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Thick-Walled Cylinders

(Notes,3.14)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Thick-Wall Cylinders 1
Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 2
Applications
p
i
= 0
Submarine
Vacuum chamber
Shrink fit
Buried pipe
p
o
= 0
Gun barrel
Liquid- or gas-carrying pipe
Hydraulic cylinder
Gas storage tank

r
r
z
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
p
o
For a thin-walled pressure vessel, r
i
/t > 10,
so hoop stress (
t
) variation in the radial
direction is minimal
Radial stress (
r
) is equal to -p on the inner surface, zero on
the outer surface, and varies in between.

r
is negligible compared to
t
.
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels (Review)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 3
r
o
r
i

t
p
t

r
i
t
pr
t
o =
2
i
l
pr
t
o =
(hoop stress) (longitudinal stress)
For thick-walled pressure vessels
Maximum shear stress
If the ends of the cylinder are capped, must include
longitudinal stress.
Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 4
t
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
p
o
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
( ) /
i i
i o o o o i
r
o i
p r p r r r p p r
r r
o
+
=

2 2 2 2 2
2 2
( ) /
i i
i o o o o i
t
o i
p r p r r r p p r
r r
o

=

2 2
2 2
i
i o o
l
o i
p r p r
r r
o

=

max
1
( )
2
t r
t o o =
Examples of closed cylinders include pressure vessels and
submarines.
Examples of open cylinders include gun barrels and shrink fits.
Radial displacement of a thick-walled cylinder
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 5
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) 1 1
( )
E Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
i i o o i o i o
r
o i o i
r p r p r p p r r
u
E r r E r r r
v v
v
+
= +

=
=
u
r
Special case: Internal pressure only (p
o
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 6
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 & 1
i i
i o i o
r t
o i o i
r p r r p r
r r r r r r
o o
| | | |
= = +
| |

\ . \ .
max
2 2
max
2 2
( ) @
( )
( ) @
( )
r i i
i o
t i i
o i
p r r
r r
p r r
r r
o
o
= =
+
= =

+ +

=
2
2
2 2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
r
r
r r E
r r p
u
o
i o
i
i
r
v v
) (
2
) (
) (
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
i o
o i i
r r r
i o
i o i i
r r r
r r E
r r p
u
r r
r r
E
r p
u
o
i

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
=
=
=
v

t
/p
i
Compare previous result with thin-walled pressure vessel case
(p
o
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 7
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
i
2 2
2
( )
@
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
for t r (thin walled)
2
(2 ) (2 )
(inside)
i o
t i i
o i
o i
o i
i i
i o
t i i
o i o i i i
i i
i
t i i
i i
i i
t
r r
p r r
r r
r r t
t r r
r r t
r r
p p
r r r r r t r t
r r
r
p p
r t r t
p r
t
o
o
o
o
+
= =

= +
=
( + +
+

= =
+ + +
<<
( +

= =
=
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
Continued
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 8
2
2 2
2 2
i
2
2
@
( )
2 2
( )( ) ( )
for t r (thin walled)
2
(2 )
(outside)
same on inside and outside
i i
t o
o i
o i
o i
i i i i
t
o i o i i i
i i
t
i
i i
t
t
p r
r r
r r
r r t
t r r
p r p r
r r r r r t r t
p r
r t
p r
t
o
o
o
o
o
= =

= +
=
= =
+ + +
<<
=
=

r
o
r
i

t
p
i
Special case: External pressure only (p
i
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 9
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 & 1
o o
o i o i
r t
o i o i
r p r r p r
r r r r r r
o o
| | | |
= = +
| |

\ . \ .
max
2
max
2 2
( ) @
2
( ) @
( )
r o o
o o
t i
o i
p r r
p r
r r
r r
o
o
= =
= =

+ +

=
2
2
2 2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
r
r
r r E
r r p
u
i
i o
o
o
r
v v
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

=
=
=
v
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
) (
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
i o
i o o o
r r r
i o
i o o
r r r
r r
r r
E
r p
u
r r E
r r p
u
o
i
r
o
r
i

t
p
o
Find the tangential, radial, and longitudinal stress for a pipe with
an outer diameter of 5 inches, wall thickness of 0.5 inches, and
internal pressure of 4000 psi.
Example 1
Thick-Wall Cylinders 10
Find the maximum allowable internal pressure for a pipe with
outer radius of 3 inches and wall thickness of 0.25 inches if the
maximum allowable shear stress is 4000 psi.
Example 2
Thick-Wall Cylinders 11
Press and Shrink Fits
(3.16)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Press and Shrink Fits 12
Assume inner member has slightly larger outer radius than
inner radius of outer member.
R is the shared radius between the two pieces before they are
pressed together.
Interference pressure will develop upon assembly.
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 13
R
r
i
p
u
ri
r
o
R
p
u
ro
Inner member (external
pressure only)
Outer member (internal
pressure only)
Press together or
shrink inner
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 14
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
(inner)
(outer)
For compatibility
1 1
i
ri i
i i
o
ro o
o o
ro ri
o i
o i
o o i i
R r pR
u
E R r
r R pR
u
E r R
u u
r R R r
pR
E r R E R r
v
v
o
o v v
(
+
=
(


(
+
= +
(


+ =
(
| | | |
+ +
= + +
( | |

\ . \ .

Once is known we can calculate p, or vice versa.
Typically, is very small, approximately 0.001 in. or less.
If the materials are the same:
E = E
i
= E
o
=
i
=
o
If the inner member is not hollow, r
i
= 0.
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 15
2 2 3
2 2 2 2
( ) 2
( )( )
o i
o i
r r pR
E r R R r
o
(

=
(


2
2 2
2
( )
o
o
r pR
E r R
o
(
=
(


A solid shaft is to be press fit into a gear hub. Find the maximum
stresses in the shaft and the hub. Both are made of carbon steel
(E = 30x10
6
psi, = 0.3).
Solid shaft
r
i
= 0 in, R = 0.5 in. (nominal)
Tolerances: +2.3x10
-3
/+1.8x10
-3
in.
Gear hub
R = 0.5 in. (nominal), r
o
= 1 in
Tolerances: +0.8x10
-3
/0 in.
Example 3
Press and Shrink Fits 16
A bronze bushing 50 mm in outer diameter and 30 mm in inner
diameter is to be pressed into a hollow steel cylinder of 100 mm
outer diameter. Determine the tangential stresses for the steel
and bronze at the boundary between the two parts.
E
b
= 105 Gpa
E
s
= 210 Gpa
= 0.5
radial interference = 0.025 mm
Example 4
Press and Shrink Fits 17