii-rn cle c<-nt< r,rlvc tt c fi\'.u ir(lucll() tltte h:r sr.rliickr lJ []nlctgdug. lln tllo r:rdice Ie tr':rscenclencia rlc la pregunta crr cs lo (luc ctivil cicll:rs (r)nsl(]l(i()nes iclecralcctir's ciel inctnsr'ittttc \,(lLta, c()nsc(.Ltcil(iit\ \c I)()rlr'rrn rlt'rilar parl la tclapia psi<rranalticrL l l)xttir (lcl (\)n(xinlient() ap()rtud() PrrI lrr rc,sIrestl x est pregunui, IIx) unl tril)lc lctivu(.i(in se(.torial, cntlclir zrrLr. rrltitulaclu. clel incrnscjcr-rtcr clcstle sr.r lopio inttrior', clcscle lus estrLrcIrrlrrs rcrr rr rfisiokigicls ,v clcsrlc cl ltcclio cir< rrnclntc. C()n respc(Io la lLcti \il('i{)rr s(,cl()l'i1tl inlnsc(. llr1(nlt.i(i(. rlcl inconsciente. clepcnrlc cle rrnl clc l,rs rltrir,rlerles cle su firn< ionanrieltt(): el lil)lr (lespltzalr)icnt() (lcl pr()ccs() lrrirrrrrlio. r'l lrsclr cle (lue sr l)asc dc Ln.r reprrscntcir-rn lr rfr:r 'ror las relar iorrr's nris cir( Llnstlrnciirlcs cxislL'ntes tntfc llts ltisn)s: scrnejanza firrtel, r ( r'\i\l( l( iil lentp()t-1rll o Por tl jrrcgo cltl significackt.'"
lt

lir

C()n respecto.r l:rs.lctivlrci()nes scct(r'iles clci inconsciente <ue ciepen ls estrLlctLl[as neurofisiol<igicas cllte golticrnlin estlld()s enrocionales. aqullas <lucrlan iirela clel nrbito clcl psicrxnltlisis. Peto no por eso krs analistas p<rlerlos (iesc()n()ccr su p()cler. s(r)lc t()(k) ctl.ln(l() en las ltimas d ccls la eviclenciu es tan convinccnie. (itntenzendo P()r los lnti(lepresivos (lue sc l)ILcstran cxPaces (lc ur<cliflct le cognick-rn ,'n() c()nl() consteLtcnti.L <lel significeclo psic()la)gic() qLre sLr ingestl pLr(litlr,l tcne1, y.r qtle l()s estudios cle cloblc cieg() nruestran cuc cl rla,:elro n() ti(ne ese efecto. Es clccir. ltna m()lcui1r (luilrri(a es cepez clt (lctcflrin[ (lLlc se (o1\(x]ucn cicl'ts ]'(leilni(l!Ls replcscntci( )nes. las (lue. in(lcPcn(licntelllentc tlc stt pat licr.t laritlecl cn catllr srricto, ticnen cl (lcn()luinl(l()[ c()mn (lt: cst{ I])rc1t(lts P()[ Peltcncccr' lr la srrie rlc les alcgres r ()ptinrists. En nLtestr() liltr sclIc la clcprcsiLrn:osclen dc

tenlx)s la ltirotcsis (ls (lLtc tl rsicuistrxr y' el <erebro biol<igico Iirr.',n.rn. en sLr iirtemclci(-)n, c()rll() Llltil tabla cle tklrlc cntr(hi xlg(lnrls tePrcsenlll ci(mcs s() cpar(es (lc llcti\':lf cietk)s citctit()s netrr'()llsiolt'tgicos \', lrot tfrrt Iackr, llr lrctivacirin cle st<s hltri cue les rerre'sen tl( i( )nes (lte ltn cstl)lccirkr rrnlr ctlexir--t c()n l()s ,lisrl()s Pltscrt sef c()n\()c(las (llleichntr. 19761)). tln un iirt('ul() [rcicnte (Slrexr v otros. I993) sc prcsentll un ID()(lcl() ir-ltc-ar(k) l)ul.a cxpli(r ls clisis tle pl-tnico en (llre s(] cnticn(lc cr.rc cl <lesenct(lenx lienk) l)()f cltLlsas exclLrsi\'trlenle llsicolt-rgicas inc()ns(ientcs cs se glrirlo por un r))()(liliclr(i(')n cn el nivcl ncurofisiol<-rgico; Per(), txnrl)in. un titst()rn() ptinlilri() (lr estr ltir)x). (tral(lLricr (lLt sc sLl caLlsa. \'a at (lesen(1r(lcnr l ctivx(iD (lc ls rcl)r'cscntaci()ncs (lue en l:t histlie inclil iclLtal han ller':tclo la cerga clcl h<r'or. (in un tcrccr contlicir-n, la rtvetbetaci<in ioceslln(c ('ntIe cl p()l() rlc lus rept t'sentacioncs y cl ncttl ()flsi( )l(iHi(1 ,, (,,n
cilcti\'ci(-)n fccipr()('. 'li)(l()s csk)s halhzgos solrrt l t,ristencil (le (ilcuit()s ncur( )lisi()l(jgicos plr l()s cstl(l()s clruci<n:tlcs (Slr<c. 199't) n() ir(e sin() xp()y:tr lo quc cn ttn nivcl (le(tr(1i\,() llip(fati(o lrlr sirkr sr)stenid() crt ltsicoanrllisis <iescle lrrelcl Irastr ll(lith .la<rrbson. (ltunrlo l'rcltcl ( 1917) hip(felizll).t qLre cicfilts (lcPrcsi<rncs puclicran tener un c.[rs1r l)i()l()gic. aleltxn(lo en ])ttek).J'ttkllltcola xc(l(r cle (lrc cl rIlcclLnisrr() fs(luic() (luc tstal)x (lescl)itn(kr cottesponcla uD sul)tip() cle rlePrcsii-t, () (tltn(l() plantcalle (lLrc llls Icl)rcscntltt it rncs sr: inscilrilr-l cn ci('fi.Is Lxulizucirncs. () (lLe el iDslint() lrioltigicrr cnc(nltr1tl)ll sLl tirmr:r cle expresir-rn 1l travs (lc su iirscripci(-)n rsrltriirt r:n (leleflrrina(hs i(lc1s crte pasalran ar scl- sr feprcscntrLnlc. () cLtxn(l() s()stcnll (ltle lx Prllsi(rl lrc cncrcntr cn cl llrrilc entrc Io lisico y kr rsiclticO. l()(l() cll() ilpuntl)ll a (ltlc l.'rl ]' h!f1dt lr otcttcntro, .)'tla inlhlatci.t t1utll.I, crlfre kr pstttico y lo biok-rgico. l)r(r)lcnrx n() simplc y (lLlc exp()ne al reclrtccitnisnro ncltrobiologista por rtn latkr pero. trllrin. l pcligro no ,ren()r (lc l ign()rnci y tlel cncitrro clentro clel cenrpo tlcl rsicoanlilisis cn (lLc p()r la lijacitin (le ti()ntsrits sc (lesco n()(en 1()s pLrer-rlcs rxistentcs eotle telrit()l-i()s vir-ltulltclos (vase la firerte per<r interesante poli'nrice acerclt (lc l rclaci(in entle ncur-()cicltciil ,v l)sicoanlisis
l

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,f, rt!1,'t1,1(. rrris r()rcpclili\().c rLrit()sccrrx(l()src\'(d)c[r r(.s. \l r'r,Ir.r rrrtIrrl('r lr(,,lrpu]si(')n l;r rt)r(i( i(-)n (lc sU\ ()nstilu(n)ncs.

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AVANCIjS l.:N PSI(]O1-IIRAPIA PSI(IOANALI I I(lA

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RVI:NCION IJ5 'I'ERPI;UTf(JS DIl]I]RI]N(.IADAS

15

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,.rr "l,s1c.lrrun;rlt.sis an(l Ner11)science. .lottrtul d-a:lilricul


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,

Ps.)'cbototdl.\'sis.

l. ltr.era va (le activci(-)n (l('l inc()nsciente viene chcl por l:! flc't:n(i'r rk l oltjtr extern(); en cl casr clcl tiltao)ient()' por el ;tn:tlistrt Aqrt es cltlnclc (ltle Pr()dLli() cn I int:lncilt [n , ,, , lr,,.lrt .,rn quc ste n() repita la cctnclickin (l('sll(ti\'ci(-)n iecr.rial clcl incons('ientc. Se rectterir/r cle ttn pltts cn cl (lLle (l tcllll clc n,rs rl'ttncletlros r]s x(lchnte. en e\te l]lislll() cllpttll(), al l)()r(lar cl c1Pl'ttll() cn (lcsentc lck (le soilte \', la furrci<in l:r ( irtcctizxci(')n tectivx (lcl tcrapeltil' irnl ellxrt lx \iglrientt. cn el aPlrtlclo tleclicclt a Posici()n
(

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lms. 19!)6).

i )Nsri(tut.tNCIAS PARA l-A TIiRAPIA I)li I-A Mtll.l-lPI-l(lll)AL) r)1, !rs'l^lx)s DEI- !N( ONS(illlNrl'l

lil psicoanrlisis c(nllenza) sien(k) Llrll tt()l s(rl)re la relresitltt s(rctncllLrill (frlls llilr) (rrc csttr\'() cn la cotciencil \'(ltle eril cxcllitlo por chr:c:rl c{l ('()htrcrltc l'lr tcnicll r'(.a.nt,,ci,rnea, txlll1)iLln Presenles cn l:l c()nciellcilti,,n t'sl:r concepcitin era ia clel levantatnient() (le lx rePrcsi')n cl rcllcnel lls l,r,:urts rrnsis, es cle(ir la rr( uPerllci')n <lel recttertkr tle lo rh'itlaclt'plrr (ltle P()l ll() rc(tn(litrs(' sc t!,,,1, i,,,, .la la reJtresirn l)()r xlf() FreLl(l s()sttlv() vet' ulatttis tla lt t1t)tcstitt dc llc1ll):lll)()s si. c(n() ritt l l;r-ctrcl, l9i+1'). l'ero (fustctit''lcititt (-i!1inurd' seck'ittl !l 1tL(tscictte vt ttttlttritl hrl.\'ltPresn tt (rltnit'tt (ttilas Lld cun4t' Ln\)lttckil1 obli4a asl1 , tt itu<ripcriitt.'no rs s dtl'rttlt'tt st't: ltts .lt "tttt tts clt'attcctrttr ctt utt t rdlotll i('tt lt) l)sicttttttliictt k) ittc()tts'i('lttc? llloi\ tt,ulL,s tn).tli(lttdes da ?.\isl?ltci4 ().la ttt) oiist('tt'-i't 'le clt' la l( ()nlr l)src()llnltllica cte l cltt:t \ (le Ll tcllie't cs sicnlf)re srl.lsitlirtril

\i' ti\gr) ,'t',rl,,,ia,n que vavx tenicndo lx (()ncePttlxlizaci(n clel inc<rttscientc tlna cn Pr:lcticx inrlt rlisocirtt a lli tcnic (lc la te(n'.I y luciirll Pelllranccer l()s l)[ici()s cn gcn(irllcin) c())o generecitin cn rx)\'ili\lJ qLte se (l'llnstllile tle (lel () corlcsp()n inc()tlsciente estxd() itrl(,sunirles. Por ello it cacla c<ndicitin tlt r:i rtlgrtna tloclaljclltcl tle inlecncin tttc le sea llls P('rtinentc (irrut'ncctos lo ilscri) ( )ri.aini ri. nlcnl c c'n el in(1lscjeol( r'll rtle cl
P()r

litn(latllcn lrirl)lL) c()n ta repiesi<in sccundltliil tienc tln cst'(tu(() lllLl(ll() nrlls (-(liDlient() (i(:l trav a llcccs() \uict() tent'' P()( qr-rc el <le l:r(l(). Sc trata Ptlc(la t,rlotitllicnritsr'r'rr rrrr r-rctil en i)all' L: i( t as ?tl !l ttttli5is(1r)71b ) ltl rle l'r itle a(lu') en lit inl:nci es (lecir l()s (r)nlenid()5 qLle null\''t cLtrtie

t,

'l c()ncienci Pero qtle s se inscril)ier()n lin plill]et lttgar' la pr'lestlt al ((s(Ll)ierl() tle Ias Ieprescntac i()Dgs v cstil(k)s en)()ci()nlgs Pllrentxles acelcx clt los <tte no ttt\'() l;i p()sil)ilictrld cle pensar (luc exiticlrln Pcnr c!lv()s etect,,..l.,f,i,. y <lttc ftteron ks clue contrillttvercln c<lnfillurlt c()1ll() slje)' Lln ,,tr,,. Irlin,rs. Irs llrcnsltjes cle )r>s pe<lres -v ias cluocir>ncs (llle -st()s scntiln ltltt irttr st tlllr' \' (llt(' llilsr()n ser cl \'()cxl)Ltlxrio llitsiclr clcl slljet()' l\IenslLics
!-1)r

cn

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()lrlls reprcscntci())es qrrL' los ruclier:rn centrrr:reshr. pLes sts n() exitian n() inscrit() , n() puclier()n clal ()rigen al (()nflict(), qLe sietnprc re(Luicre -lo (le (l()s c()njLrnt()s clc replesentt ci( )nes en oposicirn.i') Fll pr()cr(lilienl() tle ir reconstrulenclo crn el pacicnte lx ltistolil cle las infcr:rcci()ne:, en las crules se les transflncli<i prlrte del ruLrn(l() erccknal cle krs rlclres perlnite ir rescatntk>le cle sus efckrs. Al respec). arrn culncto fornlLrlirci()ncs clrsicas tlcl tipo cle .Ahol estlin h1l)l.ln(l() () actlllln(io l).f'. o rui[)ri a trr\'('s sLly). y cstn clicicnckr y ltacicn(l() tockr lo qrLe clkrs pensaitan Y sentn. y (luc uste(l t(mxi (()rn() si llrera su1rr..., cue puclieran ser consiclera(lls c(nll() tnlr rrivillizaci(in <le ll tcnica ( recl)1()s sin eml)arH(), que c()nslitLlyen Lrnlt nraner':t vivcncill cle pennitir ill pil(iente (lLtrj r':r\'11 slienck clei rprisi( )nanrient( ) clcl munclo imlginri() en que clecirr Llstr p()(ler rcsignitic:llllr (le l rr'c( )nstr1( ci(-)n Irist<irice sc rierclc cn un anrilisis cue st-rkr trans(Lfrie11 rn cl arlui y liltora rsitick). ].ll tIil)) terpLlti(o cn el aclrr t'llr<rra. tn cl vilcrrkr con cl tcrapeuta. sin,e y cs l)s(rutaente inclispensaltle pnra (lcscntraxr tliferentcs tip()s (le filntlrsas. pr vcr seeLtencils cle proces()s. J)rit (lctcct:r (rii)r() el f)]( icntc se rellr<ir>na crrn figuras iiltxginx[its. per() lt lrc( )nstrlcci(-)n histolica Jrcrnrite cncilr cLal tr.recle lrlrher sido el <>rigcn cle lus cstru<trrs cue sc ck:splicgan ntc l()s ()i()s (le pa(ientc y terapclttlt. AcleDris, Irr ti'tni<a rlc l: rcrrsit cir-)n I)i.s(;'i(l c-s clcseu I>:tlrilizanc l)Les ')lLlcis tt llrs fircrz.ts Poclerosls c1r.re ntolclcaron l sLliet(). Si e[ sujekr cs agrusrr rr ton el terlrpcrttlt. si reecr-ionlr l)lrln()icllltcnte c:trllr vez ctrt'se le dicc xlg(), crarn rlr Jrrre<le vcl rtre i,su ('r-it Iirnl)i'i't la lirrr en trre srrs t)grrras si.iniljclttjvas lurlt l irlentilicurkjn- rerrcciontlun llntc (ual(lLier <lltsclv.reron, -tfrjctos (\-)nr() sLr scnsil)ili(llrrl ntrcisistu lta siclo intrrrl}tracle por iclentilicaciln cQn el firot'gn los rrjos cle >ltp:i r'rt(] el llen( cuc\li()Dll,lient(). ent(l(cs sc p()(lr trltltrtjar srt (llrctcr1)l()flil sit (lug se llt consirlclc c()Il() rnil cspecic <tc propic(lx(l inlr.lnenlc. p uel)a (l(' su Dral(i.ld. Lo rrrc no signiticu clrpositar le cul prrbiliclecl cn lr>s purhcs, t,l tr.rc cl ol>jciivo cs llegul r rrre el pxcientc (irpte (ltlc sLr l)si(lLrisnt() se cstlLr(tLlr(i p(r'l()s entrelitzlnienk)s cntrc k, (lue.lp()ftar()n l()s paclrcs ! l()s ac( )ntc( ilrt jen rs que el ezar dc'la Iir-l:r tf(rve,vr-r. tocl<t rrolrle:rr.kr >r'la protlrri cirin clc strs intuss in( ( )nsciettrs: \'(lrc talnl)in los prl(lrcs flrtr()n sr.rjetlrlos p(r'su prol)iir llisk)ri:t (lc i<lentiilcac ionss. dc distursos. f:Lntasas \'1rc()ntc(irIIienk)s a los cr.tc estl\'ief()n expLcsk)s. Sltbctttos ruc llr' rccucrrlos encr lritlores. clefilnacitin p()l' conflict(). t'.'ftlad trurrtt'.t\Sp(11(e, l9ll2) e|r <1r.re clcsclc el plescntc I b..rjr; sLr inflLren, cilr se rec()nstrLlye el prrserio per(). tlltr)l)in. rlcli,nsl a ultrnza cle l-rs Lrrr.rge-

ir. (.rc(rrk^
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(tLr( n(.(. lr.r r(f).LfrL(i() qLle l.r rc(ni(x prl,tnr.5r.r tr1 <.,1ltit<<i, ti rt) l)!tt\1rn quc Ii(ud no i,)sritc nris en qtrr cl pir<rente rltlr:r recor(lxr. ((no si enlirrzl-

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al n() entlr en cr)nii''l( I lit I' tll I'rr

sr.Ll.rdrr)rLr)tu ins('rir(). s()l() sc tr,clrl rtcrtl.r k) (lLrc (.U\() rn l, L.rcirne]ll v Iire,rrl() dc Lr r.Pr(sr-)rl s.(r .lx :r 0(,r( p:ril cl (lcs\(hrni(,n) (le l( (r'iginxrirnrulir rn\(r< el L r,r r.rm n() e\ 1 .(r1st11r(1i(-)n que rnrliern(l() \' nlllistu puccln lu(er.

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,\VAN(:IJS IJN PSI(]('fJRAPIA PSICOANAI,'[ICA

tNl tiRvriN(it()Ntis't liRAPIul l(,As t)lIlliRliNclADAs

159

n('s l)llcr)1lcs. Fil prc>l:rlema es clxr separar la verciacl histrica de la vcrcllrrl r)irrrilivll. es cleci, l< que verclaclerantente sltcedi(i (lc los relat()s y c(-)(lif.i( )s llrio krs <rre sr ()rganiziln l<lls recuerclcs (Blranger y ott.os. 1988t l-aplan<.lrr,, l()()-xi l)crs()n. 199,1). Pco el riesgo es el que yr serialba Ferenczi en 19.l.lr i,rl('nlirr Dcgrr cue cl traunLrtisrno existe y verlc c<rtr Lrna falsiflcacin cle l nl( rr( )riu. intent() en el que participa el pacicnte pcr() quc cs el enalistar <uicrr n( ) infi( ( Uentement(j l() pl'otr)Lcve: "l,r tr.lulnat()gnesis cs cr-,ltr.rctrlr.r; la ducl:t, t's rltril si sc tratil (le rcxli.icl () flrntas1... I)lefiercn pensal <1uc sL espl.itu (y cl clt' Ios seres hLlltan()s) (nrelnoli) no cs cligno cie confianza nrs que la rlttntirr cle que rl.,s cosils c'on estc ipo (le pcrs()n.rs prrecle halrcr <>crrrrickr ttltt? la ( .\!<rslt rifici< cle Ia itttagridad tle su cspitr palll sal,,.er a los pa, <lrt's), (l.ercn<zi. l932lt, plig. 342. ls ctrsivas s()n (le l.'crcnczi. t.tl (.()nlo ligL Irr cn lus notas clel { cle ntr'ietnlrc dc 1932 cle sr ciiario escris en lengrra

r;rs si krs paclres le hulriettn aportaclc) (fr() v()cal)tllari() emoci()nal. L() (lue lllul)in resLlt vl'tliclo para rel'isal el cclig() y las em()ci()ne cle sls 'padres .rctrLles, terupcLlt.l-, ls ent<ci<>nes y las te()rias cle ste sollre el tlltn -el ntrnca alcanz:ll)le, Lkr, la salLrd y 1a enfenncrlaci. Al cetx clel anillisis -rlet \ c()n()cilrriento (le (lebenr()s pllciente sc que cl x h tender-, l)cr() ^cercalrl srrs iilritacirnes y capacidacles, las cle sls Pltcles v lls alel teralp(tlt.t- Fr1 1\tt

t t'leg lr'ifico ). Si l)irn n() es f-licil riistingui| realiclcl cle lantlrsa. srlrr.e t()(l() p(r-sL entr( lilzilllticnk). sin etDltergo. al clo clc rn tielnl)() (le eslar (\)n Lrn prr(.icntc, t l lcrrrt,rrta se vx li)rtrando rrne iclea clel gr:tclo en cr.re el I)x(iente pue(le dis, l()rsi()nit cl acrr y ahr>la trnsfi,rencilrl cs p<rlexrso lu.rxiliar al respect()-. il(' r(t )te cimientos ptrecle cstal tlcliIltanckr y ct[iles <rrrtespondcn a una r|rli<Lrrl lrisk-rricl. En estc senti(l(), irey c.iertos clat<s srltre eJtistxlios traumtr( ( )s (.n Ll vi(la (lel pacicnte qLc .l rn tcnl)cLt.l tenltjnn por nO ofrcccrle clut .

rl,rs tlt.<trc si ()cLn- et()n. l.ir rf[l (resti(-)n, cle intportancitr (lecisivlt, es por.cue1 la rcconstrrcci(ln lrislolir':r rrrrcliflce cl nunclo intcrno clel pxcientr. por (l lt:rccr- cotrsciente kr

ir)(rrs.i(.ntc pr<rluce canrltiosl Sinlflcutentc tonLre Icvanle lu rcprtsrun. In)r(lt( sc llenan las lltgrrnas usiclts, () p()r(lue sc ve constrtrvr-nrl() Ln nuer

o It llrlo, ulxra con

-l() rtso tlt'lrcrr'rpaur al pcicntc en el lent() pro<.eso rlc rcvisur-su ltistr.ie. se \ir ('( nlst[rYenCl() Lln nueva crtncepcir-rn y Lnll l]Uc\'il lllarnc-It (lc l.uil,,.(.i(rl.tr (,rr()( irrllrlrentc. l-l re( )nstru( ci( )n hist(iri(.x rccstrll(tLrra el signiliceclo clc la
(

rlurl(:l cstlv() prcscnte

c()p!lrticip:tci(-)n (le pll(.ientc y anelista en ruc algo <tre n() iuscrik)- pas:r tener existen( iitl, Lln el lxo-

cixs csrs, Ias clilicultacles clel paciente intpiden <1ue progrese en la amplia r. i<-rn cle sr.r c()ncienci.l respccto sus li[ritaci()ncs y las (le stls pdres. Bn n() l)rxr()s. ls (liflcultxcles clel tcttpetttrt inrpiclen <uc el ptciente rvltnce en el tec()n(xinrienk) (le lxs cxrencias qtle cxrxcterizarl .r qtll y, s<llre trckr. tlc slrcl clrre a trltvs cle kr qttc el terapcutx dice ,v hact; llc l() (lLc nrl clice y n<r hucc, lc va intrrxlrciencl<, cn su in(onsciente, (leseos. xfe(t()s, icleas. No ltal' terrpi quc no kr hega. l,o nico <1ue Pllede (listingtlir al lnlilisis es si cl pr(F (;r:l(1('ris lrio aneliste p:ls, tllrl)ia'n. at ser cxlll))ina(l() P()r el pltcitnte en stls s<-rk r cn lo (lue el pa(ientc pr'())tcta en l - Qtrc el terapcltta see tic:ls -n() {) n(). (lrc clcjt cilcLtlar cl cleseo. c1r.te hxga iirterprttaci()ncs () n(). silenciosr <rre enalicc ll lrrntase inc()nsciente, Pucclq () n() scr jntcn'cnci(il-l llnxlitic.,v s(rlo k seri rs es nuestr.t pcrsPecti!a- a (r)ndicin (lc qtle el pacicntc tcngx l! ()pcii)n (le tclllintr vien.lo cuc kr rtte el analista hacc no cleriva cle unll \'cr(l1l(t tcnica. (le algo ctte no roclria scr (lc ()tr fi)rlra. sino <uc lcsttlta cle las r4rciones. cle krs clesets, cle la ernocionrtlitlx(l (le stl lnxlisl:r l)c ()fr nlancfa. sc vur:lve a repetir L contlicitin cle la infrrnci cn clre ltls peclres jr.tstillcxl)xn sus prcli'rcnciirs c(),)lo si fLcl-itn vcr(liLdes cternlts tle cixrur sc clclllt cliar lr un hiio. sicn(l() Si algo clifl'rencie xl an,tlisis (lc l:t psi(r)terpix psicoanlrltica -n() el prinrero superior. sublitne c()n rcspect() x la segLndai silllplclllente se tratlt (le (listint()s ()l)jcti\r)s. igttaltncntc vltlickrs scgn los casos y circtlnst.rnL'irr\ , cs que cl rnlisis l)Lrscr l() que estri cletft'ts clc la itk:nticlacl oficial tlcl pa< iente l)ct'o t.ultblt dd atatlislt.l)e esk) se (lesptcn(lc qLle n() l)asltlll()s llr clitcrcn-

(ia ni en el nivel (le tegtcsi(in.rlcnzit(l() ni en el ltnlllisis (lc la fintxsa in

sitrLrt ion Plrscll p(r'que pcnlrite c.relr rlistancia con respccto el c<-xlig<t cLtc ti('n('( srict(), porquc rcletitizu ls convi(.ci()nes clc l infunr.i pcro, lxr.cn( inlll (l( l()(l(). polclrrc algo ttre nLlncil se c()nstitu!a) psx ll cstf en cl ntrnck

(::n(k) cl pilciente es ltyrrrlatlo a c()nstittau-rtre vio el rntrnckr y I sr rrrrs(r)r() resr.rltacio rle un cricligo entocionl r'giclo y tccluciclo. kt quc se le (s s(,nlit (lLc lray otro crirligo p()sil)lc tln lrucn lrnl'rlisis crci (ni\t(r llrl( l)( r r, ,1, ,Jl, ,s. , , st rr, suiet()s que rcvisan sLl visir-n clel ltrrntkr preguntrnrlosc: 7.por ( r ll rr l)i( r , \ si(,,tlt) cle est lltnerai/ tll l)cicntc ltien analizlrclo, ll tmrin< clc rn .rr,rlrsrs crilosr. kr <ue salte rs (lLrc gr.an pxrtc (le l() <r.re. pcnsti v sinti tite rrorlrrrto r[. lrrlxl cst(k) explcst() x (.ie()s c(icligos y expericni.:ius. qr-rr lr( nl(. .r L's llisnl()s it(\ nttccilltie'ntos los poclr.a halrr vit,ickr cle ()trs llnne-

r( l)r(.s(.otirci()n1tl clel paciente.

rr,

c()nscientc ni clc llt tI1tnsfcrcnciil, y.t qtrc est()s [ecurs()s Ptlc(lcn c()ffcsP()nclel a les Iir nlrs Drirs ru(linrcntariils (lc la psi(1ferpi stlgestiva ctlan(l() cl (lcscotcr.rpcLtll- n() s()n plcst()s en cLlestk-)n l){' rll, <liticack y su c(-)(lig() -el mcnos intrLLsi\'(), ltt-rs sjlencitso. Ptlc(le ser Pxrtc ncra c(riv:llente. ci analista clc Lrn r)lrc() terupLrtic() tle srtgestit-tn cranclo se crtc, ing!-nultnlcntc. qtle elkr cs rcslrltark excllsiv() <lc la.l>uena t'cnic1t" y no sc levisa tr.r clccls ploriucc en cl pcitnte y ( ules puerlcn ser los clcscos clel lnalistx (lue sc reit lizn a travs dc cs.ts c()n(lLtct.ts. 'lunrptro gxntiziln na(la ls cL.ltl(, c.\i()nes si sc r.tilizan para inr.rnclar xl pciente cle icleologa ltteclitntc inteprct (i()nes qlrc se cree estatn clesculrlien<lo el inc()nsciente cLllncl() r:n vcrtlcl ll estarn creand(). l'cxr tLtrtr rrcn()s aitn posiltilita el enl'rlisis si el n(llrler< cle scsi()nes o ll cltrrcitin clc las nristlus y el pcrtxkl <Ltc las abtc n() pcrll)iten (uc haya un proccs() en clue el inconsciente sc pLre(lx n)lnifst:tl y exJminJr

l(r0

Av^N.Iis LN psr( (tr'liRpl ps)coANA.i'DcA

lNIriRvl:N( l()NLs I lillPl'ltrl lC^S


t,ts (lue constitu,ven rna arnlen:lza

Dl

l'lit I: NCIADAS

l()1

t'rr pr<fun<lichcl. Si tlrvir.lm()s trre cielinir.rl ilnlisis diriam()s qrrc es el pr() (cs() en qLlc se exnrina el inc()nsciente del paciente 1. su relacirin con lu ( (nrcien(i peft), p()r'encira clc tr>clo. es algo que se cilrcteriza porque aquel {l{('()(rp:r c] l(rga[ (lc] allis:r cstli (()nlinuanrcnte rrlisun(lo el c<itlig<> v cl ur:rtco cles<te qLLe se cst.i exaurinanck e'se inc()nscientet es clecir, los supuest() (lLtc cn el clesc<xlificacl< rct(lxn par:r ir enc()ntrand() y pr<xlucicnckr signili<:tclos. L inclispensirl>le asimetra cle l, sitraci(in anulticil requicre qre el nlrlisfir ;tr(le al pr(icnt( a exun)iDur slr inc()Dscienle es llr tlre cola-sti lxrrtiva- y qLle, 1l misno tiemp(), est'fiente u s rlisltx) revisln(k) el sr)'() es la tare qLlc el rnllistx reseIvr par:r s rero qr.re clclr cle tcner tan-a'st lir l)rescncja c(titllt(t coto la priDrerr-. Y no mrs referinlcs s<ilr olsenar li (\ )ntn tr Dsltrencia. sinr : I(xl() cl lprrrt() rlescoclificrrlor intelsct!a y (u()cj()n1tl que el ltnxlist p()ne en jueg() en cr(llt ()(.rskin.

tlnt() Parx el nio coln() Pllra el teraPeLltx, (le quicnes hima instancirt clepencle la c()ntintlci(in (lel tritllen l)urs s()n rrinto. En c{)nsecLrencia. ltt tlcsitlettlilicuciriil (le l pt()l()3 clc J<])s pacllcs a l,r ruc tiencle l:r reconsttLtcci(rn hist(iri(,1 re(lLiiere ctc ltn trlrajo c<nslstcnrc cn ( ncr"Jr llrs resisrencias qte itcal).lrr()s (tc exatllinxr. Iln:l l]latizaci(in adiciooal r(,sLlll neccsaria: lr)ient(rs que en xlgLlrl()s pacicntcs el cxillllen cle las Citracr(rsti(:ls patolgicrs clc los .>ltclres es l() 'esisti(lo. en ()tr()s. la crticll l()s tllisIll()s (()nstit!r]'c I:r csen(i:t (icl (liscLrs() rlLniflcsr (lel P.tcientc y sL f()rllllL (lc ( ()r'ltlalrrestr le rrlnsfcrencia pcrse(!tt()riil ctn cl ltnllista. cle creal ln :tlin zu con el rnisr(). En est()s cas()s cl rnrlisis cle la lun<i<-n rletensiva cle l crli(.l ir l()s pa(lrcs s('c()nvierte en tarcll pri()ritlria. '

L
li,ssl(itctts o lct t'ccr)tntccii l)istric.l

(latilc.tcitit

(()l d l?rupctt0

Iil trxl)) clc' re( onstnl( ci(in lristrrica p:r'lr lograr <luc lrlguien sc /c-s/d?r?tilittteclel cliscnrso parentlrl n() es tlell fr'icil. Aclcrnirs rle la inercia p\(lu,cJ J rlorliti<lrr I() inscrit() n()s t()pan't()s crn las lcsistencilts nlrrcisistlls (lte hacen (l(l( ('l l)il( iente se r'c:ttiture en sLrs (feer]ciits rtres clurltiltrlas es !i!i(l() (1)l]t() 5i)rtl({(l-s( i.t ()tr(). l-(a()n()ccr (lue nccesit.r (lc ste. Flsl)cciallrentc ((n(k) k)s |lrsgos )ltlol<-rgicos estlin nxfcisizt(l()s. c()lu() c()n ci!'1t()s rasg()s ()l)rrcsl\'()s () r.rllrrtoitlcs (lue s()n .()nsi(lcmrlrs p cl p:rcjentc c()r))() inclicios rlc virtr.rcl y \ll)r'li()r'i(h(l s(r)[e l()s <lens (l-rrx. ]91i9)- 'l lu))l)in c()nstirye un rlst:'crlt> t):lir llr rec(x1str'ucci<'rn histtiriclr llr <lcscrnfi:rnz:r (lue se trng1l rcsl)ect() al te(

I-ln l(xli (lcsi(l(-niflc:tr'ion rlt'l Jr)tn(l() pit(ra)gic() Pilr!-ntll se ((nrt cl rics go -<,s ir-rcvitllrlc- (le (cr en lr i(lent ifl( aci(in .1)n el rllLln(k) Pxr(i8ic() del tc pcLrtx. Dc lt cl cLticlaclo rue sictnprc- lta teniclo el psicoaniilisis en alcfiar lLcerc tle no usr la i(lcntilicilci(in con tl anltlistl (r)l)t() instrtl)rent() (le clll-a

(ierl() njvel tlc irlsrtifirilr'ir-)n rrsultll ine\itl)le. Mris ltn. lluy tllit iclentili(llcin ctre sc rlclrc lluscar er-t )(l() trxtanlicn): cs con l [trn!i()n.ln.lltica rn tunt() cuPuciclacl (lc interesilrse fjn el lllltn(lo intern(). en ls tn)(x i()nes, sn llr fant.rsil inc()nscientc. cn el signil'ic(lo cle'los sr'ttrs. en ls nl()ti \.lrcir )r)('s (lc [ r'onrlrrcta. En c-ste scntitkr. cl nltlisl clelrc tencr (\u() inlcts
L' l)L-r)

-)n

rirl)( Lll cuan.lo el suiet() estu\'() influenciacl() p()[ el rr!]nsajc plrrental cle .Ncr r('xs cn l() que tc (li8n los clenl:is. te v.rn it tratr cle rngaar; crrc s(ranlent('('11 n()srr()s". P()r ()fnr pr'1c. cxirnlinar el cn'rcter pllk)l(11i(() (le lis iif.rrrirs l):rrrntlrlcs ciespietl en()nue LngLrstia: sel'rtirlicnk)s (le clcslealt(l _y culpx, () inl.Lstias Pe$ccLk)l'ius p()r criticrtles. Si en Ia intlncix el criticxr.i I()s p(lres (r'.1 scrlli(l() c()lno inr))inenciu rlt c-.rstigo, cl hacerlt clrrrante el lr.rtJnlicnl() rltsriertu csc Iism() scrti]liento tlc J)cligl.r>, ) l() s)l() p((lue se transficr: s()l)rc cl telul)eLrtll la ilrgen cle tigLue rco.rz!nte. Koltrrt ( I979). cn lts c[<ls rrnrilisis cltlse()[ 2.. nl!estrl la angustiu rlc clcsinteglaci<in <ue cl seot Z. s(nliu (L:n(lo se ex1r)linlll)an los rsgo. plrt()l(igic()s clr srr laclrc. prres clesl),( r(l('rs( (lL a'sta ela \ ivi(k) (1o perclet un sentirricnt() (lc identirlrrtl. cle colrcsiort <k stt .rcl. 5( rrlillri('trl()s periecLlt()r'ir)s yrol scpararse rlc los paclres ttre s()n lllll:r lnar(.r(l(,\ (uiirlt() l]lrv()r c()ntjna sicntl<t la clepenclenciu (lel ptcienlc c()n resl)( i lr).r t \lr)\, ( ()I]r) s!, (()nstrlJ en cl aniiliss (le nios, cspecillrr'nte cLrxn( f( ' \(' lrr( s( nl.l l.r llr'r'rr <iiflc il cic tctter rtrc rll, \tr.rr (lu( cs.tn .l\Ll\tiL(i()s p(n' Irllrrr.ts r,rrcrrl.rk s rrr:t)luntcnte inllrginatills sin() rc.rlurentc pxr(;Iicxs l'igtF

escrtcirl el rles:trrollo tlc- l:t <lLreciclltcl (lt Lr)xniilisis. 1' es 1t(ltri <l<tncte <lesellt()s insistir'. unlt v(]z mlts. en (]l esg() (lllc se c()rrc si c(la vcz (lue el l)acicnlL- sc t()xnxlizlr. cl lnlistx le scnltla tttr aPcck) clel (lte se cstria cle
rivali<flr<1,

fi,nclicrdo. r consiclera (lIrc el xut()lnlilisis es sielrpre el csltltack cle ia tlc Irt cnvitlia, tlc Ilt in<'ar:rciciitri ric clercn<lcr clcl ()tt-(). En est()s cJsrs. el nalist fLrnciona <rrnxr los -racltes (ltte n() pcl'lttitcn cl clesrrtlll< cle Iilnci()nes, enccrnclo ltl sLict() cn l sinl)i()sis s()l)rtPr(xeckr'11 Per() lllutilan tc. lQLr pxsll ctltn(l() \'ienc Ltn l)llciDl( ) n{)\ Lttcnt-l Ltn \tc,, lll cllitl cn(ien(lc cn tli lensir 'tcs inrp().t!lntcs. \'(le.\l)L-s It:tl.llrt cle rtr -PCct() (le sr virl:r y clelruestr:r un alto gr-uckr (le l//.4{b Cnx) sc siente cl analistx? (iene lirlDrentc nccesil(lo clc agrt'gur'-JIrr nilrcisisllx) (, P(r'crllpx p()r el pago que recibc- un algo <ltre el pxciente n() estarlL clctect:tnclo. Al respect(). la iatro{enil ltr.ecll: ctlnckr el :rnllistil c()nsi(lerx (lttc stl [Ln( i(-)n cs ()freecr it)lcr]llt [xcioncs sin tencr en crcn( el plln()rlrnIi gl()l)rtl (lel trlltxDlicnk), rlue cn llglrn()s pcientes ()rienta c()m() trlrea escncial I)xcix lx estilutthci)n del e)ercicio cle fitnciones qle siemplc fircr()n b()rtil(lirs xrr pltclrt s .inteligentes, y "cfi(i(ntes,. Si nrs cnconi[rnx)s antc Lrn pacicntc lll (ltle (ltlt utnc, Ie (leii r()n penslr ni lLrccl, el xnltlis(x. xun clicicnclo toslLs c\llcfxs. p(c(le eslxr [('' \X'innic()tt (1965. phgs. 252-J5.lt rilienclo esa situacia)n. S<lxc esto rlertal)11

l(rl

AVAN(-t'S tJN PSI(JO'I'IiRAPIA PSICOANAL'I'I(.A

lN! llRViN(.1()NLS I lll{APllU't I(lAS l)Il:l,RliN(llADAS

16J

, rlrrrrl,r soslenir (lue sc


r
r

p()(l ser

(,sprci1, rLlln(l() se utilizxn ls insullcicncils en las tlncr<rn..s ,rr, t l rrtjr.. cnrpieza:t clesarrollr pllr scalarlas v afianzar.se s en el lol r[. I iglrrl (r))nip()lentc.
rtc

s.

|n

lltl

atnillistil hacienclo,,Jtrrcnes, intr.rrrt.t,r

p()R l)[_ctr', p()R .r.RAUMA. p()R Ns(.Rrp(]t(iN pA.I.ot (,fi t(,tNARIA t:N iit_ INCoNSa,nlNTIr. \, p()R (1)NI,t,tL-,()

l',r

r.rx;

(icl(:A

r.rs lritn. cl( r)r()str-itr lit rlicttl.lrin cntrt l.ls Illi!ll.ts \ el Pre(l(l)ini() rclalir,, rtrr- rurtierl rxistir'(le ltn <l<'tlllts. l)()r ()trit Prlc. (l e()n(cl)k) rlt'tt'lrtnl:t ,',lLliclc ser ptecisacltl' Sc stlclt' entcntler c()lll() lgi) qLlc ll:tl)ien(l() ()cLlrli ,1,) ('n un rlt()mcnk) chclo. licnc rlesdc stt rrtigen el (liriicter (Lc 1l'artln.ltico. 'r, tltlo el clisoclirl ltllctior ltlgo cltc simplenlcl-itc r('xclivarix l() v c(rlPl(tt,r'atc ( ( r').\( )lid1(1. y n. elltl>rrracl.. Sin etttlxttg. cl Itiiccs. l'Llccle scr lltlch() llr.rs c()r))l)l(i(): ,l- c\lesli(-)n stclPrg Pl'tsenlc. lcirtir-'. y 1lg (()nsc(Lr'n(ills (l
ItirLrriLtisllt(). <lcl ortlen (lLlc sc-iln. sc Iltll)ierllll descncaclctt.t'.lt I (lc l()(llls llllt( llls sin l:t l)recil)illlci(xl (lcl iLc()ntccilnie]t(). . () si. p()r el c()lltrllri(). lo <rLc se lrr cllclo en lll]urr .situacit-rn descrrc(ltnnl(j' tle llfsctit (( nllplc lllrln lxrix -tl (r)lll() ]() lrgnl()s itttlltclt Inl'is llrrilxt-. (]s Pilfle lxegnllntc trrn igttlll nivcl

,lil, rr'r)l(\

irrtlr rrlrrjt'rrn la ccrncep< i<in (lc prttdt)!1o lx-licl( y sc rlesrrrnstr.Lrye el c()n ( l)lr ). sc c(nnprLrcl)11 (lUe I)lj() esta (len(llinxci(i11 engl<ilrun c()n(li(.i()ncs rt)rrv

(.uu(l() se estucliln lrs eieltpi()s clnic()s p(n.tack)s Ixx. l()s aLk)res (lu(,

(luln(l(), efi'ctir:rncnte, e ()l)ie) (.xtern() (lejo

rlt lritlllrrrs hallar clc p.ttol(4a por (lc/icit (l obab c-\.t(,rtk,.

tlcl l)siquisrrx) s()sln (le la arrtcttsti rir, ('.lp.r(i(lcl de aut( )apllcigLl uiento (lc le engustia, (stl.uctLu.xci(in de la Irrntir:r cltseante, senti)ricnt()s dc p()teDcia y ellcacilt. clc l\)r otrl pafie. la rlt nrrrrinrrci<'rn (lc pit(r()gl por c1ti< it reqrricre cie unu rspcc.ifir.acir-rn lrclicio rr,rl rrt rrrt cl clflcit cle cierts filncioncs rtrccle scr. (r() t)()stl'(-) Frerrd en ltl,1,((ir. sUtolkt l,uu,qustt, el resUluckr (lel c()nUick) l)s(lLic(). l)()r ello
tirnci<-n

lrtrrr lr tr rnstitrci<-rn (le

(i(jlta

ctc ap()r.tal alg() eseltci.t

el ()l)jelo extcln() persigLti(-), tcrr(n.iz(-), crrlpaltiliz<'r, contrrrl<i trullltliz(-) psquicl () lisicrnente. Cree(1lt()s qLle plrrlr esta r'rItIirirrtt lr cle ntDtinltcirn n11is aclc<.Ucl cs 1..\ le p.lt()k4!.t po.tt: i1t
(ltlLt-rclo

,rl)rrsi\ ilnlcute.

,['rcalirlurl rttt'lo ptevirttllt'ntc inscri), y rc((),]lp()1( l:is lirltrs (()nstittl]'en rcs :l rrrclo tlc l,t.liltttiittt tld lftttt\Ltlstttt), cs tit'r.it. r-lt tl)il lijrlLi('l lr"l rr) (I(lct.lrrri.rt)s ltl)tcscrlt.l( i()nill('s s()l)r( il1\'(sti(l( )s t1r.tt lt-tcfttt'ltn llts cletct'lslrs lrelritu:t1,.'s" ( Illciclrtrrltr. S., 199.1. Plig. -l+1, crlsilas )'rrl1r('((nuilllt(ll) (lc lii ut()r). () sea (ltLc k trrtttnrliticr l)tlc(le scr alo tltte crtetlo '1t lll esl)e[a'. trrttxr p<fctlr'iltlicllld trlltlnliilicx' l)cl() (ltc rg(lLtitlc (lLc l)tl-() il c( nltc( inlicnl()' (n rrtctrcrrlr() trrn cl (r:trtllllt ll lll csl)tr', \('ngil il (()nstittir illl() (lLle n() cs_ lLl\'() cn ningtrrt().1a 11 1lr nl()l)lcllt()s. \in() (ll( sLltge pr lll illlt'r:rt-t it-rn clc rrnl)()s F-5 lrr <rrn<ction ([l rljr a(r14](n l (l\lc insistc l-rttlrtncllc :trtl:t tli lr:ltn<ill.L tlc tttatrcl() tln :t(r )nttcinrienl ( ) tlltcri()r ()11)fglt stl signiti((l() il Lll() r.lcl prtsucl<r (l;tplrtnclrt. l9Sl. Jr:ig. l5lt).
[\r\(
l-l

I)itt()l()gt resultx. en lt esr-ncill, clc l irlcntiflc.ci<in clcl stpirt()l()gix l.l rte los patlres. ljt\ctlrcolr ptttlliLu (,t.ginau t,t qt cs l(l().()ll cjlrrtplili<lrcle p(n un pil(iente cuyos p:rcLes. fi-bicts antlt<rs, lc crnstitrrvctrn ( )riltiril.ia rentc (les(lc sLr ltl-ts tentprant inflncia Lrn vision clel tunckt coluo l(rr()rili(r) t,clc elle crlo allentz?(l (le tl)Lcrtc. En este cts() sLr p:rnlirlti:t cslri irrlisolultlcrlente cn(.arni(llt r:n lo ul'rs cscncial clc su personalirlatl. Es rlilllcntt'cle Lrna firlilr pr.r-lcsplazll:ticntr clefensivr cn quc Ltn lip() (leterrlirt:rtlr rl<,((x'tflic(), I()(ulizu(k). genct lrngrstiii .xza)n p() L <.ul krs r.nr< ( s srrr l'..rliclrckrs cn (xr.rs repl eselltac i< ncs. -lmlin s()r (liti,rentes lils i t lrlrr rrr'irDts tcrirprti(.rs l.ln lx pat()l()gill Ottr i/lcril)ciu l\tolgicd ot.!ntrulLt rrrs Ir.rllrrls nte lL ncccsidcl clc elg< que r,. nths lllli rlc rcul>icur la firente \ l,rs r.llrr's rlt l o clc los Dtieclos cue s()n (r)jet() clc cltsplazantientt cso -el rl, lrr,rrrrt, rrrI t.jc'rntlr>-. S(] trallt. clt c.rlrir. cle un tnl)ll() (le rccstl-Ll(.tL1l_ , r,,rr,! l.r lt,r\()r l)rrlc <lcl nttnclo rcprr-senlacirtn:rl (lcl sujcl(). lllnl ,r l,r inllnrt:utcill (lLte ()t()r!l1ror1)s lr lits clistincioncs (lLte tcal)1r]r()s (le

l.

(.lr.rn(l()

A\r's t\r( ('\'Iil

\l,A^!t\l(,\\'l'l
L

( \l(.\ I'l'l\

ll kAl'l \

l)ttti.ttt,

ttt, tt1tl':tt,l,,,tt

l ,littttt

lr,rrtr

rtr.r

rl(, st r.rIrr t,liit,rt(


irrsr

|ir

IIr(sll()n(lucnopuecleclcjer.<lcal.xrrclerseeslaclesircsult\.lili, r( nlc l petokrge p()r clficjt, la patokrge p()r tfunta, la


r11ir

lln hrmlc, cle lrcclctkr (lc j1) n()s. rcl)cl scsi(-)ll trlts scsi(-'rr. !1'n in lllLljcr. Lln f:tttililtr'. tll't.rrlli rrrnfirnrlilrlc ilit, LUt rcllo ett cl ttte elguitn -sr.t g(). Llrl ctr)l)lr,relo tlt lrltl>lti(). (ln fiM(i(lilri() l)til)li(r)- s( c()llll)(xt:tl)il (lc lir,)er:l in(l('( Lrir(l:t Al clcsr'rilri'lils inlclrl((j(nlts cttc Itltlliltn l('r)i(l() itlgllr l() It:tci -tsLrnientlo llt itlcntitllrcl <lt ltts rttsot'tlti,.'s ll l()s (lLr( sc r(fi'rr-1. ullL'tln:-rntl<lcs- tLrtrrnck lx \'()r iLtIil)tri(lx:l l()s lllislll()s tle lttr:L <lrliclltcl hlrstil. (lesl)c( ti\', ( n( )l lleillcnlt t lesltgrarlalrle. il(t'lltlln(l() (llle lllc (licrll (Llcnta cle c<-nro le ltrrlran tr1x(l() (l(' Ltnlt Illncr initrsllt l,lt ttnilirlltizltci<itt (lLle Irltcilt rlc trxlos lrs l)crs()rics cr irlt'trciltllt rL ls ( lillilri (lLt sc tl-ittill)i tlt rtne tlefirr nlll(ia)n Lrt (ltrc pt()\'eclill)rl solrc cllrs tnil ligtllt intctnlt;tgtcsir'lt y, stil>tc t()(l(), rlr:t Iini('nci( )rtltttrt. Si \<r tllttltlla clc (lllc c,\atl]linllsc ltlg() sLlv()- si n'r 'irtt r'liclllr.t su rcr<'cJtt ir-rrt tlt'lrr n:elj<lcl. se'rlgit.ll)ll. crlllcnzltll:t il llx)ver l()s pi(:
ltDricxrI)( nte y tntttr-tcleci:t. r'ellejltncl<) Ln scntilllient() (lc intt'nst
mars

nlllcstt

l'or

r(}rr r;rt(,l(

rr Origineria Y la patokrga p()r c()nfliet(); () si n() se trata,

(ltc \1) inttol.il) t'legir las l.lal.tl)rs nrtll()s ptrse( Lit()ris prlsilrks

Ll''

l(r

AVAN(]I'S EN PSICO'I'I.]IIAPIA PSI(JOANAL'I'ICA

tN

Ir:r(vltN(.1()NIrs t t,ttprlut t<:s Dll'liRLN(,IADAs

65

s( nl(,.5in crnltetgo. cstils irlllgenes cle ltltclrrs gt-csi\.()s eran rccrrptfttrles en t'l .r.llisis (.. c().t'l (lr sLr intent() rlc runtcncr ru rcprescntci(ilt i(lelizx(la rlt Irs nrislrs. A rlifercnr.ia cle krrlucheca r.rl los personajes clcl :rcsente, :r (lriL.n(.s:r('ti\'lltlentc tt.lttlrl:t cle llt()strr c()lll() inder.uarlos, crtn Ios l:tclres r.'nlrrtizrlr:r srrs clalicLaclcs v kr crrc lc lraltl c.rri<llrckr y cuerirlo. l)r.r'0 rcsulta lcltilI() \er il estc pacicnlr s(-)lo en trntir)()s (ie h.irLnta tn lrttttil, r[, rcpro<lrrcci<in rlc l< strccclickr con ltrs figuras signill(..rtivits? l)()r Lln l:rL los tl':rrrts parentitles h.r)!ln (lesernpceclo rrn p:rltel clecisivor la cs_ lnr(1rril.i()ll (le lt reprcscntitci<in tlc un ntut(l() It()slil ltoltlaclo cle flgLll.its in_ t()l(.r:ll]lts ],\engativlts ere cl esrrhcl< t.lo rlc la cliviclacl cle sr flntsa sino. lsx r'i;rlrrt.nte. <lc 1os pclsonajcs con los rue lc ltxl)ilt lo(.a(l() \.ivir. SLt en(le lrlr',rrtrr'stilt:r, sL angLtslia fl.cnlL- a st angtstill. al)rr(.an c()nl() (.()nsecLten_ , r,r r [. l rs l'rrll.s rercntales cn al,rrrlarle en lil (.()nstrLr(.cia)n cle Lt caplr.irlarl cle \, )\t( n( t s itUt()cstiilt: cle la firnci<-rn tlc a u ft llrpecigr[r nt icr.rto cle ,v la .rngrrstr.r. ll r(, ( \i tr,l (fr:ls (litncnsi()ncs <ue no rorlltn ser clcsutcnrliclas. El p.r(.icntc lr'r.rrt.rlr.r l.(.rl(s illlpLlls()s ugrcsi\.()s. crx c(nnpstitiv(). utilizxl)a l irlentilica_ ( r()n I)ri)\(1 trr',r r;rlrr clefenclcrse dcl c<nflict< intrxpsquic(). coltx) se eviclen_ i t() t tt tttt.t st st(,r t.t rLrt Ileg<i y critiC(') (.()n inclignacirin c-l csteclo cle la co tt'ttrr'il)tt t rr t.l Ir.us, P0(.s s('entcl.(-) (ie Ltn cas() c()ncfek). I)espus CI|tiL().r slt

r.r'lrr ,ti'trclu clel (fr() se p.sase s.ltre i,l. clesernck ser in'iiiltlc. y(). . ,t1r rrr'r',r rlt Dtct(xl()l(-).i(r) Ine pregtn1 en rutrr.hs .r.t.trrnicl:iclcs si l<t 't<ltrrcl< 1r,(,r( (lilrarl) s.lrre slrs Pltchcs rt.serlel J,lxrclrrct. <lc l raisnl clcfi.rtrai ion rrrr. lurr'ilr rlc krs pet.srrejes r.on kls ttrc cntrlrl)x tl) (t)lillLct() cn cl pre_

,rt1rr icLr<l lllrl ser un t.rralilicrrclo .rr.ofi,si rnll lrrilr ca<la r,.ez <1ue te_ -pcse:t r)r. rlu( l)l(,s(tlt:u Lln pr()\,cck)_llt nterr.lt tlel tcu.ol.rue le ir-tspir.ltlt;t

lrinsnritir (Lc n() lc critical)a, (le alentarle qLte exlrrin,lscllt()s k) (lLe llx. ( ( )rlill)ll \' a(-)ot() sc sent c()nmig(). sL respLesta antc nris intel1enci()nrs (llt rlnl(.un Lug() per()(l() inicil de su trutatnient() era el silenci() dc una pers{) r)ir irl( rr()rizit(I1r. iVi ppel. p:lra no despcl.titr esa rcllc(.ia)n. clcl)a r.,stringirsc lt ( r r)l(,r() lestig() qLiescente (le sL relllto. y() crex enten(ler lt> que le raslrlrrr v sus l)r()\,c(ciones clisk)rsi()nitntes pcr't) p()c() p()clia ha<.er plra al,rrciarle ir vcr. rrrtl srrct,cl:r en sL intcri()r y grr cu scna uti prcsencit rle lunera tn ate r11) iziurlc. Hilst que cnlpczllror] lr irlter refrencilis u cscenas en el c<xleck. l;rriliul c,n (lre. scntu(l()s kcios alrccleckrl cle ilr ntcs. cl xthe cstall:rlt:r fir 'ioso r,' i,I, kr quc desellte. er:r cleslJlrrecer. pasar.clesarercil:liclo. l)aclre quc ( isligil)l ()fp(n-.lltllente (lc rnanerlt selvajc il un Itei.lllan() rnay,Or cle mi pa_ ( i(',rl('. l.x ntltd_c el una lttLjer cticx. (lLlc 1l Llu llspe(.t() pr-()tcct(.al1ldil otr() rrrr.r't,11r'jellr sL sa(lisn1() ! (.ar:ictrr v(,r-rg.Lti\,.oi si cl pllcit:nle reulizlrla un ttlrrsgr(,si(-)n (LllLn(l() estl)n fitcre cle cse. ];t ntclre, plr n() p1l1,arr llgrcsl rrr. rr rstt.rgellr cl cestigo I lLle.(), al rcfqrcsr. 1r resar rlel llanio r les peticirr n(s (l('l l)(ientc. le s<tret 1t c:lstig()s cr.porales. Su silt,ncir en sesi<-n cu una casi reprocluccitin tlcl <r.rc hlrltl teni(l() en l.r rrtsrr I.ariliar. l)c igLlxl ,rnc.l. sa piinic() ii ser an figulrr clcstrrr.ecla en str
.rosea

l)urs parccx (lLle cstal)x incorporantlo krs vxlores dc l sociechd xctLlll. rrx lliciel. interesacla en el clincro.'loch le scsi(ln trunscllr1l llltjo ltn clitlla ,i, lrrsticli<, cle nal hurtt. de crticrLs intensas a los ttte le roclelll)itn. En un
rrrri( r

ltn etlrplcackr. 1'allr_ il) triltll cie pagarle la otcn()r indelnnizcititl posillle ptrcs ..( lrtrl)x (le Lrnr pers()n.r (lcsleal. Ihhl enf:iticalnente (lLrnte cllsi clicz tlli riul()s (le l()s tlcfcclos cle estll pers()nI, (()n l() cttlll clespeclirla,Y pxgllle l() nlllllr() pireca rlrlis clttc jLtstificecl() P()lqtle pareca ackrlccct cle ttrlts los t]el(1'los p()sil)lcs y l[rl:rrse c(nlp()rl:l(l() t))1. t]nt()nces lllc (li (ucnta (lta'er l() lrc cstr\'o pasanr-lo lt lo largo cle la scsinr se senl (]ri llta por<tte cles)c ,lir l alguicn cn l)encfl(i() dc sLls inteteses triltnd() (lc rlgarlc llr lllcnl)s p() c(n sLls i(leales (lc l)cs()la clc iztttiertllts. Halll 'ilrlc cstabu en c()ntril(li((i(-)n rn c()nl'licl() intftrl)si(lui(r). un pl-tc tlc i'l clcscl hacer elgo, \' ()tl-lt l)afic. gtriecla pot cierttts itlcalcs. sc oxrne. Qtti'lllt<ia llrttlt nlnttncr itl(rr-rs( i('nl!' l.r (rticn. pl.r clisrttinuir cl scntillticnt() clc cLrlpallilicletl'l P[()vcctlll)a ] \ir Llnl fi(lll)a (\nn() pcrs<ne: i'l cre el izrlricrclista. cl (lcfns(n clc los itle'alcs: los (fr()s ljl'n ks inlrclcct t:tcl< s. l\r'txrtk). tl)ic() lr.tst(nn() Jrot-conflicr. en tionr(,nt(.1'rt() ciclo. nre c(r]]enk-) (lLre tena (lLle clespetlir a

lrcrr rl.- (lijo que

(le su nlllcisism(). sLr rilltliclatl l enviclilt tle ks clcltilts, stt rlLllia rilr rlelcntler ile rn <trc le ha<iu senlirse clcsralttiztlo. (lesPcfial)1ln egrcsiritlacl. <ltte clc lrilL trnLrneccL iltc()ttscicnte P.il-1t nlaLntencr trn inrlgcll clc' s ctD. ittr I i-lt agresir'irllttl (lc est( l)(ictllc crll ()slensil)lci ll vects (asi tilnallltl(ltlll)ll pLlcs n() en(\)nlr-l)rt l:Ls I)larlx.ts ctte ptrtlicr-en cxPrcsllr lll .santa intlignacin" (lLe sent. Stt lenot Jxrtlrlt lrlIl,v I)iel] scr cntencli(l() cnt()n(es c()lll() tcsltlttltr tlc la provcccir-rn <-le sr.ts ttt>ios itrrpttlsos agrcsil'os: \'ca l()s (lclll.ir. (()n1() int()lct:rnt9s ) r1tl)i()s()s irlllt-ert ) scl)rcjxnzar (lc s nrisnrf). l'r ltlltna a la

positiirn ter-rric:r clir-ticlt tlescle Ix cLral tl c()nfli(to sclili el lol<l clc sr.t lxtttlloge porlrlnrtrs aneclir rrte en las slttrxci(nlcs tlixllgtlllrcs c\l)e tlltntellrt celos. rl)ia c()ntftr el ttbjeto clc artxrr y cl Prtslnt() rivxl. rcll-xcci(-)n n.lr(isistrl l)ci un i(lenli(lld rlc vctiDiL, atx(lLcs l olljcto clc ltl()r (()n resi)Llcsl inc1a P()r peric rlt 'ste en lx rcllli(la(I. pr()ccs() (lLle era stgttitlo (lc lll.-ts irLsll.l!l.n f"f n() scntil.se <lrrerickr. rnits fcsentitDicnt(), fl)ix nr(isist )' Ille\'()s t(ltles. lse trllt ([e r.tna patologie por cl'ficit )' tr:tLtlllrt () cle r.tne latologe -ror (()nfli(t()i/l- l)l'cgtnt.r en tr-nlin()s (l( ()l)ci(rlcs ((n.lptcsts cs l.r (lllt inl

rosilrilita Ie rcsl)LcstiL. l)elrclltos. l)()r cl (()nlr.lri(). PfegLlnlxi-l]()s: /t.r'|rllr' \c llr rticrtlarlt los fenotcnos cle ttltlrrltli tli'ficit. <trc cn sLl (as() fitertn clcci sirrrs. l krs (ltri\'ados (lcl c()nflj(1() intrlll)s(lllic()? Scgn ntlcslru ((nllIlcn\i'-rn <lel clsr. el tcu()r':tnte les tigr.tr:ts l)xtentxlcs y l (lcs('llliflc(i()n ((rrlinLlll l
cuc [r.re sotDcticlo (letcnllittatr()n n() s)]() tlnal

lollrc iurltgcn cle si nrislt, sint-' i|rp()rlntcs Pe[lurlraciones etl stt relcitin c<n la tcelitlacl: sitttinclost inii'rior 1'no pr.rclienclo. por tcr-l'()r. 1Pr()\'ecllxr kxllr lo tue le lcltlicllt<l le oflct, stilrr Ic <lueclelnn la hLricla tiil>iclr o l clcscltlificacion xglcsilrl cle los tlctrl'is rn rtn intcnt() (le olrtcncr lrlgitn scntinlicnto vic.lrintc (le \ lrl. I)cro esk) llLllllentalra llr relscctr< i<-rnr los <lcrnlis pasltlran:t sct visl()s cotno ligtlr'as ltgr(\llJ\, ).1

llf

Avr\NCliS IIN PSI(i()'l liltAPlA PSICOANAI-l'l(:A , .,r.rlrr

rNl lil{vriN(ll()Nlis'l'llRAPl'iu-l l(,As l)l!liRliNclADAs

167

rro:ol,r rol nrctit trnstcrcnci.l de (a)nl() lreltn siclct sLts pldres sino p()r Inll r r'r r'ir rt rlt' sus lr-()l)i()\ rtcseos agtcsir.os soll e krs (lue l(, to(lc:rl):ln. lll ci( {li t() tr.rsl{)nr{) roI tlfitit ! 1r'ist()rn() p()r (onllict() se rclil))enrtl)a, tltnt() lit(rir rlt l lr.rtlnricnlr c(u() en -stc. Los cltlfltil v trllltnts n() s(il() cxacetl)iln lrs conllickrs c irnpi(len su rcs()
)lr sin() ([Lc l()s estrLlclLlr.rn lr:Ljo llts ilLntass clue srrgen (lc ks pritrrer', r.. lrr siclr atcrrolizucl<. si le Iurn hccho sentil (ulf):tl)lc y n() \'ali()s(). \i .url( stl.lngustilt cl clLlk) [ccci()na) a()n cl(,s(ln < rcclr:zr rlejinctole stt Dirhr cn L r))isrne. llcf(l() el ln()lDenk) cn trrc clebe ctlicntrr llr r)1rlrlenllili ( ir ( (ll)i( ir, sLts ([cse()s ir)cestLl()s()s. sts lcr]r()res :ll rivlrl. lr ale(cp( i{''n l)r '[ n(, xrtL.r'rr[tscgr-riI cl (r)jct() de at)t(-(lLc l() rclcgit xnlc el ri!'], t()(l() cstrat teri(L) l)rn l()s fllts lLnt,.rriores: el ri\'l scr :Ltcrr(r-iztntc: l (lerr()tx c.lpic.t, llll(.\ir (r)nflr,naci()n clc l:r ileri<icledi s!ls (lcsc()s i11(eslL()s()s, lcstitIl()ni() d(. lu(
i(

c\l)ucst() la vengxnzil fitlitls.'t lrot plte (lc ste por tcrlcr '()n(lLlcts .,nlrlicltlus (rllo illrlccLl(l.ls. L.s clecir. (ltc cl Iriil'inlicnt() l>ajo Ir motlltli

si un nin()

,l.r,l rlt l Iltsclttecle (lc irrlqb/ s()l)rc sLl illrcsi\i(l'td lc llul)i(l Ictr'rrrrllrttiT' ,l,, rrl r'olrerlc:l trans[litil, tlna vcz 1rla-ls tl'] s!t \i(l1l (lLtc el in J(lecl lll( [()' tle [ itnal,o cr.rc pennitiri t:l inici() dcl (allll)i() terptlti(( fite el cxanrcn (listorsi(')11 haclt <le crtt sea' lx rt ll Perscctllori Pr())e(.tacl cn l O
clescltli,.,,1,iintcrrt<, oro clc ac<ltlttttLe,lt(), (ltlc eriL senti(l() c(nII() rtcs:tgi:tn<itI <lc tct.:tti,trtic<l (.:L1lli() < lillllt el en r,..',.ii,n...,.rig,. recllz<l' !,ll< llrl.illili,1 Lln (lLl(lr()t-l (ltl('r-iclllPlc pltclrcs lrls rrroclo crte lrltcri,rntentc lo, lt clifercncilt clt clllltr ,1,. ('J. lt'>trcliesc 1lc(nlll)liir'cll slls Prl)vccl()s' le n)nifc'slxs('li Placcr

l)xrcnt.

,1.,.,-ip"r,,tr"

:U nlrl(l.l(l: sLl rlngu\tilL l)()r cl c()nfli(k). xlncn]zll scnti(lll ((),I() sin ltltics rri l(llllniLir')n. l,s clefeDsls (]Lrc sc p()n(ltiiD rr) iLtcg() criil (,xlr(.tIllls, l sl]l-tsi( i()n (i(' l)eligro nr:l\intir. lrt lgrrsivi(li(l r[-li'nsir tr tonl.trri ut) (lli(tcr (les()rJ1:llri,/.nl( llrcs le slrstJrli an llis vx (luc sr ils()(iril a llr i0ragr.:n clc un fiilllr:l (l(r( r'rsP()n(lc.r cllil C()n fLrill (lcstl-Llcti\'. I;t tlt't coD<titllt lcsis (lc que L l srrit to sr'lrsllstr clc srLs pr()pi()s inl)Llsos afilesi\'()s. con cl i'nlrrsis pLrcs) cn

o inicille Lln clnlin()'p()1-el (lLc nLlllc;l sc ll1ll)a (le(ir. cll Ils t['nllitos cle'Ktltttt, lc csPcctllriz1se lislo jttnto ltl .\'cntLrrlr(k) fls (ltlc cLlllll(l() ('l sc itllcresr- P(I nli (rl)) cn l uni\clsid(l -lo c(F lrtclro <lc cn \'cz (l('resl)()n(ler Ir<,cirr trrli's tlc srl pcrt('ncll(iil ltl lrl((li() Llni!'(rsitllli()Lrna clilicLrltrtcl
(
(

plte(lr (l(.sl rLlir ()ntnip( )t(.nt( ntcntc ll )l)jctr ) \' tl lrtr'lro rtrr (.1 jlll)() (lLlL- lt tcrirlrr l)t(lrcs (lu( rcl(: , i()n.rt (r)r) ()(li() )' lnltr;rl() rscluitr> r (1)rlxn-.Ll .lnlr llr rrrcnrt D)Ltcstli cle .rI'r'sior tk'l hijo clcjan cn l mcnte (ic i,slc lir irsr)ciltci(-)n "s(,ntin)ient()s (l(,ilt l,r.r p(,liglr (lc r-espLrrstJ rlestrrctivlr (l(]l ol)ict() cxlcm(),. \ilrir'ncl< al cils() (lcl pcirntr (lrc (.stalltx)s rclaltlrrxl(). rl cnl rc1LZ:t nl it nlO r'rlr'('lrlrunlit tlcm()rizntc, (lfi(il (n ltr crrnstitutirir't (lc su :ruxrslintil y cn
,

rrr, r,ll, r t s :ls p()r(ltL( c.cc (JUc

cl)\'iLliil tc>ritrrirla' 1 r r n< (l('l()s Iinli('Lrcsti(r1:se cstc illttf('s Dlillrcnia',1(l(llc, l t))i:'nl() liclnP()' (lcnll() (ltlc' i1)ll)li(lll)lill lln lls() (lcl lcs (lre itrzgl)ll n() I)c11tll)ltran cl lfltlnrie'\) lli nli li r,,. iirri.l 1r,, r,, stisflccr ne<csi,-lacles I)lll( isis('ts tlllls lisc cct'rlniento:t (ltc llz'11)rln c( tlll()s Px(lrcs ,r".t",i1" i , (llte llntcs sicllli)rc k trtc ncglt<l<' l)()r
)n ,\il('lrcir ). ( ) c( )n int(rl)l ell( i()nes (lLlt
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1

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.r sr rrrirrrrr. rlt,s'"rlicntlt

(lLlc l()s pll(lr(s ,,,..,r,,rrrri.," "lgt, <le tli,rt Llrc (l l)(i(olc senta \':lli()s() l'() lllrsolros tlc clifircnti:t " Nller:tlil' ll l" tr",'rr,,,iti,,,', t'll clttl:t clttttlltt) clll pac iel-ttcllcl Ir'tsiirtl llt tottc (lc tL'1l)t)rli eccll hollttt. ,,r"nt",.n t-rl)lin()s (r)nslru

ir .(nr Lrnn i)lg() l)lltr-nt1ll i(lt.tliz(lil cttt lc ctlt inclistc-nsal.lk" PllL (lc tl1()cstilllll. Yert(l() Lril n(lc{)
L(l l)tt( tottL' Sc

l.r r ltr.rr irl:rcl (le ilLlt().lll.l( iguilnlictl() (l( ltt llltllLl\tiir. f)()t ur1 llt(l(). ). cic(1(,s (lcl (rir)lli( tr) l)()f cl ()tr(), (,s rlccir'. rntrt' itp(lL-s (i(, ltt :tlrlicllcl e\tcrnil V pr()(iLtc rorr rlt,su nrLrn(l() inlcrr)(), lricicr()n (lLt( r'ltllt rrnr refi)rllsL.ill ()tl(). L()s ltitrr:r ()rigitllrles cler(ln ('l telrcn{) pxra <trc los iDrrtrlsos rlel sujcto licren Vi-

\tt lclilintirltl tlt'st'r

iiglrlrs con las <iuc sr'crrc<ntlltlte lilr:l'lrn, .rl( nl(, I)ri)\,e((i()n(s cle ligrrlas intcrn.rs lgrcsivils (lU! hill)1rn cxi\ti(l() r'r l.r r',.:rlirl:rrl cxterior. l)cr(), l su V(]7, lits (lisk)rsi()ncs (lLlc lIlL( :l (l(' l()s l)err iLIrs t rtrro )cligr()s()s. rellt ctrc les

l)il

i1

entrrllrnclr lt rctlltltllizlrlr:trr, (lcsl)ctltn(l() irnlrrlsrrs:rgre(lu( sr\()\ lrl scr pl'ovcctltrlr.s ckrlultrn rlt lt.rlrr ltcligrosirlrrri lt l:rs figur'.r. r.x
sr,n.rjL.s rlrrr'il>a

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rr

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' lr,rlr,r sr(l( ) .tlcl_t-()ri7:t(l( ) cn la initrnt i:t. ('(-)nt()

nuLslr() pltcict'tle fue llcccsai() ruc 'lr-irtrclo pu(lir:ltrx)s u\.llllin-U' Ils ill.igcncs (luc .lLlt()lll-ll(' :(' :r( livirl)ilo e11 l a()n rcsl)rct(].1 trrtla llglrr':r (()n l:r (lUr entl-ill)il (.n

("Dl.r(lr'r'\r.rl).tl(,ni(latl)(cslrsL,\-rcrreDci:rsatcrr'(izlll)t(.s.!lltrttrcrics rrrr'r 'r' rrr.lrr'Ir (.!rllrr lt lrirl)iLjr (lLc l l)()sci itptrlsos lrgresi\,os r tle rn!i-

I rrr.rli,l,r,l l)r' llrtlrr'sc crttcltzuckI I)r)[ sl()s rtL i<in kleinr.rrr.r- sc -la lrlllri(.r'rr st'rrlirl ( rll)irl)iliz(l(). l-c(llz(l() por el tcreltcr-rl]. ftrntascanckr ctrt

([rlxl)ll (lc tlna nlLlj(]r j()\'cn (lLlc clcsr-lc cl illicio rne itllrlcsiottti por llt lirr,,,, a:,,,,," cntrll ltl c(lsllll(-i(): (:tn)ioitl)ll c()nl() csPel-ll1(l() Jllt('rlz'lcl()n t'l rlivlin Sr't p,,l." at,,r a"al" 1laso. tlestlc tlltsl)(nltr llt 1)tlc11 Iiltsl:t lt(1)lrs!'cn tti ttl-l ctllen tlc llor':t tetnllit lltl 'li jlttltlis n1l(llt, ttll irlsivicled ct' llllln(le. (lc seltilln{ (ril llt (\tn(liltr'ttlsli'ren(ilt (l('lrlgtls(ill \{i tarirr Ijt>.'n lllt)rt!ll()s (ll sil(]nci() sin lcnsir)n l)ll(s (lel ()trr) c(-)!lr()(l(), n() cxigiclo, tllr' Jlotlilt <1rt'.:clet cs>et io clel cot-t lltck r-ur se tuc llesiirtlll,,i l, l)'l(icllic nr Illrcilt cl ttso clel (le l()s ()ll-()s ('lls()s: a clili'rcnci I)x( icnlcs (ltLc sr11()ri() (ltle s cn(1)lllrlllll()s cn cllscn'allt los a,rl,r,a,r rr,a ()l)jct()s s()l)r(' tlllll sill'l () lllll lllcs't clllt sicttrrrc (ll(lil vez lll()]('slr cottsig() rlli:tttll )'ll() lxrr (cltl()[ lx P'r(li(l:l sino lrltrlt ll() rrcl() a Pcs'll' itri solic vrlv lt l,..i.".,,1r,,.,rl t('rrrirl,, tle l:l scsil ir:l lraritr (tc ('ll lltl'" lllvil> erlt (l'ntr() (lt: illsrittlci(in tlll ,ia',r.,a,,ri (()n.\Lllt()l-i() t:slill)i lil clc )rl le tirliento s( F:l ir"lri" Ir",i,,. a clislosiciritl tle los clttc 1L ellll '()ll(Ltnn' ni firts tlcsPcrtar parct'll nacla Ill ct lotrtl, Pucicnte el .naa,r.lr" a.llitic() ) llll' trtir-n ni lgrcsivitlacl l.e tclltcitin tlanscllrlilt cll Lln clinl't PLICcnter() Paril

rl-i

AVAN(:I1S IJN PSI(]O'I'I;RPIA PSI(]OANAI-'I'II-A

lN ! llRVliN(-l()NllS l-llRAPliUll(-AS I)ll:ERIiNCIAI)AS

t69

r(,uDi )lt: sit-t s:llLl(lal y trrt.rnclo (lue k)s (letna-ls n() sc gntcren. L pat!icntc (luc_ rl 11,1,, (lc Ln.r nluier qLc h cueria. le protegilr .rcr.<; la ilpabilizeba si ,r( )stIirl). el luen()r in(iici() (lc Lk)n()l)]it. El r,ncukr c.n .l pacLc, ,tuy clcseatkr l.lo l. pxcicnle. se cir:tctc zl)a l)(r-l() izatr)so, tLrn(. sJl)ll si vcnclri t>

cn l()s interstici()s que los rlcmlis le clejal.ran. 5( )nl(tir)icnt(). sul)resia)u (le llt !lgl.c5ivi(tacl 1, cle tcrlo contlicto interpetso_ rirl, r(,l]uD('i.r ul (leseo. kremnci? Lnte el srfiitnicul(). t(xl() ell() inclicaltrn un r'lrt'rr q.1i11r:' tas()qLti\ti. I)er(). p()r (ri, c.ss? I;t p(.i(,ntc halta sicl. hija llr)r(ir (lL'l)ll(lles (lue s!- scpt:u-()n (uaD(l() tcna p()c() lj()s (le e(le(l. EI p_ rlr't . trr lrrrttlr't incll.tz <le soport.u.ir Lrt:l nlui<r (.()nfliati\. (ulplll)iliz.lnte. sc lrrt't[.<rrslr clc la nrisrtlr lll.lneru en rue r.rn inviteckr tnrickr lr hace cle un
rrrr

\i, ,r( i(l(.t)t(s. lil r'ncLlr.(t l()s pers()n:jcs significativ.s (iel pesente fcniltn ( s( Ilri\ lr) scll()i l]i (lcsc(,s l)or p:rte cle Ll p:rciente ni rrrliu. sintplenrenre :t.r r_
rl:r
ir-r

,lLlcnsls. I. pltologr (]el pa(ientc es tllnultlr()sa, preckrrtrinlrnrlo a veccs la ,lt'li'nse pelo en otlrs ()clsi(nrcs surge l() reptimi(l( cn cl lcl<> inrpr.rlsivo, en

Ir
(

t:rnt:LslL a.resiva

o er<'tite. cn el sn)nu sLrstituti\(). E[ r'incul< con cl plr

rIr

r)r

) ;r I)( s:r'

(lc ( ()l)r(rl]etell\c en (li:ls

rlr't. ri,signlrclateutc. sin sentirsc c()n (l(.rr(.lt()s per:r rc..l:trturr.ptrcs n() lt()(l ,)l()slr'.lr'(lr.c le <lescelxr, yx qLre ello d(.sJ)(r.txl)l irrita(.i()n cn la ntrlrc. Sin (otl'lr cn tocla la c(rlpleji(la(l -tcl casr l.stc sealr.. lts lines cle l() (lu( lriltant()s (lc cjcnrplificar. (lLc Il iclentillc(.i(in (.(.t rrn paclre evitti_

ll()r!trj()s.

I_x

l)x(.i(,-)(, (-.\pL,,il)lt

li

p.l

\'o

r'\lx r.r (r(.r'l rlcsr:o >rrr.tiera ciel rtro. UI cLaclro t.lnic.o t(nlllll) lt tirntrr rlc 1,, lr, lr,.rr,,s (l{,rr))in(l(),cir1tci(r()plI lpi(.il)l(.,. lo trrt, nrrs perr))rtc \cl llr.l ,l(. l.r\ rlllt.r'r..1t i:rs cntl-( Lln tl.lsi() t() p()1.([ell(.it l,rrn<t confli<.r. En cl t()r ll,lf(ittol)r,r'rrllictrrl:LsfLrcrzas<.ntrtttrrcstas-el (lcse(),V la (lcfcnsa- eslilo irtr.n .ll( rl( l(.ti\ its: y ste es tn clt.ntenl() clili,rent.ickl: cl (lcsc() es fx) rlt roso, rrrgn:t. r r's lit.nclr eo sLl cxprrsi(in n() en sL cxistencix- p()r lirs

u.rrl,r sus (lcsc()s. tLln(lLe il cs(.()n(li(lits jr.rnto lrl scntinticnk) r[, ctrlpl ',rr( LllLl nlir(he Lioi(() s()stn y fu(11tc (le scgur'idir(l tn rrn trttrnckl clcspolrl,rr I r rl, otros oltjcros <trc fieran sentirlos c()nto pr()fc(.1()res, c( )nlt.il)r ).(,;()n ,tl rlt srrrrollr (lc Lln scntiliento clc tirltu tlr legitinriclucl cn cl clesear. <lc su_ plt sirlt dc ( ulll(luit:r n):Lnilstcin (lc iut()n(n1. Esk) sc fite plastrnclo en rrr:r r ,rrrt tt,lologu cftrntinacl p()r lit ltiitl)ili(Ll(l clcli,nsit.lr v, t,s.lccilrlltente. cl lrI r i rr.o cnt()ci()nll. l..l (lili(ultilLl en cl ulune) tcr-tico clel triiltnient() rt(lic.tl)lt cn cl sorrrcti_ nrr('nl() (l(, Ia patienrc. en str hipctcle tttrc i<in lr 1o rrr<,t.() lli(icra o rlijcsc,. In, r lrrso r'rlnck lc seal:tlrtt esk), lt) t()nl1ll)t c()nl() alg() x l() (lue sc lcnt (lue ;r'orrrxl;rr. c()ntestain(l()ne (.1)n un s cortlacicntr. La falta tle (lcse()s n() ef lx,rrlu(, l()s sinlicsc ), lr>s rel-rrintienr silt() (lur xnulxl)l cl rleselr, lltofial.llr lrl rlt sr',,.lnf .s (lc (l.le 'st( se cleslrrrtllese v t(ll.lss fiertit. l\\p(,t..tb(t qtk,(,1 t)tt.o th'.rt,tt.lt, lx!ft! ?tttt))!L'.'.t (l(s<,ur. l)(. (,ll(). iDIc{)ret", ..".l., rl:ronunirltrtl la ( \i\t('ll( ill (lc r'itr-kr (l(,s((r (lLte sLpLlrstt tllcnlc (lc)criil", rxistir ),(luc, al n<l .tIL rtrtr. l[.rtrse a l <rnc[rsit-n tLrc se hallalra en cl in(r)ns(.i(.nte rcpriruickr lrr l,rlr,r sirIr l]rlscar l relidacl pstr.ric.e cle la per.ienre. Mris lien se tr:ltxl)1r de trrr,r r,,sii ir'rn rrre clepen<ltr (lc un scntinlicnk) Irsicr rlc irlcnticlar-l: clla cleba

iLlcnrifi<aciin s(il() !-n estit (litnL.nsir-)n pucs el plrclre s fcrrninall rcali_

icnte en esk)s c:ls()s posce h tensi<in cue tefleja l ltcha clel peciente entle lt:tlizel stt (lese() y pr()l)il)i (), entre s(n))ete$e y rcl)slarse. En cl trustorno ror' (lficit. en ( n)l)i(), la anllustiil no surge c(nll() consec\ren( iu (lcl (lcsc( , sinr !lLr< ' l( precL,Lb \ clctennina la irnposibiliclacl clc rtrc ste emerja {) se clesarrllc. Sj Irlgrricn tiene. por irltntiliCuci<->n con plrlres rterr()l-izll(l()s, o pr hal)cr sickr rtcl'r()r'iz:L(1() por'('stos. ll intugen de hal[:tlse en lt:ligrr, cst:r xngusfit csenciill. irngusti prir)rri. es llt cttc (letemlinllrli clrre el clesco pL((liL () n() enlcrgcr (), si enr(]rgr. scil c()rk(l() cr'l su (lest[()ll(). Si. c()]() expusil))()s ntals xf l)x, plll'il una urLrier sLr nla(lre lc fijri clcscle el ((rlienz() clt la vicla cl cr.rclpo <lel hilbrc -v sus genitlcs c, rro tt'pulsir,<>s 1' rclignrsos r-t<> surgiri en ell tn clc se() (lre lrilg() scri tcpirir.k >or culPlt o lrol rcrsecucirin tr.lriclr. I-os gcni tlles tlcl It<ulrtr.' scri'in ( )riginllrix Drunl!'. a(,n:rlltLrtt\.lrrlcnt!'..l lcn.(ztntes de rllilner.t e(luivlllcnte a (\)rrl() l krs nirs cle tlos lrlteblts. taz:ts () r('ligi(,nr:s coer)1igas sc les insclilcn ks llrienrl)r()s (lcl grrtlto al qrre n() Per-1(nccen c(nll() scrcs rcpucliables, -rligrosos. trai( i()ncr()s. N<r es cluc cn cstls (rnrllr(ir)n(:i sL nlc l ()tr(),v Iucg() sc rcl)rir l)( .()nfli(T(). sin() cuc la rrirerr in:.r'iti,',n LltVlt l:t rDer' rlcI rer'hlzr>. l-() r]() (r)stilti(l() (s ('l (fr() c(nrr() lucrttc (le pla(cr.

lu ltft,4 lL'nry)11!!!c.t (l? d?srcp)Dtir h) c.\'istl,,ttt' tttc la o lc ct la lx,t;ibltd (la (,.\islt. l.l tr-rr.ulll!'rrr,, cn cils() c(nrsistc cstt ltinr() en xlg() llll'ls (lu('cn ll.rccr c(n]s(iente [o incons cicnte. er l)()ner L clescLll)icrk) un cxistentc. IIay rr.re cial Lt Jlrsibiliclacl clc cuc llcgtte lr cxistir l() (ltc nLrnc fite inscito. Io rte catecir-r (lc r()nrenl()
I'<r cllr cstltr tli/itt'tttL,

rlc haccr tluc ql,q() /).ts(

c()nstiltrV(nl!-.

LiN'l RIi I-^zA

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r'() Itt-tt tr

tr

1t'tr;tt v tl

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c(rltenlaD() itrlrPli()s ,'ll trte <fr-ccc algLtl()s l)()es prrit Iir LrnllPren\i, 'n J-\\i )pt( )l(')gi( lr y J.)1tra [:Ls fircrulrs clc ,rtt<r\'('n( i,,n l](rrlrrcrrtr\ (n (.1(l:l Ln(t (ic ellos. Si lricn plxntq (luc llry pxcientcs ( Lrvir p.lk)l()gill (s l)risiclrlDeIte p()r rliic it l otros P()r (\)ntlict(). tanrl)ien rc!. ,n, ('c ,lLrr (n tln rllr\rn ) P.rciente h'lv llt()nrent()s () lireals en <trc preclolninan rn() u ()lr(). Killingnn) c()nsi(lcr1r qLle en lx pirr()l()gl por clficit se lr.rtlr (le at'lrlu ul srjet() x scnlir (luc lllg() exis te. cLrc lrt itDgustilr (lr( sc cxl)erinlcntlt c(rr'(]sl)(rt(lc i Ir) siluitci'n (lLr('.c |ir i y rlLe n< sc prrkr r[rlrr rlc sigrrilir'lr]l. l)r'l cr'()s r'asrls rloronc )o crte llm:r .iI1tc|r'rncirnes rlirnLltivrs, (Killingnt<r. 1995), cjculplifi(rn(l() (\)n l:r sil.+icnte: .S, trstctl ticnc l)tgnas r.rz,,rles Ir.rt.l scnlirre insr:rLr.r trtltnclo no le responckr Fls crn< l< <ttc rrstecl senta ruan(l() sL rll(lrc no le rcsponcla 1'

lll cnlfelazlmient() enlre 1rst()nt()s ror clficit y tritsk)lrt()s p()r c(rltli(\() la lrsis (lLlc s()stiene Killingnro ( l9lJ9), rrrrr lral)lj() rncre(c un r(\cnrl )

l-o

AVAN( liS

liN PSr(.o]',IitApl^ psl( ()ANAr-t tcA

lNIliRvliN(l()NlislllRAPlllullcAsDII'liRtiNc'ADAs

171

r.lr..rl nu usillrl.l cltscspeLaclarttcr':tc srtltr io rrte clla pensablt cle ustt'cl. Ah< rir l)i(.ns: (lue s())'(\)nr() clla 1 lrLe l lrenclr>ner, (p:'rg. ?.3). Killingmo aclarr rrrt r:slrr ts Lrn nrcrll cjcnrplificrrci<in c1r.re cltlre ser cxreslrla cn palabres ,,,rtr'orrLlrtlr's trn cl rlialetto erllr)ci()ntl <le I:t t;tcicnte. [-a firncir'rn <le l.t in Ir'r\( n('i()n :lir|lttiva cs sltcar ltl sLjct() (lc Ia tltrcla. clevr>lr'crlc Ln se,)t,lllrcn) rl, irltnticlucl r-lc su.sc,f, clc vlliclez clc su t-xrcricncia. toclo ell< trcnrLzLclcr rol lrrs rlrrcltrs silrc Lrnrr rcaliclacl cttc le es rnistiflcrclr pol unl tigurt extcrne ,lrt lc irPiclc reprcscnl:trst:Lcr.rcll<l clrte cl sLle) estli riritnrkr- Killirtgrtto int( rlr (l(lir))itrl erl plt>cl tle l;is intcncncit-tts efiltnlttirs. rllulc un lrrg;tr clcntrr) (l( lir l,(ni(a nlitjr'it. \r Ies rc r'rtto ()l)Llrsts () rt,erttpiezlrnrkr a la in l( rl)r('l:l( i(')n rlc c<ntenirkrs rcPrit]lirlos sin() coDr() prepltllrnckr el lcr|r'no tltlir ,lu('(sl( ti[x) cle intcr ve n< ir-n rLrcrl:t lcr-t(r-r,:rlicltz per:r cl sujclo. F.n elccto. t' r'rr tllo,.ritcitiilxrs,-rr Killingr:to. >rrtL rLrr rtli-trictt rtre.l:r cnrlr.rlclrlsr'cn la I'rsrlutrllr rlc lo lcprinrickr, rare cttc cl salrcl lcngil ulgrin scntickr l)rr:r Lrn sL jtto. ts t<inclicirn pre\ilt (llc puecla creer cn trrc kr (lLlc v ir l)cnsllr (rr'rcs rrrnrlt'ri rnlt rceli<1a<I. l(illingnr,) sc ul)o\' tn el trablrjrr (l( licu(l ( l.)15) s()l ,n l:i rrr. glrcion. r-tt cl rrlc cl ittieio clc tlxisl( n('iir rlc lrlgr r t,s r'or'rsirlrtrl r t onlr
1rli r'i() rr llrs i tlLlicLrlcs (]tre lucg() sc

(lri

cle p(nqtLe erJ un nio nl.ll() que cl vez c1e tellcr qre enficntr,cl llecht 6()r rKillinPn"r' lr)x() P'g ,,,-,..,, ,,,4.1r. \rrllnl(lrrcnl( l(l li.rntl'l'' I,tlt, Pl !r ([Lltr relLllt nt.t. t.,lcfal)lc sentirse lllll() (Itlc allnclc>nadt. cttan(l() en ()tr()s cas()s se atac 1l ()l)iet() lLl)itn(1()nante t'se le lcLlsl parll n() sen clt':tnlr>rIirse lcsp()nsl)le'/ si la lllclre o cn el cso ''lel 'tt[lt< sr' olrjett nt salle inclLtso el <llljerl sollre p<xler ningin ticne no rbalrcltna, el stLjetrl crlrEn r)()r (rllc s ltte,r si vL,lrsrll. cl r,lljeto <ie alll()r tieoe t()tlll:ltlt()n(nna' sllr i,u ,, .,i .. p,.n',.,, Se flr( P, )r(ltl( iLli tuxl(). Por(llle [lice tal cos" ent()nccs rti t qrte t u-rlrtccrilt cle fllntliselri tue se prtccle hactr;Ltuelllr g. 1.,

ptc(liln

)ster-lcr () rct ltezer <rrt cse ttlgO

l.ir lr \li'lcn(ia p<lI cliicit c\ PlcestrLr(1.lll. cs clctir', cl anlrlist.r clelrc (o(lrl\l({llr'{iln(i()(s (lLle n() hilt't lr)gr(kr (slrrlr'fLllJrsr (.)t t'l plr( i(,nlt )'(i\l(.. r'll (()!rs((u('n(il, no prrccle rcllliZlr'l)()l-s lDisr)l(). I-o rrrc cl l)(i(lll rc(lLlic r( ( (lu( cl n:tlist sea (lLricn le rltlidc llr cxrtiencilr. (luc lr (lllltrt [1t iltlllrslril. lls lo rrrc obscn'trtros (()u tirirtil lic<'Ucn< ir ct p(icntcs (lLl( n()s s()li, rl.rrr. rk'.<'sl't t:tclllDtentc. (lLrc llrglttrros rtlgo rltr':r sa<'lrrlcs rlc l:r lrngrrslilr. lr Ltt rrr.rrt rr rk lrn ni() (lLre sc clirigt, lt l:t ligullr 'r;ucntltl lt(lucia(l() clc rn ckrk' rrtt sc lt llr,.r.: insrrortlblc. En la plttologl ror conl)itto. cn calll)i(). l:l lln.L l1\lil (s ()l)j(.t() tlc irtrprrls<;s agrgsiv()s () sexLl](s p()l l)11t1(,clel pacicrtrr,. ,rrir,n L.rln:r L l signifir'uckr <L l:t crrcricncil l)cl() 11() l() pLc(lc t()lcr:Lr ptcs (.n{lit cl] i,)r)lfir(li(( j(ln (()n ()tt.is r('l)lcscnli( ir )t-lrs. I)r' lrr ctlrl I(l)rinrc tt signili(11(l() sr'rulrl,:rgrcsir.o. ef(.- (lrc s sc lix (()nslilri(l(). !ln (sk)s cils()s. lal trctr .rt,rlifit: t's ttyuclar al sujct() cn ll lrsrlrrccla clc lo lcinrickr. (n snfrcnt.lr inl lrulsos t' {rtrtt:tss no tolcr-ltcllts. hillingro rlilclclcirr r lieiltrir-lt 1 rr Slrengolcl- e1tl-L ,tr)tL.r'tLi()-rclonrl sc<rnclarj:". (it esll ltinlr st, cllt,l'c trl rr.rlirl:rrl plinrruia, c.intcr-rci<nalirllrrl lrlr lrr rI rrrt ltlguie-n plrc(le xtril)rirsc ser cl lcsrnselrle (lc lg() (lur' ()(LruL(r lrr'rrrl,rr( nl(, l)()r sLl cLrlptr f)it[L n() srltir (lu(, l, sr.lcecli<l<r. (lLt sc lcl]t( sc t-c lrr1.r. ,lur\i lr)llrlrllcl1c licrr clc st (()nlr(ri "l'liai;lnrcnt('L'l nir\() nr) ltrinL.!tn. l,.lllk rl,,r( ir,ll rrl(D(i()nlrl cn el trura. rtro,.,s rosilrle (ltc ('(n() un it(1() (lr ,,rJi.rrrrz.ri i, rrr ln)sl(1i(r'txnsficrll lls nrlrls irlcrl(i(n-tcs (l(,(filts rcl(i()ncs c('l llrlr\.r:, ll.r, r.r r'l ll:rrI]t:r (rr) cl fllt tlr tlor-gtrrlc signiliclttlo it Unil c\P(. Cnrt.t ,lrrr-,li l,,((,lrlr.lri f(.\\(11.1 (()nlusll () itlrfrit(k)i'.1. l)esiIrs rlt t()al(). cl lt)rln(l() rrrLrI tr'srtlt.rrli rrr.rs l()lLr'lrl)l('1l r] rtitt(, lr.1r1. si lrtvt')\lr rlu( \Ll ltl(lre l()

r,railrili,l,,,l (ltrc' se irlr.u, y qt'," Pcnritirrt recr.tperarlo l-() ll1'ls lllLlstilrnte es pensa[ algtt venl()s en ltl cllte Es Ir,,g" l,r',.," se haga. ltbieto cle anlor no vtlvc'rl'L "l scr ab;ln<l<t:ttltr cle sientc pcfs()n1t n,ls a,,a,r, en (llrc ante el ttrror quc Lnx clcslttcncli; llt)rrt le vtrl ll tttitllir 1'vltll'cti ' 1>r>r llt pereia rrtfie,e rcns,r,, 'l-o (f(ng.lr' 'llraginIi1lllcntc' pocler sollre rttoni,rr l,r,,-,..1'r,,.to scl vr'ltlvc a (l(nllill Entre l anglsli P()[ el sentinliento n() tccimiet<s crte cn rcltliclacl algrtnlls person:ts.-lt<tlcllls en itlrP()tente. sctllirsc cle r'Lrlp:t y le angustie lx)l (Quin()d()z l99l)inst cle rtngttstirt Il lltrrtti(rn 1".,u.'1rr"al,rrii,aa "Pt'rrl(ltLc sc [lntasqil cr-:scientctente -rol h rrillrerltr Io ttlc se vivi(i I)lsivnrentc' proyectise hiz() .tctivlutlcnte. Lxs Pets()nilli(lil(les nllr(isisl'ls c()n len(lcn(irls ()l)iL qtte el illlan(ltl l()' a scltlar ,rr, ."n,1ri,,. ,tlel,,n i" cLrlpal.)ilizltci<-rn " lt trlrli ('tcrn() cst:rt <rtc ""., lt llt p,,rclt,a a.tc tltltlt lr ttt't:t prottteslt tle tll()r al,rn,, "a gatlo, y no por f:rlles (lcl st)iel(). ' v(rlui"n.l,, .r lit tlilfki4tait ( imPorcncia r'clcsr'lllirlrient( ) ) fieucliena' hay un! xilllllstial lltl-lllncnlc cn ei scr ltltlant (lLe cs ntc lo <Ltc t-to s('c()ntr()rtrl sc ptteclc cxplicar. l'ot'ello frcllte los tcnr'trtcncs <lc la nat,,. Irs cli()s(rs estin "nr.:i,r,l.," Ir.,rl.za :ttelri izltnt ej cl slrlvlle :t1lr-llt ;t le cxplic'rr'il'rn tle rr'tr: l( )l ios (ltlc i p'lllll)lx'i riltlxlcs ciecLtlr ltizo. rrte cnojatlos lttr lr 1l:tsancllr:t tir.le ese lttotlrclll() (x(-gli:n tn s(ntilllicnl() iltls()li() (le <rntrol stlrc las l; lltttnani fucrzlts cleslrtcllcl:ts cle llt nturalezrL' [-es gran<lts epicltlttirts <le l-a expli.t",1 ,l.nr." ftrcron ltctrtll>ltltlclas l)()r sc!ltilllielllos tlc ctrlpallilitied ctllsienle (lel tttc sc por Ias stlicl() racit'n clsi< es qr.le las rtcci<lnes lrcvias c:trtsa cle c<lo y sc ttllicn plllle cuanckr solrretiene l clrtl'rstitt sc rexclivln pl-otttesas (ltc itacer perllritc ('r1 l:l c(llp i, ,rtistrra. En l() (ltle n() s( lcPrtrll es r:pir_lctllilr o l;t c:ilisttlrfe <'n ltitlitllttl ,.1,.' lr,"n c. rrr, rn,,tic ltt r, ton ltl t ttlt) Ilt pltsal'rln :l ser ctltr<llbles () no se ruP(llri'tll' frr('r del c()nlI()l clcl stticrt n()s Precc pet ticu lalnr'rnt< ilrlsecltnclria l,a ctrlpa pot intcl-lcionaliclacl (ltlc se encLentrx tJn frecLtlplr tlc sentinlicnl() cl porrante ltarti cxrlicar (lc ()hjet() ill)Lls() scxtLitl ll('r()s !ist() sit{lr lttt han >. ,ttltlc llt , ,e,rta,,'rant.' ctt arcllt con illsistenc ilr Il tesis clc tttc- la cr'tlJ:rlt I cslilx)n i! ri:l: ri) rue cl sttjer tltte expclitDcnt<i cl ltllrst sexrtltl l<> cltter y tttc scclttjo iltc<nst'icltttltltn li cltte gtlzir cotl h exllcricncia Y P()r es() se sicnte ctllpahle No t.,,1 "r"r,r', clrcn.luds cle i11,...,, pucltl <rr.tnit -rtr<l:tpel:tr:L la exrt'-rci<in PJra geneel tclllizrla ctuo.,rplica.ui,l .1" 1{5 )os (its()s l() tinic() qlte llltcc ts qtte

l-l

AvANcEs tiN psr(.o.rtjR^ptA pst(jo^NL,l.tcA

IN'I'IiRV]'NCIoN!S ]'ERAPIJU'IICAS

DI IIIiR

IJ

N(]IADAS

171

dt,,rrl),. lxt(t,ul(.lc sct.)tlirnntlo... Al !nfirlt.ll ...,.trrr.nt. 1,r,tr.,n..,,4,,r,t,rr,.,l en qLesc sit llc cl pciente, ci anaiisr se rc;rc.i()n.l .,,n l-, n..._.i.1".t ,r,,,"'r,lfan,.,fa t.,n f).r('r(nt!.r)n ciflcit. es dccir ljr nc(trsj..l-r(l (lu(ntrr(luc-lri,,,ul'uque..ten_ g() |l clerec.lrr> tle ser. , (pg. 7(r. r.rrrsiva y entrecol]rilla(l() en l originrrl). y
;t11r'r'grr: ,i.11

nr(l L.\ .lI l{t.t()rrrrrl<r el rralr:rj<t clc Killingrno ( 1y69). cste s()sticnc qLs no l_rl1, per_ s()ni (lU( rrrcrilr cncasillarse sl, r rlcn tl tle l-r u ,1, ,g;- p, ,r .1.tlal, y (lr)c re_ sttlt.t irrosiltit c()ncel)ir lt Lln srjek) cn tue el i,rnfli.,,, ,.,,,,rr.nte. Sxuple_ ll(.ntr (lLtierc ponel cie relieve l.r p.rt,,hrgi.r Llllc 5r hrr rrginltlo por firl]tr clel ()l)i('lr) c\tc)(r I p{)p()ncr ti[uli cic ,ni..r.u,- i,rn .,a 1,r"",,,.r)rr.l ur" "f ,r" liulirlnk) () para las reas en que el cl(,ficir es lo ..t"r,,,,,,", oi.l"-,li_() (lLe h:rce (st rctiert,eI anijst) cs cottfirutr lt ttac.esidtd _-),d

rirl)(.utx \ url\' it repctir la sitLlitci(,n (lLe tr.lulllJtiz() :rl pleientc. As collro en t l rrrorrcr:k clel tarula sextal tL\() cftre sufiir ro"ir,arran,.-i" inrirsion s(r)re {uc y,p(,n.rr er .rr,rr.,, is. .r. q,,,.n. .,,,y.,,,,r,*. ::i :li,lll:,, lll,,l:l ('rrr \u l\t(r *l,r(l*1. (,1 \Uict,, rlepcnrlicnt,.,. le inlr,1.l nU(-\1;\ :(,nlr ltvnr,,\ (le ' lll) \( (r\ rLl. En r\()\ (..\r)\ r.l r,r.inr<nti, rlrlc-nrir,r rlcl pri..,1,r r9 l , u,rl.. ' (,t-l tc.r,,r <l .Uiel, pr(li(,r( (.r)l\.(n(cr\r,n,,,n_,i,,i t.,i1,,nt.,1,.,1,,. ,ttis,,.r,rrt.ll,r rlltc (n \ (.rLl:r(l n,!

'causa<h

<lrigim h angustiar ()tr.l. en la qrre ll angustiir Llnx cuesti(in estnlctrlral cle itlrnticlltl <lesvl<rriz<la prcceclv al xrr cleseo. Ahora l)ien, si se aclmite cltre en el crs() cle lx nix l c()nstituci(in cle rnlt iclentitltcl clesrrlr>rizad:t ser nrrtjer- cs c;trsa iniciirl tlc .rn]rsti.r. -el lp()r qu n() lrrrcclc aclntitirse tanlrin <ue tntt itletttdul inicl l tle clctectursr.'fallick r ll tlc ser rrn sLrjet() en pelig(). sea causa priDrari clc nglrslilr? l,n la prirncra ptrtc cle LIs allti tlel pritrcpk) del pl(rccr (lr)2\). colDo hexs inclicatkr mlis ar l. !'retcl ubica cl surgin]ient() tle la :tngustia no en el desc() sln() rn Ln traulrtaltis[n) extcri()f. ,4.lrr.rrl lricn. tjcntc x Ix irn!{u\ti.r (lu(
clescr>: unlt. en l:t que el clesco

.l l clurante Ln ticnlfaustix dc cstracirin el varcin sale clel Eclipo -renuncia l)()--, nicntrrs tlLre ta nia, prrr ll rrngustiir (le c.lstrilcin - envicliir al ilo. sentirnient() cle infefkriclacl- entru en el Eclipo al l>uscar al paclre corlo proveedor clel llkr, ele[rentr il]raginari() que rest:rinrr sr nrcisisr-[o. En consecuencia luy clos teoras sol>re la ltngustie en str relaci(rn con el

sorprcncle

rl

puc(lc lte, su psiqrtisrDo rarr rttlruiril un sentir)icn() (le (()ntr()l? Me(linte l:.\ utrbtrc:ritt d( itllcltciotldlid.tr./ lr algtrien. sca al pr'opio sujet() () al ot().
sien(l() e:it() ltirDo
l<>

suieto, nte la ctl stc siente qLe nllcla pre(le haccr, c(r(,

.Asi cl .nalisrr crrntple tanr, r el p.qrel .lt.l ,,ttt,t ,fut :r:t:,la kt l,tttrs/b

rrrc clr;lcteliT-ir

]ll:,: li]],1

,lf'!.;1tu,r,,,t:,t

:,,tt

,ttttt,

tct.t,,n.l,,.,*r.,,,rii,,,,',r.,r.,,,,,.r.,.r

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,.1,,,,1,]1"

;.1,.:., t ,,!l r)rr'n. IEr)' Ll< rrt.Lt()n. r sca, ric cUcldc lt r.rs :rilra. it/l'crpcin .l( l() tlUncu nscrif()_

ill: ::,:;I,:,i:l : :,, :j::rlji.;i;;l:,:iJ: n,,'.olrr rcpt rir-,tn ). lr.rr.r.r , ,,s1j(.. 1,,
I_A Rt:t_Aarr(iN

:i,i,;:t1,,

il]:l;,.::

n, rrn.r.rt.nlr srnr,. rr , kr rr.re ltenros s()steni(k)

l)os'r'r,r)Ri\s soBRF

ENTrir AN(,uslt^

r)lslio

'lirrla llr plilera 'poca licuclln..r \( r.r.rctcn() p,.ultir..h .lgLlsli cl.. irslrir(i(,lt <.trr. l clttrslr llisi<. .c ll netrr_.sis: p,r.f,^ afara,r" i*.aa,,,,r",,a aa l( r(.:l (lrstifl(). Sin entblrgo. cuanrkr clesprrs ratirur,,ir, l" ,,ngur,i" ata a,,r_ hr nru icl Jitt qr.rc ei !.lr(in c( )nsisrc .,i,.,,,,,r. p.r._ r:rra li.:: l'.1,i il;,].1.]l:]:lr.r qlle " n{, nurJ t. nin e. r..nrirriu rh.t t.rt,,. A nUcsrf,, trrr(r] ll i,..l.]l,llli,..",lrs \ n.r r'( lr.r.r(,, r cn (lLrc r\h, otr](ltfic. I fer>rt tiel r.nflicl() \, .t anglsti. Micn_ Ir:rs ( n (. \u[(in ltly un cloblc cleseo 5gq,5 q.,lo prirne,. llr'tr. lx)sr,(r.ir nlarDii v lil.rarse lgrrsir .r tcntc .lc pl,rrr tie,itpc clel ron, , rLreiLre.ro oligi_ t t.t rl rcr r.r' rr Lr vrn.lanzl clcl r.ivlrJ e.lrpitr r. .n 1., ni.r' ,,'.1","t" inr,.,," ,,1 f"1,, ' \ In,r,lU,. l,r r(lc\ent.rLii,,t tuc tiene cle si 1I.lislrr, printarilr me,nft , cs llt rle_ ,riirrr'tr .\\,t1, rrrl.rr l, r,, r!.t_ rr :r
(
rr r

ju(lic a ()tro scr h cirLrsx (le su rngLrstiil. cnt()n(es puc(lc creer (lue si cl (fr() sr loclific. si l risnrr> sr ille,u. si atcil l pcr\ellLli(lot y Io clcrrrta o clestruye, ent()n(es l:r caus:r <le iu rngustia cicr'lrpareccni. l'or elLr. lu anlu\tr.r p(rsectttrria irl ()tr() clr ser cl currslrntr intentionirl rle la anrenaza-atril)rci(in (n nrch()s ('?s)s ticn('Lt c.l liicter' tleli'rs ir o. 1.1) r))testrn los p:crentcs con enlermeclarle-s (lue csc:Lj)rn a < ualcuier tra(lmic)t(): se peltln crn cl mclico. (()n la irtcn(i(-)n clle rctilrcn p()r plrflc (le Ilts enfctnte[rs. p()rrltle ent()nces hay algo que si se nr< iftcsc cie ftnsiva-c-nknces t(xl() cnrl)iar-, ll enf[ned.r(l seril curil)le. -iltsin f.l rnisrrr ploceso clcfi,nsivo sc Iucc eviclcnte en ixs etpls (lLre suelco fener lrrgar cn ei clcsar<llo clcl primer t'pis<icli() es(luiz()ti'nic(). lln los nronrentos iniciales, r'uenrk cl pil( icritc se'rtc (ltc lg) l)a cxr)l)i:(lo, qrc nr) (-()n tr)h sus penslmicnt()s, (lLre sLr cLrerp() es (liffcnle, quc se (jisgrega. cnk)nces es cknrinarl< p()r el p\'()r rle sentrr,lrrC un pr()((\,, inu,rrrPrcnsihlc sc ha nxxleraclo cle 1. Ltrego se tlcsanoth el (lcliri() pe$e(ut()l-i(). en cuc Pol kr
men()s ya

h lrngusti

l)ersecut()riu. Si el sriet() ad

il,,ttt,t,t,t,.t,"t,tt,,,,t,r.,,,,,;;;;;,:;;,'::,::;),..[::r;):i';;;h':i,",iiii
,.,rtir.1,., F."L,.j

n,/,tl\t tt l)l\t tt. ul(t )u!t,L.1t td(, !lud.l_a ciileicnr.j:r'cntle I,, ,, t t ,1, ,.r.. t.t .,r r'\r.,, t,r.tl ,l.e J

,ff iiXii;
V

"l ij ,,;l ...,i1;,,;: ;.;;;,,,:

urr,ln

un or<len. Llnr rccupcr'1rci(-)n clcl scntinriento clc'caris:rliclacl I cle h.r(cr xl!a() ante cf pcrscguicir': Irtir <le 1. <rrntr'tttacur. esc()n(lerse. Irrente al lrnnllent() inicilll. cn <rre cloDtinlt (l sentilnient(, (le i1r)p()tencil clc elgo -rcligrr:s() (irc e..itri l)r.s.rn(k) ) (lrc 11|rri)c con kxlu lu oganizlrcir-n <lel rllrnckr y rle s lnisnx, el (lcliri() cstal)lece un cie.) ()r(len. Ilay t)ni llngustilr qrc pirir t()(l(, nio es ulrLrnrcIrr:r.1rr cle sentil a k>s padres c(n)t() irlp()tcntcs. [)<r es<, cortsiclcrrtrl()s c()rr() rttalos. agresirrrs, pttecle -lenienrlo (.1 revcstil Ln carircter clefi'nsi\,(). cuenta est(). crecnos tue la culp1l por in(cnci()nuliclacl secunclaril sujet() sc utr)Jtril)Ll)e resp()nsrhili -el cla<l- es tna de las clos vtriintes en qlrc la atrihLlci(in cle rcsponsabiliclltcl t s

lllv

la rosil.)iliclacl

(l(

l-r
(\rr(, (lusr
rl( li rrsr\ir. l-il

vAN(-IjS ltN psI.ol EltAp)A pstcoA N^

t_

t-I(iA

lN'I

II RV LN_CION

IiS lliRAPllU'llCA )ltliRtlNClADAS

175

()tt vri?nte consiste cn sup(cr la intencionaliclci (le uit otr() clcl sLrfiirientr. CrLancl() Ili()n (19(t2) halla clel .ter sin n(nrl),1 , ( r(.( llr()s r!-c()n()cet cn ese c()n(cpt() cl rcr(r ficnte a l< inc<ntr<laltle, lrt ltt, r ll iurgr.sti cu\' catsJ no se prtccle precisir. rntc ltr crral cttllrr.tier ,os:r ts rlcferible: la culpl o la persecuci(rn lrrcalizacllr en el o),eto. fln cste st rrtitkl Klcin calr lxnckt cuan(l() s()stLvo (lLle ante unt anglsti. (Fte cl yo i('rl(' (\ )nlo anenlrzilnte ella pr()\,e nicnte ciel illstint() cle ntuertc- cl -ura al lrrrtrr|rtt'sc clirige Jracia el pcclro. qre c()nvieflc en el oltjcto n]lrlo. p()r Dtcslril l)r e. si n()s clesprendenlos cle esr llit(r()gia pero c()nscrva[t()s la clescrip, r, rr rlt' llrs firerzas tue cstiLn en jrLeg<t, la ptxlr:tnxts rcfirrrnulal en l()s tnltin()s :iRr i(,)lcs: tnte sl sentilllie,)t( > cle iDtpotencilt . clcst.aliDie nro ( I t ilfios1kt it t. l.t ul()( llp;rl)ilizaci(in o la atrilr-cirin un (fr() c()ncrek) cle scr la cuus clel Dislll() nlccanisllt() pararn()iclc- (.onstitt).e el nt()\,irnicnk) clefersivo l)srcr_ l )t srlc cst:r pcrspectitx, t()(l.ts las {errirrs icleolligicas s<lre l.l ntucric .rrn-su lrLrtion l pcclrclo oliginal, () l1r v()htntt(l (le scres s(rr-snLturrlcs-, srrn rn l(nt()s (l(' ()t()rgar una cusalichcl a lo cue allrrec.c sir explir.a< i<in y. espc ( i:rlr))( nl(, Iuc-a <lel c<>ntr<rl de cual<uicr ser. l.:l ((,)sccucn(it pr el tr:ttallticnto rle Jr> qrre acil)autos rle plentear serr.r lrr sigrrientc: cun(k) se cletccten firertes ansieclaclcs puranoiclcs -- c-l pa
r

,tintbiosis por rcntotcd detsit'a. pot kece, o

p)r

dJic[t esttltctt!ratl?

Es hx)itu:rl qr.re cltanclo u11 puciente s()licit:l inc()nscientet)tcnte (, int(nt.r ir(lucir cn el analistrt cue stc cumpla ciertas fLnci()ncs tllnquilicc, le -le asegure quc n() se va a rrx)rir, le inclicue qu hacer rnte Lrnx sitrrjr''n qu(

(r(nl( \'(.:r

los cue le r<clc:rn, incltritk cl terpcUt, rrrnr<t pcligrosos-, O ,r11rr'srrirlutl ln'.rnifiesfll () encLrl)iertir, o scnlilient()s cle c.rrlpl. cD est()s cs()s

r,) .rlrlnlr nrcciinicalrcntc las ansierlltclcs pxranoides u la agrcsiviclacl pr< vrr lrrLr i crnsiclerarlas detensas antc la culptr. Evaltrtr la posibiliclacl clc <uc
rr,, st' rrrtrle precisar () qt( lpxrecc (()tr() il(r)ntr()llrl)lc. As etrt,r rrn linr, .ll( r(-izlt(l() se vLlclve tgresivo y llrsca culpllrles. rn px(.iente l)) ese est.rrIr < nrrx irrel poclr:i apelar. clefensivlrtrente, u llcusar il ()tr() () .1 si iDist)x). tl rtrirrIr gr'ne[t l1':ellr nc ril icr rs r.) paranoicos ptres en tntl>r)5 (is()s. p(. l() nlen()s. ll {ilrsilnlc clel srruesto llrl cuecla llrcalizarkr } alg() se pre(le h.lccfi act()s ,i crrirrcir-r. por r.rn laclo lucha contr cl pcrseguiclrtr. p()r el ()(r(). lr,r (,sli|i c()n([ici(]nes [:L intervcnciort terxpLlticit (r)osisfe cn tf{xr (lt r]t()rlilr'rr't,l setitDient() cle ter{)r, cla<kr rr.re nriclltt.xs stc srrlsista lrr int(rrprct.r r ir n cl<. l: rlclcns xtrillci(-)n trrclancl-lic o la parlnoica- <rrnclucen al -laconto peclirle t llgtricn (lLtc l,r tso, t'l rrre scre sientc (lue se 1th()gal (lue .tlr.rrrLr'r.l i}rtLirr. Narlrr hly rli'is ilrtrogi,ti(t) <ue rrrecl:u ljtittclo rrnl t(()r.r (k lr l)r()ye(ci(-)n clc la agresiriclacl parl cxplicer el tcn.()r qLre un I)r , i( nlr'( \lx.li]]cntit y a l()s intent()s tcrxprtic()s (le rcintr( )Vcc(.i(-)n de l tisnur. ll,,ln'rlL( l.t Pr'irttc(t n() ()crr..t o la srgtrntla Y) i)uc(lal scr tcr pt rl iL .lt)luDIc , lr.r,, lr.l,r r ir'los I clefinidos cas()s, sin() Jtot<rrc ctrlncio la pntlecci<in cle le .rrlrtrirrrl.rl rl() (s (l llec'lni,)t() csenci1. trll)xjar s()l)rc ella. uclers <lc cLrlll.rlrliz.r. rr, f)(.nllit(. lu()(lifi(:rr la clrusa por llL cual cl strjr:t<t se rcpresct! cn
,, lrqr,,
l.r .rrlxr () lrr .)crsecucirr-r sc-en la ilrrlrginaci<in tlcfcnsivu il.ente tr utr te.r()r

(llle

siente (lue te clesl<rcle- sc vcr en cst() exclLsil'lnrente r.rn proceso clefensi xr el pacirnte. por ulgtin tipo rle anguslil .lnte cl i-tnalista rrcir'rn. crlpi- no.'s capaz clc hacerse targ<> clc elgo (lre si estria -pelscr clentxr cle su tcpertoti<> e iclcntilicara Ir()yccti\'rnente la suplresta capaciciucl en el :lnalista. No <lrcn clrrcl:ts cle qr.rc esto sr.r<ctle pe(). (!)llt() s()stu!i111()s ttt:is aibtt. hay con (lici()nes cr rue el psiqttisruo tlcl pacientc no lli logllckr llegar lr estrlrcturrrr scntiI]licnt()s bisicos cle c()nfianzr <n :i nrisnr,, r\Pc!,, srr c-rraciclecl cle pxcigLlar lrt lngustiu. () de enlentar l()s peligros extern()s. () p()sec rrn dfi( it cD Iitncirrcs )'()icrs instnrnrenties. llltl>ilirlLlcs c()gniti\rs. rDtcr pcrsonalcs atectivus, -recLrrs()s srciales, ctc. En est()s (xs()s l apcl..i(in <rre hace al terxl)etrtrl pnlx ser aytrclittkr y c(ntrpletxd() cn sLl estftrctllr st' clcl)e rltre sc hallrt cr-t trn sttlbi():i:i p|L'eslllcllt11 y ot\ en \tn si(11l)k)sis |estrltlLclo rle trnit legresir-rn tlclcnsiv tlcspus tle halrcr rlcanzaclr> rn (icrt() nivel errr[tivo. La rlilcrcnci:t es de tr.rs(en(lencia clnicl lltes nricntrits, en lu sirnli<sis rcgresiv,,(le['nsiv.l. cn (Fre s( renunciu a firn<ioncs rlclick a lu ogrsti, lx rl1.l)()l.rci(in clr las lrngustias rcspccti\lrs es kr rrrc pcl:lite clue (,1 sLrjek) s( reipr'()pie tlc algo <uc ya p()scc. Iln llr sirbiosis Preestruciurl, cn caDrlio, el lrnlistr clclre cur))plir pr()\'is()ri.lr)rente llls funci<ncs (le ltrs (lLe el .rrjer t.rrc(e. Fln estc ltinxr rrso. lu intcrpreiitci<-rn (lr uttl supuest.r rltlcgati(rn cle lirnciones cn cl anlljst:r p< lrzoncs clclcnsivas. rr por cl pleccr clel vincul< rcgrcsivo c()n 11 [egrcsi(-)n-. l< rinico (e c()nsigLl(j es crrnlrnclir al -gozeria pirtientc. lraccrle s(ntir culpl)le. increncntln(k) l:r angrrstirr. A nLlcstr() llo(l() tle vel, el uso rrrott<le c[( ll tc(ir clt- llr renuncia clcfirnsiyl o cle la rea]izaci(in (le un sLrprcst() cleseo Lcgresivo se (lcl)c ill pfe(l(nlrioi() de rrn nroclek ev()lttiv() r-lclpsiqttisuro en <1r.re stc scgttira untr linra tle clesan<>lkr rner.Lrr blc ttryu rinieu vi(isilu(l seri lu rcgrcsir'rn rlcfensillr. hD stc senti(l(), c(tsi clcuntos plorttctcclo[ts llts inr cslignc i()ucs lecientes (lLlc, c()n (listir'ltirs ()rierta(i()nes, rcvisln las con<epciones clsices solc el rlcsulr'olk cle acuellas
clirtrtnsi<rcs clcl psi<trisnro <lcscritas por
1996; I-irlttcnbcrg, l9u9i Liclrlrnl)erg

rl

psrcrranlilisis

(|()nrfty

\ 'lfgct.

()lr()s. l!)()2; Strrn. l915).

IN

Etv:Nct()Ni:s RtpARAlx)RAs:

^r.LiuN()s

sLrDi tpos

En los -r:tcientcs cn cllre hr pleckrrrrina<kr el xrcler patirgcno clc l: calida<l truLlo)ilticu (, sever()s ti-niiuen()s cle clflcit, p'.rci(ntcs t.lt lk(url)urkJs (lue no estatn cn c(nr(li( i()nes cle krlcl.irr y cle srrc:rr pLovcclro <le la tcnicu Psicoanalti ca clsiclt, sc re(luicrc cle unx n()(lili..rci(-n clc st. crro vlt siqn(l() rct(,no('r

l-(r

^vANaLs

EN psrco'l-liRApr^ psrcoANA-TI(tA

IN'I'IIRVI]N(]IONIJS TIJRAPI'UTICAS l>tscrn

DII;IIRIJNCI,\Dr\S

177

rIr xrr g parte

cle los autolss actlales. En est() cas()s. el terapeLltJ lrsic

n.rllti('() estii legitimaclo para llregar al rcpeilorio ptramente interpretativo. sin r't sr'inrlir rle a'ste. ()tral serie (le intervenciQnes (lue helnos (len(nllina(i() l,c,t't,t (-it)tt(s ta'paru(k)tas. asunriendo transit()rianlentc ciefias filnci()nes qtte el l):l('i( nt( n() pr,recie ejercer. Vetnt>slas, as colro strs funclet'nent<sr

l.<,,qitinutckin

.lel

1etu

gbb.ll pu'encillta dc

rtsgos

pdrci|las.

rk'.lirIltts t' it tstrlicicttciast"


l,os peclres am:ln a sus hij()s l)ajo clos nt<claliclacles. qtle sc entrclllezclan grin Lrs cns()s: una, en que el aturr va ltts all cle ctrlll<Ltier itli(i() pllfiictF Lu solrre Ln laso, pol el stlo hecltt cle tue el strjct() es el hii(),h. ()trx, en rrrt'cl :rnroL se entrefaa o retira. inclls() completatttente. segn se cttttlpla <r o() .(r (lctcririn.rcl<s cnrncs fiiad<ts arltitteriartlente. Ct1lnk) nuyor haya si<[ r l:r r<clrlicLrcl parentrl cle amor p()r' rllsg()s, p()1- ctlI)Plir))ient() c()n estintLrts, rr:tv<-ser:-r la tenclencir clel stLjer a la atxrbsctv:tciirn superlr'ic-t,:r l.r vigilrrnci:r solrre si satistacc o no los re<r-rcrit'niens icleales- Estc tipo cle attt()olstnuriin va generanclo Lna c()ntinu.t fragtnentltci<in cle la replcsentar ior cltlsujekr: se abstren rasg()s. se )os separa clel ctrir.tnto, ha< ienclo re,,r'r solrre ca(lx Lno cle ellos un jrricio qLte inltte(liatalrentc se tr:tslacl a la r( l)r('s(nl(i(in global clel su,et(). Se tr:ltil (le una activi(hd ll'agll)entackrtlt te(hr(1 r(nristrL, cn el senticl< clc que reclttce la conplcjitlacl tle lo clte cs ttna pelsor:r ul rasgo o c<nclttctrt (lue estlt en el fir< cle l olservacirin. l.u f?.lnlcntatcitt t'ctlttcciutislrt dclte tliferencirrse clc'la r:lisrri,. ion ,r cs t isior clefensivu. En sta, la separacirn cle rlsgos y stt exclusitin cle la represt ntuciir conscicnte clel sujer laclica en llt nccesiclatl <le evitat Ll rlngLrstiJ ejenlplo, cl rut rr-ocluce la uniflcacirin cle l.l lePresentacia)n clel nrislnl>

s<

activamente l<s clefectrs- comr resuita de la ;rnsieclacl con quc miran al hijo/a: obsen'an a ste,/a bajo la perspectiva clel riesgo imaginario que supuest.[nente ccrrea y cntonces s<ilo se le ve colno si fuera lln cLerpo en peligro o cor11() rna mcnte () una personaliclacl que p()see cierto rasflo que no est a la altura cle las clenanclas que ia realiclacl Ie inponclre y que haran peligrar su posibiliclacl dc cnficnt .r. La fragrtentacirn es ei etcto clrccto de la angrrstia que centr.r l atencitin en el rasgo tue supLcst.lllente poncha en peligro al suict() y n() una <lefensa ante I angLlstix. As ctlur el fribic< recluce el rnunck a la r>irsen aci(n rle los peliglos qtre pc clran provenir cle ste, no entriLnclo en sr mente los mil aspect()s pl,rcenteft)s clte se le abren conro <lisponibiliclecl. llt activiclacl.flegrlentaclora ecluccionislll r)Lrtil la reprcscntaci(in clel sujeto. C(-)rn() c()ntrxrrest.rr lu tenclencil a h fiagmentaci(in rec[tccionista? En pri

-se krs paclres

lner luglr, [recliante l elahrraci<in de la h()stili(iad rlel sujeto c()ntrll sr mi5ilto ste es el I:rctor rclevlnte- <1uc lc hcc seleccirnar tenclent ksamente kts -si tlsg()s negativ()s, clcscaltanclo los positivos. 'lambii,n, cuanck sea el clso. tne clianle la elaborac i<in clel cricligo lnutihnte qLre I: hace velse c(rn() slict() cn peligro o falliclo. lo cLre inpicle recon()cer su potencilr. hlrbiliclecles u ()lras caraciclatles. I)er() si est() es vl'tlick cn gcncrel, en prcicntes sevenrnrente pefiurltclos rcsrittn neccsrias, :l(lema-ls. r'iEnrls intun'cn('i, rn(s .Lti\'.r\ pr 'r plrte del terarpclrtll. cle cntre las ctrales quisiraltos lenci()nal p()r l() l)Ien()s (l()s:
re prclrcnirci(in de s lrisrr(), gr.rienclo al p.rcicnte J llegar e fimularse- lx pre!ntt: .rdenlis (le ese rasg() () condLlcta, rlui, nlis so1,. (lL ()tr()s rasgos tirrrnan llr globalicla<l quc soyl Qu (le rn no pueclo vet? Est() pro\,ee (le un contexto rl rxsgo () c()nduct.r (lle se aisla). p()siiilitanrk visuilizrrl() (lentro (lc un c()njLrnk). Irrcf{Lrntrs qtrc, al printiir,. es l)osil)le inclus() qur'clcbltn pr()venir dcl tcrepeLt peft) (luet plra ser efectiv:rs. l-e(llicrcn cue ser el propio nciente el clre termine hacinckllrs sLyrs. f)e esta l]rner.t. se poclr conyocal en la n]cntc clcl pacientc, cecla vez <]ue vuelva a clesliz:llse llrcj.l la fi.lgn)entlci(in re(lLrcci()nistll, h inlagen de ()tr()s as-

1. Gkhtlizackitt <lt la

rr.rc pr.rccla

-ptlr slli(1( ) (1r.rn(l() ,taca :rl (r)jet() (le rrn()r pr.teclc escinclirse llajo ei peso tle la ctrl-

rr. rrt ccsitlnclo excluir el rec()n()cillrienk) clc stt aspecto agresiv( . L() exL lritio tlc l representlci(in (lc si. y pr'()yect.l(l() en l()s ()tr()s, cs l< no tolerarkr. l() rrrc pr()()ca c()ntlick). kr cltrc genera anglsti. l,a rlngttstia Preccclc x la
cst isir'rrr. rrrc es clefcnsa frente l lculla. coltl() llt()str(i f-reld t istttt (k,l .t\) eu cl pxtceso dcJattsit'o.
r iorr
(

1931i) en 1-rl ('s-

lin trlrir. et l^ uclit'idu(l .fiagtetutluu tcdttcci(tstd, h fr-l8rr)(ntrrrlt' lrr inltgcn tlel suiet() tienc slr origen n() en ttn procesr> clet-enstr o sinLr r.rr l,r l.rll:r tlt'l sujcto prra integrar lo parcial en la totaliclacl cle stl ser. siencl<

,l

r'srlt,rrl,,

\ri( to s( rlrst lrrrn srkr resgos plrrciales. tultanck la mirach solre la glollali rl,r,l ,I l srr t,, r'n rtrc kr p.lrcixl se integre (()n el resto y sel balancelckr por ( f r rs .rslx ( t( )s. lrstil rnirx(l parcixl sc pttecle clebc-r hnto a hostiliclacl parenral
(nr l'irr ur.r Irrxl:rkrrr:k i()lr \ rrrplixci(in (lc
esc ptrnn) \'.rsc

rlt

Lrna iclcntificacitin con la firrmlt

cn ctte krs paclres I'nirallLn

pect()s dc si misnro. (le (frxs conclu(1as. cle ()tr'()s epis()cli()s de su historia. Esto lale pare la reptesentacir-rn cle cualcuier iirel cle evalLraciirn posible rna par te clel cuerpo, clc slr rnente, cle srrs lelaci<nes srciales, rle srrs concluctas clesde el prrnto ([c vist nr(n11. (]tc.-. (Jl)viiu-nente. n() se trlta cle negar el aspect() instisfct(n i() clel rasgo o crnclLctl sin() (lre. aun aceptanclo la valiclez clel juici() ncfl.rti\'t) firmularl<> sobre ese aspecto parcial. se lo ril>icrre clcntrr clc un lllarc() ntits vask).

tl

cxPitrk) s()l)re cl strPc)

2. l)esuecitilt rcspeck) .r lus figuras exlelnas y al sureryri. I]n el clso en que cicrt() r'asgo c<nclicir-rn dc n.rcimienk), etc.- c()nstitr)'x un fbco -fisico. estable parur la alrtcrbsen aci<in. prrntr> tlatrnlitic() qLrc lltrae la atcncirin y proclucc rlokrr', sc requiere cxarlinar las conclicirnes clc crnstiluciin de l<s sistenls de c<rliflcci<in. tle l()s cliscurs()s cle Ias figuras signiticativas i'arniliu-

t-s

AVANCtiS tiN PStCOl t'ltAP^ PSI(,OAN,4,l

l(-A

INl lll(vliN(,lONlrS l-liRAP!ltll

lCAS DIt ERIiN(lAl)S

179

h s 1 srx irrlcs rr krs que se sonetir el sr.rjer. de las experiencias (lc llai)er si(l() olrltt(' tk,crlic:t, cle l)uria. Es un ver(h(ler() trlh.rio (le clesc()nstnlcci)n cle l()s .r xligos tlt' r,ulora< in rlesde l()s cuxlcs sc picnsa a s lnisDr(). Trabxj, , f.rticLl:llr))( nlc ir]rp()fiante cuanclo la fiagrlentacicin y nlutilacin dc la rcpresentar'ir'rrr

2. a:.ttectizacki|

qJclit d de

ld./itltciiit

desccntte

rlt srtisf:r|er a un super v--r-r cxigentc. sicnrprc vigilante. Ils (lecir. cttesti(rn.llnientrr rlclsrrJrnir y de ia ihrsi(-)n cle que se puedl lleg.rr :l rpl.rcarl() mcclinte lt l)r()\'isi(')n cle lo clue lu clclrnclanclt. L! lill)()r teraputica c()nsiste en ayuchftrl
l)ir(

rlcl sujeto apirrcccia avalirda por un criterio plesLntamente ()l)ietiv() t)rcs('n( ia clc cierrrs limitll(i()nes < cleftctos flsicos. Si rn ) se tratr cle un tasg() s(r)re el (lue se rsientl cl sentimientr tle infeiori(li(l sir() cr.rc stc resuita de un superya) seve) () hasta sdic(), resLlta inclispt nsulr[ enliizar le rnisia)n ir)rposil)le en h que est embarcaclo el racicnte, la

hn algunos casrs. el nllsis no rcsicle trrt() en (leslepriluir cl cleseo al clcseo sin() en (l()tarlc (lc fircza fcctir', cle hacer que f.stc sr.trja. Aspett,, irnpt,rtnte parll acrrcllos pacientes que lun cst(l() expltest()s a r.rn pr<reso cle de

scti\ci(-)n sr(t()rirl cle su inc()nscicntc p()r purtc clc figrras incapaccs tle
rcsp()n(ler ltfecti\.alllcntc strs nccesiddes elD( )( i( )u:L]es. I)or rxm tanc. prresk) que si cl psicoenlilisis es algo lt:is rue rrntr tsicokrgu c()gnitiva. las clilercn (iats c()n stlt rt() (()nsislgrr rinicatuente en st insistcncit en lx lr1()ti\'.L(i(rn in c()nscicnle y les clccosas sin() en (lLtc (\)nsi(lcrx tuc, eclentts rlc las ideas. hay (lr' (lir11ersi(in, l:r cLel alcc, scntx(lx en la prrlsrn. l'r'eurl. clesclc l:l crnicnzo rlc srr olrftr. r)r()stl-() (lue llxy un! trticulltcin cnlre idc y fccto. Al resprc 1o. cl Ie'nr-,lrenr dtl e)tk)ttaoniatl() xli,cti\r) (Slern. 19i5) ss (le cn()trle t[s

i('nt('x lzlrrse tln c<ntru dcl .tirun() inieri()r, sobre el qtte nLn(1 reflexi()na)

rrrt s. rrrlastaclo p(n sLs exigencias, se sinti(i siemprc en lltlta sin xrclcl llcgar a ( nlr'(\cr (luc k indecuarlr no erll l sin() exigen<ia clesclc le rue sc evrla.

ll

lil l)ir(icnlc. cLriln(l() se t[ltl (le lguien eplastlrlr por su strpery<i. rc<uierc cle ur)i I).rfli(ipa('i(-)n.rctiva dcl tc[lpelrta pra cnlpczxl'un (liall()g() clr,rn,,.itirn ( 0 ( ( )lrlL clc las cleDrnclas exccsiv:rs internlts y cle llt ctntinrra itrt()cvlLlxci)n. l)iiill)g() (lLc k)lnr Un caricter c()ncrck) en el lrlrtmient() )'(lur c()ndlce, ( uirl(lLricll (llrc sen h fiirlt-tule qr-rc r-csultc contcnicntc cn ca(la caso, a la prellunlr l)(r'nlte clel pacientc: <u rtreckr llrcer -rare n() s(nnctcnuc r l() que si{ nll)r'('il(t:pt sin <iue lrcliere pensllr (lLc n() cril y() qricn cstltb:r en irtlt: sino rLrc lrr txigrncilr continrll (le perfcci(-)n cs Ia crrc rre ller,'a inextrablemene ir (lr( t(.r-nlinc sintin(l(rr)c en 1:rlt:'ln([ls(), cLln(l() sell ncccsirri(). iLern,s un xxrr rrl.ls ellli cle fimtlucitnes s'pticlllucntc ncutrxs y rl terapcut po(lr l)11gun1r': l(lLr'lc (li all()ra :l es \,,2 u\igEnte. -r e\tj tir-tni, rnl(ri,)t-, (lLc no It tlr lrtgua? Ciloxr pLrecle clefenclerse cle estil v()z interi()f As c(r() intcntarrros :r\ trrl:u 1l nuestr()s llxcicntcs s(lnlcti(l()s a p()(ler()ss figttras patolirgicas cle ejemplo: cickrs ecklcslrrs <rrt rxr prrcclen separlrsc p()r el nr(rento -p< del jLici() cle l. nrrsnros, ( ('nt( s ( )r) (lcsplen(lao pall(rgicosquc .L se >lrclres r['igrllrl Drancm en l c()nvivenci obligatla crre un p.Lciente licne c()n un.frrililr l)lrl()l(igicr) intern(), sr.rpcryir-, rllicntrxs ste no sc lr. rxlifi<rte, por -slr 1,, rrrr. ros, clcle' escrrcharle c()n el c()n()cmiento cle cue acr.rcllo cue ([icc cs re sultrrrk rlt JrlcjLricios o <Lc tn; :tctittrcl h()stil hlcia s nris,l(). 5il'rr()s (lue c()n est() n()s (r)l()caul()s en lr-cn() -rcligroso. (lrl( .rrn( \g.rrrr.s r'r'rlt l llr neLrtraliclacl analti(a. per() clcem()s (lLc stu no cleltc scr conlrrrrlirlrr col l)lcscjn(lcncix y cvasir-rn (lc lesp()nsxl)iiidacl culnckr el paciente r'\l.r .rtr:tl)ir(l() In-(]l s(rctiriicnr e ligr.res e\ternas () internas plttokigicas y rrrrrl rrrltros.rs. lil teraperrta rsicoanaltico lienc cl clebcr clc eyuclar ltctiv nr rt( .r r( \i.rtirrs( (le ese s(),lc'limicnl(), ples vlr vcncki cl irnprcscir-tcliblc sc llrnrl,r tr( nrlx), n trrc tl pxcicntc cxr))inrli su soretimiento al terapeuta y l.r lrrrr ion ,1, rro rruxilial <ue ste se vio ol.lligedo a asurnir.
'rrpt

ccn(lcncil perr le tera.lilr >ltcs cl lclatgo, rl I)()stcz() o. por cl urtrario, le :rlegrr clel (fr() rLcti\,lrn ) (lclrrminun (lue l()s ntisnx)s cstlr(l()s sLtrj:ln en el sujr.:t< r. l)r rr cllo nLcstr-l insiste n( ia cn rrre cl ln.\listlt .lf i'c tt !tllel/1(, ncrtr( ) n() I( ) cs c] |cliclad. \1 (llrc est ptcsLlntl nclttr.lli(l1rcl licne rrnsecLrcncies: cn algun()s p.r( i('ntcs los clcsrtiylr, tleprinrc. refiretze Ia petologlr. Ventos clili<il cue

ttn anlistlt <lcsritltlizck puccle uyr.r<l;rr pr( )li n(lit I I )(.nlc :r un (lePrL.ir!r) ,r c()nlribuir e rDrclifir'lu algtricn crill(l() l)()r'paclrcs trrr: tuvict()n css tllislltlls

(1uctclsti(:rs. lrr nlis lrclccrratltrs (lue sc:lt lls in tctl)t ctltci( )ncs ctre inteleclLrlnrcnlc rlorca."L l,il (ntLtsislIt() clcl lLnlisltr ctt su vitaliclecl y r.a-lltstLrlo rac i<larl <lt cntusisnl.Ll-sc- y. solrrc toclo. Ie cltrnicuciritr atc.ctirl rlci mis n(),:p(n1ll algo <rrt no (s Dtcftltcntc clcl lclcn iclclrlivo sino que ticne (FLe vcr rrrn l otelicl;trl tlc ltfcclo con rrrc ltlgo cs senli(l(). ,(lil(,ttcltc Lnl p, \1' nt.i. flntoncrs. si crrrsigtricra t:ll lllrl)j().. si llrcr'1rrl rrrse..., rrclr11... \'cDk)nces..., A<rr no llrsll cl (r)ntelri(l() srr;inticr rlc las >alrrl.lres, sino rre Ir csenci:ll es Lt cltlge eicctir lr rr.re el lrnltlistlr srti gt,nrrineltentc caraz tle ltportltr'.

flxisle una (rcstia)n (lLrc olrlige a rrnu nlltizlci(in: ru sr.rt'cclc (()n aquell()s l)a(icntc cr\1)s (lese()s. v sLr rr(tLlll(i(')n cn lirrnlt clc conclLrclls <rrnstittrycn un religro plrlu su scgrrlicla<l7 A(rptllr rl (lcsc() sin lt:is, sintplenlentc rcc() nrrcr l cxistcncilr tlcl rlrscr. clcje el srrjcto l nlrr((,(l (le sL plol()flu. I)er() cLcsti()rtitl]r). (lcstilcn(l() srr r'e[icler in:t<lt'r't:trlo y iLrcienckt nftisis cn h nc gacir'rn <lc licsgos lrujo llt (xn ntti(lx lirllttrl:r .tlstecl n() (lui(,rc vcr (11rc...". \rj nili(1r lclx()(lLr( it llis;rchc cncitrs clesce lil icrr nrcs <le,krs lrrclrcs crxn(l() el plcicntc. cn gnsatrrs rlc itLlt()n() )x o clc t,xplollLcir-rn clcl trrndr. sc cntltrcllta en pr()\,r(J()s -to corcles a(nr tl scnti(l() tlc rtltliclcl. I)cnsxnl()s tue. sitr rclor zr csc (lcsc() en pltrticLllr, si sr l)u('(lc rr:(ono(er la lcgitinicltrcl (lLte tiene clcntro cltl l)iln(r'1ur1r lilriclinl v lu lrislorilr (lrl pcicr1tc. intenirrii,n<ksc ne clinte li'r'nrtrLLr'joncs rlel tipo: "llc tkrt'cLcnt:t (lr (luc plrrll rstl L-\ illlr,r
()1.

'l(.rs(l.rl(

l):rr un:r .rii(iriLl c()gllili\l:|r)(lUcdcsiir.ricllr rli r(,nsiin rlcl xl(to \cirsc l r l,)ir

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ltl1

r.r,)lr'...,, () "el'i(lcnlcr)reDe Plr usterl es inlp()'tanre intenter tul c()sl porqUC sr( nl(, (luc ( Lmpl., Lrt] sueo larglmente x(ariciad() <ic c()nsegrrir..., cle ser... Al rrrrsnrr tieorp(). pra poclcr scguir pensando qre las r()s.rs son c<no rrsLecl Lts tltstlr, necesita clejr cle lacit trna scrie cle aspectos. tles ctmr... (los sIx'( l()s nef.i(ios) qtte, cle sel trmecl<s cn cuenta. siente que le fi)rzJrlJn J lrl rlrk rnrrr ttl pr()yect(),.

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\':t hcntrs rlorcl:clo extensrlllentc j:r cr.testi<'>n dcl sqntinticnt() cle irlpr It r)('j:1. (lr: ilcgitilnicllt(1. Sirrplementc cucre1()s ilt()lt srgsir unil firmr rlt i:rt( r\(.)ci(i,t tlre plantclt:txrs cle n)lnerJ ( )l)\ iil Itcl)lc csctrcDI'ilir'a pcr() (irc irsllrit( r.rna iclel. <ue cn cadl pacicnre y op<)flunidll(l l)()(i('L recil)ir ()trx fi)rrrrttlrrcirin: .Apren(li(').L ve,s!- c(r() cli,lril. ctur in(apuz. r! clcsconiil cle Lrsl( (1. ll n() sentir que kr que clesel es lcgtinr() polqtrc asi le vean... (ruarn, l)irl)ri... ), () p()rqlre en csa sittxcia)n tie su niez efectivirl))entc nr> tenl rocler illllt. ligrrus tan p(xler()s.rs. y ahorlt ni si(luicr! se perr]ril( (lescr () intent.rr. l). lr tlesrrntatlo qtte nr> clebe ni xrtlrli, rtte iiacrtslrni. l)er'(). es rsr (,.,),rs lr( n- ('s (lLrr il hiltt,ca cltl pas:rclo Ic inrpirlc rclsc cle rrtnt firrnrl7,.

encon(runrkr solucirnes geneu ci sentinricnt() (le (()ntinzx l),'tsi(J en sLl c.Lprciclacl para srpcrr dificult.L(les. junt() u ltllilictacles rerles prlr hacerlo efectivanentc. Lo que lequiere p(r'parte clel terrpcLtx cle h misrua sutilezr (lLle p()secn lcls paclres que se haccn cargo c1e funciones insLficientelnente clesrrollrrclls en srrs hijos per D() para c()nscnarlas inclefinitlanrene sino clttr.lnte el tic-r)rp() estrictrlrenlc nrcesario hasta tltrc, p()(() p()co, slrs pueclan ir tomaln(l(rlas slr .ari(). l)es(le ('st perspccti\)u. cl p:rc'iente, instl.r(l() en lir tlnsfrcn('i:1, var cxl)l()r.ln(l() el nlun(l() interno y el cxtcrn() cle orncr simrllr a ctrto cn l()s l)raz()s clc papli o rnartl-t se rtrcclen rcc()trer l()s cLlcnt()s rnllrntiles sin ser prcsx (lel tcnor'. Exploreci<in y. s()l)[c't()cl(), pricll( clcl d(nnini() s(r)rc la realiclrcl <ue inrplica el clcsrnrllo tlc riuevas cultcicllcles que n<r es rue hltyltn cstl.l() r'cpri,i(Lrs o s<ficrt<las por cl conflicto sino trre no cxisten cn cl rcpcrt(i() (lcl sujcl(). NLcvllmcnte clebe'tr;s (lifrcncir ll paciente .p( )(ler( )s( ).,, l)lcn() (le (lesr()s !'fecLrs()s crl (lui(n el ((xlllick) pirliz Ilr iniciti\'. l)l()quc el (lcs), hlrcr 11'nunciar a ( ilpir( i(l.r(les (l\c si 1'losee, cle acuel (fr() qlle n() (tll ni rctliza str ricse<t Jxrttue n() ticnc en str reltctt<trio el saber cirlxr hrrcerk. Nr l)lrsta tener cl intens< cl(se() clc ctrzar cl Canal cle la \l.rnr'lr.r: lr.rr (lu( :.r1,(r n.trl.tr. r lri<n

lil l)dcielrlL, tllha l)trler


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.la Dtrct us cdpdcd.tles ctt el ttttutcio de Ll trrl.lod inlartrct rrentc lir ungrrstiu siD() (lr( resrlli in(lis-

I rh,l lttrtttht a-rlerntt


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l)(

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l)r('\(rlllD(lo. Ante lo <r,re Frcucl llaur( altgttsliu t?ulitt.t. pa[a tliierenciarll cle lrr t r|lusivrnente prxluctr clcl c()nflict(). el telilpcute clebe. cn plcientes scverrr\.,t(' pcl'tlrba(l()s \ con fen(-)nrenos tlc clIicit. nyuclarles a pcnsar posil)lcs srlrr'irrcs ) p()ncr en Priictic.l con([rcls c()ncrctils qrte ls jllplelrctrtcn. cs l\'( iilltt('rl(e 1nte sitLlci()]cs qltc el plcicntg ve c()rlr() cltrct-i[cs cle sllli(lar. E.\ () illl(' s()\lL\1) cxplcit.rrllente Freuci cn Mrr..s (:(oni t)\ tl! l.t teaPit attltict I l,1()r) A(litud quc l1ll sicl() lllLry crcsti()nlt(la (lclttro cle LL tcnic clarsicl p()r ll lcr r'. t n lrsrltto clesclcable. cle convefiit cl trxtrnienk) en uno de tritnLr( r, r r).rlx)\r). Iil ricsgo cle ste sielDpre xcecha pero n() sc trta clr reerr]plaz.rr r'l rr ri l prtr.'icrtrc xl el clel anllistlr sjn() (le pl()\'ecr Ltnil experi(nci. rlu( Itr rrrrrl.r rr rll('r,lln)l:rlttkr eJ sentinlicnl() l)iisi(()-(arel)tc Cn cl pltticntc tttcs los l,.rr lrcs lr r'orr rrt, .tr:t,.r's clc rficcclkr- cle eticecia 1' clortrinr cle h reliclrl. <lc rrrc lrr'nlr'.r urr Irr,,IrIr'nr:t. p()r llr.rvc (lLtc l)xfezca, sienrprc 5c ptteclen enc,rrr It',r lrr'rr.rs tlt r , rr, .r r:rrIcLrlo. Srlo la experiencill reiteru(l1r en el pcicnte de ir

rl1x slli(lu l)(,siti!'1 x :trucllo <ltre lll (lcspieft.L, especitrlttrcntc en lis (ils()s cn <ue estri lr:rsacla en l()s re( llledllrient( )s quc rgali(lld extcrnlr vx

rt:l)lc dilr

ll

Si el inconsc ientc n() esti xcti\1) en su t(lli(l(l, si se ucti\' y clcsactiva scctrrieltttntt cle acrc[l() l (iqrt()s estllttrl()s. (le cntl'e los ctlltlcs el I]ledi() extern() rs inlp(1tntc. r-tsrrlrlt rrrc el c()n()cin)ig,rl r ) qtrc r'acllt l)es(n-rir p()sea rlc <ir <r nsc<tte rt('ia s tiencrt prar .\L in(()ns(iente (ierk) il)() (lc \tcul()s. ciertxs (r)n(licir)nrs rlc viclu, clclrc lirrnar l)xrfc (l('l()s ()l)ieli\()s ([e t()cl() rn lisis. M.rs rin. clackr ruc l1r rl)( )(lifl( cin t(fal clel inconsciente n() es unil lneta ;tlcanzthle ror ningn tip() (le trirtanricnt(), y qLle sicnrpre <uecla una vulnerul)ilidacl en lcs secrcs r-lc llr personuliclerl cltte lran sickr ltfcctrclos por conclitionts putrigenas. lo cur:rlguicn puc(le h:r(cr l respect() cs u'lr -sc/sccl,r (liscrinl in.tdtt rle r,ncrrL rs ,ioncliciones clc licL. l>usc:tncLr rtcurlllts <ue le
r

sean tlis l'lrr'orrblcs ) lrLrvcrt(l() cle lls cltstrtvorrlrles. lll ntrsis (lrrc r(le(r1(lrllcnte se hucc cn rl lrruncl() intcln(), en l, r intr'.rpsi tluico ---<le esr cs clc kr clr.rc se ()cLrpx el psic().lnl'Llisis- puer-lc hlt<er c<rrcr el riesgo tle crre el tcf1rprrrtlr tral)xic c()n Lln sLlpucsk) iDplcikr: "l-o quc irlp()rta n() es c(-)]lr ) rs l rellicla(l cxlcrna sin() crtxr ttslecl la vivc,. l)e csl() n{) call)en cltrrlas. >err> tnrl)ia'n esle lsel.t() s(- (lel)e (le ia()]plarr clel sigr.rirntc: corno h lirntre en trre cl >ltcientc vilc sus r'lcLrL>s. (r))() el i)(r)nscicntc n() s('l)Lc(lc p()ner 1ccr() cn Lnar nl.tl-(h:t llt[is qLr peroli(lr ((nltcnzaf cle nrrc\'(r, cl tnejor ectrililrrio tlrrc prrecle alcenz-rl llguien de-rcnrltti cle evit.rr l() que rctiva lo peor (lc su inc()nsciente. luscancl< cl neclio fncilitaclol y el meclio pr()\ eed()r.

lsl

Al,^N( lis trN PS(.(fuitiApt^ pSIC()^NAt .t.r( A Sc lxrr.li; lx.tsllr (lue ll.,rrrc,ctntos trnlr .rclaptlcir-rn. clue stc

l( -rl suj({() 11n trLreL cue xrr inrposiltle \, (l1itip()tente _",J r.,r,.A af qu. rI lrr.r[,r'l:ll'ir pllr t()lerar cl rrte]clio plt,,lgicr'_ ctripalrilizlr v ll,,.e.cnti. rl.r'sr. llrr<:rs:r (.Llan(l() r() se (rrr)sil-aLe. :rt,, a, r,n,, ala l',Lr a, rnrij..,,._n ci,s ai,, rrrl-r ,)li( rlr.r. i, rn .ln.tllrl,.r (.n (lt.( \(,,lrr.t ,l.l ,.,1 . t.tl\t.\[.] \..1t..1\(r.t. Iu,)genl 'lr'l , rl' 1,, (\f(rn,, (n :l:.,1. Ll Irct.l I(.,_aittnt.r rlt..r.nlr.. . l,,s (.\tU(.2,,s (n lll
rr rr

, r)ltDt.r ( rc( ic.t(kr () c<;rtrtlet:tr-str estrLlctLlral. i_o trrt.ttr.lLt.i()

cs ei c.ilt,rirr tttt qrri;lliit (.1 t)littc. )lictt() qLtc estt)(.)s cleslioll:nclr>. pe() se ti. pt.(,(t s,Ilr( r]l(, (l(. lo oc.t(). nr es l:r it<lptac.ir'ln (lel psi(lLtisDto al ltlecli() ext(ln() \lrlr, llr s(.1( (( i()n (lel D)rdi() extern() (lLe nle)r se a(iitpte r p()tenCiu al lt):ixi rrr,, L! l)()\il)ilr(l'r(lcs clel psirrisro r,. le plri.ea <le urLrelkr crrc,l.:,1,,,.r. r,,r,, ittttli<a pianiear,

CAPTTJLO

IV I-{ CONCIENCTA,

EL TRATAMIENTO: AMPLIACIN DE

MODIFICACIN DEL INCONSCIENTE

lilir.rrt.irin rlcl strjcto.

rk strs <fr'os signiflcxti\ ( )s l-l:..i rr<n<xirricnto rlc iu tr<tie (.strl(.tLllir psi tti, .r, rlt, strs rlt'seos. (le sLts llltgustiits, clt strs rrreores aspcctos y. ttrtlllri(,n. cle sU t lllrt llrlriliclurl Apa]1i[(ltl rstc (,nl,Lilllruntur Us t.rrtilr[..l.rr r..futstlr,r la l)r lllr,)lit: (lLta, l)crs()nus. (lLte lllcLllO (.I.(.rn(1.l. (. l\,1(,n(.i,t,) ir, J]t,:jor tlc t, (
ylr.r
,

ttt( r.lu( rrl l)x( ientc clel)c pos<,<,r. ltl t,rntino clc ttlrt l,, lrLis cs>ccfico rltr(, lir <.lrD.(.i(lll(l (lcl

ILsclt, llr I>crslecti!] (uc csl.r,l)rrs Pl.nt(.rnri). tln.r clr I.s l)r.(gunl qrc trrr:r I)(,rs()lli sr: (lcl:le no(lrr firrrrrrrl.rr c. lrl.rtl.l. lti, (.rr.Ltcf\rr(.. clc <u ol> (l() (l(,ln) lruir-y e crr/rlcs nte ticlx accrcr? Mrtll fiiri( r)cnl e, si llgLrien tiene Ir rir.l st nsiblr., < es cli;rlri,ti<rr () tjcne insrfj(.j(,ncj,, 1r,,1,,,,r,"r. ..i"rtr'o r".""r,, t lllr r1,.s sr.r'r-: c()tlt(r cl e(lui|irlcntc JI s()l (lcl tr.riJ.>ico. lt l<rs lliclr(os cic <.ltlr ll() (,.r1 trill)j() cn tLna lllin clc crlt<-rr. ]r" ca Lrn (.()n()(.ill)icnt() stlrre s rlris_
1l

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vsnci(')1r terl)'llli(x (lLrc es( cltstinlLclu csl)c( ificlur)( rltc .r rtrrrliiirlu'lcr.tllu: D) rlUc LL intcrl)rct.l( i(in (lel (onteni(l() (lc l1 t.rntlsx in<rrnscir:nte rs LlIl rccr.rfsr) (lccisi\'() pillll ('l (1rr))l)i() leIir.)tltrlicrr P('() (lLc r']() ('x(lLryc ()1[rs Ii)f]nirs

I"clenczi tirnc cl nl() (lc halrt l sirkr rirrerr) cn cntcncler (luer ) el tip() l)lrt()l()g (lcl pit(itnle rc(lLririrr, l)irat (;r(lir ('as(). tt)lr rlr()(l:rli(la(l cle inl(l

ur-t lr-eltticnlt. Sr, lrxtx (lc tlg() I)i(.i!nl(,rlrr.l rlett,t.llrr llr plrkrlr

L.rl(,s

it(ti\ilr1 lnis spc(t()s

n]1is \,trlner.lrles. tLLiles

l]tc (les(1i\.;lnz

rDur\ an()ar)t () (lirc cl p(icnlc rlclt r'ollrl)(rr il(li\:Ultcnlc (n el pr'(xc (lc (rnrl)i(). Con lrxl<t, lu liDritar'irrn estnci.rl tlc lrr tc nir-a tcrxPuticx cle f( s() renczj flr(li(l)11. nuis crrc crr l<s cxt'esos rttc la clcsecreclitar()n trl sLr rlt()rlen t(), cn Iir (()nc('p.i()r-r psir'()l)1Lt()l(-)f.:i(:r clc (u;il crr lil (llu\a clcl sitlOr11e l rrrril i lirnnlr cn (l(r('s(c.\(: r'crttccliltr'i:t Asi, lrr t'jcrtirlo. crr:trrLkr s<lstr'n;t rtrc Irr ralctredrrrl en lirs 1ls(xi:t(i(lcs l'estltlrlxr clc llts s(isfitr'r'ioncs sc\Llllles tir(Lr l)iertlrs, plirlr ctitlrr Is cLirles troltilria ctrc stts l).t(icnt('s crrzasen l.r- Ilrr'rn-rr en srsi()n 1, firr'r'lr tlc elllrs. () Irs s()ll1({iil i;lrstencrsr'(l('()rinrlr (lLrrxnte D)ucl]1ts Irors. o.t:rlsljnenr'ir scxulrl. () (lu('s( :rtilsarscll r('itcrxdll llt( n te cl l)ig()lc () (lLrc sc cnii:tsr'esen cn interts()s plltr'ercs :rrtisti<rrs. trrir cllt cviclencilltl srr:ttihercncia :l rlrll tc(ni dc l Iil)i(l() cn (luc su clislril)Llci(ill. sLrl)Lcsl()s rs lxn(:rIi(nl()s rlescrrlrs st'r'rrn cl rigtn rk'le Ictrcsirirt V r['l sintttrt. l)r' elkr rcr-rs:rba trrc ilr enclglr rrrc s< clescelglril rerlintc cictrs 1,.'lrrs sr'ri.r sustrl(lu (lc las rcl]rcscntacionts. lo (lllc lls ller,'rLra ar pcnrlanc(c[ n() (lisp() niblcs pert Lt corticncilr ( I.'clcrczi. 1925). Fll fics() clt l:t experitrrti.r inrrr, vaclllrL cle Fcrcn(zi ticnc (l(c .rtril)t(irse, fr()t (nk). no silr:r Iis rr'sistcn(iar.\ cle lrr comunirlucl rsicounlltica il iccl)t:il' (lnrl)i()s tllo des(rnpr', \in durla. un >lrcl inll){)l'tlnlc sino rr ls llrses cnclelrlcs solt la ruc :rsentel>lr lu crnplensiirn cle le Jrrir'ogi'ncsis rlel snlornlr. Io <rre csteblcriu tl lxiztlc (lcntr() (lcl c t(rl sc roclirrn nrovc lrrs k-lIr.ts clr ir-rtcrt'cnc ir-)n lclxl)Lrti(:t (luc pte(t)nizxl)l. l'rsr' clkr, ct[rnck cstinrlrllrlrlr 1s(s p(icntes a lint.rsc-rr'.rrtr\,ll)cDtc () lt !ivir cstx(l()s crtl( )ci( )n.r lcs () lr llsrlt)if c()n(lLctrls (lLrc i)',\cr.ln enclc-lr. irr :r t:!ilirr. teniir cllrr() (lLrc (n ntLrch()s (llsr)s lal:rs()ciirci(in lilc v el l)ensill]licnt() s(,n rliliz1l(l()s cortt() <lefi'nsas, espcciitlt]r(nlc ('Lr:rn(l() llls.ts(F ci(ioncs sinen l)1lr ctrtlllizar al enlrlist elrnrnl'incl()l() c(rl cl lclekr. o J'tlrra cvilll el scntir ) cl llctr:ll. lixrcricrrcirr .ll)rtx(Lt lx Lle l:t r<rrrte xcti!..r lir (ril fq.cn(zi lnisnrr hiz<

(lc

ls

AV^N(.1:S IiN PSICO'l liltAPlA PSIC()ANALll l(,4

l]t-

t RAl',AMlEN l O

185

srgn:ullr: i,l nuncr.lporttl-l xl ?n,Llisis el tnaterial inclispcnseltle pllr la solu( i()n (()ncctll <tc h firlia. 'Iimen ustecles el ejenrpk) cle un lgotrfiil:tico; hay tkrs r']scs. unl nra-ls levc y ()tr'r nrs grave. l-()s cnti,nl()s <le la prinrera clasc sin (lu(l sLlflirn irn!{rstir caclx vez qtre anclcn s()los por-l:r cllle, ter<> n<t por L llo rlc,jlur <lc hceLlt l()s (xl'()s sc protegen cle l:L tLngr.rsti:t lcnunci.tndo a anrl;rr sokrs. C<n ess tiltitms nr sc ()l)tiene xi) \i n() sr. los ttrerlc ntoveL, r( (li]rtc el inflLtjo <lel rtniilisis, u c()Dtp()tt:lr\c coltro fiilricos rlc pritlter graclo. r:rlr'rk,t-ic x (lue itn(trn qror ll c:rllc v <rre luchen (\)n l xltflLrstjl cr) e:\u lnl( Dtr) l.nl(r)(ss. rlirttcro Iray rue [ritigar L lir)i. llistl csc ])Ltnr(). 1'sirlo cles, Ptri's tk' rr:scgrri(l() esl() ir instunciils clel Dti,r.ljco. cl enfi,rro clisl:xrndr cle
.rrrrt'llrrs oc-trrrencius rLrc posilrilitun

i()n(s )' IlLrtizllci()nes. per() que trxtal)a cle enc.Lrxl' un.l pro)lelllitica valirLr: trrr1 tixr (lc intcrvenciones. en cuanto a firntur r' c()ntenido. prtrJ qu lil)l) (l(. l).lci(ntcs. I)r()blentica (iue interes(i pr<tfunchurente .r f'reLcl. c()m() ()s clo1tl()s .le l.t psicocrupi.t diatltct, ftli).tio <]ue ha sickr s(. r(.llr'jrr crr ^tL't lc'lcsion en la litcratrr psi(\)itnalltic:r v L,n el qLte, defenolrjcto rlt.srilirl:r ,liL,rtl,r ltr necesitlecl cle lrn n:rlista rcti\). sr)stuv(): "...1-1rs lxrix(lrrs tirrtnas cle crtli lrttttlltrl D() pue(leD tlar))jlirrse P()r I ntisnta lcni(r" Pitrlt cjcnrplificar, lr ( r,nlllruai(ir. (()n rnit pr()pLrestat tefilp.Lttir l)lril ci(ftis li)l)iis (ltc vale lnuclro rrris rr l.r oricntaci(-)n gener:tl que llr iltspirr rrrc pr lu solrrcion es-rcrilir'rr rrrt'>r'rlrnlt: "Nrestra tcnica crc( i) en el tr'ttitltient() cle l ltistcria v sigrrc rtjrrstrrrilr esi feccir-rn. l']eo las tilias nos ol.lligan lr soltrepasal la .orrhrct (luc her)r()s ()l)scl'vd() hasta el presente. l)ificilluentc clctrinr.i un.r lirlirr <luitn egrrlrcle hlsta quc el enterno sc deje llt()!e[ >or cl enlisis a re

(,1)i( (

lts caractcrsticas esrecfic:rs clcl caso. tuc fctprcce )nliLrr)cntc cn psic()anlisis sin que logre (r)tcncr un lLrgar clr legititniclacl ( r llr li'r'rlicll te[puticl. yll qlc pxra consegrrirlo reqrcrira rle un cfirrtulrrr'ir'rn a firnckt <le la teol cle la cur."1 (lriur(l() FrcLrLl clesculre el prxler clel inc()nscicntc pxr:l detenninxr I)lstu l; rrris rninra llcci<-ln clel srrjeto, parelelanrente (leslltr()lh su teola ter.rl)Lti(r: l()s srt()ruils \'[x pilk)l()]i.r se resuclven hcicnckr (()nscicntc I< inc<nscitrtt.. ll,Jntrnckr lus l:rgunus otnsic:rs, lcvantunclo lit lr--tltsion. re< uperanrlo l, rs lttu,.'r<l<s int:rntiles. ( \ptcsi(tcs (lLc c(,nsi(ler() e(luivxlentcs. Su tcsis ]) \i(.r. 5r,\t(ni(l:r clcsclr 17 tltcct)tsnl() !):i(lrtc() (l! k fi'ttrittt<,ttos histri)s I l)it)J). lu('rtre lr.) sttstratkr clc la con(icnci:r. lilojrrckr cn cl incr'lscicntc. ha, r,r rl, l.rs \ll\'its- rt8i(l() pr las le1'es (el ILDci(r]:nri(,nto clr cslc sisten)a. Lil s,,lrr i.r rrtrrPor'lr lo cxclrticlo a l conr'iencirr pitrit (luc s(leticl() at lil .c()rr( ( r r rn ,r\( x i:rtivl" pilsasc flnci()nrr con llr k'rgicu (L- l.t (()ncicncia, l(igicll rL l.r rrorrr,rIirI,rtI l-ir ter:rpi.r anrltica clelr:r c()nsistlr cn rrDlt arDpliacitin cle la
({

l)rig. I()l). l(,(ni.()s. it(lptli(l()s

s<lrrciti': tl( ii ti)l)i1" (F'reLlcl, 1919a, l)r(r)lel)llica s<tl>te la occesiclltcl clc rlis>oner t['rltr.iltiples recrrrsos

conciencia. en un \'lcianlicnk) clel inc<lnscienrc; ctlan) mars se recuPelirse de stc. rnlis cercl cle l1l nouulicll<l estlttie el sujettl. Sin enrltargo, str pr.icti(a ( linicx se resist.I a lrostl.lfle l()s xito' tcrJllcLti(()s (lLle la tcrtra clel ltvlLntnrict]r (le ll rcpresia)n Pareca xug\Lr''tr' Frenfe ell(), Frcu(l cleslrroll:t Lrnx c()n(ePci(it] (le tiP() instrulllentlLl Pxrlt ltlstiii(xl pol tltt la sirlt( llilt()li )gia n() sc rcsLlel!'t: cl ilisis nt> Illi llcg:rcllr 'i l'i silficirnre pr()flrn(li(lxd. sc lcqtlictc ttc ll rcc];tl>oraci<in, es tlcci:. re'()rrer I()s efL-(1()ri (le lo retlir'l1icio ct t()(lils llls )t il icxci()nesl n() l)ast1l c(rlltrni(alle l() rerrirticr:rl paientc. sle t. tlelt c-scrllrir P()r s lllisnl(); nrl es stliciente el rcclerclc. l< delte revir.ir en l tllnsfercnci:I. c()n cl fect() c<lrlesponrlitnle. ples n() se puc(le cLrrr en "arsenciil () en efigie" a()n t(xl(), la iclel tle l>rse se m.utticne sin tD< xlific ecitinr si l() sc ((cde 1 lal (tlrcia)n cs pokrtc sicrtt pre ruetla un [esft). y cLttl) llliis.tl))Pliclll()s l crn<ienci. cuank) rei()r l() ir"grn,,r, us() cle l tr:tnstrencilt, rel iviscent i enx)ci()nll. clcpltrac itin cle la rcni( para n() c()nttln)inl c()n lltlcstrlt Presen(ix lo cllte pr'tecla ettter'gcr c(rl)() genuin() (lel l)llcicnte-. tnl tlllis cerca cstatrcll-I()s <le ll lllctlL. 'li)(l() este eclilici() con(cl)t(l.ll st c()tlstr!ye sin pllrfitnclizar en tln p'll'ttkrj:r: si cl inc()osciclltc Prluil. si cs tletetnlinante. si lx c()ncicncix, (()nl() cl ntisnt() |1eLr(l s()stiene. ('s (ln sillrl)le (')rg1l11() stns()ril' qtle (xpt(llil xl inc()ns (icnt( (lcti)rLin(l()l<,.;pue<l<'llt at lllirtctotl cle l urncicnci. (lc l)('r \ (()rn() irDicr) rrr'trtso. rccstrLlcl!r il \llict()'a )\i) l.)lll'lttlat illc()11,,'(tlt-i(t c/ ()s/')'' sitDttll.inaa tetttt'. qu( d ittscL'tttL'. dd?r 1ittl1ltc. sientptl'l'td'ltlL' 1lt) nctlpt' blc p4t' lrt ctttcctLitt. .\'lttl(r tttttt laora.l'ttltd l)ralctic(t (l? l(t cltra tlt!()':;() c.,tttt'a c.tclusit'unrct ( rt l'ttctt'c(tscicltlc b itrcottsciatttc? Ac.tsLt el (xnIl)i() (le estrtegiiL Pilrx cstll il,l)Pliilcilin cle llt t<n<itltcie cl pas:rr rlt'stle Jit interprctci(')n pr<fl'ritla ror cl anltliste. c(r'l t()d()s los riesgos e in(()o\(jl'lirntcs que en cte llt(nllc!]) es c(n))n sealr' tln tip() de Prctica en qtc se el propio lnalizlrnclo el rr.re lo lleg.t. avttchckr po el silcnck tlel analistll o p()t' clltrl o le tnigttrrilica (lLlc .tl)rirx nuev()s cillllin()s, sigllifila prcgtrnta -l can algrrne rliferencilt cse n( ili'a lN( ) jrllplicll tln c()ncicncialisl']l() ()t()l'g.tr [ s1l)tr c()nscicnte el ( rtticttt rtivilcgiaclo (tc c()nverti-5c cn la c()n(lici( )n ne( \'lri.l V suficienlt (le la rccstltlct\ll-( ia)ll (lcl sllict()'a

l-As Rlistsl FN(;lAs l)ENTR() I)I:- N(.()Ns(.lliN'

r,-l l'.r( ,l(. , vr r:rritrrir c5 unl \trsin irnrpliil(Ll (lc l(, qU( expllsinx,s (n
rltl(
x
1,, i

,.,, l')!)r)

r)rr() hrsar

I'rcttcl. n< sienlJrl-c clesl>ortlltcl() P()r cl ()Ptilllisllx) s()l)rc stls lL-sllll:l(l()s tc_ tirpttic()s, ltttsct-t explicacirilt lt los ltllitcs (le st aclttilcia)n y I slls frxc:lsos ferxp!tic()s. lo <ue le l)iz() il llliis rlll- <le stisfitcerse Ptlralllente c( l respuestil clad p()r el IlIe j()rxlniento clc la inslrltlrrent1ci(in (lt hacer (1)ni't,lcntc lo inc<nsciente. p()r ltxcel r'nlis v l])ci()r de kl tllismt. A partir clc h clccla tle l()s veintc tl iii.$se tcrxPtltic() cs PIntcx(l() c(nl]() tenicncl() st causit en quelk) (lLrc ()ctlfle en el sen() I1li5(1lo (lel inc()nsciente. p()r lxs Pe( uliari(litdes

i(

AvA\(:l:S liN PSI(l(lf IiRAPIA PSI(i()ANAI-1'lCA

IJ

, TRATAM1iN'I'O

Iu7

(lLr( l)r((lir stc tener', p()r las filrrzls (lLe ()psran en sLl interk)r, ! no s()lnr( ntL ln)r(lrc las resistcncixs del vo illpiclan la antliaci<in cle la <r,nrienri.r. l l.r( ( n su irl)lrrici(-)n rn la tc()ra la comJnlsiirn (lr repeti( i(in. el ntlr\,rqursnto l)rilll.rri(,. lir resistcncil clcl clk, la resistencix (lcl sLpel_v(i. I)ice l'lcrrcl cn 1ll)il)iiri ,sntr1tt.t'cutgustial1926). ltrego cle reafinl cr-rc con rcle<.i<-rn a la r( sisl(.n( i:r (lcl )1) 1 hxcer c()nscicnle l() inc()nscicnte n() tcndrx na(lJ ,lLt( lln.l, rlir'.r lrr tlt cxl)Lrcst(): "En cenrlir. es cucstionitl)lr. cuc clla sola reculr cl cs l.rrir rlr trrss qlre n()s sle al p;rs() cn cl niilisis... ll?s (ancelt-le resistcncil \(i(r. (s nccesrio srrpeI:rf cl roclc: cle Ie <orrprrlsir-rn tle rcltctici<-rn. la atracr rr rlt krs xrquetip()s inc()nscirntcs sol)tr cl p[o(cs() l)Llsi()n.Ll replinrickl y rr.rrl.t lLli (lLe (r)ict!r[ si sc (luisiese (lrsil.lnr csc fuc't< urnr rcsstlltcid (lc h) t(()lsc(,nto' (plig. f.i9. cutsiv (lc FtcLrcl). Y lgrcga, p()co tlcspus: "Fin ,unto rr ll (Llltta clse (le rcsislcncill. Ilt clel elLr, a(al)illt()s clc llrccrle rcslxrsrlrk clc llt ncccsicled clc rc'elelrora< ir-rn. l,.l (lriutit t-csistrn( iit. l clel srrlx ryr'r. 1...1 sr ()p()ne l t()cl() xit() y, l)()r'tlLnt(), tenrlrin u Ia c urr'ir'rn mcrli:rn
siorr:rl rtrr- tlrrnte clecenios ht ltncltkr l)()r (ierk) r'rrinr clelre' (le pr()nto rrr.rrr'lrrr ror Lrn() n!g\'() clrrc sr: le lt ttliclto. I)oclr:r llnrrsc x a,stll /at /11.s tt,ttL irt th'l alk lpitg. 209, cLtlsi\' nLteslrx). ll(sislcn(i1r clcl cllt el clurl)io, x uctrch.tr p()r t)lt()s clr/i/?os. (luc cs llg() (r ) ll)l( liU]lcr)tc rlilcrcntc clc llr rrsislen( i] ti (iu( lg() (lcvrnglr c()ns( ientc. Rcisl( n( iir. ln)r tunl(), en el pt()pi() inc()nscirntc cllo cs cl in(rntsr irnt( P, 'r -cl .ll)l()r]()rllrsia-. lx)r c:lLlss lrjcnas e ltrs clc I crncicncilt, \'(lue ticnr sLts ILn ,l,llrrcrrlos t'n lrcluclkr qLrc cn cl ina()ns(icntr cst inscritr) n() i.Lll palr l()rLrs krs srrjr:tos en la cliclacl clq las l cprcscnta cioncs clugecles ufectivanr('rl(. ( n.lr ris<rrsiclcl <lc la lil.licir,, (Irreu(I. l9J7:r. l93u). cn lir conprrlsin

caractesticas del inc()nsciente clc cada sujet() inci.len para rue le respuesla (lc I()s pacicntes a lxs inten,enciones :urplix(l()[as cle l conciencia resulten insu-

tt cl rsitrlrnlilisis,. i\liis x(leltntt:. cn cl lnisn() lr:Ll)aj(): .lrirlltentc, (xl)c irllginiu (llre IlLs coss no clcjatin cLc {)fte(er (liflculta(lrs si un troccso pul-

ficientes para lograr una u-lo(liticxci(in cn sL li)l)a (le sentir y (le actuxr. flna refirmr.riaci<-n cle trl magnitLd hrbicra nccesitacl<). en lirs (le Lrnnuevas pl()tencr le cohercncia entre t'l nive l m1s general de la te()rr -hs cle h crla. pie(lacles ahil)Li(lus xl sistcn)r inc()nscirnte- y l:l te()ria sectolial ()l)ligat()l iarrente subsicliaria cle aqrrlle, cle un rcplentcartticnto cle l fi rlt cle encarr el tr.rt.rnient()i si b Paal)gico tN) t'esultt (.\clttsit'.u1tentc c ltte !!o n() clctcttta'stt lugLlr elt lct rtckttliek.ttl cle lt crncie'tcitt, atbncas l.t ct!t.t tlo Ptte.le bt!sc.u'st titcdokDta kdiuta kt nrxli/itttcititt tk, lct ltis ttt. Per() cn estc p\lnt(), l()s clesarr<ll<s freucliun<s. al ig'uel cLrc siellll)rc Ir succ rlick con h evolrrcirin tlc ctralcr.rier rfra clisciplina. se clrrctetizxn por la asin cr()ni1!, p()r cl pr()gres() cn cirrtas (limeosiones esen(iirles cle la est rclul cle la te()ra jrnt() al nr.rntcninlicn) sin rcvisin (le sect()rcs (lLrc cn li rrun,rl()n clc L misnu le son rlcpenclie ntcs. En ('uant{) l l te< a clel lratamie ntr. Frcr.rcl c()ntinLr(') creyen(l( hlrst el final cn el poclcr hcgernr-rnitrr clcl inc rcrncnlr dei subo'c(rtscielte t'?/'12ll ([rrlrnte el lrnallisis. pr()\'eng] str cle la intcl l)rctJ! i,;n tlxnsfren(jal (1.'reucl. 193Ja), l1l rcc()nstncckin r l constrr.rccin (l'leucl, l9J7l.l), tficcirlas Jror el analistu < elalxitcles cr ctlalxracirin c<n cl lnltli zanck. St c()ncepcin (le la cLrrlr, y clc krs instrlttttcr]t()s (()r1 (ltre i'sta cltenta. cstuv() eD [ctras() c(r) tcspc(t() ll las rcfinntlaciones rtrc iurpriDti(r sin tcs.rr il su le()rr rlel incons< icnte. hsr no signif)clr cuc cl obltrtre n() hya c()nstitlri(l() unll l)re()cLlpci(')n en slr ()l)la. (1),r() l() p()clenr()s ver (Ln(l() discrte cl prolrlcrna clc llr cioblc inscrip(i)n Llnll rn lx c(xrcicn(ia l otra en el in-

ltrctitirin. en la crrlpl in(\)ns(icnte. cn cl srrpcrl-r incrr'rscicntc. l)('('stlt llnerat. cn ls (l()s ltimas cltrtlas <lc str vicl cn(()ntrlllt()s a lrr'trrl tr'rtlizentlo Lrnll c:rnrl)i() reclicltl t:n srr <rrr-tctpcirin clel psictrislt,,. 1rr',. luntlizrcIr lrn ms la (liferencia clt 1o inconscicnlt: con respcct() .r li
,r lrr

c()ns(ienle- pxr.l intcntr prnctr.rr en l (tzon tlc p()r'(lu llr c()lrruni!.r(in (le la interpreta( i(')n n() mo(lific.r el pacicntc (f'lerrcl, 1915b). ln(lcl)cn(lientcrrrente (e lll rcspuest:r (lue (ljerx al prolrlenu cle lu cklle ir-tscri-lcir-rn. all cs tlr encranclr la crcsti<n rlc cue /.rr.l-t tcrl)ciotas ctl el i conscclttc 4tle
tru dasdpat?cait porqrrc sa lts rclrdtlzcLt.t lt tcrlalizuckjt .1)ttsct'ula. 1,L\ iDtarpratacn nuttatut clc Stfachel, (19.1.1) cilcr-lci por [<;s culliics

ronLit,rcilr, rro vienrlo en atr.rl solantente l() sustr'il(k) 1L a,st1l sin() unit es tnr(trir (r)n t'csstatrcitts prop!,:i l)ul() t:rl rrrt sclt hltcc c ortr.)rcnsilrlc cltrr Lr Ix rsrrrlrr no r'arnlie rol el rcto lrtch< clc (lLlc (r(l1tt ls rcsislcncias clcl t'< , ( )n\( i( r)l( 1 llr rrrnt'iencia se ltrtrplie. Si c()n cst() se .rlcjl clel trrornenlri en <tre ,,st( nr.r rlr( ( l inc(xtscicntc sr-rkr clescallr ctncrger. nlrnifitsl:trsr:. 1 ruc cllr la ,,,rrr rrrr'i.r l.t rrrc sc lc <tona. lo (ltc parsrL al s()stcncf slrf)cr-al cl plolrlcre tle l.r r'rrrt rrir'rrt i;r (n llr crn<iencix. I;t rcsistcncill del inrrrnsr'ientr: (lLtc (.st.r (n lr,Ji, r,, ( \ i lr.r((rsc (()nscicntc, ro cs sr-rlo llr etrlrcci<-rn clr lo r<pritnickr. n<r r'\ l,r lr( r,/,r rrrt.rkstlt ahljo cl inc(n-iscicnlc- crllLI<l rrl la iucrz-r .rre ,l, s,lr' .rrrlr.r ll( t('l)( ntll le rasa clc lo rtltrintickr. N(), sr trut1r clc otra c<ncli(rr)n, (r( ( n l()\ t( nrin()s crrn <rte Frcrttl trlltll de encllrr cl proltletna es tirrrlrl.r(lil (r,rrt ) r orrrrrrlsir'rn (lc lcpctici(in < c<ru.viscosicLucl tle lt lilicl<,. l,as

h te(r-a clel tllrtnmienk) se reficrc: cl llcger a sl)c[ c()nscientcrrlcntc. cl cxpcricncilrr rn la ttLnsfi'rcncia rre la figrrra clel l)resente es cliferentc cle h clcl peslckr. cs acucllo (lLlr pl'()(luce cl crml)i(). L() enxrcional-tr:rnsferencial es el sorrttc pxl- (luc [.r iclc crnscicntt lrnglr tirer za. pclo cl cuftictcl tle ser c()nscc-nle c-s k cletisir. Si sr tcor (le l intc]' pretx( i(-)n mr.rttiv lrizc firltrrnl lie p()l-(lLre uni(') (l()s pilales ! l()s (lue ningun xnalist.l p()(l pemane(er insensillc: pepel transliruruclor clcl lltcel crnsciente k inconsciente y trl)i() en lrL trlnsfren( ia. es (le(ir, lu correieir.,n c()nsciente dc la transfi'renci:t inc()nscientc. Fll ilntasr:t clcJ plserlo st'clisipela si sc c()ntrustar.l cn l c()ncicnci.r c()n lx rcxli(lr(l clel Prescnte. I)()r tan), r'ort lr r i, rn r'oHnit iri rrt n r i, rn.rl r,,nst i<ltlt. l-a parecloja (le Ln1l teora <lel incrnsciente c()Dr() cleterinants Y unr c()nfianza en el rupel lr<xlificacl<r clcl crnccirlicnto c()nscienle l verbal es llecrcx(l()s por Frerrrl cn lo qrc .l

IJ-

I'RA'I'AMIEN'I'O

1U9

lfil"i

AVAN(:IiS I:N PSICOI'TJI{API PSI(JoANAI-I

I I(.A

\.1(l.r irl ('\lrcrn() por la escttela kleiniana. Nadie com() l()s particlati()s (l('l:r rrrisrrrr rrrsirron tant() nl.rsis en la imp()rtancill de la fantsa inc()nscientc. ('n l.r rrrr'lrr c iraliclacl cle las relaciones inconscientes con k)s ()hiet()s intern<s cs kr rlu( (lctcrnrinr las ansiechcles. las clefensas y k:ls sntonras. Per(). a pesar (l(' cllr r, llt'glrron l confiar cic-gemente en qle la ctrlunicaci<-rn verlal clel anlis

lr, irl in(rcllcntar el / .rgr n(lue hallsen clel " l/.rgLrl er)x)c ional,, se trll-l r:r tlt. rrrnr< irien) (()nsciente-. era lo qrre pr<xlrrra cl crnbio. l\lhs n. las rt(rl)r'({1r(i()oes lrrec<rniza<las IiLer'on sicrnpt.t cle rrnlr estrLtctttr:t l(igi(J .rpltL

lrrrll:rItc. plopi:ts clel p:r>ccsrr seclrnclrio: .l)orttre tir) c()sr.... enlonccs


\r(

tLste(l

It

nl(, v c(tx)

c(

)Dsecrencia.. ,. Traclucienclo al inc()nscicntc, sin erttltargo, st'

( ( )nciencialistx. centrada en l. inlerpretaci(')n culll(, ir)slrulcnk), se alzarn krs paiclarios cle la cscuela cle Chi(irg(). con stt tesis cle l:r lxrcr-icncia emrrional c()rc(tiva: lo rtre posibilitar:r cl canlir m sera el (\ nr( x'i,r) irnto sino el virir experiencis clifercntcs, ehora pronroviclas por el ;rrlrlisla. rLre c()ntnrrestllrltn las rDlrlas cxpcriencirs anteriores (Alexancler y l'rt'ntlr, l9i(r). Lx interpretlci(in n() p()clr (\)nstituir, por t.lnt(). cl rectls() ter:F l)( uli(().'li)(k)s rll)enr<s ctel tr:Lcas< <le esa pr()pLresta, pr()(lr(l() (le s\r\ f rr)pi 's , r'r'rr's. rli'ilcit te(-)li(()s. exLger.tci()ncs. pcrl) tDrl)in ([e Lrnu ir]stiluci(in analti(.r (lu('s(':rlarr'r<i lrente l cuestion:turienr clc la hegerrxrni:t (le lrt interpretx ( rr)n ((11() l() (listirti\'() clc la tcnic ltnaliticlt. lthr>g:tnrk trt cllo une prt>ltler)irt(' \,iili(111. auncue la respuest. chrla por Alexanrlcr Drcrc(icrt ,cpxr()sl'( r'() l() suplilri(i() nt> es eliuinaclo. cr.rn(lo c()nstilLryc ttn >roblema real. (luc l cscr-clrr rir Clricrrgo. F'crc-nczi, y clespus \\'jnni(rnt (1965. 19'i9). ^nt(s llili)l ( 1952. l96ll). Lac v sr.rs clisc(>lrlos (!'uncl:lci(in (l(l Ciu]]p() f'reuclian<, l()Jri l.can, l9(r(r. l9(r7-(rll: hurent. 19114: Milic, l9tl4), h()hLt (1977, 191J4). ( irr k r ( 1979. 1981 . 19tttt, 1993 ) y Th(nnri ( 1990) n<s pr'()p()nen lr<xlificnciones rlt Lr rosiciirn del anlist. cle su actitr,rcl. cle st tcnicr. Lln nlars allal (le ]a intL rl)r(11rci(-),r. Ln analistar rrtis silerncioso o. p()r el c()ntrxri() rtt:is ltclirrr, ttn analisl:r (lrc lrgl lrcto. () \ln rtnllista <1rtc ,rp()yc. qre cspe<ularice, <ue valorice .rl rrr:rlizirn<lo. o <1r,re clejc ttLe src siglt sL canlin(). rn xnxlist.r (lLe pr()vea un t slrlr('i() l)itr'11 pensr, qLc f)ernritx (lLre el clesec> etucr'j:t. tn xttxlistrt (ltre n() utiIr(1' lil i11(crl)rrl'.r( in crrlt() eler))ent() cxclrsi\() (l( (ltl)i(). rrr en:tlistlt tue no s| r)lrczc <rIr Doclelo irlcnlificrttr io o cre. al rer's. rcrntilrt Iu iclcalizacin r l;r irk'nlilicacirn quc c(rpcnse el clflcit, et(. Vxri.rnles c()nlrptcsts. .r ve ( ( \ ( l) la rrin()s polares. perr rue se rrnifican en cLlesti(rrirl el prrpel clc la inIlrI)r( Irr( i{')rr. Igrrahrentc lirsenfelcl (19ti7). evrlucitna nrl< > clcscle un kleinr.rnrsn) r,r1()(l()x(). cn sr trel)aj() p(isttlr() lrlerta srlre kts efL'ct()s negtivos

lrlrlrlu a la concienci. li1'ntc il est p()sicj(in

r)ra line. Ogden (1912). y l()s trxl)ajos lecientes (le ]Ueissner (1991) y de i\lyerson (1993), enfatizxn el Ltgar tlue la relaci(in tcrapttic! ocupa en el cambio sintc>ltal y cal"cter(il()gico. N< ser Io que clice el ;nalista lo rlecisivo sino kr qtte hace, incluso Llr qr-le hace c()n k) que clice' el sigrrificeckr clel vnculo qr-re estal>lece ma'ts lLlL:i,.lel ctnteniclll sem:inticcl cle st internret.rci' ltl ' Se poclran entender )(k)s est()s phntealllient()s c()lll() una l1I()'Iill( 't( i)n cle l.t tcnicl qtc c()ntrtrrcstrl lcs excesos (ie l.l interPrct:lci(in' (lLte pxli:t stls cleticit 1'1-tligr<ts, () (luc c()ns(n'ain(tola, sel capaz (lc in(renlcnr:lr stls P()tel-I cialirlarles. rlc enc()nlrt el ltt( llenlr ) ;<lecrtaclo, slicnclo esP(rlr Pllr.l entn (irrrla. para c()nsttuirlr. teniendo cn (Llcnta al analizanclt>, P()sil)ilitin(l(t (lue sel ste qLlien la firrmrtle () qtlc, P()r lo menlrs. c()llpx !t st c()n\lrrL' ( i(-'n l)er() se tr.rtx simPleucntc tle rtn prolllema cle la tcnica, (lc n() ser intrusiv'r, cle no rc:rctir el avasallamientrr qtte cl analizancll pttcliera Iullcr sttfi'iclt en st inflrncia. t n()s enc()nlr.uu()s ante elgo <le tlltlclro t]laytlr alcltnce'1 l]s rtna (u!'stia)n que se pltecle les(rvtl c()n la propttestit cle una posicitin lrisite clel lnalist. rtna especic tle actitLld tni\,ersill virlida para cttel<r.tier trlt'llnient()'/ O. cn realiclarl. n()s enficntrllll()s nte Ia necesichcl tlel tlesarr<lli (lc Llna te() tix del trxtalrient() ctte incorlotanckl c()n k)(k) rig()r cl papel qrle sr't'rc.. ticne cl inconsciene, clttc sienclr: c()nse(Llente con la Pliurcill (ltle 5e Ie ()t()rya :tc pl()p()ngl c<ltlro ptollleltla l:t cttcsti<l-t cle crinlr trt<clilicrLrlo. luctlr'jcnte' ii)rll (le inP()r ()tflr Pxrlt, (l\l( tillllP()c() puecle ser tncaraclQ blijlr \lnil nicll tlt't'ct en (grtililcin coult lcilblllrs cs ntitltiple. str claclo clte tcn'cnr'it'rn ctllrr (lel fii;rtir \'cz qLe tln inc()nsciente i(-)n Nl()(lfic( anteriotcs. r'uritukrs

olrjctivo clc <ual<luicr ctll.r (ltL' n() clttiell ctteclalsc cn lllcr() t.()ncjcnci.llism()
n()s alrarstra
1r

ls PtegLlntxs: et'rtrllr. con cr.t inslrLnlcnk)s, con la palallra, c<ln h cttaliclacl clc I relaci<in terapttica, crn l rc< ir->n (\X/achtel. 191J7)i'Y. s<lrre toclo. en rlu r.lirccci(rn. con tr.t nretas'l lgit:tles stxs para n()

.rctitu(I. con

i!)rp(r'tll qu tip() cle pcicntel NI<cliflcaci<-rn rlcl inconscic0te quc cn llgltnos csrs consistir':i cn c()ntrarrcstlrr algo existente per() (l(l(' cll ()tn)s tendr,l co[]() <llrjctivo el ct)ltttb]tir ! L|utr 4lgo qtrc tlttttcu .'rstki. Es lo t1r.te vim()s con cietto dctlle en cl ceptrt-

l() oteriol-y a lo <r,tc rlPLtntx (llrxnrtntc llxlint ( 1968) cttancto plrtntea Io <ue clcrtrlntin.ntrcv() ci)rlricnz()": t:n el Pr()rcs() ln'lti<rr. acletu:is <le ler':tt-lt:ttse la rtte itlgo existcnte etlrcrj:t- sc P()sil)ilit (ltle \r ( ('\lircptcsion -Perlllilir tttylt Ir tlr.te previalllc]tc ll() csl:ll)a l-inea qtte es rct()llla(lil lt'ilxlrs ltls auI()res (lLrc ven el proceso tctltprtlic() ((ll() en('alllinll(kr a sltrcrtr ltrrtelltl <1ue cngl<llun c(nl'to .(letcnci()nes cn el clesanrlll<' (SItkrr<w y Lirihnlltnn. l9tt0)

rlU( tr( rx i,ll('l)fc(llt l enr'icli en palcientes sevcraolcntc tra[n]Itiza(l()s. S()sl,( r( rlU( solo ( uxn(l() el Ptciente se siente xccpta(lo. su cnviclil clistninttye; r r s('.r. ( rrlr/ ttt liltt(l el utktlist.t pr<xluce un cambio e el ina()nscicntr (lLre
rgr:r l.r inl( rl)r'({rci()n. ror Drirs que sta pue<l;r scr ilprtl'entenlente .tdet'rrrrl:r t'n crrrrto tlr.:r'r'rr< irin clel estatlo euroci<nal (lcl llnlizand(). En Ia ntisrrr

y, p()r tanto, a proporcit>nar ill sLjct() l oportuniclacl cle ens\"l calllill( )s tlur nrtnca puckr imaginat'qrLe existieran. Y P()r calllin()s no nrx rcfcinos exclttsivamente lt nLtevas relckrnt-s cle olrjeto () a c()ndLctils en el nlttnclo extern< sino fimras de scntir y clc pcnsat.

!,:--':
,r

lr

;/.d

n'

l1){)

AVANCI]S EN PSICO'I'I]RAPIA PSICOANALI'I'ICA

FI'I'RA'I'A]\,f I}:N'I'O

i91
sLl reverso. la verclllrl estr

llis

r.A rN'r'riRpRDfct(iN PREsclNl)lBl-E'/

cir-n cle -rercl

cn cl l)x)villicnt( clel inconsciente y la conciencie es pLr'.r (lcfirrolr!

en I lisoriales sobt?

lt

bisterir.t-. o

i()n.

Si cl psirrranlilisis se ()ctpa clel estrdio del inc()nsciente. si pol lo ctte rrt:rllrnros tlc exponcr la tttoclificcil clc ste es in<lispensallle. se plxlra atllnl(,llAr cue kr ctte sttce(le en la concienci n() cllent' cue el psicoanelist;r rIlrc tlirigirsc al inconscicnte. La hip)tesis, c(r]l() ()cllrre c()n t()d() aldicxlisr)x), l)r'csente xtctivos. N() ()l)st:rntc, p(xlc'ln()s csgrilllir en c()ntra (l('eli'l serirs ()l)iL'ci()nes. La prituera surge <le la plopil experiencilt lnaltica qtte nrls llru(slr'1t (lLr{i el saltcr tlc la c<ncicncia. su a[rpliacitin. el levantlliento (le la rt rlcsir-rn. procluce itttportltntes nI()(liflcltciones. H!ctr cons(icntc la <ulpe in(r )r)s( ic!rtc, los clesets rttils(xltistlls. Ics clesets cttc sttlrticnclen los gllln<les li( illticn)s <le r.tn proyecl cle vich. cl gtre clel slciistrlo, l.s nef]aci()nt\ ()111-

nilxf('ntcs clc hs angttstias r cle l relrliclcl exteti< l-.ts cleti'l-lslts frentt':l Ios irrr.lLrlsos rt en c()ntra cle llt reetllclgtncia clt ls sitttltciones tretlntlititls -la listi (lLrc l)o(l[xm(s ltr'er scrlt inlerulinallle lrlar( p1l11l ttlrtchll gente la rlili lt n.i:r rntrc slllLt(l y entcnnecl:Lcl. entrc sufrilnient() xtl()z y Prlz interi()l, y Fln este rrrsilrilitlr lus srt)litnac it ncs y el crecilllient() cn t()(l()s l()s tcrrcn()s st rrtitlo. lrt ampliaciirn cle l con< ienci. ,v la interPrclci(in ctnrt rtn leclit tle ll, r:r'lrr r (rtlrr ((i)derch. 1990, 199: Iltcheg()yen. 191i3, 1986). no sirkr no pcr ilrr.rr st r'clcgltclas siuo qLle s{j trata clc pltlfitnclizar en llts razones pr>r lls , r.rl( ir('lr (l-xPlancl)e. 1992: SPentc. 19132). s( rilr ('st('llrgtutlent(). ltlsaclt en la pxrlrarla cficcia ter.tpa'tltice tle hltcer ()t()rgan r Irs.icrrlt l() in(()nsciente. lIx)ti\1) stlficiente P.tr1l (ltc sil{r-lirnI()s cn l()s cole asignr-l parel tttc l'reltcl rclevntc el tDistlllr rir J tslr.'()l)icii\'o clel clentr() lttgar tlestac:l(l() un la interpretacilin a rlt'l nri( nzr)s ltsicrtattt'rlisis, -v tr.rtrrri('rl()."rPer() cxistc ()tru rlz(in: si la conciencil est:i sltlxrrtlinlclrt l in({

srlrrcirin lacaniana. aclaptacirin. mallr le qLle nrcstl() cenk) cn l necesiclacl cle rnrclitlclr el inNos plcocupara-la c()nsciente. nrcstru crti(a rLl cr-r< iencialislno y al rclbltlismo. sitvieran par.l tener un ltrgal entrc lrs rlefe'ns(nes clc Lrnu (\)n(ep(i(-)n icleoltigica (lLrr tllnto dlr hlr cuslrlo Y siglre causanti<>, h clre sosticne <lrrc el objcr cle sstr.rclir clel psicoanr'tlisis rs s<ikr el inc(msciente, c()nr() si su rticLllac(in (\)n lx c(tncien(i:r no lrul>ier c()nstitui(l() une plcocuxtcirin clestle stts <rgenes \':t toclo lo largo cle la obtir de Freucl. I-os tut cltficnctcn cst tcsis sc trr](hillll (lLre pregunllrr. cn lricn rlc l: cohcrcncia y plr.l r(rper h clis()( ill( iLrr ts(rrt-Lclniclr. si estlin clisptrr::stos r'('r'tLlrt(iaLr. <rro anltlizancks r corttr:tnltlistlrs. en cl t utst clel h-iltnlient() propillllcntc cliclrr, r's tltcir cn el inttri<>r cle h scsir'rn ntcs ni clcsPtr('s-. e < Lrll<rricr- corrPr-ensi(in c()nscicnlc (le llls rtl()

)ns( i( nl( , rt1 misttto tienrpo es Ix nicll <tte pcrtnite al scr lrtttlleno a1gn gla

rlr

rL lilcltcl, la i1r.te lc oflecc la posillilitlacl clc no ser gLliacl() cicl{xlllente inc()nsciente ha hecho egtta. rl x srr irtcortscicnte. El llcionalislll() negaclor <lcl xlo t'l irtr< ior-ltlistlo qttt'afitltle trte 1a niclt l'ercle<l seran il pulsitin y el irr(rrs(i(nl( nr)s all)tenz c()l)l() gLje[() en el cltte no ftltan l'lrccs. s<ite lrxIr rrrr llts tc()rills cic le poslttoclerniclacl. qLle n()s xlicntlln 1t sltlllergirn<ls El r':r l( r:rlisDro Itctr-liant fLc tln intent() (le ll() s()lventrll' lllecliantc la sirllplificalion
((

csrrs literzes cue ()tg.inizan la cllclttcta llttltlna: rcc<ntx ilricnt() del in)lls( i( nt( . rlt' su porlcL. pero tatnllin cle h conciencia. Llt seguncl:r te<r clel

.rl),rrirl() l)si(lui(r). a pcsltl tle t()(las lxs lill'litxci()nes qlle se le ptteclan cnconIt.. ll()s l)rr11(( rrltly sllptli()l a Llnl te()la s()stenecl()ra (le un inc()nsciente y un.r r()llr icrrr'ill cn ()l)()si(i(-)n. Ptles stx ntls ctata en I clisyunfiva: () lll prilttcr'.t '',.nt r1 r( r.r cs l;t rlrrttlitlittl Y cl in(()l-lsciente l() pxt()la)gic()

-la

,,1

t,),,, tr, 1,, l ,\, ,, l',ii1 ( ,,1,, l')-e I\rirl. ,1,.,1., l')'r I tr',,1' l'rri'

l'.i,, ,,, \rIr,k

lr,(!]rln(ir(trr(l (l( lll inttrprclx.in en PsicorDlilisis. !rse C(xltr'h' l9()Jr l,rt)li r.hc. 1v)liril-(nnx. l9tll: \'leis\rrcr. l99lr

-no tlc ll <rnduct. rle LL lristoria rrconsirtricla en lu tlensfcr'(ni.r. .t Iivaci(tncs )(la intct1cnci()n cn linn clc aclrrracir'rn. csclarcciricn () iotcrPr({.r('i,,n. .l cualcuicr inlerc:rnll)io vcrblrl clirigir-lo 1l lu c()ncicncilr tlrl intc{<r'rtot. Nr sc clirrinara cstc re(lLrisito si se renLlircirrsr ll Ll inte{)r'ctlrciar rlrrcll ror cl enlt listl per() sc rccptlrsc <1rrt sc:r cl rr<rio analizunckr cl cue eccetlictir e una crrrnprensi<-rn cltre ) rtrisutr sc firrnrrrl cn t('ntlin()s c()uscientcs, rrtcs cl rroblrme no rrnsistr en cuii'n es el faenlc (lLle cntrnr'i:L la int( r-l)l-cla( i(rn sin(, cn cl hedx cle (lLe se tfarlil de une construccirin l)()r ) pllr llt concicll(i. Si no sc lticicra ltbncl<lno itl)s()lLlk) (le )(l()s l()s rc(tts()s (lLrc e<ltlernos (lc nl(n('i()n:l[. prsr cLe prcrrrnizlrrsc ctrr el psic<xrnlllisis ticnc trrnr 1)l)ie) (lc rstuclio ul inconscicntc. cn lil l)rlicticl clnica clel psic()lrnlilisis sc lc esI.rri.r (rkt ganckr rrn pupel significuti\'() a la rrnticnti. I)(n nlresll.lr l)1lrtr s()strncm()s. Ln crlrntlo sea hereja plrlr un ( iell() firnclame ntulismr rtrc a-rcle ul rrlt rlc l rlcscliliccir-n. tr.rc cl lsi<rranlisis no es s<-k !n.r tc(n.r (lel inc(rrscientr ni str obieto cle cstrrclio (s excllsivlllenlc stc. Se Irtteclcn rcpelir estlrs ilsc|erir( i()ncs. \' en cl rnsenso nrcisiznte enc()ntrrse a)oyo. pcro al psicoa nl'rlisis le intcresl trxir el psirr.risrlo. l pot ello es Lrn c.lnlp() clc inlcsligecirin :tlricfio e Il (()Irlpr-ensin (lcl inc()nscicntc, I)()r srl)uesk). Po|c1rrc irasta ('l c:rsi nacl sc sltlru. rclo, turnl>in lc intcrcsa no rtrcclc ni tlclc rcnunti-rr'.r ellr- cl rrn<ciDrien) rlcl ti n( i()n.u rricnk dc la rrrncicn,:i. tlc ls inflrc:-r cilLs ntutLllts cntrc csk)s (l()s sistcnras. el esllrclir clc cLr:ilcs srr les c<rclitirrcs lrejo llrs tr.rc clr(l seck-xorlr.rcc eli'ctos. C()n Llna c()nsectr('ncia clerivacla ett el pleno teraputic. neccsiclcl clc rn ckrlic nivcl clc inten enci<ir-lr sollc tl inc()nscicntc l solrrc h c()ncicncix. Si cl pi'nclLrlo cstlr\'() nru(lr) tiemp() (lelenirk del llttlo rlcl conciclrciu lisrr r l clel vetbelisrro, con l interl)rLt.rLi, 'n torno su cje. no sc tr'1rt.r lrhrr rlc innx rr, ilizrrrk r rlel lrr<l (le las inten(n(i()ncs sole el inc<xtsciente. lnen()s:rn clt rctr.rr-ir- e trn.real" rllctxsi(\) rclxci() lacanianu-. sin() (l(' pclmitir (lLre r-r:1nclchr crn el .cto anlllitic(), -l ursicirn Iraga su rccorrickr cntrc los rtiltiplcs lrrgares por krs cue pr.rerle v clelle circrr-

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,1, r,,,rrr'r.rel lrl)Lrs() (lc scnti(l() ()ue l1 intcrplelal( i(ilt (()nlle\lr \ 11 r)e(esi(llr(l ,1, r,, rlts:rloilu':rl px(ientc,-lc lu tosicion cle intrprcte rrivilrgiltlrr rlc sus ,r,'t'r.r\ l)r()([rcci(cs (Scll\\,xl)cr. 1990. 199]. l99ir Skrkrrrrl'. \'(xr()s, l9t7). l,'r{lrrr (Lrxn(l{) sc lrlLce. elk s<ilo pueclc linrentur le (rnnin(fenci.r rlel lnrlis I r :r ( I Pir(icl-tte pttccle str lttl.ltrl[rrlo por srrs csistcncils \'(]esc()s \,(lc es() ',,,.r1rt, tlrrtlrt-, cl ulrlislrr no sc Itrlla in)tnr u rliglos taret icirs l'r'r'r; si tocllr (stii tiln clxr().;<litcle lesic[.,<,1 trol>lcrrttr'/ I-.n tlue:run<1r.rt , .r((l)trL cn gencral. Ur-Ilt lez (ltc sr rcc())()(e cs icr'rrcnlt ctrc sc .ig.r tt'r \ ''0( l( ) (lLre si r:l anlistlr sc c()l()(ll en Lrnl p()si(i(')n :rclecl[rtllr. en llt 1(titt(l t(rL(.r ((c(t. cntr)cgs 1() (luc st(c(llL lenrlrri el cltrlctrr (lc Ltn pr(x(s() l1!lLr.ri. s(nrr({r(k) rl iLls I)t()f)irs \i(isitLt(lcs. r cl no sel:i lt:rsillt <lr llL :t. r.ls.r. iot ,l, t()f((,rl(). \'i(isilLl(lcs rlcl rlcs:Irolkr nlrltr'.rl <lel tr.rtanticnt() (luc scgtin Is , .r'trclrrs krrere Llistit'ttils li)nll1rs. <lescle cl rlcsltlicgrrc cle Lts tl-nslircnt r.ts lrrr rrrlt lfcri<les -rol l:t .nule tcni(1r lnlti(ir". llrsle llr 'rosibiliclecl lua t.l rrnltli,,.rrrrIr rlc, rctrlr:r c) cL,srrollo int(r,'Lt,l)i(lr) r[, trn .rzfl r t rrllrrlcr(), scl)ultii(l() l,,trr cl t:tlso sr'f;, sr,/ rcrclaclero (lLrc l r!t(n(,r k)(l() iLl l)()t(.n(i.l rrr lrlrliu rlls <ut clltrlt la ororlunirllrcl, irl n() intcrli'rirl(). l)lrir (lLrc iri txiranrla. Result.r liecucntc rrt l llctuali(l1r(l ((),-ltll)()ner ql sil(-l(i() l)r(nn()\'i(l() l)(n-(.ie as ( ()rient('s (lcl anlilisis lr llL ('titr.rLl (lc (lLrcll()s (luc intcri)r({itr). Iln etrliclrcl. los J)irrli(llrri()s <lel srlcoc<. (()|)() l()\ rlt, l;r intr.llrrr.llrr.irin. (r)r)plltcn ut) sul)t(,slr) a()LlssclLntiir,'r() ([,] lrrrr'r'r slrlr:rjc ill]]ilst(l() Dor'[rreLzlts l)(.liudi(i.tlcs. l)ilf lll ltttnos (lc[nso'cs (l( llr intcrpr( tarci(-)lt. si nrr(lit-]tr ellt lilrc.rtos ll l l)crs() nr (lc sus r'cprcsi(t(s. clc slrs rltlcr-rslts. t()(ls lits encrg1ls ('(rlsunli(lals sc Pot'trillirt ctt rtratr'(l)lr \ cl cllinr) a lir n()rr)rlrLIlt(l rttetlali:r ast'grrllrrl(). l)it[ I()s :rl)()g;(l()\ r.lr'l silr'rrt
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k irttrrlntrttos ntl(slr() (lrsc() crtt()n(cs sL (lcsc() lxxlrli ril<rrl:U t corr (llo sc gtllrllzllr rrn clcsrlicgtre htcilr l slrltrrl n]lis e(lLli\()c (lLlt s(ar sll (.1 -ror Illctcr'izilci(-)n-. llt rr[tl sin lrtrsr'lrr-le. rrccislrrtlente p(n n() l)us('ltIllt, 1(,mrinar
r-rrtrcrtr'ickr; tl. crrc llt crlr'sirrn.r<;siciirn clt.l ii'ltlis(it,. (ltc liz(, lllntu li)r-tLttrx. cs ur]ir ti)rnri(lxl)le (lclns1t l)()r l)ilrtr (lcl nirli\ti si l se rrltir' cn csl l)()si(i(-)n, si se.tlcPufit" (le (lcs(':lr gLliitr 1l sLl pt(i(,nlc, cnl()n(cs k)(l()
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.rrLrlrtir';r trre cncuentm su rrrejor Dnnifest:lci(in sint()Itiitica cn le palaltr.a <rr| l;r r'urrl llos tllrcc clefinir.nos. ,psicoanalistas", en cltncle .anlistas, actta rlt, sostr-rr r[.] clcscr cle nrntener Ia ilLrsirin rLre n() c()nstnrillt()s sinr> que sc-rl<l 1-r< n( nr()s itl (l(scul)ict) lr exiscnte. -natiizxtlt()sl)t trr llr clue ac.l).ul()s r-lc lflrnlrr nos clcjera en el tisxr nivel cle gent, rrrlitlrr,.l rtrc sienrpre hentos (.resti()na(l(). y salrelxrs trt- no hay nin;un p.rr.r rligrrr:r t1rrt, l)Ltc(lt a\,nzl si n() tp()l.t c()n()cil]tient()s i)11fli(.tlltra-s. ya que !l rrnrr irltologie no st le sutcra (.()n (frl iclc()l()ga. sin() c(rt krs;r.,,itnces espe ( rli(\)s (lirc llr ntrcve con<.cpcit-rlt pcnnite. Llnll vrz (lLtc se hlt soslcni<to clue cl

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No crlt,tlLrcl clt cttc rrn fal(1(.(l('(.isi\1) en t()d() lrllllticnkr cs llt ell l)rlr.r (l(.1 illr.rlistlr (KohLlt. 1971. 1977. lgiiir I_t]ovit.i. 199.i). per() 1irrl)in se r|rrrit |t, clr algo trrlis: p,Lrr (lLr en el p(.ieDtc pLrerllrn corergcr cierk)s cstu_ rIr: rrli.rtiros es ncccsllri() (lLc cs([()s lrortuilogos sc halletr .rrcsentcs en el .rrr.rlrstt. l-os csttlos tlc tcrnrl.lr, (lc cx(.ita(i(i,t l ltlltccr.tor cl L.ncLlcntr(), (le ,,,rrrrlici<letl cn las nrircls, rle alegril por Lr lrlcgr.a tlcl otr.o sokr lrcclen ('\islir (.n Iit iufersul)jcli\,i(llt(1. No se puccle c()ntr c(m placcr un (.histc si ei ()lr1) n() s(,r'c. ptres kr cltrc sc lrus..ll (\. Pt(.Lr\.t,ll(ntc. nr \"(llr (,;l [js. L.(t. r[ rt,.tlt'r.ilr (lc ]ir intclsLll)jcl i'itla cl ta'r c1.e cleterntinacles r,xnill,stx(.kntes ,ll(\'li'il5 s( <lesplicgrtcn es (le it,l)(),.tlLu(.i11 tltrlr rrne iirncla,rcnt:lci(-)n (lc cLil rl('lrc rlt.s(r' Ll lx)sicitin antLIttctl dcl tectpcttl(r. l\t\sf..t con untr actitucl cle ( rrl).rtiit () (,tr itlgrn()s clts(:; sc ie(lLrierc cr.re cl tcreperrttr puecla clcspleglu. , r( rt()i ( slit(l()s e!()ai()nles trtc lrlrrir:in cl <.anrpo pa11] (lLle stos 1-rrre-cl:u-t ( nr(.II t ( n ! l l):l(.ientc? l)ensllll()s (.( )n(.retllllrntc en los ltar.icntcs cleltrillri_ ,1, ,, r lL :r rtrrliz.rtlo:i. en qLlc le ac.titrtl cle (rnt)prsosi( )n cnrJxitice por peite clcl l( r.llk Ul, r ,[. lo rlllrl (lLlc sc sientcn. ertultelrtla rlc un trn< afectir,() (le c(nD l).r"r)n I),)r (,1 \ul'rinti(,n) rlcl lrricntc. tle,l.liclo:r l tonalicld ltfectiva cleprc ',r\.r ,lr(..1\unt( t lrliscLu.so rlel tetaptrrta. lenuin pol.efirrzlr cl estltckr cle_ 1,r, srr , , r l, l r, ri i..lr.. l\Lls :rn. si la -llrlllrr:r c()n)() pr.()\.ee(l()l cle signilicackrs ( \ (IiI(,( IIIl' rk I :rltrl<. l]lrlrlal crn l,rt),, In,,n,,r,,tLlc r,,hrc l.r i.rltu clc t,itlrli

rr t l()1"i5). inclice clue mirs allh clc la seltntica. clel significa(l() cle la fiase. r l,' (lu('"qnt()nr" el pxciente es l est.r(l() el)x)cionl (lcl tcrxpcLtr ) .r clirr, rsiores tilles c()nl() llt vitalid:tcl. le intcnsicLrcl. lo que este xukn-clen()lrir.r l ort()rn(),,. Si ci pacicr-rte he tenicl< paclres cleslitalizaclrs hlv tn.Lgujc',, , rrr virl em()cion.ll: n() es qLlc l<>s afi,ctcs cstn reprinri(l()s. pe) se.in p()cler,,,,rs en el inc()nsciente. sin() qLlr sc lllllln:tlx)lt(os cn sL desarm()ll(). l)(nrrr.rr rtte cl tcrllpetrtll lc cxpliqrrc. 1l trlt\,s de rrtii r-r-c()nslrlcci(-)n, (lLr(j es es() 1,, r,. 1",r', plrs(l() n() sq xctivxr'.in los abo acks en su (lesa()ll(). S(-)l() l1r , llr()i'ionllichcl <lel tcrlpcrrta p()(lrli p()rtr llg() qLle v1r]:r nrars irllii (lcl vlrl()r ' rrrintitr cle las ralllrlrs. Srtbenros clc los r-icsgos dc irlponcr el pecicnte nLrestros este(lrs cntorLrrrr.rlts, rlc ls cltutclas tr.re clelenrrs tener al respc(to. cle l<>s excesos tlc ls I('( nicxs :rctiv:rs, tlel usr clel l)ll( ientc pil s:rtislltcer ncccsiclclcs elltccionles rltl tt'rlpeut:r. t()(l() k) cLrl conclujo a Ln1r xsccsis cn'locitnl pol. plrte de1 .rrirlist. ils(csis IIIs (lLre viilid.l. I)ex tarrbin salrcrrus rlel clrll-rctcl iatr<lg nicr cle rne ta,(ni(' Dr()n()c()r(le cn (lue l:r cnrocion:rlidcl (lrl :ln:ilist n() sc .rtl,.'r'Lta a kr (luc tl l)rciente rcqticrr. l'Lrcs (lc csk) sc irllt: Lrnr p(rs'iLi;/r r'r,{/tt)ull it,slntltl?tlltl lxn pllrtc clcl nalistlr en (lLrt stc n< selr nrrnocorclerlrrntr Itil)crcDt( )ci( )n:ll lrejo la coertacle cle la csponteneicllrcl. < Lryos cxcesos t()(l()s (\rr()('cll()s- ni lxnlp()(\) nr()n()(\n_(lcrlrcntr fro. sercno. nl(lLinar lgi(ir ([re iu\(n'e(e la intelectLriizlLcion. Asi c(nrx) la liguru ralentel es inclispens;rble ltra rtrc c) nio pecrrcrio pucrlu ir cliti,re ncinrlo (listink)s tip()s (le rrli'ctos, par cuc pueda l()lcr':rr fi,(l()s (r)nttx(li(torio, 1,}r[r clarles un nODr lrrc lt ks ntisurs, cl terlrpelrtl p()sil)ililxll (llre csto srce(llL si clulple lil Irn
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nxiiti,.r lrirrr'rr nrris licia la reiz. lcgl hasta los r'<lnflictos cle l()s (lLlc lurn naciclt l, '. srll()r:r: \' se sitve de Lr .'tgcsti(in plra rrorlificll cl clesenlce dc csos ,,lllli(l()s, (pg. rl0). .l-a pieze clccisiru rlel tralrajo sc cjccuta cuxnd() en I.l r, l.Lr irn crt el u('clicc. cn l!r tl llirsfercn('ilt,. se (rearn versionr.'s nLevrs de r,rrtl riejrr urtfliclo. \'ersi()ncs !'n las (lrr cl t,fetDlt (lLer'r'iir (()ltp()fiarsc .,,rrr Lr hiz< cn su tientl)() nrictl'ils LIIre Lrr)(). [arr]icn(l() toclrs llrs fircrzls .rrrrrrtir'.t:' clisponibles sc [elicrc l l:ts rlel pecicnte- Lo olrliglr a to -f'rcu<l .il.l). ,,i)cr< la nrtcr:t lrr<hit el t<)r-n() (le (.ste ol)icti\'() rrr.rr ot[t rle< isir-n, (])jg. ,s t'lcr'cl. crn el uurjlio clt la sugcstirin l11di({l. ul estr(li() I)s(lLi(,' r.rs .rll(): tl!rs(tr're c()l)l() (r)nilicl() 11(r'nlrl" (pi'ig -i1 r)..lstc tutnl>io cs J'rosibilit,rtlo l tlr cillrll)i() cn el to. <1rrc se c()ns!rt))lr llrjo la infltrcncilr cic llt sr.rrt( stiar r))(ii(i" (p.if.i. rl l). \lc hrrn prr'1rrntltrIr >ol tu cr] lJ tcr-rl)r.l 1rsiLi' .rrr:rlitr(ir 11() t()s scr!irll()5 (l( lx sLgcsti()rl (lir'c(lal, )'ir trtc:trlrttitirtl,'..1r.t< rrLrrslr.t inllucn(iit sc basrt csrr'tcilntcnle en LL t(tnsicr,jrlcix. r'.rle tlccir cn h sugrstia)n, (I)lig Ioti). ,lin cl psicoartlisis trl)xjxnx)s (()n liL tt.rsfcrcnci. risllll1... i\s se n()s lt.r(c rosilrl: satlrr rrorr.t hrl clel poclcl tle lli srrgc.tr,,n (l)iig. {11)...,\lx)ra csp(r() Irlrcrles cl:ue,:lo ir(lLrcll() cn lo (Lrirl nLlestr.r rrarttllt clc urlir':rl tctr l)('uti( :l nrentc la sttgcstirrn sr rlifclcnci rlc'l: nir-r p,,ri l,lc lrrlu Irt i('r([)r( llil\i]()ti(it. { f)iil.. -rI). -li)(l() (st() (lesl)Ls (l('tclrrr dt srrilrl:u'cn lu crnicr'nr'irr 2l: .Si cl er lernr littc <r.re lilrtrr'. lxrt.rLll rr>r lr:ttulle. t'l ((nltli(l() n(r'rn.rl (('l ls resistcl)(ias (re lc lrcrnos scriuleclo cn cl anlilisis. ne('csillr (lc inlr inrrulsirin potltrosrr rttc intlrvlr soltc ll rlecisirn tn cl scntickr (lesclt(l() ln)r n()s()tr-()s, el <rrc llerrr irl r('stl)le( irIl irnt r ) l)c l() (\)lllrirri() lrclrl succrkr trrc resolviera ,cpclir (l (l(s('j(e:ll]ler'ir)r \'!l('iirr alrcr'L['r]uc\1) e li r(]l)rr\i(in l() crre se
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13rr rlt
srt

norrrinrrtir "1. lcnic.r psicoanultica,. tsn 1. l'le,Lcl nos lultla cle hs 1,,. no tlcl \1) rcplesentaci(-)n sino rlcl yo firnci<-rn ,aplanclte, 1970), cs (lecir rk l corrjrrllo clc funcictncs a las qrrc agrupa ltajo est:r clenootinxci(inr percil)ir. rrr'orrltrr', :r.la er cir:rtals t cplesenttcirncs cle la c()nciencia nccliante la ccirin r[, lrs rlclct'rsus. clifcrenc.i:Lr percepcia)n cle pensantiento. clrptar signific.acio, rrcs r r rvencirn:rles crlectives, c()ntr()laI la clcscurga ptrlsional, ctc.,,,, l)icc: .U \1) (sfii (lcl)ilittd() por el conflicto intcriol.v n()s()tl.()s tcnent()s cuc u(.trrlir cn srr rtrilir, (:lrig. 173). para lo cual pl.()p()nc Ln urcclio: "Nlrestro saltcr dclrc lt'rrrr.rlilrr st n() stl)cr, clelte rletrlt,er .tl \r) (lel p(.iente cl irnpclio solxe jrr |isrliccioncs trcliclas cle l:r vicllL an|licu. l,ln cslc pxck) c(rtsisc l.l sitLl.r(l(ll1 : rlilicrr,. l)efir la crllltr>r:rcirn <lel taciente n() sc sosticnc en la (rcionlrlicllcl rl( lil t:lrc <uc le prrpone el lrnltlista: Itrs trenstercncils. la tositit.:L 1. la nejtillivi. it)lervienen crltr el lirctor clecisi\ o: ",Vlientrlls cs l)( )sitivx it()s pr-eslx l()s nl(.i()r(s scrvi(i()s... se c()n\'icnL'en cl genrtino rcs()fie (lrc prrlsione Ie r.ol:t lx)rr(i()n (lel l)uciente..., {p1ig. 175). Y. prt (lue n() (lLle(len clucls solrc el uso rlt, ltr ttilnsiercncia positivlr, cle la inllLcnc.ia rue i,stlr pt<xluce solrre la rirl.r rsiruice clel plrcicnte 1 clc su aytrde cn el trlttlnricnt(), rlice;.l,lr relac.irin tr:rsli r'rrcil cOnllcva. arlclllis. ()tl.lls (l{)s vcntuixs. Si cl l)11(.iente p()nc l lluit lrslrr r'n t l lrrglrr cle su plrcire (o cle st taclrc). le ()t()rlx txull)i,n el toclcr cuc rrr srrrt,r'tr-r cjercc sol>rc sr y(), I)Llrsl() (lLtc crik)s pr()gtnit(n.es hltn siclt r:l oli-

guir ( ultl(luicr lt()diflcacin terxpetic. l)or la importancilr de este clt{r,nclrer)t()s con Lln.t riel.tx ltrinL(.i()si(llcl,,. cn su clptrrlo Vl. el

<letet.cas clel

los lr]onrenk)s (lirlcticos contrrprest()s (lue en l se desarrollan cntre influil l.respetar la aut()n(mrx clel pacientc. cs p()rquc es (lon(lc po(lemos rcc()n()cer las llscs cle (listintas p()siciones y escuelas en clrxnk) a la tcnica llnlrlrica. El irprovcchlr qLle el paciente. por transferencia, <xorgue el enllista cl ltrgar cle sLr sllperya) (\nresp()n(le a l() (lue Str,tchey (1931i) clenomino sLpeni auxiliar. prinrer tiemp() (lue enc.ulinllr11 hacie la intelpretaci(in mut,rti\'. Posici(')n <le1 en:rlista cr.re es practicada. Lrn(lue nunc se rec()n()cid(), p()r' llLs cscucls clrv()s lliclll)r()s cjcrcen un (\)ntf()l l()tal s()l)re el parciente, ul)i clin(l()sc c(nr():irbitr<s clc lo qtre srLcecle en su inc()nsciente. al crxl leeran (r)nr() un n]:rpa llrier'. l-a posri:rlrrcltcitin c()rresp()n(le t llt exl)efien(i.l elI()ci()nxl c(xrectivil rle Alexanclcr <le la escuelu cle (ilticego y. n.is rctlxllncnte. 1l KohLt,v lils (listintas c()ricntcs Jror'l intluenciaclus. El elertar s<lrre no alro gar la inclcpcnclrncil (lcl plrcientc, ir kxk)s l()s qLle entirlizen la llstinencia clel lnalista. clescle los palticlarios cle un silcncir cxsi 1ll)s()hrk) hastlr krs analistas rrr<l Schu,'rrlrt-r ( 1990. 1995) (llrc. cn su ex(luisit() intent() (lc clcfcnclcr l cxistencil (le nrriltjPlt:s trn(l()s cm()ci()oillcs y visi()ncs cle l rceliclacl, col<;cn rl pucicntc lrs ccrca de llr vrrtld rle su inc()nsciente cuc lo crre Puclieta cstar el anlistl. sienclo el analistu rn espccic cle ltntroJx'rlogo cxtnrnjer() (lLrc (lel)e suspcntler strs prorios valores y visi(mes prr.r cntcn(lcr cl srnti(l() (le un cul
_vente cle

tt

(lue si no fircrt por los inlirrnra<lorcs se le es(xparx. l-il mcnL'i,',rr (lLc lr:t<e Freucl cle los pacicntcs que han pennanecirk en un estx(l() intuntil. lx reen(r)nlrlult()s cItto tirnrllllttcnkr (lc ls c()l'ficntes x(tuales (lue hablan cle trast()rn()s I)()r (lflcit (Killingnr(), 19119. 1995). Irl l)xsrric r))cnci()n1l(l() lnircstr-ir la cautela (le F[eLr(l flente 1ll inlen'enci()
tLl-x

rtrs fiel scgLriLl(nx

llxl)cr lr.ch()

',,r (r, l,ll.r I t \.[,,, I(lLlronttProrU\1)fi]n.i(-)n,\.srct rlpituto

solr ct sUt)rr\,,

nisrll(). y su cltutel. n() l))en()f, en n() (lciir ltl)lncl()nlrckr al pac iente r su pr-()l)iu sucflc. al p<rlct clt le rtsistrnci. r Iu c()url)ulsi()n a lu tcpctici(')D. I)er() seri tn trr()r crcer (lte sc lr'altx (lc csiltr cn cl ta'r'r)lin() r)te(li(). tle encrntral el rcrrililrrio entre iniluenciar y clejlr lil)rc :rl p.rcicntc. L() (lLrc plantcl l'reu(l es ()tl-n (()sl: Iencr cn cLrcnlll )es pccrrliaririarles <lel raciente y en firnci<in cie cll.ts. ) dal monanto lcl tt:aldmet o, hlccr rcccr el prs() (le la fir'rr <le interr,rncirin clr-l enalistu (le un() L ()tr-() l1r(l() dc cse par influenciat/ltttotrom. l)rr cllr cs tn (lccisi\1) (lcntr() (lc la cita el fregnrenl() en (lLre tlict "I.t ntclitlt rb ttfllcncLt (luc bd.)'u t.lt, cttttsit.lcrar ltgtintt est',ttit cleternrinx(l p()r e grado tk inhbci(ilt tlcl dcsurnilo qtrc hallc tn cl pacicte, ( ( ursiva nuestru ). Ils (le(ir'. (re el anlistl clctclruinar:i su fiult clr intervcnci(in, )'c()n tll() el grtckr tlc inilttcncia. cle:rcuercl< xl (as() pxictlitr y n() cn l)xsc r Lrn-l 11',\i cin (lue sc 1rl)lic1tl universllnente. Ra<lic h ll <use cle (lLe l"tcrd. clcspu('s <le ltltr <lescaltaclo clielcricl))cltte (lLre n()s c()n!ifiarnr()s lnernlenle en e(lLc(l(n-cs. \'uclvc lt arccpt:llcstc r(r. p()cis pginas clespr.rs: .Al ctmicnzt... ltac(,lturs quc se n()s trilnsllcrr l rrtrrirlerl cle str slrpcrl'ri, l<) lat{tntos .t aceptat la lr<hl en lrrno a crcla exigcncie clel clkr y il \:cn(el las rcsistcncias quc ilsi sc prclucen. Y al orisnr() tienlpo restal)lecemos r:l rrclcn clentro cle su yr pcs<ttisanck conteni

l{ f) (l()s

AVAN(:liS trN PSIC(rfEl{APIA PSt.()A

NA t_l',r'l(:^

lll- I RA'l'AIlIhNl()

201

:rsl)irr(i()nes (ire penetran clesrle k inconscicntc v clespejenclo el teuc' rr. P:rfil lir triticlt por rcconcltrccir-n il su (r'igen. Iln clilersls tirnci<tr sclvi nlos lll plrcicnlc crIO eukiclacl ] sLlstitut() clc los 1trtrgenitor'cs, c(lx) nltestf() \'(([((k)r. elerlrrDts krs procesos pscrricos (lentr() (lc stt to ltl niycl r,r'nrrrl, nrrrrllrxs rn prec()nscicntc lo clcr.cnick inc()ns(ients 1 lo reprilltick>, I tlt'r'st'nrorkr rcintegftrl]r()s al xr lo cue le es rrorio,, f19JBx, pi'ig. lS1. cut'tlu(sll'11).

tl(l d^).
rtrlcstr-it ).

sn t'erludcftt liladztl pracottsciattl? petls{tda" (P9. f i6J. cursi|x

sivll
rr x

listu rrrtitrrcl <le Irrer.<l rle icls

r' tlr.' sLrgesti(-)n

t vLcltirs cntfr iniltLcntir'. ctlucr, trsur cl rle la tnLnsterenci:t c(nll() instfllr)tcr]tr cle crltr,, r'rcs-

srrs enkrres-. es la ltllcja la rrrmplejiclecl clel problenra. Actitrrcl nrLry <lili:rr:ntc. p()r(frx p.lrtt, tlc urrrella ()trl en (lu(' sc rnistillca llr lclicllrcl (lcl pr(rccs() :trullir'o. cle-

xttrr lrt trsonltliclacl c[t'l J)ltcicr-ttc n() !(rn\'(rftlrn()s tjn

rrrc

li ntlitlnckse la iragen (le un nalistir slrpucstrlnlcnlc nertl'(). (lLc si-rlo rcveLrr'rr t'l jncrnscir:ntc () ()cLrllilr cl ltrglr: <trc sg hx llirnlx(l(), c,n l cscuela llr'rrnilu-r. dcl .nluer-),. 1 cr.rc cstar'a gllriullizlrn(l(). urn sLt rrescnr'ilt <rtc cl ,I sco r'ilctrlc. rlue el intrrnsr'ientc sc <lcsrlicgr.rc t' rrtxlrtzt'lt. \ct]t()s. cn clrnl lrirr.:r ttrr Irlctrl pfc()ctrprl(l() p()r (lr fcspLtst.is a krs rr'olrlcnr:rs ruc Ia terarirr :rnrrlitir'a i)lxnte1r. n() por oficccr rrne icleologe grLtx r l()s sentilljcnt()s (ic ,llrl( ]()nril (lLrc )d()s p()scelD(]s. l'()r {)l[r pare. no puecle r]rc1()s (lLc -rxrcltrt'ir crrriosicletl <rre e este altr.rr.r rlt l rrrn<r'irit'nt().rp()rtll(l() Jror llt lingiistice se puetle seg(iI s()stenien(l() rrrt l;r int crprctaci(')n act(l rol llr inlirlnracir- (lrc trllnsnlitc al pa,.'icntc s,. lrrr' srr inconsc irntc. es cle< ir' <trc un (,olrncilr(l() () Lln ( ()niLlnl( ) clc cnunciltcks rtrcrl:rn lt'ne'r cx( lusi\'ar nrrntc rrn vlrlor infonllirrr. tlcj:inckrsc tlc l:ttlr cl asl\'li) (rnrilti\1) -ll in<lLrc<iin 1t Llltlt cicrtil lrct ir-rn, clclrinclosc t()nr.lI l!(i(;n r'rr r'l sr'rtlitlo lunl)li() (le ()rirnlr llL l_lrntesa. el clcsco. l crrclrcllr en trnlr clirt',r'itir l)csclc ls tr:rl)!j()s dc llLlhler solre l firnciin .apclerivl" clel lcn gtlrjr', llrste.fecolrs()n (1),r lu fr( ia)n .(\)nxti\'.,. o cl tlrhlrjo clc lflin<*ski stllc Lt firnciol crcil(k)r (le vinc'ukrs clcl mensuje mlis ullli rlc su signili((k) lrrlirilo. rcsulrlt irnlrsilrle restringir ll interprctlcirin .L sLr \'itl()r :cfl,lcl'rcial. rut s t llo irttplic:t (lesa( r()ccr- n( ) Ln c()n( ept() (,n pl'ticulllt sin( ) t( )(l() Lln ( 1tnl ro rlt l <.rrnocinrient(). cl (le lil pnrguriticu clcl lcngLrajc (Nifl). 1995) \ cl cle Lr rttir'rr l:utrcion retdc (lLlc cs Iil (lLc (lcslllc:l Ri)ussill()n (199i): .Sin rnll).rl), junl() 1r csk)s rcf-istr()s clcl firrc ir nunr iento clcl lr>arato tlel lcngLrajc, ,rlr[r rrrr'rtisit'ntcnte (lcs( ri1()s. se eicr(e taDtl)ia-l] tnx linci(-)n rct(-)ric s() lr( l.r (uirl Ios rsicoanalislas st h'r rl()stru(l() rulis clisclrs. I1 hrnr'irn lclrri,.r ,llsigrrr li\ ittltt?t1cid inc(tscienl? que le prrs<xlia. el ritrr. la orgltni ,,.r, r(,n ( \tilisti(11 cle lu clist'rusivi<lurl cjcrccn srltrc cl lrrrclit<., (i)g. 1501. (r\r\.r nlr(slrir)i rrgrcgantkr: .l]l ePltl.itto clcl lrngr[tjc (lcvicn(,Lrn lrl):lIirt() (le ,r( ( r(,n .r lr,r\('s tlt'l lt'ngLrajc" {pig. l5i)3). .Sc 1:rttcrlr. cnton(es. trilt:lr l1rnlo (le llr .rr I, ,i ).rI,rI)lr (leslin(l() a h-.tnsmitir ltl olro un pensantieni(). uD ut(r\i lrllr'lrl(, l)srlrri(() ur lirntaLsnl... (()nr() (le un arct() (lc plxl)r qlc (!clliat l lttlrt's rld lttttltrtrlr, tt Dt)tiDtalto pt s()ital dircclatlt?1tlt, ".lescdtylr' .la to

Si l)ien R()lssiilon no se rclieLe exPlcilil[rcnte a le plllltllr:t (le] xnrlist. ;rono poche stc escupel ctln(i() se (lirige rll Pllciente a esll llrorieclacl uni r t'rsul tlcl lengtilic en lil c(tttrnic.tci(-)n htttrl:tnai' lls qrtc ac:lso t'rtentltl el <1ttc Irlrlu ts cl anltlista. por cl ltcclro clt- serlo. stt palaltte n() est'l atrlvesx(l.l l)()r \Ll inconscicr'ltr. pot stts pulsioncs. por sLr alectiri<lacl .tlll()l'()sil tl hrlstil, llor rrrs <lcseos!' llxslll \',irn()s a los psicoenllistes en ntltsttals instiltlci(n](.Irti(,F lttrltltics (iis( Lltitn(l() <trn Lrs coltg.rs (Ll(:\li,,llL\ l!1-,ri(.r\ lrllr-r Lr rnvcnccrn()s (le (llre nLlcstrlt lerge iirnnrtcirin. inclrticlt; cl anr-tlisis pcrsonal. n< nts lt herlro rcrcler neci clc kr ltuulno Y cle las r:tsior-tc clcl incolscicnte l'cr() \'sl sjlcncio rlcl lnulistlt? Nrtcvanrentc s( l)lt .L(l()lcci(l() tn ctl.tnt() ri sr.r conrprrnsir-rn cle l nrisrtt:t ingclttticlrtcl (ltrc (\)n l:l inletPrctllci( )n. Se lf) ll:l enlen(li(l() conro clcjar r.tn lttglr llere (lLt el p(i('nlt :rtttcllt tener la losillilirlari rle hlcer < ircttl:rt sLt cleseo, rrrro sc sttclt tlt'c ir: 'rtn tslltr'io Pxr Pcnslll" 5c hi rrpeti(l() cstr fiiruul c(t trlnl.r irrsislcn(i (ltl('n() se Itlt rcparltclo quc

peItL-nrcc a le utlis sitrtltlistlt (lr- t()(hs lxs leors tle llt (()tllLni(1t('i',n, PLlcs clcie clr lrrtl<> Lrn:t inll)()rtntc rtlcsli(-)n (lLlc r.tn psiuxttltlistlt estll 1r)ligx(lo.t I)ctsr: (lLrc cl silcncio provir:r'tc tle Ltn str. el lLnillisl. llllll-((k) tltttrllin por el inr-onscir'ntc. dc lockr trte cr.tantlo l() l)r.tclicll, Io llltce tn cicrt()s n]()nlent()s v n() cn r)tr-os. lrajo cierts fllntxss, con lo ct[tl .ll?.\'Lt estfu ?l 41ld|stcl tttgttb cl<'sigttilia.tctitt. P'.tt.\ scr llis ci:tIo: no es slo (lLle el l).1(icutc (l()tt tlc un scnticlo prrlictlar (lcs(lc strs frrt'ttrtsilts rLl silcnt'it rn r'cz ttte src hlt si(l) ?Dtiti) p()r sLplresl() (luc si- i)r'r() cu cl rrlntexllr intcrstll)ieti\'() en ruc Lrs interr'ar rl.)i( )s i,tcr)rrsai(]r-rlts ticrrerr ltrflllr. tl silcntio crtlo lncn..tjc r..rrgaclo tlc significucir-rn yil ()riclltx el t-etcplot en tlnlt tliLt<t ir-rn clclL. lln especial cuenclo el silencio sc cotlrl)nx con D)()lllcnt()s cle JlltilLllta cn el senti(lo c(\,en(i(rtal cltl I('nrirt. o con cl llnraclo ct() rlnillli(o. es clecir cuanclo el siler-rcio acltr.rie-re tuk)r (\cn.o tlc ut-LL secttenci tlc nlcnsaics clcl n:llista. cle igr.ral nranert <ttt el silcncio en nrtisic tiene un val()r tlitc'rente si srgLl( rl iln gran ecorrlc. 1r trrr Il1()lllcnk) clc tcrlsin (lrillll-lli(x o cs la interrttl<itin tle rtn
rrcl:rgio. Restrlla

nrfable cuc cl ttltr'inricnlt lltcniano. ctt,va iitnclatllentacit-rn firc Lr lingtislic cslructtrlist1l, no hltla visto tr.tc llt ntr< i<-rn sllLlssLlriana de zlr lcs Irr.rlrier pr()tegi(l() (le ( retI ttte el silencio es silnplctllentc algo a significer clcsdc el pa(ientc y n() (lLe eclcttiere stt \'11()r (ltnt[() clel sisteln (le urensljes dcl lnlisll. Es clccil. qtte lll)xn knn:l(l() el siltncilr c()lll() Lltl \rtLi(, :t llenlu pt- el pllcicnte v n() (\)tno ttn plt'no clc sigll ificltt il rncs inc()rls( ientes tuc cl anelista le rrtroltc i Pacierltc. I Illll rct()tli.l(l() el tllito clcl an:rlist:r t'tttro ltlr llcr,alkr 1L sL e\trcrll() con cl ttst rlcl siltnti< a()lll() l)lt(lil) (lt: (r)nsc
grrirlo.

l)()t nucsltar Pertc. tttisitltnxrs (lctenern()s cn ltlgrtnos espectos tle l:r intetrtetrcion cn lan) ila(i(-)n solrte cl pacicnle:

j{

)l

AVAN(lES UN PSICOI-ITRAPIA PSICOANALI

I(lA

IJI-'I'RA'I'AMIEN'1'O

203

L l.r interpretrci(-)n )i)o t'itLlc . pronesd: es alecir, c(nn().sc,/l/ccr'(ir.


r lrrt in.rliclr lrn cleseo clel .rnulistu y Lrnx solicitllcia)n prxlerosa a cue cl ena Iizrrnrkr rceccirnc (le cleterl)jna(lx o1nera: (ltte clcje de reprintir. cle estir l)l()rrrcrrclo errurcionltLrcnte. <lc negar. cle pr()yect.rr. clc lcpetir ciert() Pttra)n, (lu( llrrtisee tnt'rs lilrrcrente. (luc peDita qtrc stl clese() r'ircule. cttc cr.pcri rtl( nlc ('icrk)s sentiDlient() ,v n() (xr()s. (lue clij vncul()s l)rs xPr()piaclos, ruc .rlrrntlonc c()ndrcts n()ci\'as, etc. Trclo cll< bajo la rronrcsa iDrrlcita cle a)(irnziu rn esteckr mejor. rtlis iclel cttrklttir-la (l!re ser ste. y. solrrc totlo. e)

r ;r

ra c()nsecuencis nefltstsr an!.itlstiil. sLlfiilniento. enfcrllecilld' con(lsnlt lll()rrl () (lolof na[(isista. N() cxnll)ixt en la t]irecciin cleseecla crtecle en lll lllentc l:lajo el significa,:lo <le religro r)len.lz.llltc.
l)()r l() antcri()r tcsult cviclentc. segLin nLlest11) prlccer, qlle llt interrrctlt cirn ejelce Llnl p()(ler()sat prcsi<in stll>re el Pacicntc. efcto qtte va nlrtt ho nlis elll'r de llcer c()nscicnte l() inc()nscientc. Perl. si cs as. por ctt cs tn lrecLrcnte cn('()ntr.lr (lticnes (on t<fal lttenrt IL'c()nscicntc cleficnclen s\ tcnic l basuda en lx intcfPrctxci(it-1. o en cl silcn<i<. o en 1l Ilregltnta cttc -sca ()rientx il qtc cl )ltcicnte rlescttllra ttn:l verciecl o.cttc penite (lllc cl inc<ns

rrrrrr

rlcl analisr.

(Juc cl intcnt() clc seclu< t i<in n() sca gr()scr() o sexuI. n() clbe tlucles tue csl;rlrlctc clitelen< ias firn(l1r)rntalcs. Pero. cle cttal<uier t'nnc4. tocl<]) an:tlistlt rrl rrrLrncir Lrna interprctilci(-)n ticne Lrna expectaliva cn unu clircccitirl clelitri-

('\l)ccttivx (lue apare(e conl() Plenri() P()tencixl cuanckt le tcstucsta .rn:lizlrnck scl acctie con acltrlla. Incllsr el lrnillist cll,v() t()n() lle \t)z
(l:1,

clcl sea

t:rsi irrrersonel. clrrc hablc r'rrr si fitera Lln (11)nisla tlesapltsionltclo, lt) lracr:r-Ir rrsi. lrplre<er halrlenckr en nonrlxe cle la objetiviclacl, cte le cicntJ-r. 1 'r rr rt r lt' sttlrrcir' tnk) cLlrn(l() ltlgttien sc pr-cscntlL (()l)l() P()fial\'()z (lc la ticn<i r', rro r'ulnclc sc- lrace ccn \'()z xter( i()pelltdx. ttxlo de>cntlc tlc lt ctt se.t ;unsil1,. r'l inlcllocut<)r. Il crcstia)n n() cs, p()r latnl(). si Lrn anliste scc[tce o n< \t,Dtl)t( sr(ltrca.l'pr'o,,rcf(,- sin() crinro k hrLcc. llL tlcscon<xer cue la intct I,r,t:rtir'r ('s un1 se([cci(-)n inrpicle cr.rt c] nrLlista sc li-tnule las preguntes: ,rrrc crrrrrirur cst()) invitn(l() r scguir') bajo tr-t'prtesa irltl)licita. sedLl(1()r, ri'. ii r rr n ( ( Do ret ril)Lci(-)n. saltrcl t' lricncstlr flsic< -rent1. expansitin clcl pllt i t r'. rlrsrrrinuc'ion r ahli< i<-rn clcl srtlinliento y la ltngr.rstia. aclartet itin e le reu lr(l.r(1. (i(r'(()s r'ncLrlos clt:seecks. krgr'os socieles y y()icos. etc.7r qrt fiDra tr)nl: nli in( il( i(-)n ) pr()l)rcsa. cu-tl es e'l lon() con (luc llt IirrrLtlo!'. rle ccrtez,r rrrt' rrnLrnr'il, a la m:tnerl tlrl tr'<>lcta. kr <tLe solrrevcntl. ,v quc tor clkr r fr grr scgttr'irlatli'. tle cotnpaero <r.re ilrrsionlt c()n segtif ttn (:lrlin() cn c(),tl lrr rrr. lucicnclo crc ir)p(tc nlats el pemrane(el jLnk)s qlrc hltti clcinclc se va? f. L.l inlerpretaci(-)n c(nr() ct.s/rior pot' nuis cuicleclos() qlre sclt cl enLlisl.r, t'l Irc'r'lro rLre clel flr.rjo dc c(n(lLrctlls que tl analizanclo va inrplicanckr con sU r.l:rto sckr'cione xut()nta'ttic:unentc aclrrclles (lLc r-c(ltiiefen scr camhiaclas. irrrrlit lr rrnu clesuprol.)lciirn rlc Ias nlistr]rs. utt ct-lica ilrrPl(itr l)(r' tltnt() tln ( i( rl() ll[l(l() rlc clrstigo. l)()r supLlesk) (ltre esk) pLre(le llegltr x grll(l()s e,\trc rrr, s r'ulrrtlo el ltnrtlista se lu()lesl crn el enlizndo a Ia nlLnert tle ttn paclrc ,rUrr.r l]rrrlrr. (luc sc fesientt porque el hijo/e no ltacc ecr.tello cr.rc ctlnsiclera Ir rrrr'rr l\'r'o rr< resrltlt nccestri() llcgar a estos niveles. 1:r ctte inclrtso cl ,u.rlrst,r ln rL rrrr lirlrr:rci<in reactiva pr(fl'si()nal no rtteclc impcclil rltrc rr,r'
r

(icntc h.tglt r'irctthr srs prtxlr.tt ciones. etc.- c()lll() llcttcl1a en qtle n() intcrvienc l1 sLrflcsti(ln. ttte cstli eietla cn los trltllltllieilt()s <ttc cllos cliligen' I'or tue pltla toclos rtt>stttros cier<e ttn prltltr (lc xtrxc( i(-)n lir'nlicllllc (ltle sc 1()s hlrblc clc ln:t relcitln rlc n() (l( nninllci(-)n, tlc tespckl por cl clcseo dcl sLrjeto. ya rtte cllo cst1l enrlliz1l(l() en cl Jlrofirnrlo nllclo tle tn t\pcli!r]!il (r( (r)ntrltffcsle cl tloltxso sentinritnt() (lc s(nllcti,llicnt() tLte ttxkr stliet{) lllL !ivicl< flcnte a stts plttltes en la inf:rncilt. ) \'ivil.i nte ll socic<lacl clttrnle cl res to tlt' sr.r vidlt. lls cltcir. cl lrotrrrt tLtt clespicrtlt lrr orlcsi<in 1 cl I)()(ltl. l)()r es(). slrlrctkrres clc l ftterz crte cl clcsttl (lc llLlk)n()n tient ('n ntlcslr() in('('nscicnlc, tlclents tst:lr ('r()l-rlttlttentc lertlts e l fltcrzlt tle secLtccicin -clc rtlrgrgic:r. <lirlrnro.- tlttt ptrccle prcscntilr cttltltr.tier contcp< i<in tlcl trete rl)ien) (ltrc lcvllntc csil llnclcllr llt itleltl 1'llos lrag:t cltcl crte kr <lt'scecltl se (Lrnll)lt. <ttc llasle s()sttnet (lLc 'lllestr l'cni( t'cslretlt el r:lcser cle nucslr, '\ l)ir i( nlL'\ l)irI.l ,l(l( (.1r, '(.1 ,\i. |rcrd cs scnsilic ctiltt< nclie cst rcsl)et() lt llt attt<ntna clcl (fr(), se l() sel:L (r)ntinllur(jntc lt srts cliscPrtlos crrlttrl gttlt llara cl ejc(icio clc stt prrl-

fcsi<in rlc xnulistrls. pcr'(). 1ll rllisnx) tienlP(). no clcsee cngltrttse l plantca qlte el tralanlicnto nall'tico. ltttl-t el lll.ls ntLltr(). se lt:tsa cn el lloclcr sr.tgestir"o cLlir tl'nsii'tencix. es clccir. el rixlcr <ttc cl nit ttilltt\'<i cn l infancill x l()s lrclrt[krs. l)eto lts <ottto cl I)()rler 1l1ril)Lli(l() a los peclrcs en l inlinl(i:l n() (]s el reslrltrlo excltsirrr clc l ntclttc inlntil. Yx rttc Ios xttlres se c()lo(an frente 1rl nio sn cl prqrel clc los tr.tc slLlrcrl 1'1>tteclen. (()n l() ct1ll srln cllos krs <ttc (rxnsnriten unrl Plinrerll trrncept'i<in tlt otrll-tilrltencilt. cle igr.tal nrllttcre el plt(icntc cs s(-)l() un fitc cn l1 (\)nsllllcci(ill clt llt iclcnticlacl ()IniPolsntc (lel

Lr., r.srrrrr ros rI r'trr st,fillre sl clesaprobacion, e '' ., ,1r 1, , , llrr r r )tt,tlnl( tl('. scr:i sensible.

h rlltc el anatizaxlo.

<1r,te n<r

i Lr

rrrIi'rI,Ir'Ll1 r()r ((rD() tlziL:ttlL: tntattazdl//,.

rrr.r r,rl,,r.r, r,,rr rrrl,lr, il.r r [. rrr:il cs I:t <rnclucta c()nvcnicnte y tleseable y cLtiil r, '. .,r( , |llrr r' ( rr'.r rn r,rrl)( ) s('r))llnti(r) en el trte lo n() c()nvenicntc c<nllcr'a-

tener la irtcnrrt-l(ir 'n

ltn:tliste. El ()il() t1l(1()l'll constittvc cl prtlio llllLlislrl. Illtcincllrsc rec(xlo(-er p()r'cl pxcientc <rrnxr lostcclor tlc ttn sllllet y tln P()(ltt Nltcl'a evitlt ncie clc iLrc cn la sittcit'rn anlllic cl pecitntc xP()rta sL cltp:lcitlecl parlt l:r tr':trlsteveccs aclivil \' Pr()nltc rcnr'ia pero cttt ltat ttn ()lr-() (lLlc (r)n\)lelllentll -a \:c- las cxp('(t:rtives tie ent'ttentrt urn ligttres t()(k)Pr()tcc1()ras. Aclanclo tlttt ll sttgcsti<in cstli c()nlilltl:llllclltt ptesett cn tlrcllr atllilisis' inclLso cr-t el nrcjor conclrtciclo. en e<Ltcl (lLlt: .lPllnlxsc c()ll1() nletil final, ll l (luc sc a(erc .tsintticllrnente alt:tnzalle jaurlis- rt la resoltrt iirn clc l -sin (lcl)c scl utiliz(l() Patra s()lazal-n()s c()n ('ste o() re(()n()cinlienk) trensti'rencie.

lr)

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l:- ltA I AIIllN1()

2o

Lr srl]r'slj(l1. l)Jrr .lnptttrn{)s cn e] l)c(ll() (e (lrc t()(l() iu)itlist. l1l prl(trr.l y (l( s( nt( (lctn()s rlc sLr nlrncio. cle su csruclit. I)()r lg() t()dx I:r crnli,rcncia 2tJ ( \ Ur inl(,nl() rlc I-rcrcl clc t,stelrler.er los lnrites (lc Ia sug(,stin en el lrta_ nri( nt() tliti(r) r'tlc clifereDciel.le cle lJ que se l(,tliz ru (.uitl(lLtict-(f.() tip()

ltrnt] \'\'Llncrlll)llicla(l (.(nlstjltyen I)Lrn(()s lt sct. lrni(k)s cn (.Ltet-r lir l)ilrir (\':llLlLr t,l r-eckr cle sugesti(-)n tt.xnsli,r( n(iil icltlizlr<l- (l.L- c()llt() .rl].r]isl:rs rros i)ca)iitir(nx)s?;l:s exil( il lt(a.it(. iir:rl cl rrs<l <rre hlrreDtos <lel () o(]- (,n lr]c Pr xI r' clt, ltt tlansti.renci iclctrlizcl cn Lrrl plcienle -psi(\iti(.() rlir tlt rrr:r crisis clc prirrico (lLtc L-lt cl (.als() (lc un J)xcicntc (lre ill llnilliz.r p.rta solLrr'ir.r-aicfl()s c()nflict()s restringi(l()s il sc(.t(.cs de srr pclsrtnali<llrcl. per<t (f('(r,,t sL ltJlllLlslial y krs usxr.tos f)t:i((i(()s (lc ilr I ir-llr sr l, t -t.cglrr r.trzonl_ lrlt lrcrrfe bien. irr<lrrso r)lcj()t (lLlc sL itnllislt?

sll (slil(l()

rl( l( r:rl)i.r Llr tsi ((r)ttal cs (lu('lit it].!li,rn(i es:r)rrleclit. rlcs nrr ltrla. l\'r(). (,sk) t()s lic\'ti Lll-Iat cric (lc pt.cgLtntlrs: ls (allil(.lel.lsti(.lls (lel J):tci(nte.

lc (lcl inlllislx tLl\1) (ltle scl leni(l() ('rl c[lent:l pllrll stlPcrllr tln 1//)l/l('' Esl() s(] (n ll:tcc lloxr.tc cn ltrl1r inslltnci clcfinc l:t tttesrir'rn c()ll1() si se tlxlilsc 'lc (ltlc lx es(lc (lcl (il)() intcntnck)nc'\ l)re(('nizll ploblente dc <sc nlistil V n() .rrt[L,r llt (llr( pcrtel]cce. Al ct;locllsc en ('1 in(li\i(ltl() lo ctlc tcnclra cltte sc:'

jnstnllr'lcnt()s ir'tleogatirin solrre llrs stl)Llestr)s (lc lx lc(i (1e I1L ctlrll \'l()s (les_ utilizd()s. se ll|1fcg( -ll grtlPl): cl pl(ll)ltlll (lLlc(l:l pl:lrlt('l(l() (\)tll() tlllll \ici(-)n p()1 1)1ie (lc cse xnlllisl dc l l)tl(nrl ta'cnic'l tle srt csctcl:t Lll anlllis tlt inclir,klLri st'r'ix cl clllpl)lt tlc n. ac'cr llicn l. clr'tc stl cs'Llel :ttlr,):t' l-a in.lli7lln(l() (s el tinitr ' tlrrr' tir-itsiD)ctl.it cscn(.il clc lrr sitrrcitilt itnltic:r -el ( n(. l)r()l)lcll)lrs. \i t-l() pr(rgr(,sll cs stl lrsln)nsill)ili(lacl-:t. rc-ltrlclrttc llll()l- 11_ grLlP() fitntc it Lln 1rc cl xnxlist ) stl gltlP() (lc l)eflcn('n(i: 'l es cl iJlstfici(ntt crr\ ( )s Prc( cl)l( )s ric crig( tl c()lll( ) itl,.'elizlLtlos. grLlp( ) (lLl(' lo lt'' cllta lt t t'tclit iti

1,1)s

tt.l,( t()sltN l:t tN(()NS(tlrN1li l)ti

l_AS tN.

ltRvt:N( t()Nls r\NALt.t(_As

(.llirl(lLtier intr\'cn(i(-)n :tnxlii(.x ltatt (()lI() (,qujritlcnt(, 1l Ln resl() diLr_ n(,: r(lr(lr\'-1. ntr,iliztr. es (lll)t.(l (lrs(l( Jo J.rr.<ri() (lcl in(r)s(.icntc rlt.l luliz,rl,r. l\() lllrY tl<ts lLnlizntl()s (lLlc tcltl-{n cl lislll() in(tnt:i(.i(.0tc \., l)()t tltn l, ), lll Itllstnx interveD(i(')1r I)t()(lLcitii (litcrcnl(]s et!,(.t()s. I)rc(.cI. (1]t(r)Ccs. ,lrrl no r(r)(ld1t njngLin senli(lo Italtlll.r[,tip()s (lc intcn.rl)(.i(r]cs.utitliicxs.
,.rlt'r.rrlizlinrkrllrs. lrtsclrnrlrr r.,fi,r.lrs <tc I)f(xn()\rliitD Ln() r ()tr() tip() SiD en)_ l)irrg(, (\l(.xrgLrrcn) (lcsl)icltx s()sl)c(lls r.rrnrlo cs csgr.intitkr l)Lr.r () rr\1, s;' l( s r,li,ckrs illc( )t'tscientcs (lc nrcstrlls int(,rYcltL.i()ncs, no :r.r><.cclin<krsc tlc rrr.llrr'it lLtirlcnle (()] k) (lLtc ll(.e gl an:llizaD(k. l.l)()1.(lra,si cll(li ilnilli_ z.rrrltr licnc Ln in(()Dsciei)rc tlifi'rr:nte. l()s iinillisrirs. sin trlIrgo.;rr'(.1)Ilr,l)()s ( irl(.11()ris (luc re(t)rtn l:r t'rrr.Deliclcl \ lu l).1()l()gi.l clc cs:r inflnitrtl tlt na
)l(igic( )s (lLc i tllrilllit1.lD l)or. rrr no Itlrv rrna .olit (.( uelir xnlilic: ([lr r)() l)Ltl)]i(u(. srs (.its{)s r.linir.rs sin rue :rl lt.rl,l.rl cicl i)irlir.n(l() l< Ulricltrc d(nttr) (lc ciert()s I)urallslr()s l.calcgor.ilrs (lue l() (listin, )tu(.n (l(.()lt()s itniiznclos. st el ti-ro cle ne!ft)sis. el tiro tle rlclinslts, cl tip<r
cit

.1.',t," ai.'n,rr. r.'sl rtrisltlrtlrr sIl I)r()l)iil ltt'li( itl(li\itltl l)(rr) llllllci l()s [trr]tlrentos ttoticos clc [lt 1,:nit:t. Si crtctctrros sLl)crr cstc tstx(i() (lc c()s.ts l-cstll1ll intlis>cnsalrlc llregr'trl 1rr,'r,,, ,,,lra. krs ty'i'cltrs tslt ltcli//1/// (lLlt l)()s('ctl el-l t'l psi<ttisnlt' tltl :tnltlizl[r<l< <.lili'cnl(s tipl)5 (lc Lllcr\cI)(i(r]cs. lilrll() P()l stl (()tlttni(l()' )ot stt li' llt trlr xl-tlicllttl cle rill(ttlo (lLl. it trll\''-s tlt tlls tttlr lrlec cttlos llr:r- c(1r() -litrertos. r,,t a,rr,r.',ar"r, cl allsl) (lt !nll itcrl)lcl(i()t1 proti't-itllt rot el enlt r,,r"
t,tl .lcl lLnli,.rr,.k,. (lt('('slil rltstir,.tritt l)rrxltr(r.'tln rrlirio r.'rl Irrs rrnsic(lil(l(s (n (Lllttlt() lt |t'tlttcit 1c cr.rt, lt tIr[rinltn. trre. int.ltrso. l)f() t!te\cl] Un (1to1l)i(r litcirnarlL Iricn' tLckr rr,les rt,rltttr.Lttttclllc clll-llizx(l()s. Aprenfctrlcntt (lcpctlicnle. itlstgttt-ll solrre (lc li(lit(l -lll tlli Pcl-s( lra,,r,,lr,(' sLt(('(lc si s('lrirl (xl)lr(i(li(l \'(-l)'i('r)lll_ tlt' )( si tislllit l()s .l., r,,,pi" lll(rl(('. s()i)rt :Ll lnsltt I:t 1:rtlsicirln l(llll)uli((r, (,st]-r(lrl.rt cl(l\'ncul() lisllt I-u clt,s[rs clc lri I,icl:r't c idtnli(lx(les ()tr() (lLrc las (luc alltct'trlc, v itttcrPrctil l)()sici(lcs c[ algrti,.:tt (lt( se it(llltielcll cn cl ll(\() (ls el)lrcgl-\'rt(il)if Llnil itlrc{)lcl'l( ii)n n() ticn('n Lrn tl((1() (lLc \:l lllits ltlli clcl <rnttnitkr tie l:t lttisnlt \" (lLl('(s ustt)clL litnte t rcli)rztlotlr <lc llr Jlllfokrgrt r.lc l:t tlt'rcncltnt ill'1 SLll)(nlg'lrl]()s xllor <lLrc cl enltlistll sc (ll (tlcnl (le cst() \'sc l() (()lLni( l nltlizllnd() /.n() es UD,r taraci,ri.t n(f1tl)lc (lU(,cl (.(rttclti(l() clc llr intcllrtctltr'io1l l)llnte I)1lci:l tln (lLl(' l-l ('stlL(1Lll:l (l(l( ll:!s <le cll: sc 1rr',,.cs,r <lc lliitx)r iltt(nl()lllill l)cr(r ()l)rlcsl()!'Qtl'\1l 1t pl'((l()tlill1Lr' cl ('s(lxrecillli(llt( Ll rl'l'liti cl'e cottstliclc l() () (\ns(icnlc l lel)etiai(-)il en lll ( l tsfi'l cncilt. l)lli() la /''lcll\1)-(llr()ciontrl clel tit() ilr.,r,itr.ltl() rttc Iigia) l()cla la vi(lr tt(i()t ltt(tlilL.tt. tft tltisltl(t (, l(t sil/ llri()s (c tllitlll(1cr Illlil cstrll(lLlfl (l(' 1l':ls lrg()s trtc clcl enalizlrrr<l<r7;llltstlirli (lrptn(lcnci.t, s()s1cni(lJ cn l ilsilllctria clc l't sitr'tltciotr:tnliticlt' s< tlcclittle cl irlti.*r pcrirti. .1-(.s(r'er, l:L 1l.,tsi! rco( i11. itnilliZlLn(l() csil (lcl)('lr(lcncia PcIo btrj,, l' tisnl.r cstrLl(lLIti r.l(' rt'lrtcii'll (lc (lL_l)cl(lell(illj;\() (()l-tc cl leliglrl tic (()nvefirrs( (sil Prcsllrl(it lltll()11(nllill linlll (lr Llllx 1l:tr-oclie 1t:lr':t (('ntinltl'll
I

t'itl;l lnt'r'tlistlrr srtltotrglttlos (lt(' (lt's( ril)c il(l('( tlil(llllll('-ltr: tln lll()lllenl() tlc l:t

lit.rrios en (iefi()s tip()s


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(l('.u)ltslis, cl tiro clc 'ansfl,rcncia?/1)or <r.t cl 1ucr() (lc pulrlir.rrciones ',,lrrr' rr l:rs c:rr'terslicls r.lel :tntliz:trrlo r))()l(icn el p,.r\-(s() tn:lii(.() sc ( rr( rl,llr ln)l rllilcs I lcrrellr.rs cn qLte sc triltl (le \(a krs cti,,.tos tlc ltrs ttotllr lrrl,rrlt,s tr'rnir'lrs rlt ilttt rven<:i<-rn s(rt lxn csclts()s'/ Otrcrttos rut llr rcsprrcst:r r, rr,l, ,'r (ll(.r'()n\('rtit c()l))() ii)c() (le cx1rllcn lrrs cfertos (l!c las inlvr\<n, r,r , .rrr.rlrt,rs l(.l(,l (1..:r(.!!-f(k):l rl)() (lc I)ir(.rcn{c ln)nc cn lcl. (l(,iti(.i() l, r, rr', rrr.,,,r t(.( t(, )s (lLr(. (:t(lll cs(.Ltcl.r slln(.i()na (r)nl() uoi\.(fslcs. \. l.to t-rr s (.l.rrrr,,,I(.IIII(rI(I().I(ll( lt() sL l)Ul)li(lte s()l)Ie L (rtlraltrlutsfcreDc.i. tLrlrr r'rl.r rl.r\ llI i.lr r.l I I I ( I ( ) (le t] () ( Ulll iLnlllizitn(l(). c()Itr) el in( ( rts( icll
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n( s Ii(,ir(l lrrrsc:tllt ctal<llicl rcscluicio <rrc clielt ecccst lt sLt inc()nscientc. I)1t i i( nl(.s (st()s trltintrs c<l rn c<n<.icncie otglrnizlrcllt [gi(lilnrente (l(. llcu(.f(l() .rl rrrx'r'so scaltn(lri(). sr-rliclu en sr rro clcl letur;rje c<r erc.ionl 1 clt. l:rs re-

c()n al)n(l()nlLrla () scr c!]Lt() c()n ella. qLltstt.:lnl()s un r(,cicnte tral)xjo de.Jilllnez ( 1993 ), clisc(>Lrlo rlc la escrrel alerr:rrrr rlt.'llrrrn:i ! K.i(ltele (19J9, 1990). qLte e()n gran agucleza sc centrll en lrs t'fur'los (lc l inter'\enci()n nlirica. Se trlil cie Lln ll,tJlizan(l() (.i:)(l() p()r rr n lr (lr L. r )lr1ip()tcntc. invrs()r.. (lue tlrscn r-r la c()ncluct;l cle srr hijo. clescle l\'(lu('n{). ((nlx) si c()ntinLatl)entc tLtviel? (ltle \'cr c()n ell. hecicnclt rrna ,r)r)slill1](, l(rtura clel l)ensaDlicnk) dcl hijo r (le suprcstiLs intencionlliclcles rlrrr' lrr lr,ntlri:llt a()ru() (testin:ttllrit. 1, lror Un 1t:trlre tstltriz0ide t}u s( t.ttir1) .r rrrLr lrosicir'rn cle silccir ne li n)en(r-cr]trrrieclecl..Jil)tricz sc cnc()ntr(i t n lrr silt:tcior-l paru(kijicx cle <trc si interrrerultl. reprrciucia el r rrt'rkr <lcl lrnalizckr con llt Dreclrc orDnitotente (lue.slra, -c.tunckrlas tnot ir..tr rt rcs (l(l ()lr() I)('r() si pelnlxneca en silcrcir. cnk)n(.es repetit tirnl -lctLxn(l() lr, r - kr trrc cl peclre halia hcrl:,r. .r) (lre r)()s d(nllrs til (llle no se tr.rx ni cic l:r interprcti(.i(-)n ni r-lel silcn, io sino tlt, interrogentos en cllcllr r.:tsr ccr(.a (lc los clc<.trrs en el lnlLliztntlo. ,\sr, si n()s cn(r)ntl-alll()s xlttc Ln l)ll(ientc cle lrs <ltre sc srrclco <.1si[i<.irr-t.tlltrcr ltrlolitt. rrrn Dtrtlulicllrl pali't()jclc. (}( (\ I il L1llt!t)lc intclplsl.t r,rtl\l, r,rnt s or'rrlllls cn hs (r)n(lL(.tls cle lrs clcll'ts. :r>clantkt a j)llxllesis (lre n() se l)r(rxll)ir rk iirnclamentlr. (le c()ntl'1Lstll.trn la reeliclrcl, cLr:ln(lo el un:Lliste lc lrt( rl)r(,li llr t.tntesa in(()nscieDte t.nr sc relitl.c, l()s in(li(.x(l(rcs (.()n(r.tk)s .I l,r rr'rxlirr'tl. irro rrflrtr-z-a :lclts() !l)ll r.rc-ent.ilr r[- rlrre t,s pr)sil)lc l(1]cr u.) c,, \, ':rl illa( )r) scieitte rlcl otro (le tD:tDrrit inntc(li:rtat r intLtili\ir'/ I)or.rtrs rttc el .rr,rlisl;r k.rcrclc f:tntasis <rrc I'crcllrcler:uente cxistcu en l rente ck,l nlliz.rrrrIr, <trr.\os iuteqxcl( i( res n() letgiln cl nivr:l clc il.rctrlitllcl ck, las dcl plr ( r( rll('. su (stil() L's (lc Lln,t ( nnni[)( )ten('i.l sitttilr tr ltt ck,l tr.otirr pa<.r,.,ntr:. lirt (st(, til)() clc plrr'rcnlcs, sc\clllnleDtc perlrtrl)a(l()s, c) >roltletttlr r-s rIlrry rlrslinl() (llr(,cl rlre sc ltrcsentl con I()s pacientes neltr)tic()s, a<lutlios crr tui<\
.r

rlll( l(\l() sr s(rLl(i()nri1l


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liplcs estnrcturac(rnes clrre el ?perto psqLic() prreclc eclcuirir, ccno clescle u1r .t planarllicnt( ) [ec[lcci()nist clc l:r psicoparlog:r. se prreclu pens!r cn una rrr<rhli<lacl Lniversll (lc inter-r'cnci(in xnrltic." Asi, ror ejeltplo. el silenci(). (Lro noclalirltl cie la escucha nalitj(a plr ir perDriticnchr cue e[rcrje el cle seo. no clcja rle prcsentar prrblemas si n() se Lrtiliz.l en situaci()nes muy clefini(ls. circunscritas. c()n (r)ietiv()s clr()s. y se clevr. cn canrl)i(). al carl'rctc-r cle Pre(cl)to qLrc ( r.tctcl'izrtL l:L lrtrene lrsicin clcl rtn:tlistr prirl ltplicel cn Il rlla\'()ri.r (le lrs tlisos. SirtDrr-t lr>s l)Jrcr'jr) cLri()s() cl sLpresl() lilcxnl.lnrr. un run: rlc sus ii rr rrlci< nes clc l terrir cle la ctl. (lc (lLle 'rtc el lvlslll Drienk) de la rncnte clel :rnxlizuncl() <ue inrplic(r la rele< irn con la rlr(lrc (rIrrip(fentc cle l:r rellcitln clr,rlrt. cuc se l)Lr(l() sosteer x le flLlltr en el cunrrli nri(n) dtj la firrtcir-rn l).lt(mlr ({Lc r()nt1'licra el xl)r.rz() lln)rtlr(), pxrr n() reprtir cs.r rcli(i()n (lLlll l)t()l)usicr'n rn unulista rrrc rrrn cl silcncio csclch analticu- slrpLlcst.rDrente penlljtirx (luc cnlergier cl cieseo -l v el ser clel uoalizanrl<. Nttcstrll plc.ttnt es si se pcnlllurc(e en silcnr i< licnle a cste nlizrutdo. no sc Il cleje xl)1tn(l()nar(l() tr I()5 Lkn]lrtisrll()s tle str nrcnte. lrl ckr

lIili() (le sus l),()l)ixs (r'ccnci;rs. cle sts 1;rntltsas. r.s clt'cir ck, llr rclrc r:':ni l)()IeDle ah()r lltbllnrk clcscle clcntro clt' i'1? hr-r rrt consistirrt la vercluclerr irrncir-rn .-ratelnlr, (lcl 1lnlrlisl. p(- Lslrr l:t tc llin()l()girl cle eslt escuclal ,.lin rrrll,,r'.r fept{iI tl silenci< <lcl paclrc (). l)(n !-l c()rt[lri{). rn intcrvrni.r(ti\':lrllcrtlr l)iil tesrrltrlr tlcl rIIitlir rle lr r)lltclre iDtrr)yc(la(l:l/ N() nrs lr clenr()sllir(l() cl rslmPit()s() 1rircrrs< <lt Ll lrr'rl ipsi( luitl-ilr cle (irxrprr )' I;ing. cL\'.
plrcienlc, n)istillcxd() rn sL expe icleolog:t cra exa(lirD)cnlc l nrisrlu -al parl (ulllrl(r-. (luc lil apareltc rientirt ror su filllliliil. bstrrllt darlc lilrcltecl Iilrc|lrr<i ot<gu<[r l)(n-tl (( rlx'Llt'.r etir sit]rl)lcr\r( nt( .rlrrrtkrno tlcl l)'.lriente l (lcslin{) dc sL l)llt()l()gi, tlc lrt crtqrtrlsron (lc repelici)n. (lc- ur) in(()nscicnle (llc n() cs l< r'elclarlelr ni lir salu(l sinr) (Llt en su gncsiri ller l rttr'ca clel

z,rrirrrr's t rrclrlrriclrlts cle ls nl( )tivx(.i( r1es in(lDscicntes. pxcientes !,rt (lLlic rrt'' r'slr'r-llrros cl Dtrrrcnkt clel llttsrrs, clcl sintonra, clel suctirt ctre n()s [)ermillr Ir('rrr'IlirI iI llliti,s tlc l t1)(it (lLlc t ((n)(.itlt(i: ()lrc(.t rt nckr ric llltfsia .r rr< r Lt llrjrlt. l\>r el (ir'lt-ri(). en cierk)s :ll.icntts serirttentr pcllLrrl)(l()s ,, t r rrlJluro l)sic(-)tico, la lrlla c<>nsistt cn el n() rstl l)le(.inrient cle l:r signili , .r( ion (r,n\ ( r'l( i()it:rl clel lcngLrajc r, clc los signrrs. en sLl Ls() irliosinc.r.rr,.r,. un ,'l ,, lrrrr i,, . l]irltt() <l< llLs lcvts sitlrlrilics <rrc perrtrilen (1r]tpxtti, l1l iDlcr,,r rl ' trr i, l.rr l. ( r) ( lu(, lrr splllllci(in ()l rc pr)ccs( ) l)rir)lri() \' sc(.Lln(litr.ro nr I tirn ( r,,r).r ( n s lrnt ion Drrnalizlrntr, cn (lur ltt l.rrera cle llt rcpresi<in. lcjos tlc r( nr'r rlll( lt.r.Urt,trsr'. li(,ltc (luc tasl[ a existir. l)(n.tnk). c()l] csk)s p.L(.i(l-I[(js l.r l.Ur'.r .rrr.rlrfr,.r l)r(.(l( scr l:t rtrisrttlr <itrt cr)n l()s netrtic()s2 l'rl t,ll, r,1sirIr.ut]()\ (lLtc ti)t() clcscle t-r clcsc()n()r'jl)tient() cle llis ruril

rlrrl.rt i()nts sirnlrolices ((Ipl-tiLls, l)lcn.L

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s(rn('tillricnlr) l r )tr() p1l1( )larg ic( )!' Llt nt('l)k'tda k;n () r.,l stfuu. io, () ctrultlt iar iut<'t't'L'n. iu d<4 dntiistd. c()nsliltt_)'1,)t atcct)t11,...\()bt? el itt(ttsciatttr,. l)or el]r. rrrc cl ltnltlistlr sci rtlll.rLlrv() () llll i\'(), (lLrc sls intrn cn(-i()rtcs srt rlis o rttenos flccttcntcs. tttc conrrnte () n() ill nxlillln(l() c()n stts (\)nlrl(lic('i()nes. c()r't llts tntisirrncs t rcult:t nritnrs cle nlart('rixl. (ltrc st tlitijen rL (lcsrI]()ntau-<lelens:ts o l)(I1llitit,lLr( (\t-r.i
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rlacl clcl e<rrrnrarilrntc (ontr.lii)l)ico (r)nr() lilatrlr re.tscgur.rntc. v c(n un trrs k)rn(, nr( isistr (\ i(len( ir(l( ) en el scntirllicnl( ) <le <lcsr'l< rize< iort r1r.rc Ie lk vu pgtsitr (lur 1r)(lr) l() (lr( h(c rstii nil1. tn .ll-lir)islrr (lrc sci Pisi\1'. rlrrc rnter\ cngr DrLrY tic vcz cn cLrilt(l(). (ltc t() c(mtesl( prcgrntxs, (lr.rc mxnteng

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rii\t;ur( i:r :rli'( tr\ J. (Jlrc [el)sc (lcscr))pei]ir' (iuri!tc lis prinr(.rs etirPils el r()l .r5rsnlr(l(). ('()l()(.1 :il lnalizxn(l() cn l.t posi(i(irt tlcl :tln<ltnaclo. (lesl)r()tefli(l() r. solr'tor:kr. (lc sLpuestallentc inaclecrL:ttlo c(nt lxs prcgtlntxs (lttc f()rnrtrl .rl rrn:rlisllr, rlarlo rue la no respLr(sta cle a'ste implicarl (ltc la Prsgunta n() (lc

l.r'i,r lr:rlx'r'sirkr firulclrt Cierl()s "il(t()s anlti(r)s" tlc la csctrcla luc:tnianl .n(fr('.\( lt'<i<:rt'lr l. l)Lrert:r r] pr(ienlc. cler ollintlt le rtl rfire:l tle l: scsir-rt'l, ,r st lr'inltr'r'trrttpe la sesion pr>r la rlrl:rlrr'lt "\':t(ll, en (lLc stlPtlcsf iltttente esl.tlr; inaurri('n(i() n() actat p()l l sirplrcst c(r]nr()cia)n tlttc procltt<irltn etr le p,rsicion sLrbjetivrr <lsl anilizxn(l() sino p()r(lLr(' lu lrrufrtl inrenencit-n. clc cer,r( t('r n('l.tn)cnle c()n(ltl( tistit. tleteruinl r.rte acttell ll)rcn(lat. nl((liilt)le cl l)ft' llrr,, r' cl c.rstig<l- (lu cs I() <rre nrl rlelt IIIIcr. St'iDtrrne. cnt()nccs. llr e,:csiclacl (lc I)tclllriltltrnl)s xrttc )(l() clls(): lx Ir'rr:r.el rslilodc intellenci(-)n (IsrllI. 1993: Kantr<$ itz, I992).cl til)() (l('\'1(tr lo rrrc irrJrriDrc el nalislr l t[iltr]uicnk). s()n sirrlilarcs:t Ll ()rg.ltlir.lLri-,n rL lr'rsiru rltl lrlizntlo. s()r) c()hcrcnl(s o (r)n1rlt(licl(r'j()s c()n l()s (r)icti\'()s ilu( \('csl)ca:ln [(anzirr. Ic (rnslllitcn (]( rl]isnl() ct'rtiigo clc signili<lt<l<rs <tte ('rg:rirJ su i).ll()l()gr o t:t(ilitan st lLtrsfi'tlta< krn'1 lltt cstc s(rlti(l(). cl cn,

)slct!( jn r'rro r[,fcnstr prcrlrlente fient!, l ngLsti. i la cu)p:r l>iliclacl o u lu pcrsecucir'rn quc illtplicn el luccr'\'<r.ralcuier cletiniri<in. Lln :tnlistx cuicl.tcloso. en el rllrj()r scntido clel trint, (lLc ntes (le,r(trar l() piun.1 tl'cs veces. (()n tn rr-rctltr:lrc gut()s() del (lue trrllc el ll)en()f aptt.tlrlIticnk). un
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xrntaneiclecl, tltrc no lllt,v (lLl( (r)t]tctril er'r()tl]s, (lLc no se rleltn c(rrr(.l' ties .1()s'1 ll)rat esc rLtlizlrck es ll.is illll)()rtante cl slrltcr o cl oo r'olt el ltlu:r'1 ll(coLtlcDrs tLrc I.reucl. lr(ltr sLIi p.r(icntes Ilisla,rjc.ls, cut- t,iran el prc cll( sin sltl>r'r r.k, la (()ne\i()') c(nt cl pitstt(l(). (lue rcl)etin y cttlll)tn en vez clc silrboliz;. ltstitL\1') Irt <<rnstrr'cir'tr't Ifst<ir'ic:l rtnr rlr tirtt rlc rcst.ll)lr(er unx (1)rltinui([x(l c11 l:t i(lcnticla(i <lr lrr pecicntc l,petntitrl trre prr (lictn sill)()lizar las expericncis <ue vivan en cl crc{)(). l)et(). cn (ntl)i(). en el .lkrrrlrrc clc los lollrs", clespus tlc Lln t-atanlienk) estencrk lr Io largo
<trc rltrlrrjo cl cxorl)i() ftrv enuntialle rtLe ll (('r'rrlioltr el t r':r tlrrt ticrt r cn ut l)illz(r lijo <ir,trrtrrs lxx()s rtrtsrs. () seil Lrrlx lc('i()n y n() (ln inlepretlrci<in, :tcci<-rtr <rrr lrrego ctrtr':i ltrger a lrn trabejo rle clib<ucion cn <rre la inle'rprct(i(in !uelVe.t k)tntr el pllpel ccntrxl. I'r,ro. se Prretlt pl-( )lt)( )ci( )nit r itrcslri(t1tr))cntc rl alctLl.tr p(n pafie clel analistlr'l;Qrri- plrsir fr)n l()s irnllirltD(l()s cn (l!rctcs l ttrtultir'r tcenrplaza al I)rnsllr'. cn llts lcr's< rIr lir.laclcs inrtlrlsirtts. PsitrlLilicas. () (1)n ten(leo(iar llI us() c()nrpLlsi\'() rlc r-Logas unte lo c<t ictos quc no ple(lcn cnlicntati, I;r rregunte crrr clclrt gLlirI nuu\llir\ iDt(r\Ln('tUne\ c\ f(,f t.lnt(). qU (fi'a h)s astnKtllratl/r\ cn rl (lr'li(fct'(lel lrlc rcnlc, ctl sLs l)ittl-()nes esralrlcs cle crlnrlLr,-1:r. licncrt i.rs jnlcr\'(,n(i()DCs. cl tilxr rit, r ncrr]o t, r'l r11:r(() lcr.ln(Lti(1) (l!lc l)r()rlLeve ('l .lnirlistx, cl crlrlr:nich 1 llr [irrrrur clc lrrs intcrprct:1. r, rr re., 1 crjruo se lllic'ulan csrcr lica lren fe c(nt lus .iltitctcristicus <lel at-rliz.rnrkrl Lsllls s()n lgLnas clc llls pregunlas (lLre c()tlricnz.ut lxilsc canlir() clentro cle Lrnir ltl'tcli (lc lrltl)irl() (luc n()s l)r(ae l)[()ltel((l(r'a ( Knlr()\\'itz, 191]91 Rr-ner. 1992). l1-.ls inle c')( ( tcs plrl t:s( irnlrlizio(Lr en rlrr'licrrllrr \itn L'n ll (lilccciirn cl!- krs cnrl)i(): (Ll(j sr (l(,st:n cstitnLtl.lr () (oltsoli(lxo la purlogi.L't Cu:'rl cs cl utlel< i(leDlifl('rifi() (lllc se cstli tiiecienrkr lrl ar.rlizunckr (on nLestra p()si(i(-)n cn I1 sitrr.rc i<'xt uneliticrr'1 il):lr1
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Lrn nalistlt t1tte. gr.tilttlo p()[ l!\ rlr,re\ s. (r)nsiclerll clttt: srr nica firt'tr'ir-n cs cr'cltr [n tsl)ltci() l)lral Pensr. ,,)rx) l)uL(l( itri<lir este lclilt(l cn l)rs()rtis (llrc tirttrn cti:tcilts l paclres

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r|l)rIl(lu( ( n ('\ silulrci(-)n cn h terltpiili (tisclrten con el nalistx. xgrc(lcn, Pero .rlu( r'ir rr() lrccll ntll7 Se pttecle cLrrltr lr es()s enllizanclos s(ll<r cn h "nettr<r \is trirlsl(r('nci,. () sta tien(lc a (()nvcfiirse en l. tlcfelsa plir, ilegiacll fiente .r lrr lcrrlitltl? S()n lnlizxn(l()s cuc prolongltn stl trxtllricnk) no s<ilo por la r1r'rrlilir rtt iir crtc el r'nculo les propotcione sin() P()r(lLle lo tttilizrtl colll() tll() rirlr)!'iir \'(()rrrf(l1l xnte el vivil. As cr)')() 1a Iingiiistic lll()slr(-) l.r it))l)r,ltJn(i'l rlt' rlili rt Dcilrr el ex:rrttcn cle tn lexrt> rlc rrttrel cltte ticne c()t))() ()l)i(1() el nlxr ,,, ir)tI r'\tui1. clc igrLltl trtaner:t. (lte(la[ (-e]tri(l() en llts !itisitLlclcs r.le llt rc Lr, iorr .rrl:rliticlr. lr gresar rlc LL cnortllc irnp()atr(1(i:l riue rcvisle. >ttetlc hacer r'rtIr'tk'\,istl( (lLrc se lrt tlclrt crlttr](ler crt el c()ntcxt(r cle l:r li<l tl <lcl
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(ltlc n() s( ttlucc l rlili rt nt irr cntre trl)aj() en Ilt transfl'rencilt v en cl ltfitclt. l cttcstitin cle int( rl)rr'l:l('i(tes transfc'r'cncielcs 'a'l//.\ extl-iltl llnsti't cn< iltles. sino c<n ttn nllL_ It rltt rltlitl. llisicl srlrc tl conceJ-rttl isnrr tlc trxnsfcltncix' st sttcle llrtl>lltr rl( lr:u\\li'rLDcil pala refcrilse al r'ntLlt c<n el nalistrt. las flnttrs,r..1rtc tic nr'ri r \1,.'(()nr() ccntr(). sin rcPlrlrt cn rttc cl ttso clel rrrnc'cpto llt'rtliltno cle lr.llr\lr'r'(r](irr cn slr senti(k) llll)Pll J)t]rllttlIl.,,tr.r .ll)ri,\llll.lLi,,l).5i trnslir, )r',.r ( l,Di(-r c\ IllllDtcncr telltr'ilin cr Iits tigtrlts 1L( tt.lL\ (1)l)l() st s( lr.ll.lse ,I l.rs t r r-r'sentlrci( )nes inlcrrllrs t['1 ltnltiizltnclr Iorjatllts lot'tl irltecir.tr-go <le Lr r,',rlrrl.r<i rrrslrcllt t, la fllntrlsiil. l(tlltll(l() ('l Ill( ierltc cn llt scsion estri hltlrln([) (l( su l)rcj:r. cle sr.rs anrigos. rlc sLts cotttJ)lter<is clt trallrtio (n Pl(stnti.i tk l rurrrlistrr. es <1tte arttellas figlttes rcltlesentarl. tn(Ll)iettllnl(nte xi 1ln:llislx. o crr vcr<lcl. eI anllizanclc cstii lenicn(l() r(illiplcs r'ncrlts ltrLnsfcrtnciales (n ('s( l)r((is() nl(nttent(). sicncl() el lnlistlt ttnti clc cllts' (ixr t'l rlalistli sc t sl.rlrlt r't' sictDpre. sin clue llltvlt un ttgrtncltt clcl prtx eso nxl1ic() cn (ltl( esk) rr() sLrr'trllr. urtl transfi'rtrlcil. perlr cl)lt cs rltttc clc rtna c()nstclrci)n (lc transIr'ri r(iirs sirllrlfiines qLre pirri Lr rslirllttl psc1tri,:a tlcl rnrllizill(l() litllen rr'srr (ltr.rkLr:r:r' nrcncir-rn rlel rrnrliziltt(l() ('D cl trattxtl)iclll() cs trilnslgrcnciil frr() rl() l)(,r(lLle sr.'eilcrlt :t lrr rct'srrtt:t r.lcl nltlistlr sirl() P()l(ltle e<,.rclkrs <lc l,,s rtr. lrrrlrla (xul)an Lrn lugul cn su rcli(lit(l l)si(ltricx 1(tttxl, lLlgilr Ittllr(:l(l() (lllltrltl< cl anli ror Ir rr'<lPitls clcsc()s. tcnr()rcs, e\[)crirt-](iils <lcl peslttlo zrrrrk,ltlrlllr <lt r.rn pcrsot-tltjc <le stt rirlt. atctLtlll () Pasx(111, cst() n() cs exlt.l lr,rrslcrt n< irrl f:l xntlisl pLrt(lc csl:tr ()ctrPlrnckr. cr'l cst lll{)llIcn). el lLrgar tltl lr'rr,rr tl ,.'l cuel cl xnxlizn(l() lrallulxt tle los plttllcs. () l1l P()si(i(in (lc rrn,, rlt l,,' prrrlrcs con <r.rien sc ali;tlrrt tn lll criticrl ltl (fr(). I)crr) si el allxlistl , rlr.r ( \r)\ lrrgrrrr's cs. precisllnttnle. l)()r(lLlt ttt l scs(-)n csliin Prcsentcs en Lr r,.rlr,l.r,l rsrrrrit:r <lcl '.inrLlizirn(l(). (\)tr lilnl introtlltttti:t a(l)() c] lln:llistll. l,',,'tr",ltr,rs,,ll.rj(s. l,'t(Lrrrit()s en IUr rrlisr() itlgcnrto. rttc l)(,((' lirll( tlLle r,'r ,r,rr r'l ,,n(( l)(o tlt r'celitllrl l)si(l(i(i. (t.n(k) (fc(',))()s (lllt lll -rlt('1 ,,rll,,rr'.r rl, l .r.rlrslir ('s si('rrlllrc lli.is ir11l)()rtilrlle ctte llt tlt'lrls otros t<rtson:ll( ,,,r\(.r,l,rs r r L lrrnJlizrtncltr (11 sLl [el:rl(). l,x l)regLttltit lt fi,ttltLllllrn()s ts
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sicn'tprr: poblaria cle persrnajc's. I)()r(lLc se sostLl\'() que le curaciirn erx sin(-)niru) cle curcirin cle h neurosis cle trunsferencia. y cltrc l.l trlnsfrencir scrl equivlrlente lll \'n(Lk) ('()n cl lnlist:1, ent()nccs o() lrulx mlis rcorecli() (lre inlcntxr Ii)[zxr el nateril (lel rnalizlndo. leerlo srenrprc bajo ur-lt clevc cLryo rcstltrdo tinal cucclltbe aseglrreckr clesptrs clt rrn rto<eso clesc<rliflccIr tcr-(lcr('i()s(): ei enlizrtnclo sc r'fi'ra tl anelistr. li r'ctri(lueci(in a la iigrrrr rlcl :r'rrrlistl (lcl lel.t() del rnilli zit(l(), l ctri(ltlcci(-)rr (Ir( lr\().srr rrl)()g('() cn llr a'l){x er'l (luc sc r)ll).r el r'eLr),lrniticst() <ltl:tn:Lliznck \'se rccrlll)lr1l l):r ri k rs prrsonajcs PoI le ligur':r clel nalista. ('()nsrr\'.in(l()s('krs vtrhrs <ue errr-cs.rlr:rrt llts ltccirltes qLre trlrnscrni[all ent[c a<tri'lLos. signilic<i lle\'er el crtcrrr Ia tcsis rle cl)nfLnclir lil ttensfcr:nr'ilt crt lx s(si()n crl c'l vincukr con el unliste. I-x (lcsrlrcsttrlt (le estrt xdilrd l)iz() clrtc los;ro:rlistlrs cr.re no xxlar-t l)llrti('il)!r <le ell:t se sinticrn en iulta 1'tr.rvieren (llrc jrstiflcr cn r!lz()ncs plli(1ics (lc cli(a(ia cl Lrs() (lc intcr pletci()nes.exIr:rtr':n-clrcnci1rles,. es <lecir no Icfi,jcls lri nlistr. El crnsul t(ni().rnltic() sirrlrl)rc tienc ntrclx)s l)rr's(tnij('s. r.le rrroclo (lLrc n() sc 1)r!tc(le Ilabajal cxclr.rsivlr rt)( nt( (n ('l r'ncult clt cLr: crr cl lrrlistu.

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I lrs xnrtli(1)s: I)lcie!lles (ltc xl lrgr.lvitrsc cflrn c()1tsi(lcr(l()s (\r]t() nccesit(l()s <lc Ltn rrhzluttirnt() (lel Ilirtltlllinl(). cs rlecir. clr tt[is r.rn!.]t'r.r. L:urcnt:tlltnttr'tlr. llrs t,sr'tcl:rs enliticlrs s(r) re:t(iis ir lentl gn ('ucntx rl L(') ((l)t() clc (rrlIrir)(lirlrirln. ts (l(](ir'..r pl:nkirrse (l('D]il('ril r'larlr l explr'it:r l)l(t (lLr (ls()s sri crllixl(rc kr tinir'o ttrc l{).ll !s lr((,ttulrr rl [tsgo clc clt[ir' tcr () lll c()n(li('i(nl rlttolrrgic] ctLrI. l,s irttr'n't n< ioncs (llrc pLrc(lcn s(r ll(lccLra(lxs Plu-x un tip() (lc xnillizun(l(). y (lLlr (1)nsli(\r\'('n cl lck firerte cle un (scuela. s()n llls (lLrc il(triln ixll'()goicxnlentc I).[ ()tr()s cs()s. Sin crnl)aLrg(). n() c()11()ccllt()s (le ningtrnlr csclrtl:t rl1lili(ir (ltr(j lige rtrc rt srr rIl()(lcl(). c()n sLs re('Llrs()s t'cnic()s. a (ielll)s pllcicntcs n() l() Ptc(lcn l(r1r. Sitr.r('iin l)d\'l legiacla uclrrclla clt llr <1ue prccierx (lLre g()zris( r)r()s l()s psi(()anllist.l5: mir:,l tr-as (lLc naclie rlc rtos cllrlll)()s sc lt r.rr'tttlrril (lLlc un tcr-llputr(.r n() tuvierx cfct()s sr_r'rtncllrirs inclcscecks y c(ntlrlrin(li(irci()1res irp()r11ln1c\. lis DUestms scriitn rlc iDcliclri<n Lll-li\ctsal \ src])tl)r(' lrcnr'ilci()sals. I)(]]lilsill(l()
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,.rtLt t'scutll irLteclcn scr u,.crtucllrs pr igrrrl, tlllci,.lltlrr y l-r.iltcrrnln cle Itl(.i( lllllr. l9lJ9) se irlone ll tlrrelr rle rrntt cr.tlrlLr.i<ln <.r.iticlr cr ..1 l)l1ln() tc(i lrr,r \ c'tt el rle ll J:lr':i<riclr tlinica cle ls ilttcf\'(n(i()nes postulec[Ls (.()n1() terirlx uliclrs 1.or hs diicrcntcs c()rricntrs dentl'r <lel psicoanitlisis. til tr.oltlenre ('s (lr('Lrn.i vcz (lLe Ln lLnlistl se ha tirrntaclo (lentr() (lc rnlt escurle. ltl ntis llr() li(nlpo cluc eckuiere lralri]iclacl en el Lls() rle krs inslnllllcIllos 1crlrpUtic()s (lr(,ir(lua,llll le p'cr:. su tlltll (lc cepacitacirin cn la epli<.e<.i<-rn tlc krs recurr,r. rlt lrrs ()trlrs ('s(LelJs llrt'r, tlrre vLelva trnlr \,()tlil vcz I kr <rte s:tl.)t,. iclu .,r r urtrrlo l nrlch clel ttlricnlr le ttrcsrrl (llt( t()(l() \,a l)irit l)L'(.. Asi. , rr r,l r.r(, clc :rlgr.tnos f):rci!ntes sc|cl:ntritt. rk.t|iittickrs. (t)n trl).rlr.t (1,ni(r ''rrrl(llr,l I)ac\"ll(ntc1 a()11 [x)cars o casi ningrrnlr :rsor'ilrt i-rn. sit] tclll) (l( sLer,,'. r,rn Plrfincl insiltistll(ci()n s(r)rr slt pr.ol)(, rrn(lintirnt() l clesrsperln,/,r (l( (l( les trrses pLreclan cenrlril', el arc()st!ltl()s en cl r-lir,:in ).cslrlr.u l) l\ r.trrcntr'lls irs()ciaci()nes l)aru que xpalez(' cl ltlltct.iltl rcvclx(l(n.. lr nicr (lrr(, l)r(\lucc. sesi(n trts scsi()n. cs qur: cl scntintiento cle clesesrc[rnza. de lr:rr:so v tle cLrlpabilitlrrrl sc prolirntlicc. lnlc lit jntp()ten(.iu y (les(,\l)(,r...lr)n ,lt l tcrrrr'rrtlr. ste. >,rr,r (1)ntJ,-r'eslar str protio s(,ntilnient() tlt- fnrclrso t.tlc , rrJl).r. c(il)e l()(i:r.\ lis sssi()cs st l)ltcitt)l(.t,src11tr-trio (lUc cst rr(,)t. srr) r.rlrr'r x rr'<rti' tcntlri.t trr< cstltr'k;. )' ('uitn(l() c:,t(, n() sLtcc(le finxliT1lrll I),,r.lpcl.rr .r l.r rr.rlsi<-rr't (le lllucrtc. ll lx recci(in tcrxl)ultc ncgalivx, lrl llir\(rrlLll5rll() ,,.r1 <[sr'o lxrstil rlc haccrlc lrxcslrf. (J. cn n() I)t)cals ()caLsi()nes. ittril)uif el
lr:tL'rrso rr sL incapac iclacl rcrsonlrl, sLtPonien(l() (luc cs p(n-(lLr no eplic.ere sul( r(.nl(,|t(.nle bien i trrticlt (le sLl cscuclll. \' (ltc ()ll-() teallpe\tat. c()n D1.ls c.lrrrt rrlrrrl

n ,l,l i( ( )-l)r'( )lsi()nales. cs (lccir. a ll ncccsirllrl clc t.adl est.uela clc sentr su lrr'.tctrr')ilt sup(rtien(l() rrre srr sislcntl es !tni\ersitl. el linicr> rlicIr. :rsegt r'.rrrrL,l sus ttien)l)r'()s (luc n() tjtl,tcn Jirrr.rtr rc,r.llrzlrt:l ningrn l)llriul.tt(. nl .tttrPlif su cnfixue. ni :rrrenrlcr cle lxs ()tl.ls (\)rri(ntc,\. En scgLln(l() r( ntn(), I rt'lrr'i<lrio c<-t l().tnIcri()r. l (lcsc()n()cinriento <le ll crnstellLc.ir)11 (\nrlplc.r tk' lrrrlor-cs qLc intcl \ i(,nen cn h :rsicognesis. trrntplt'jitlacl rrre or.igina los srlrtiPos cletr-o cle los grencles cuaclrcs clnicos 1.<tre rccluicrc <lc lu or.cuesl.r, r,,r) (l(. rlircr.,': ri,,. {lr inl(t\'(.r't('l(,D(.\ l)ll(k) (lLc no c,\istc roL cl ntontento uni l((r-x cetez c[' rcs()l\'(rl' kxl()s los ,lrolrletllrs, v (luc ingLl ol'lre cs ltornogi,nu ni trcltrs las lrrprrcsts r-lc

l(ni(l()s. Tan int(resntc resulta el firnrllrentar p(n (lLr rn tip() (le inlsl\cn r irin I tnt rnrxle]r r.le lr.itxrllicnt() ftrnci<ltn cn cierk)s r'st>s colto clesenlr:t rilr p()r (lLr fliclsn rr s()n p;rt(-)g( n()s en ()tr()s. Itrlrenflrl)l(' lcnte. no porlerttos scr (lernlLsixd()s ofrirltists resPr(t() it l:ls
lrosilrili<llrclcs cle <rre los lu-lrlistas clcjtnrrs sin gran estircrz() (ic ser mon()(rn-(le:' \ (llrc cit(l irltcll cnai(in nlcstfa set inlcrr()ga(ht cn cuarnt() x su t)'lra. st c()nIrni(k). slrs cta'(t()s en nrltiplcs nivclcs. \'(lre n()s l)lanteenr()s rlift--r'entcs jn-

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trre [,l,,cl]a si csrh er'x ci cils(). l-o rrre Ie resulta irnxns:rl>1t,. rn su t r r..rlrtl (lc nlxntencr lil i(lerliza(.i(in, es rr.rc lrrrrrllo cLrc flrlllr cs rl r>rlcl<t l'r l,rlrLgitrl clr sr (scrrcl \'l()s instn)l))rnt()s ti,(.Di(r)s (lLtc lc J>rr,pr.,tttrrrr.r r': rI r,r. (lu(. r]i cl rlle)r tentpeLrtlt clc l:r rtlistllr rlttcnrli.r resr.rlt:rckrs frrr,rr.rl,lr.s si s( nlil'ttr(.llc clctr(ro cls irs lrnites rigickrs cle:r<ulla. llr.rrr, rr r.I uitlr rrlgtrnos cjcrlrpkrs pure elrr.(lr el telltx (le ls r.rrntrincli (.r(r,rr(!(lr( x,,lILr l[.g.Lr'.1 tencl cLla](llier iDtcl.\,en(.iu lnlticu. incluso la rlr,'r()n,'tr,,,.r .llizt rrlrrs s(,rit lterrillientar pr>clCrosa CIe trlnsiitttDtj,lt p,r ',rlr\.r. l!,r(l(. l,r,rr(' rros lt]lL'rcslt es nt()str:ll qtc n() lustil (lLe los segtrickrres ,I rrr rr,i 1,, rt l,l.rrltllt l:ts \.(,r]tltjits tjel t:risDto \: (.()nsigncn los xit()s ol)-

I)os cle krs exirurrs lrisicos clc Irr ti'r'nicrr niiti(.r \'(luc iunt() l an,tlisis clc llr 1r':tnsli'('nr ill _\ .rl us() (lc l inl(l)rctll(i(')n s( Drlis li('( ucntelrentc in \'(x'(l()s l)irri tljfi'r'nciurll cle crLrkrtieI ol[a finr)] (lc l)si(r)leIil)ir s()n lil ts()tilcir-rn lilrrr'(l-r'(r(1. l()o0. 191J. 1()13) \'li r(grcsi()n. l-ir l)rinr(r' c\ enrnL'i.rcle lrajo [.r firnnrr tlr.rc ic ('()r']()(c trrro ltglu lirntlnrent:tl: sc in\ itl l paciente. en el c()rlIir'lt7() nlisrt() (lcl tlltt:utti( nt(), il (lLlc (liga t()(l() 1() (lLtr Plsa P(r'sLl nlente sin ccrtstrlit <lc ningr.rne clltsc. sin tc-ne[ cn ctlenta si lltc(le s(jf ofcnsi\1). inl)r()pill(l() pal[ ls (()n|en(i()ncs s()cilrlts o si le ltarcce n() revcstir illt l)()rlurlcilr () (irrs(cI de sentido ([]ret(I. l9j8lr). I-lt iclea tr.te sustcnt:l estrt prcs (rilxi(-)n es (luc si cl plr(ienlc hrtlL rlc este nlllncrl. si ttnre le org-rniz.rri,,n hrrlritrrl clcl rliscirrso rcitnal r socilrl si sLspen(le 1()(l() iLi(-i() r'lrlttir'o al fJtrjo ilc srts l)('nslll))icnk)s ] scnl inri('nt( )s. s('clel Lrnil r'()ntlir'itilr nrl'ts trtvtlt lrle rar:r I.r crtletgen(ill (lc lltntllsi.ts pr<(r)ns(icntes \'. aspc( rallltt(nt(. (le re)os dcl in<rrns<icrte repriorickr (lLc sef.in (xlltu(l()s I)r)r el unrrlisl (lentro (le cs(luetis rlc significat ion rlcs,:rnoci<krs pltl el plcirnt(. l lsch ( l99j ). ( r'r un cxcelentc l[cLll() (le revisi<in rlcl ten]x. puntr (lue tl fintLrlltciirn rle la usocicirin lil)re cs c()hcrcnte con la rrimel.lt teora (lel xparlt) ps(lui(\), c()n()ci(h crrnro rrinrera tripice. cn (luc sc esperxl)i tcncr un ar(ccs() l inc()Dsciente. l()s contcnirlos reprimi(l()s. sin lrnlizlr las clefens:rs:

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l.rr :rrrrcllo rr kr ruc el c()nteni(l() nt.lniflestu) all(lir:t p( sintlttliz.ci,,n, n,,r Oorisi()n. l){)r rest() fngn)cntllli(), por clefintaci(rn en general. flna vez (lcs r rlricr'l() Pr t,l irnllist l() rcp|itDiclo le era ccmunicacl<) al pxciente rnedintc l,l ir)l( rl)r'('tirci()r Cci clice lJusch c()n ir()nt .cl pllciente ltsocilt. el analista irl( rl)r({1r,. cs (lccir tr:lnsnlite c()n()citnienk) s()l)re el inc()nscicntet () sea. p?sa l)t)t t'u( ltt! (le las resistencilts. l.() (luc l)lrc('c (lejrse de luclo con l (()nccpci)n cle la asrriltci<in lil>rc. lrrl r ()rrrr st sLrclc tratnsntitir. s()n (l()s lteclt()s rclxci()nt(l()s entle s: l) (lLte p()r nrirs (lu('s( lc l)i(lil ill pcicnte qLle xs()cic cle tl nranel. jallis lo ruccle hacer \.r (lr( s(, kr irtrpiclen slts l-csisten( ias l)rec()nscientes e inc()nscientes nric (k), \ (,r'giicnz:r, crlpa. ec. ; ) srlo el nrilisis cle las clefi,nses,v clc las enilusliirs (l((' p()nen en rnlrcllu a atlr.rerlllis rcsulle cepaz clc ltrir cl c|rin< tl rrrtrrscicnte. Al respect(). llrrsch hce n(ft (luc la fitrrLlci<in cl'isir..u cle la ,srxirttioll lilrre <rrrresponclc, il pesar quc sc sig:l [ec(nlrcncllrntkr c<ttr cx l)r'si(ilr (lc lu luena ti,cnicu llctLill. ir un pcr()(l() ntcri()r x la segunrl:r tripice. rrr()rll(,ll() ('t) qLc y no st-rl< i0tctesn las tirntasas inc()nscicntcs stn(). tI]tlrir'n. llrs lir'rllts in(\)nscientes (lc ll)ilntener es()s c()ntcni(l()s en estaclo rle rr'rrt sion; o sca. Las clefnslts. l1r'tilnt(). si r:l lotrr rlc olrserrat.itin cs el plu r (,v) /o/rl(l( tts()('illt le sccrcrt< ilr cn (luc sc cntrclltzan rcst()s (lr (.()ntcni(l()s rlPrirritLrs con ks ol>stculrs a llL clllcrgen(.i.t (lc a,sk)s cn)nccs cl pa( r( nl( (slii sicl)l)t-c cn ustciacin liltrc. y tro trrctle clejlrr (le cstxrl(), yll (lLe ru: silt rrcios. rt:li(encias. clcfi nlr< ione s s()n pilrte escncirl clel fhir sor.iti ro lil rrili<i< (le l()s ()l)sliicll()s u lu enrcrgcncilr clc lus fitntasas inr()ns.l(tl t(s. irl (slllr est()s (r)staicltl()s t tltfi,nss pr(]s(]ntes en el p(tr.cso nrisn clc ,rsrx i:r. t,s insetaraltle clel lna'rlisis cle csus Ilrntsus ((ln\. 19136).
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c[rlnlc el ent-rlisis unlL ctoltlc lrctiviclacl: ror rrn rrrt. lrsocie lil)rclllcnte. es clccir <rrc cllptc pcnsn1ien)s'! sentilient()s (r)Ill() li(lil(lcs sin llittar cle sacf prel))tLrilntcntc ningLlnlt crrnclrrsi<-rn reslx ( l( , :r ( ll()s, suspenclienckr su fitnc()n crfica; rero. txrnl)ia,n, (lLe \ -r),l \ i(.n, l.(ir
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ellas, :r crirno sus clese()s se vinculan a las angustias. )''stxs t hs clefensas ltal>itualcs quc Lrtiliz. caxn() ests (leiensxs. a sLl !ez, pr()lrLlcven rngusti.r\. (t! i () sea. ls seclencias que orglnizn sLl l)siqLlisnx) l c()r't() plz() Ll in rnecliatez clel pr()ceso unxltic(). lninLrt() luinuto- y ar l)lz() Dr:is -en largo -krs gr.rn(lcs movillicnt()s (le su vicl.. (lrc H) pcicntcs Lltilizan Ix xs()cia(i(in iilrre ctDro resistenci a rc(r)r)()c'er cl senticlo nrlrs gl()l).l (lrc ticnc kr cuc vltn rcllrtan(lo. Son caPaces cle clccir ([re tienen rrbi:r. ttre estlin usustacts. rue se le ocurrir-r clctenninaclo pen san)ienk). per() k) (lLlc rc(ll?zn. ar(ti\'rmcnlc, cs scllr c()nclusi()nes s()l)re lit lellrcirin ctre tiene t(x[() ello crn el pl()ces() lrnaltic(). con vincrllr cs()s stjntimicnl()s y pcnsanlicnt()s c()n llrs s,ct,1cl.s ciel rnislln). Ilsta ttrex (ttecla rt cargo <lel,,la rnLista. S( pxcienles (luc rsln clc la rcgrr:sirin l l 1rs()cici(in li lrr conr< cletenses: es cl,'lu:nulistu cuicn rlebc irr.rplrrse rlcl llniilisis. l illaitcl' (lc Itclrcs <rtc s( I)lt(cn carS() clc firncitrres tltte clclriet'an teliTrlt sts hi)s. L() (lue rttLestftr. rtLre\'1rllcnte. qte la regresirn. qtre talnta iorl)i'rr.rn!ill l)()scc paral rccLrpcr:u xspc(l()s clcl pecicntt (luc irn (luc(llr(l() scl)ultr(l()s l)j() tirnaciones cxrlrctcr(r(-)gicas (lciensi\'as ( t]lint, 1952. 1963r winri(r)tt. I965. l9U9), n() 1.)r.retlr tstirnlLllrfsc irrcstri(t:rnrcnlc, (\)n1() Lrnr rspecie clc plna<ea Lni\'crsll. \'csk) n() s()iltltcntc cn ltrltrclkrs cs()s cn l()s (lLre h tcgresi<-rn es ia firr;t frc< trente clc firncirLr - <icrr<s cr.rclros sevct()s () llsitrrticLrr sln(, cn l()s Dr()mcnk)s esrec fi<rrs ck:l unlisis cn (llrc csti-l l scr'icio clc le rcsis tcn(i l)lj() I tirnra cle \iliz:.r'l.t.fit,qtn(nttct;n (lc lrr exrclicr-tcia pare ncr tartal rl signiticuckr clc lo cuc cstii trlt ns( u rricn(l( ). I;t <rrt llsir-n. ((),r lespr('t() a krs lrres cliltlitticos .tsocuckiJt libre/dttk).ut(ilisis. l')<)t rn lx(l(). )' rt,qrL'sititt/pxryrL'skilt, pot cl ()tr-(). cs (lLrc n() sc pLlc(lc scr-1rlizr'lpr'a)r-l )iigun() (l('('s()s (L[rtr() trnrin()s. F]s tlrrerr clel anallistx. er lir-l<irn clcl l)llcicntc V clcl rDrnrcnto tlel anr'ilisis. rluclar u <uc el peciente circulc. cn (a(l1r nl(),lent(). pot a<rtclllt cle cslts rosibilirlatlcs cttc'sca trt.ir5 (()nveniente p:rra su (re(iurienl{) pL-r's(mxl. l- ils()cix('i()n iilrc es s<ilo tn prtn)(r ltl(),Ilrnt() <lc :r<r.rclkr (lue l)rrsegLlinr()s en llinl() tllin() Pllm nLcstr()s pe cicntcs: cl clcsnrllo rlc la < lpaciclucl pxra cl luro.rnrilisis (lLrc lc pcnuitc c()nr plenclcl krs nn)\'inlient()s 1Lfcti\'()s (lLrc (lctcrnrin:ln su vi(l:t. l)e igual tlanera. la tcgrr:sit-xt cs Lrn instflrnrent() lllirl re(()nrctlllse c()n l() cxcltricl< clc str crncicr-lcilt )'l() 1ll)()ftar(l() crr sLr rlcsllr-ollr. rele lr.rego lrlcllnzr rlileles mals c-ler':rtks dc f Lrnci( 11r nlicrtt( ), y n() lLlg() cn si r)risrlr(). (i)n rcspcct() :r le caPaciclacl tlc rttrxtnlilisis. cs (lrcir. (lc c:t1:rtrtt la firttt[t clt qlre en el psi(ltisnr() sc vxn srrcc(lcn(l() l()s csl(i()s crt)()ci()n1tlt\ \'cr,rtl() un()s I)[(nlluevcn lt ()tr()s. iLlltk) llls rlLT()lles clinlirric:ts (l(] es()s nl()\'imicnl()s. n() h:ry txrex en el lr-t ricnk) rr.rc le l)ucda sLl)err en irrlrrtancil. l)c>r ello n() lllre(le <ucdur linritaclt 1l scl Ln sinrl)lc I)r()(lir({r) eslx)ntrineo clel anitlisis. () un! cspccic clc i<lcntilicaci(m final clel pecicntc c()n Lrnll lrctivid.l(i qlrr el 1lnlistx (lcscD)prx plll-l ([lIllntc t()(l() cl trxtxn]iento. Lrsurunclo esa firnci<-rn la nrancrl clc ecr.relkrs prtdlcs <lttc n)lrntirnen cn l inm.r(lurcz.r sts Iri-

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lrr rehcitin ('()nr)li!(). pLl(s est relJci(in es firnrl)ia,n Llna

,, Jl,I I.i re:ir.cr<io <rrc irrrlrilt tcnea. l)lrtc'tlc] tr'ltt:tien& I cs (lLe tlsIc(l Plle(l:l it cllinckrsc cuent (le (lua'es l() rLre le irnpicle 1)()(ler tiLn(i()niu cle Llrl:l mllner t]tais esp()ntaitrlt. s!l)cr p()r (lrta' ct1ln(k) sc le ()ctrlre tlnir i(lex () tln selltj_ r))i(,-rl() tirn(lc i uprrlxrl() ([c sLr pcnsill]'ricr)to () (lcixr (lc s('ntirl(. \o clc <luda clr (lLe es( ti nrui:ciin posec<ttLtcas lirttitrLcit.r'tcs: llt ptincrrr. (lLrc sr clirige a lx c()ncitnci:r. a lu ra< icnaliclatl (lcl plr(iente pi(lin(l()le .llg() (lLrt sitl)(,rI()s scrli olslc tlizrtckr l)()I str inc(rscicnle, rol las trir'lsfelcn r'irts. xrr-l:t r'c'gt'c-sion. l,t scgtrrtcllt. (l(te (ie\JticIr(lc L lttr<x rl.lsr'rr l<lr'rn tlr llt e lltt irn clel I)cirole c( )nsig() n)isnr(). l)t11) ( rccrtl()s (ltle. it P(salr dc -slrs \' (ffas inrlertl'cci<nes. ()t()r'g un! trlferL al racienle- clue pc]-r)ite iicill cl pr)ccs() terirD( l rlicr) s(r)rs lu bltsc tlc teJ:s r)iis expli('itx(llr\ \' c lrtras tlrtt' lirl tttrtlltrle sinl I-.1(.nler]te rLrt tliga l<r ([rc Pirslr I)(n-su r)t(ntc. Sicntil lln l)le(cdcnte l).trx alg(r (lLrc n()s parecc illrp( )r'tirrtcr cn ca([r ctpl (lcl irlirr']Ii('nt() cl lln.llist (lel)c fi)rnrrrllt l<s ()l)ieti\()s r))l-ls gcnr'lrlts clt'cst rcrorIr As ct] (ctcrnrinlr(l() nl() lcn(r) l)()(lr.i Ilcglrl lr <lt,cillt :ti plrr'iente: .Ar.'lrltlttrs clc r'cr cil<r (\( ('Pi\{, clir tlc str ill:Lnci lc nlxr(r-). (t)lt(r lc hizo scntit trre eta rcligt-oso ( \lx)nersc llnle l()s (l('nr:is. ((irr() lc (r(() tn:l ( lcsc( )nll1t n zil sol.)rc llts intcncioncs clt la ((')nl() ll1lri I)r()tcg('rsr' lc(e'silr'r lrkxlttcltr I() (Llc ctllil. l'ls tlull l)Ltenll l-lL r-)tc. \' lllLrcstr'll (l( (r'rD() i() (lu('lc stterliir en ( i('r't() rll()rtlcnto tlc sr r'itl:t cletertllinit )o trre sienlc lror. su firnttt tlc rccci()nf. Vitle l;t rena ttattiLr (le \(r rt)is f:rnlililtles. tcrrplrs clc ((')Dr() s( Protc.lc (lc rcntrf rirn.. \( (n, ,1, , Li ,n (r.fcLl tltisni() \' et(..-. (), (.lt {)tr() nt()nl(,nfu): "l,rr<iill, ,s \ (,r ('(i ti ,-l).lrciir..rlllig,'\. crli)cz(i lt(fsc. l)Lrs(r ten(lcn( i()sintcnle lrfgunrcr-ltos xrl-lt egr'erlilsc, clc igr.rel IrIrneIlr (irc (\rirn(l() elgtrien sc cn()jr c()n r)trll pels()n.r picr(le ol)ictivirl:r.l r lorkr Ir rtre sc lc ()(LrIr-L_ gs n(.qirli\(). (-()n lll llnlicLrtl (lc l.tslilllarr. Es trn lrrrcn eicrttrkr rlc r'orrro Ltsttcl sc tt-illx:l Llstc(l tlli\tu(). c(')ill() sc felit( i( )nit (()n Lrsl(,(l. (!iDt() fc((i()n cLenrir se litrsl[r un ust(](|. L() (lLlc lretlc setr'irle pata ir r irnrkr rrrc no srilr tierc Ltnlr rcl:r(ir)n c()n l()s (lcltrlis sin() (ltrc llt,rrl)ia'n lat licn(, c(rt rrs(c(l nrisrrl(). l_lsto:tlrr',.'el c:trtlnt [)ilt.t ir rcvisr1(l(r llLs nrtt<llls lirt' o)-ls (le rellr(i()nltrsc (()n ustc(l" (). tnrl)i!t: .Hellt()s vist() (()!ll() (re\rr (llt(- )rr tc1r intcn(i(')n clc rfi'nclcrl,.: crnr l() (luc le clst'rt. tlc cltrtinurlc. tr.tc csa tirrl:r tlc t'tDe lr.'lt:rci; tlese'lr sc,llil-sc l()lllnt(nle i't(lcpen(li('n1c. n() rccesititr n:rcla cle lrrs (lerrrals. scril int!-resnte (lue.rlx)r1r (luc tcllrinu la scsion puclicr-al esllir lllcfta \' tlcs<tlrlir lrllis cjerllpl()s <lc 1() nlistlr en l()s enctcntr()s qtle \lrvi tenicnLl() c()n ()lIis PcIs()trirs,. No rtos c:tlrc cltrrllr qtrc ltl\l(h()s rliilistats crtrsitlerat.in c(rs fi)r'ntuici()_ ncs c()lrl() peclag(')gi( 1rs. c()lr() in(k)(1riiIntes. Pel(), l)()f nLlcstr l)1ltte. enfcn

lts
(l( rr()s (lue
<rr< t'l ( i( nlc

^\'ANCES

LN pSI(_Ot.lj{ApA pstcnANAl t,l(_A

it-

1!^'l'MIliN ro

21r)

,rrr'st rr,tr'orltrr.c rllls lLllli clc sLts t)lil \.:u.ilitlcs. lo rue sc c()nr)(.c c()!)t() in;tlisi (':,tt.(lrtrill (lel relall(). C.rLr r,.cz tur ell la sest(in se ltl!1tn(.c Ll. Llsr.l,r l)r( llr( s() (,n (,1 rcc()n()citnicnt() rlc trnl firnu clc firnr.irrlrr clcl per.iente. cs r.r,s x,rA.rlrilitIrcl (lel itn:tli.\tit :rl prinr.itiO. ltttstlr cuc sce inte rnalizrtkr_ instaI .rl l):(r(n(( lr clue fuera clt, ll srsiin trtc (lc cst.tr alertx 1l lts cjcrrrplificar.io_
rr's

! l)l.ti(Llliizx(lll, scgti(k)s p()t IlI()ltl(,Ik)s P.l(.icntr. rlc:rttitrrrl (lt !t!toott(ilsis.gut(l() (r)i l..r rol.lrrrcirn cicl terirperrtlr: >lua lrrcgo. lirce ci: ll scsirjn. coltinu.n tl .lrrfr).rrirlisis. I )es(.Ll l)t.ir nitnt( ) (n l):rrlicLlltr clcl tt,<lrteo (.pis()(li() (,n lil s(]si()-I r.tt':t. ltrt'go. Pltsl cLe la lln(.(l(f.r ll ,e,.,,n, rcintiant,, (lr I:l estrtr(.tu.l tc))1tti(x

x rrL rrr i.i :rl>soltrt;lr))(,1t( \ i\cn(.ill ilr'_s.rrrtcsis I)(,rp1le del

,{)rrlirl ,l]lr'nlc cn (.tclll l9s olrt.,.r.Lln ( L, i , , , t .. _ t t t . , r.rlt.lrgrr.rrclilr. l!'r.rl nlt,ll()s lintilll(.i(jn-:t scr-g()lrcrnlrtlos cir,.,:Dtntt I.r<-cll:t. l\ rr 11. lnolllr,ntrs tk, rrgrcsir-rn en llr sesjrin. rlc ltsrtiiciriD lilI.e. clt, t,x,
.t
i
I

rl pxciente clel)(, t()tnlll. rn rol rctirr en cl prrcest cle su crtrsci()n, ti<nrro (lc lt scsi(in rleirc enrrielr.se colr un lalrt.aft>r.io cn 11" ,r.,_ r(,(1)n()zcil. gt.ltcias la tt.:tnsf'crcncta ctn el nltlist, pittr()ncs cle " senti rlrir'lrl()s v c()n(luct(. pcr.t) (lre plt(l p()tcnr.jtr esc,rr,r,rra,.rt,, es )c(c\.lr.l() rlrr ( l l)il( icnle no clelegLre en cl unliste el sostcnctltasta h trrxilur scsi<jn cl re_ , rrcrrlo clc lo vivick> 1, conrpr.encli<lo, sino tlue clebe scr estinrulck p:r.a (ltre r'l lttlc'r';t]r cnfrc srsi(),r ! scsi(')n (1ttji)c signrjrr un pclr)ck tle !rr<>lntilisis. (.)(( s('l)il1tl()5 (lLe las tftrnsli,rcnci:rs. la hostil y llt ltrtxros, c()ntinLllult(,ntc rs l r l ) ( ( r' l-ri r lirites x l. parte ,a< i.nlrl (rel pacientc. cue n. rrlisfu c(m r;s inv()(,r( i(rl(s \' Ls <lcscos clt <Lr<, cl f)ll(icntc (.()ixl)()re (.()n c1 pr()(cs() lrrlaLIti(t), rrrt llrs rcsislencills v l()s (ltsc()s pr.ofirnclos s()n ltx)l(r- clel-rnisrnr. t()(l() (,ll() n() irut(),'i7.t lt il)ao(l(t1lt.(litL cn l()(l() lll(ll(,ni{) l::\,tt trnir gtra. rrr-t >rrr.tkr clc r('l)irr(). LnliL ttt.i<nlrli<lcl (lrc c()!liriix cl txrceso. l l)r(,guntlt (lLtc (lLtisiul._ rts linlrrllrr lts:rn:tlistlrs (lur cslrintcn cl argum.,rt,,.i. qu"'.1 cleseo in, Lr,,rs(i('11,. los Ieltorcs r I:ts esisfcnr.its riCl t:rt.icr.ttc Illr<.cn intitil <.rlrlcJuic,r. ,r x l:rr ron lr lrr rizrrt.<.s: ilc.ls() es() no cs r..ilitlo tltnltin tata ellos. (.()tll() llt-ll, lrstlrsTt siI] (lt)l)ilrg(), l)i(,nsiln (lLlt su tc() it (.()ns(.icnle y, I.lrcionlrl s(r)re lir t(_ nlr'lr r.: fctrlr (lu(, t(l]in ()ri(.n11n(k) sLl (.slr (,r.1 [it scsi(jn itnllili(.1, :(rstlc ] n( n (lll(. I)('sc :r quc sU (.(tr1tlf:tsfi,renci estli :iic1)1l)fc prcscntc. rl trncrl
i
l

tetttocin (lc

esr>cilcirin lilrg y'

,,

r['

t sri nrrrlelicLrcl cill.lr(.t(!1)l()f]i(.i1.

.llo\

Ln nl()nten) <l;t<Lr. Si ltierr cs (.i!,1{() (lu( (tr(l sesi(jn el .ur.rlrrt.r rl,.l.r.rrr.rr.rrr.Ilr lrlirl.kr ir l() qLlc cillt prtcltrzca y.no ct,tucnzarie <rrn rrrr.r rrl,.r I,rli,,Ir,( IrirLr rigitl:r ([c lir ()ientc. t.crrc kr tlue:preciri en Lrn rx lrr( lrlt, \,,1\r't.t I t(.llr.U( (\.r l)lt(,s l:l (.(lrl)lllsin J ll rel)eti(i)n t, i citrLclL-11 ti ( ,ll.r, l(.r .rsr L ) r | | | | I ,/ i r . sin tl].rlr:rr-go. la resistencij pLrerle Lrtilizlrr. lrr
,,

,tri lrrr'<I^r'trlr,t(,(.r1

\l r'srrto, rlr.isirantos llcfllr s()l)r.c Lln ciut() r.icsgo (l)nslste en ,lt:r'rt rrilt rsr.rlt ltl-rtr-r.rne Inea c[,tralxrjo cltrantc un pc]ioclo.r,hre:rtucll<r

l( r (lur,/.i Ilil\':l \rna ttn(lenci:r a dcjur.lo <le luclo, a <lviclallo. jer.,r rrrn.".cnrcr-ltc rrrrIt rIr.r'lr (\)tnr) Lln Ii)c() ar pcnsr en c1l, r.cr crlrr tlultl)in (,xisti() r-t n)u ,l,rs rrrrlrt r)rrs clc srr r.icllr. cr'nrrr prtclc p(scnlrsc (,n l()s pra)\i,()s (llls". _ruc

r,iuros ilg() Lluc plrrc(.c lnrl)r)rt.ln

lislnls, 1lr(r r(rve rr es(in(li-.lL)clo (ltle fire (lescrbiefi(). Qlre el paciente n() ret()[re l1r sesin antci()r pLrede scr un li)co:r ilen(ler (L!1ln(l() cs lu lira plevalente (lLre utiliza Prll escin(llr cxpcliunri.rsNr.rev<r cjcrplo cle ltrs peligr< tlel luissa; litin' \'(lc Lir.l ((nrtlrrcnsi'ln c,llri rrcl<ia cle ll lsociaci(;n lil)lc Y clc I atencior iil)rsrncnte ll()tnte. Arltr crlr.qnrL u':l ar'llrrtcir-inr tn cl c!s() (lc.ic r)s pcien(cs n.lI(isi5tlrs. sLr lcchlrz() ar la tlepenrlencilr. x lx rcgrrsi()n v lr alccptir'le ral.tlrra cltl anltlista. trrlo ello r,ivickr r.ruo lrumilluci<--l y s( nutl ilt)ien ). huce crte st-lo rluie rlln alul()irn:Llizlllsr. L,l aLt()iri:ilisrr a{)r)]Plsirr) i)ltr (luc (}l{) r){) ('nJll influcnrirr silt'e clks. en cslos (ls() r:s pettt tle lh petologia. v la posibilicl:tcl (lc quc ilceplcn le clel>r'ndcnr'irr Lrn.r)Iin() llcia cl (anll)i() l)et-<. sel\1r cn es tls sitLlil(i()es. hel otra perkrgir ('olll)lcorcntri rot cl Iaclo (lel nxlistll, 1>rorlrrclo tlllnl)ia,n (le srs n!ustills: cl plcten(lrr (lue i()(1o (()n(xiorienl() I)ror cng:r rlc i']. trrsitk'rrrlr rLrc los rlcsct tl irtrientos rlel I)lt( icr'tle (lL'ntro \, csl)ecitLncnle, lucl,lr clt'llt scsi()n s()r1 cxlrrc:i()n (lc tfxnsie l'encilMeg1rtl\':r, de (lue sul)rcstanrentc n() t()lcril la p()sici(in (lcPlcsi\'il. v (lLrl ctllcsn Lrn ittlr (l!rr cnr'illi()s() .rnillistl. 5irr Ilcgltr l cstos c\(l!rlr()s. (rccrll()s (ir(- cl ccl)iz():t cstimulirr xl pcicnte irl lluk)nillisis ticne (luc vtt cott r-tsiecletlcs (lcl xllxlista lr -)crclcr ltl l)lr(i(nle \i r'stt P()stc illrl(r(rllll, () 1l scntir l))cn()s( ill)ilcl() c] lr (isisl))() si st clelcgli () (()rlrllirfie l.t (ltre lLn:tliticlt [,()s xn:tlistrrs s()trl(r]i \ensilrlcs en cplr lx rDsic(lx(l tle scl>urucion (lcl l).rcicntc. pcro p()l [lz()ncs tlcfi'rrsiTus n() l)()s(cr)r()s igLr.rl sr:nsilrilirllrt! frtlntc nu!'strlr rursierl:tcl cle rcrclcrlc. Ansicrlacles cle pt'r'<litle )' iursic(Ll(lcs Irlrcisists (luc (xpcr-irltentlt nr()s l()s nlistits v rrrc ittt-)iclcn lt;tr'crst r'xr'csit'lts ilLtsit>rcs solrre clue ttn I)r()PLlcsl qrlc ll)iLr((( r()rno I<igicrt -(lilc (l I):l('icn(c s( il(rllr.ltrli(c ! s:tlgi cle la scsirin c()lr Llna llllr cxrlicita- cncllerrtrc e(\) v o() scll lalPi(llrnlente (rest i( '): (Lr luio cl :rrgtrttrtnlo r'licl<> clc trrc el rtnlilisis ttr cs lrt'rlll,,l.ii.t. -u' gLnIc)t() qtre cr'tr'lt u llt Lcrt-t'si<-rrt ()tr() r1l r1 )nilli(nl ( ): (lllc cl Psic(rxnaiiisis n() ('s m()n()p()lio tlcl sabcr l)or plll'tc tlcl nlistu ni (luc s()]() (lcntr() (lt: Ll sssi(')n iirrli(ir tcn(lrii lug:rr cl crtrDlri() | su (rrrs()li(l1r.iir. I'il <rre un.r cicrt lx.r(tic.L hegl trrc se ((rllien(r tl r.ilisis con nllr)'[x)c.rs c\l)li(lr( i()nes ar.ctcl rlt ru ('s l() (llc cllIir(lctizlL sLr I)t()(l(). srts r>bjetivos y el
sesi<in. el isl:ullient() cntre lus

clentr'() cle Lr scsii)n sino entrc \e\r' rn )

l)t()( es( ) (lrc ( I )rc\'('n(lrii. lilllitlilrck )st :t itrclicltl lti l).1('icrlt( ('l clllin( ) clcl <lir a'tn, clanckr lxr strlrtrcst() qLc sltl)r cle crt sc tr.tl () clt crre kr iri clest'rtlrricnckr lrt'

llr r'rhl clc'l :risnro, r'rt1tj:r lrne irleologu. \'n() l)r'rcislrr(ntc lrt:ejol llr clcl tnelista cuc se c(rtsi(lcrl x si lllisrt)() ((nll() l ni(\) (lue l)ur(lc (\)n()(er llacilt <L<-ncle se clirigc el 1:lroccso, .Larlcs s(m Lrs tcts intcttttctlils y lils finxles. Stts urnsccr<'c i:ts ,r<r cl rrlr(so tl< er<irLrl )() p:r'tc (lcl tnlistr y Lr inf:rntiliz;r cin clel pacicntc. uclerrirs tlt'l hecto no rlcsplcciulrle cle ctrc cuut'tcl<) <\hle Ln-t cleuucstrt crrls<l roz. l (iel nlistil, lul nlis ricsgo (lL eqLrir'(xrse

,ltri(r',1t.rlr,l.tr.l-tr.'.

l,rlt.rrt

L'' rtte,.tnl.ttr,''\1 'rr((1,,r(\ -lt

I r

lizlq,

CAPTULO V

IA

AGRESIV.IDAD: VARIT\NTES Y ESPECIFICIDAD DE T-AS INTERVENCION ES TERAPUTTCES

Llt rtgrcsivicllrcl cs ttnlt clt les rlirtcnsiones Dlav()lrs cn Lr tcora y en l:t psi trrlat<lkrgi Jlsi<oanrrliti<e. (irlrrlrkr sc (xlurrinlt. gcit(.rrlllcnt(,se lta(c (les(lc l:t P(:rsl)eclivlt cltlolrjclo crrc srrlir los lrlu<ucs (l(] ur (tr(), cnlirtizin(l()sc sU trUicter rlcstr-ur{ivo. l)clo rltr('succ(lc si cn vcz rle r.stx p()si(.i(-)D dc iclcntifir.rr,.rrin r.rrn el olrjtr se n.rlizrl l :rgrc:iricl:rrl clrs<k'kr cuc signilic.e :r:rre <l slri({(). (lc crl1ilcs sr l:rs lll()tivlrcionl.s (lLrc l:l it( tivuo. clt llt lilncionalirllrcl tuc ( urlrplea l-lsta cliftlcnci clc conr-rlr.rrtler la trgresivitl.rcl cltsclc la tosr<.irin tlel olrjct<r etaclicl<: rr clcsrlc llt <lt l :rt:i(':lr'llc (1)r(lr(c: ,.rrntlusiont,s tlitr,[c]les. l,()ri irrt()l-cs (lu(,rclorlrrn Lr l)rrspccli\'1r clc .lrcgrrntlrr-sr tu significa llr,rgrcsrrr rLrcl raru cl sujr,t() lllln r.isto cn .rrr.rilla trntr lirnlr (l(. intcnllu- sLll)crtr Ltn ()l)s lii( lrk) (lt( \(' { )l)1)r r srrs r)rtesitl:rrk,s ( l\leiss)(.r. l9l.ir). tlll li_ttl clc :lion 1.rr trn ()l)ick) ilttolr-rgirr r, rlt lt|otcge ll Ltn s,r'('n ptlig[o:rrttcnirz:ttlo cn sr-r irtttgrirlacl (A1\\'(x)(l \'Skrkr'os'. l95i: lltrlint. l9()jt fltirl)iliul. 1952: l'rxtagv. J')()Jr K(r)u, I()-1, lr)7] llrrckrlrlr. l1)Slr St()l()r()w. l9lJ.ir Slrlororv. l9t17r finni( ( xl. l()()5). I)csrlc cs(l l)()sici()lt. lx :rgtesir,icl:tcl o() es in ltcrentclucnte l)at()l ltrrrt v srikr cLriln(lo cl rrc,:lro tiltLn<lntt.o ci olrjctrr significativo s()n inlrdc r r,rtkrr lk'gr lr il(l(uiril lirl ( irlice[- l lnu rosicir-rn tlifi-rcntr cs lir (l( l()s.rLt()res rrrc elutizln cl <:rliicler innft) \'(lcsll-Ll(Iivo tlc le ugrr:siviclt(l (trcu(I. 1920;
es ('xr)tiltxl Lllt (.icftr) r]LiIteI() (lc r'orttlicirtlcs (lLlc s()n cl).r.cs (ir cti\'lll llr lrgresir irlacl y \'t:r cul r:s sr. rclacirn ,,)r k)s (lilrrcntrs sistcnrs ni( )( ivr( i( )n:t lcs (iu( cli[ig(n la i(.ti!i(L(l psi(lri(:i. C) scr. cLsconstnri-l:r (xteg(r'il (le ltglesivicltcl. vicnclo <1rr(,es kt rrrc hav de cornn ( rt llrs (lislir]ls clLuss (lLle la rrortrrvcn y (llt,(lc (liti,rrntc. !. cslte(.i.lln]ctltc, ,,,rr L ;J.ltrit it)ltrl sixc P:rrr llrrslill:rrcJ blil:rnce rlel (li.spJ:r( cJ )lJcer (lelttr) ,l, los rr-xIrlos rnsen,i ir-n. scrrsttl scrtrlri. rr:ucisiste. c((.- (luc en sr -:rulrx cl ,rrIkLll1(i(-)r1 (.()nlin.lll) rsitr.risrtro Sc tlitltl. l)()r ttt(t. tlc cnlir.:rr. Ilr .rglcsrr r rl.rrl rlesclc tl r[,lo rth rtr-trutusfitldc)l!l <1lt: ltcruos rrtkr>tlrtkr conto rttilt tltr:t llr c<rrprcnsir'rn (le l l)si(1)l).lt()l()gi y li psic()terapiil :rsicoanllitice.'*

ht'r'nlreIg, i99l: Klt.in. l9-Ji. I9 t7. i9i0). I)( lrtr('stla Itttc. kr <r.rc n()s pr1)l)r)oellI()s

.s

:l (ll.qr:ll,

ir\1,,r l,) (l(lL

,,,rxli('ii)n('\ (tuc (iivn lir ritrrsr\.i(lx(l

ir(x (1(\:rrrl:r(li.r Lr l:ur, rlc !\lt,

(..r1)jtuJ0

s(rr( tls

AVAN(:ES tJN PSI(JO'I'I]IIAPIA PSICoAN

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Lrr,rJx,.,,.\r i.('ilrrii t( (rl.l I r \ ( ri \ , ) rrll!'r'rl:r' I Ir.r{ l;- I:.1( <.,.rtt Irrirr( r nivcl, tn (lue lll .Llrcsi\ i(ill(l tiene un (Li(rcr (cr(r't() il l< r-tittt1. en la r))('(li(lll cn qur co el rcin() lLnirlrLl llt lielt htrtlr'jcrt:t s( )ril llgresl\-l cn sLl lrirsttrecla ) c.llltLlLlr <lc lu presu (lLc lc liiirlcntllrii, () cr (l!l(,cl uninrlrl IIcri rl,r st vtt<'lve rjresi\'( en .()ntr'1l (lrl rtacrn1e. ullrcsivi(lll(l (lcsiinlr(l !l cleIt ntlt'r'lc. Per r'ltanclo l< (lLe (lrsl)iclt llt agresiviclucl vr n() cs (lrl ortier cle
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I ln ('1lllictcr genclel cle les conclicir>nes qrle xctivrn llr egresividlrcl es crrc r.lrLrs <'llrs inrplicrrn ulg(rn tip() cle sLrflinricnto perlt e) sujcto. Lo cjemplificr l.r rrgltsivichci cle rn niit () un a(hrlt() c()n haml)rc l t.r-r conociclL irritalrilirLrtl clel rrrc hrrct- unlr (lict-, () cuanclo se cslr'r enli'rDrr o (l(r()[ici(). (i)r))() riostrcne l-lglcllc (ltX)()): "l.a agrcsir itlltc) cs r()\ilizJ(li p()r lx cmergt rrr'ilr cnc['r1cnlr ck'L ntresiclrl. senti(]1r c.)r))() ilr))cnilz cn e] irteior clel
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El nio tbserve a sus paclres rn cl lron-tento en que stos. plenos cie firri, imp()nen su v(runta(l n)c(lintc cl gesto. el gito o el castigr) c()rpor1. En lr :ente del nio se jnscril)e "l)api o nriurar est,rn en()jr(k)s y se huce ltr que

lo lriolt-rgico sino c[, lo sirrrlr<-lico. cLrltn(lo cl sufrinriento n() cs cl (lc clle]po


sirr r cl cle lu ltLrttilllrciirn nalcisistx. () (un(l() Lln sLljek) siente culpu y se tor n irgrrsi\1). t<clo CIIo nos oblig profrncliz:rr nLr(sl[ intctr( )glci)n. ])()r ur ll(l(). cst()s cjeDrplr>s .rl)rntlrlxn llr t('sis gcncl.tl rlc rrrr culrlcttier tirrnra {l( sllrirIIirnfo. sel el nlis cercn() u lo fisico < r'l llls rlrrrrrter-tte sinrbli( r). lcli\' lrr lrgresir irllrrl (lcl suiel(). per() rll.tticr)rn sil r('sl)()lr(lcr la cLes t()r (l(l l)()r(lu'tlc ellrr. Espctirrluletc cL[rn.l() l;t rtgresirirlltrl n() prcst] ninr1n.r ilili(l.r(1, crrnro s I< lli cn tl (:ts() (lel I)reLLr(l()r' lrDl)ri(Dt(,. sin(, ,trr.r'r.rprrnclc rletelrinrrr'iones pLrrlult('rtt('sirrrll-rlir':ts. P.rr usl()\ !-rs()s. sl

sirrrr['rrrtntc l)llu1t(lrLtllt()s cl rar sufiirtricnro:tgrcsi\i(l(l a lr; rtt.rr.r qrtc lI grrrirrrllos es.L e\l.rl]lc(cl Lr-t:t c()l'rclirci(in enlre (l(): (()n(lici()nes. lll()str'1n,Ir rrrt rrnlt, l:LgresividrLcl. sif+rc 1l ()tl.a. cl stiinlr(nl(). [)cIo .ctr:il es la rlzr'rD r()l llr ctral ll trgresir iclll(l c(nttrltrrcsta cl slrflirtt ie rrlo. l)()n91[]l()s p()r r'lrso r'l rle rttLllltlczil oarcisislal .Acaso la ilgr'rsivi(llL(l cs nret.l (lcscr-l{il pLlsir rlrl o se trele de algo tnsl (.tiln(l() el sujel() tiene rn lntisiar () Lrnal c()n(hr(1ir rgr'csivlt. a'stx (s (aplil(lir (lcntr() rle sts sistclrras cle sinificecioncs: c()nten] l)li n(l( ) su Pr-r '11r.l rl.ir(sir itl:rtl rrclclr.ricrt ur').1 (icltl iclcntiducl: p()r ejenlpl(). soy >rxleloso 1' no cll])il, sol r'l rrrc lltr(r) )' r')() cl irllcll(l(). () sex (llre si l;r rrglcsrr ir.lurl I)reclc. cn el scr lunr:rno. consritrtir Llr nr()\in'ticnt() clcfcnsivrr cn (()nlr'lr tltl srrliintiento psrrrrr. rlt lrr lrurill:reiri:l n:rr'isist:. (lt: l()s scnlir))icntr)s rI: crlPr o rlc lrrs f'tntirsiir5 (l( s(f rctscgr.ri<lo cs l)()r(lue nre(liltlrtc clLl cl stlict() krglir reestIr.rctrr{aI l.l r( l)r( s('rl.r( ianr cle s v rlcl ()tl-(). I)ctengiinr( )rr( )s crl c:rtc llslx'c) (lefensiv() y r( ('sll.lr( lur'r1(c <le llr r'erresentacir-)n (lcl stjck) (ltre cs (.rl)z (l( tcncr la arglesir irItrl.

ellos rlttielen" y. con c)lo. l;t ecrcirin grcsivicla(l igrrul a pr>cler, lgresiviclacl igr.rel e leaiiz.rci<in (le (lcsc()s. El agrcsivo es repcsena(lo coro prxlerrlso, flltrte. Expeliencilr ctre actnrite Lrn cier) r'efLe[z() c(r1 ()[it cr] llt crtal cun<l<r rl nir estr enojackr llora, patalea. ar1l1, n-rLrcl(lc-. el lcsultlclo -pr-otcste, srtele ser qlte taDrbin consigttc inflLrir en el nlLncl9 aclul) pxlru tealizlLl sr.r cleseo. I-e eglesivicleci clcja asi <lc scr siltple (iescarg: y:l(l(lLliere Lln signiflca(l() ei que se xpelll c(r() inst[lnlenk) l]Igic() (nnnip()tcntc cl(la \,cz <1r.re se cle se p()seer trna iclentichcl dc p()tentc.'lcncrDrs (lc cstat n)ner1l un cncaclenl mient() siln)lic(): cleseo cle llgo. necesiclacl pxr.r sentir que cse desei) se rexlizl-ii cle una irlcntirlrt<] (lc scl p()tente/p()(ler()so, y. para rlcanztt la ilusi<in (le (lue se tiene eslr i(lcnti(lir(l: f.lntasas y concltrctus agresivas (lu(,p()rtan s()lrte s cl significaclo cle potencia. IJst r,er c<-r-r'l< Lrn ni() asLnre coll (r(r't.r.llIilici()si(l(l llt i<lentidtl cle cnojurkr r.ircula por la cesu crro si lelntc-ntc lo cstt\ icr'il. () c(n))() irlgLllcn rllt trn golpe (D ]x nltsx grit!n(l() "en cst csi nLtnr-u nris..."..rolrc (lLc constitu\c rrn gcskr. rlcl (Utl cl l)r()pi() sUjct() es tDll)ia'n olservlrcl<r. (le Lrn slrpuest() p,.;<lel crre cn rcli(llr(l no l)()scc, l):rrll c()ns(lr
la egresiviclad es !1lptl(h p()r cl sLljck) c(nrx) imlicio clc rl<lminio s<;ltrc l<s ()tr()s y, cspecirLrlcnte. (le (luc sLl (lese() se !a a lealizar. A su vez, cuntk el poclcl solrrc l()s ()tr()s y la c:Lp:rciclacl r:rllr letrlizar los rropios cleseos sc inscrilrc cn cl sistelull nurcisist (lc vaklciones. lir repre sentxci(-)n clel sujeto c(mr() gresi\1) y p()(ler()s() sirve punl lrinclrle ln iclentitlacl cleselthr .S()y filertc. no clbil. l<s <lenrs nre ticDc'n qre rlrcclecer. ncr sienrkr yo el (lLle sc s()nett: slls (lesc()s. P()r tanto. so)' \'ali()s(. L.t Jgre\i\ i
t1r.re

rlecl lta perrniticlo selir al sujcto clc la crnclicin clc sufrilticnto ncisist. de verse c()m() imp()lente. cll.lil. inrlrpez cle realizr'sLs clesers. s(neti(l() a fi rrras cle las (luc depe)(le, nr> r'lirso. e inve(ir la silulcirin. l)e este trtockr, Lr rtgrcsivirlacl. rccstnr(trri l iclettiLl.rtl ctcl rtrjct,, \ l.t tlrl r)lr,, Ertc cs cl pa rcl tlc- lrr agresivirl;rtl cr)D\tt lslnntutl() sintblico p.nu leltct'(1r unu tL'pt'(s(,lltat. (j t dcl slt.l?tr) (lue ( ()nsirlLt ir.i el ce lrllecleckrr' cicl < ull ex.tnrinlLreuos lus rlistintas conrlicior'rcs (lu( :r(tivun lu uglesiviclacl.

AN(iUSTIAS

t)Ii AUTocoNSriRvct(-rN

(k l,,s,rut(cs (tLre n() h ()plrd() p()r Lr s(,Ir.i()n 1iurc.k ]i1)uir Ir \( [..i\rlr{l :L lir l)rl.n)n dc rnuirrte. \' l)]() (,1 ut)i||1ir(],).,\gresi\ i(lxLl \"pLrlsir1 (i( \,,1r \r.rlr,l.r,l .i\Lnlr,L.,1 .l1|,! Lr lll)i(1((nn{)in(lis()(iirlrc]l prinripn) rle lx \ itlll(h(l: L ir, , r , ! r .rl r ri, '. r,,( r.rl (lc Lr !ilxli(lx(|. (lc h ir(i\i(ir(l \ (l( )ir xgr(,sr|i(lx(l 1l-irt;r.hc, l,rrr t,.,rt l,,ir l'.i,.1 ,,,,., , \r\)| !)lr\'l:r irgrcsl\ i(Lrd vexsc. lillnl)r(1). (:l.rncier. l9tl.r
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Cuenr:k> algrrien sc asLlst:r, ( utlquicl.l qrc se Ll cust hlo -ngustils c()n(lracas. xngustis perse(Lrl()ri1s en (llre se Ve il lils figLrxs exl