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Critical Thinking Portfolio

Elizabeth Appleton ID:001145410

Lance Grigg ED4391B: Critical thinking in education July 23th, 2013

Critical Thinking Portfolio

Critical Thinking Portfolio

Definitions of Critical Thinking ............................................................................................3 Critical Thinking Teaching Strategies ..................................................................................4 Three Critical Inquiry Questions ..........................................................................................9 See-I for the Intellectual Standards ..................................................................................10 Current Event Analysis ......................................................................................................13 Critical Thinking Lesson Plan ..............................................................................................15

Critical Thinking Portfolio What is Critical Thinking? From the Literature

Critical thinking is thinking that facilitates judgments because it relies on criteria, is self correcting and is sensitive to context. Matt Lipman (Nosich, 2012) We use the term critical inquiry to mean inquiry that is no essentially the retrieval of information but rather a process of reaching conclusions, making decisions and solving problems. (Case & Clark, 2009) Critical thinking is a capacity to work with complex ideas whereby a person can make effective provision of evidence to justify a reasonable judgement. (Moon, 2008) My definition Critical thinking involves deepening understanding and challenging perspectives by asking key questions, gathering accurate evidence and reflecting on your thinking process in order to come to a reasoned conclusion about the question at issue .

Case, R., & Clark, P. (2009). The anthology of social studies, issues and strategies for secondary teachers. (Vol. 2, p. 141). Vancouver: Pacific Educational Pr. Moon , J. (2008). Critical thinking: An exploration of theory and practice. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Nosich, G. M. (2012). Learning to think things through, a guide to critical thinking across the curriculum. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson College Div.

Critical Thinking Portfolio

Critical Thinking Teaching Strategies

1. SEE-I method This method is used to clarify understanding of any concepts, ideas or issues that students are exploring. In this activity students will follow the basic structure of SEE-I, which is State, Elaborate, Examples, and Image in order to further clarify their understanding of a concept or issue. First they must state the meaning in a brief and succinct phrase. Then they will elaborate on their brief phrase in two to three sentences. They will then give an example of their own which clarifies what they are trying to say as well as a counter example. Finally they will illustrate the meaning of the concept with an image of their own. This method is extremely beneficial to use in the classroom because it allows students to clarify their own understanding of concepts or issues that they are studying while communicating it to others as well. It can be used to help them gain more information and understanding on certain concepts, for example, when trying to formulate their main points for writing a paper. It could also serve as an excellent culminating activity to a unit by having groups of students use the SEE-I method with a specific concept that they will present to the class as review to solidify understanding for a test. 2. Heading Translations In this activity students are given a heading from a text, article, or other literature and their task is to generate a list of questions that could be asked or

Critical Thinking Portfolio

answered in that piece of text. Once the list of questions has been generated the students will then share them with the class. After sharing they will keep their questions in mind as they read the passage of text and see if any of the questions are answered. If the questions remained unanswered after reading the text they will look to other outside sources to answer them. In the classroom this could be used as activity for an expository reading or when introducing a new concept or issue to your students. For example in music you could be studying a specific composers life and have a passage of text for students to read. They would follow the process outlined above and it would be a great way to initially introduce them to a composer and get their questions that they have about him or her answered right away. It is an activity that gets your students engaged and inquiring about the material right away. 3. Critical Reading Activity In this activity students can be in groups of two to no more than four. They will be given a text or passage of writing that they must read together as a group. However, every group member will have a different role during the reading. One member will be the reader that will read the text out loud to the group. Another member will be designated to actively take notes as the text is being read. Depending on the group size another student could be asked to summarize what has been read in his or her own words. Anyone who does not have a role can be an extra note taker or add to the summary after the reading.

Critical Thinking Portfolio As each chunk is read members will perform their role and then switch into a new role for the next reading. This way everyone gets a chance to listen, read, write and talk, which will hit all of the different learning styles of each student.

This activity can be done with any reading that must be done in class. For example it could be used when reading a section in a text, newspaper article, or an essay. In music you could use this activity to introduce students to the elements to look for when listening to a composition. They would read about each element and follow the critical reading process. After they have completed this activity they would have an understanding of and be more comfortable with the basic elements they need to look for when doing a listening analysis of a composition. 4. Reasoning Map The reasoning map is used to figure out the logic behind an argument for a certain issue or question. It allows the students to explore both sides of the argument and come to a reasoned conclusion as to what they believe about the issue or question at hand. This provides a sense of objectivity for the student and they are able to explore the question and issues without the influence of heavy biases and opinions. It is very important however that when using this activity your students are very clear on what you said and why you said it especially when dealing with controversial issues so there is no misunderstanding.

Critical Thinking Portfolio This is a great activity to use as a way to introduce and explore more controversial issues that may been seen in society outside of the classroom. Students could be given an issue such as abortion, legalization of marijuana or

capital punishment and they will be able to develop questions about it, research the arguments and logic for each position taken on it and come to a conclusion for them. They would then present their position to the class and explain the evidence that supports the reasoned conclusion they came to. 5. SQ3R Critical Reading Activity In this activity students are given a section of a text or piece of literature as an introduction to a topic or concept. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. First students will survey the text for headings, subheadings or visuals to get the general picture. From each of those elements they will develop questions about them and the information that will be presented in them. With those questions in mind the students will actively read each section and look for evidence that will answer their questions. As they are reading they will write in their own words the answers to their questions underneath each questions. Finally they will test their comprehension by asking each other the questions they had for the chapter and trying to answer them without looking at the answers they found. This activity allows students to approach a subject in an inquiry based way and is a great way for them to test their comprehension of the concepts they read. This would be a

Critical Thinking Portfolio great way to introduce a topic in any subject and get students asking questions and brainstorming about it before they dive into it. For example if the subject being studied was penguins students could find a text and use the SQ3R method to gain an initial exposure to the subject in an inquiry based way. When they finish the process they will

know that they have a basic comprehension of the subject and are read to delve deeper into.

Critical Thinking Portfolio Critical Inquiry Questions for Grade 2 1. What is rhythm? Are there patterns in rhythm? 2. What are the directions of a melody? Do melodies have high and low sounds? 3. Is there expression in music? Does music reflect our feelings?

Critical Thinking Portfolio


SEE-I for the Intellectual Standards

Clarity If a statement is clear you and others easily understand it and it is simple to see what is meant by it. If the implications and consequences of an idea are easily seen then there is a sense of clarity present, which will help foster a deeper understanding. When trying to have clarity in your statements it is important to be void of any emotions that would inhibit your ability to think clearly such as fear or doubt. One way you could gain more clarity in your statements is by restating what you mean in other words so you clearly understand for yourself what you are trying to say. Being obscure or ambiguous in your writing creates misunderstanding and the intentions of what you are trying to state are unclear making them irrelevant and inaccurate. Clarity is like looking into a pool of clear water and being able to see everything that is moving and going on in its depths. Accuracy A statement is accurate if it describes the reality of a situation and the evidence supporting it is relevant and correct to the required level of detail. In order to ensure accuracy all sources must be researched, evaluated and reflected on not only for their validity, but also in regards to your own personal beliefs on the matter. When our own attitudes of wishful thinking and generalizations come into play we run the risk of becoming inaccurate in our thinking.

Critical Thinking Portfolio In order to be accurate you must research and consult reliable sources before


coming to a reasoned judgement for yourself. For example when reading a newspaper article you would need to research where the data came from and if their sources are credible before you can decide if the information is accurate. Being inaccurate comes from over generalizing about ideas or not making sure your sources are reliable. For example imagine you are in a city and while driving a person rudely cuts you off. From that experience you decide that all drivers in that city are incompetent and rude, which in reality is not an accurate opinion at all. Accuracy is like a measuring tape that you must use to measure for yourself that your claims and statements are based on the relevant evidence you have gathered. Relevance In order for your thinking to be relevant it must be connected to the statement or idea at hand and also be important in regards to deciding the issue. In any situation a statement can be correct and precise but not relevant to the issue being discussed. That is why its crucial when thinking about a specific issue to make sure that context is present and that you have a distinct purpose in mind so your thinking is relevant to what is being discussed. In regards to your own career how you are treated or what you get paid are very relevant and important to you. There is a specific context and purpose in that situation so it has great relevance. On the other hand for someone else your career and the factors that affect it will not be relevant or important to him or her because they the

Critical Thinking Portfolio context or the purpose in mind is not applicable to them. Relevancy is like grades on a report card. When they are your marks they are of great importance and relevancy whereas if they are someone elses you do not really care because the context and purpose in mind are not pertinent to you. Precision The precision of a statement depends on the level of detail and sufficiency of relevant info that is needed to reason through an issue. What is precise will always be relative to both the purpose of the reasoning and to the context. In order to have


precision you must think in a way that allows you to see the big picture and the specific details that make up that bigger picture so you can make an appropriate reasoned judgement. Being precise is making sure you give all the details. For example saying that you are sick with pneumonia and must stay in the hospital for three days is much more precise than telling someone you are just sick. Being precise is like using a magnifying glass as you can see the big picture without it, but when you use it you can see the little details that make up the relevant info and context needed to make a reasoned judgement about an issue.

Critical Thinking Portfolio Current Event


In this article Gloria Galloway explores the shifts in education as reported in the 2011 National Household Survey of Statistics Canada and the effects they are having on the workforce in Canada. The results of the survey show that in general Canadians are pursuing secondary education in order to get better job opportunities. The more specific results show that younger Canadian women now hold 60% of university degrees while men still hold the majority in the trades. The article does state that this kind of survey is less reliable in being accurate than a long-term census, but it still gives a broad representation of the education trends in Canada. Galloway determines that this shift in education and work is occurring because more Canadian people are seeing the value in gaining a higher education. I chose this article because I think the writing demonstrates critical thinking and is a great vehicle to get students thinking critically about education and work in Canada. Getting students to dissect the elements of critical thinking found in the article would be a great way to start the critical thinking process. For example students could look at the information, which is an element of reasoning, found in the article and then bring in the intellectual standard of accuracy to judge if the information is relevant and sufficient to make a conclusion. The author even addresses this importance of accuracy of information, when she talks about how the survey results may not provide the most accurate representation of what is going on in Canada when compared to other survey methods. Another element to touch on with students would be the implications and

Critical Thinking Portfolio consequences of Canadians pursuing post secondary education to get better jobs. Students would be able to reason through the evidence given and come Students could look at the trends found in the survey and then apply the


elements of reasoning to them. Questions such as Why are more people choosing to go to postsecondary? or Are the roles in education for men and women changing in Canada?. They can then take it a step further by developing related questions such as What factors are causing people to choose postsecondary education?. By developing questions like these students will be able to challenge the typical views about work and education in Canada and also judge them against the intellectual standards to see if the claims made in the article are accurate, clear, have depth and are sufficient. They will then use the article and other supporting sources to gather to use the elements of reasoning through evidence in order to finally come to a conclusion of their own as to why these shifts are happening. This process will engage the students with the issue and they will learn that critical thinking is something that is relevant to them and can be applied to events that are going on in their own world.

Critical Thinking Portfolio


Lesson Plan #3
Grade/Subject: Grade 7 Choral Unit: Show Tunes Lesson Duration: 57


General Learning Outcomes: SINGING - To discover, develop and evaluate their talents and abilities relative to singing, and to establish and reinforce correct vocal techniques and skills.

READING- To interpret rhythm, melody, harmony, form and expression as they appear in musical notation through both.
VALUING - To become aware of the history of music and the implications of music in our society with respect to music careers, its vocational and leisure uses, and to grow in the appreciation, understanding, and enjoyment of music as a source of personal fulfillment

Specific Learning Outcomes:

Vocal 3 Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants Vocal 6 Develop an awareness of balance, blend and texture within the ensemble Vocal 14 Match pitches Vocal 17 identify, after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: M2, M3 ascending and descending m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending Interpretive 2 Listen to, analyze, interpret, discuss and perform works of representative composers
(Renaissance to Twentieth Century)

Students will be able to:

1. Identify (B) after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: M2, M3 ascending and descending m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending (P) during warm ups (C). (Cognition) 2. Match (B) pitch with the members of the section while singing (P) warmups and repertoire (C). (Cognition/Psychomotor) 3. Demonstrate (B) properly formed vowels and consonants (P) while singing the repertoire (C). (Cognition, Psychomotor) ASSESSMENTS
Observations: Breathing Posture Vowel and diphthong formation Pitch accuracy Key Question: Are Broadway musicals better than opera?

Related Questions: o o o o What are the characteristics of each genre? Is one more expressive than the other? Is one more dramatic than the other? What is the historical development of each

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Written/Performance Assessments: Vowel and diphthong checklist Passport


Resource #1: Alberta Choral 10-20-30 Program of Studies Resource #2: Life is a Happy Song score Resource #3: Double Trouble


Score Life is a Happy Song Score - Double Trouble Score Rhythm of LIfe

Checklist for vowels and dipthongs Warmup sheet Broadway passport

PROCEDURE Introduction (_5_min.):

Hook/Attention Grabber: Q: When you hear the word Opera what is the first thing that comes to your mind? Everything is sung all the way through There are two main styles signing in opera o Recitative speech like, moves the story along, builds up to aria o Aria the very lyrical, outburst of emotion o Always end in tragedy There is no one more fitting to tell you more about opera than Bugs Bunny himself o o point out when the characters are singing in recitative and aria

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Q: What are some characteristics of Broadway Musicals? Q: What are the characteristics of music used in a musical and how are they expressed? Expectations for Learning and Behaviour: The following Classroom norms will be reinforced. o Listen to the Teacher o Respect Yourself and Others o Be Prepared with materials o Respect the room and instruments o Eat food elsewhere o Leave your gum in the garbage o Have Fun making great music together! Students will raise their hands and wait to be called upon before they answer question or make a comment Advance Organizer/Agenda: 1. 2. 3. 4. Opera vs. Musicals Warmups Castle on a Cloud Lonely Goatherd

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Transition to Body: Today we are going to start a project where we are going to be deciding if Opera is better than musicals and vice versa.

Body (_45_min.):
Learning Activity #1: Exploring Opera vs. Musicals In this activity students will critically think about if opera is better than musicals and vice versa They have already studied the characteristics of both so now it is up to them to sort through the evidence they have gathered and make a reasoned judgment as to which genre is better. Using the evidence gathered in their passports they will create a reasoning map based on the two genres. Once they come to their conclusion of which genre is better they will create a poster that portrays their conclusion and the reasons why. This will be an activity that spans a few lessons as we have limited time per lesson to work on it.

Warm ups Stretches - Whatever student is standing up and ready will come up and lead the stretches. - I will guide them as needed. 2. Sing E, Sing Aye, Sing Ah Q: Why are we using hand gestures during this exercise? Somewhere over the Rainbow - Learning it to sing with the handbell choir - Remind them that I only want them to breathe on rests, commas and periods. - Remind to be musical in their singing. Q: What does it mean to you when I ask you to sing with musicality? Assessments/Differentiation: checklist on vowels observation of posture If students are struggling I will make sure that they are standing beside a student who is a stronger singer so they have that added support. 3. 1.

Learning Activity #2: Castle on a Cloud Q: Who remembers what a musical phrase is? Q: Can you point out an example in the score Remind them of the dynamic markings at the very end. Want our sound to fade out but keep the energy going. Be very aware of if they are making very clear the ends of words. M.35 - transition may need some work M.42 boys and girls line in alto M.55 transition M. 67 - Discuss how Cosettes mother would be talking at this point (She is dying so it would be like a whisper) o May have to ask for less alto there M. 71 transition need to hear altos coming in and sopranos need to be stronger with that first note. Remind them of the dynamic markings at the very end. Want our sound to fade out but keep the energy

Critical Thinking Portfolio

going. Assessments/Differentiation Observation of vowels, posture and pitch accuracy. Want to see more musicality in their singing dynamics, facial expressions etc. If a part is struggling we will review it more.


Transition: Good work on that song today guys! You can put that away and get out Lonely Goatherd. I need you all sitting with proper posture music ready to go in 10,9,8 . . . Learning Activity #3: Lonely Goatherd Q: What was the main thing we talked about with this song last week? Q: How can we tell the story while singing? Q: What made the ending more exciting last week?

Remind them about not holding the tied notes on the last page Ask for lots of diction throughout the piece. I want to see them tell the story through their faces. We will run through the piece to begin with. M. 17 altos need to be stronger on that first note M. 21 listen for sopranos that they are singing the harmony M.29 be very clear in conducting of the piano dynamic marking so they can follow. Last page conduct the build in dynamics clearly. M.51 listen for the proper rhythmic pattern in the pickup to that measure. Listen for a nice unison on the last note.

Assessments/Differentiation: Observation of vowels, posture. Observe that they are telling the story with their faces If a part is struggling we will review it more

Sponge Activity: Work If I only had a brain. o Again remind them to tell the story with their faces and have energy! o Try from memory o Let them know I will be cuing them less in the body percussion parts to see if they can do it themselves. o M. 24 Remind them of the text with the thoughts Id be thinking . . . o Remember to model the actions as a mirror for them. Right hand action = L.H for me o M.45 let them try the body percussion themselves without me modeling with them o Remember to have a clear cut off for them in measure 73. Q: What should we be doing when singing in unison? o Run the piece through

Closure ( _5_min.):
Consolidation/Assessment of Learning: Q: What are some things we can listen for when analyzing a piece of music ?

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Q: We look for the same kind of things when listening to our own repertoire? Feedback From Students Did you like the listening activity? What is one new thing you learned in rehearsal today?


Feedback To Students: Praise the things they did well and give them one thing to think about for the next rehearsal.

Transition To Next Lesson: Tomorrow we will be interval detectives in warmups and learn how to identify different intervals. We will keep working on our Broadway passports as well. Reflection: