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# Thick-Walled Cylinders

(Notes,3.14)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Thick-Wall Cylinders 1
Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 2
Applications
p
i
= 0
Submarine
Vacuum chamber
Shrink fit
Buried pipe
p
o
= 0
Gun barrel
Liquid- or gas-carrying pipe
Hydraulic cylinder
Gas storage tank

r
r
z
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
p
o
For a thin-walled pressure vessel, r
i
/t > 10,
so hoop stress (
t
direction is minimal
r
) is equal to -p on the inner surface, zero on
the outer surface, and varies in between.

r
is negligible compared to
t
.
Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels (Review)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 3
r
o
r
i

t
p
t

r
i
t
pr
t
o =
2
i
l
pr
t
o =
(hoop stress) (longitudinal stress)
For thick-walled pressure vessels
Maximum shear stress
If the ends of the cylinder are capped, must include
longitudinal stress.
Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 4
t
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
p
o
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
( ) /
i i
i o o o o i
r
o i
p r p r r r p p r
r r
o
+
=

2 2 2 2 2
2 2
( ) /
i i
i o o o o i
t
o i
p r p r r r p p r
r r
o

=

2 2
2 2
i
i o o
l
o i
p r p r
r r
o

=

max
1
( )
2
t r
t o o =
Examples of closed cylinders include pressure vessels and
submarines.
Examples of open cylinders include gun barrels and shrink fits.
Radial displacement of a thick-walled cylinder
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 5
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) 1 1
( )
E Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
i i o o i o i o
r
o i o i
r p r p r p p r r
u
E r r E r r r
v v
v
+
= +

=
=
u
r
Special case: Internal pressure only (p
o
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders (3.14)
Thick-Wall Cylinders 6
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 & 1
i i
i o i o
r t
o i o i
r p r r p r
r r r r r r
o o
| | | |
= = +
| |

\ . \ .
max
2 2
max
2 2
( ) @
( )
( ) @
( )
r i i
i o
t i i
o i
p r r
r r
p r r
r r
o
o
= =
+
= =

+ +

=
2
2
2 2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
r
r
r r E
r r p
u
o
i o
i
i
r
v v
) (
2
) (
) (
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
i o
o i i
r r r
i o
i o i i
r r r
r r E
r r p
u
r r
r r
E
r p
u
o
i

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
=
=
=
v

t
/p
i
Compare previous result with thin-walled pressure vessel case
(p
o
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 7
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
i
2 2
2
( )
@
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
for t r (thin walled)
2
(2 ) (2 )
(inside)
i o
t i i
o i
o i
o i
i i
i o
t i i
o i o i i i
i i
i
t i i
i i
i i
t
r r
p r r
r r
r r t
t r r
r r t
r r
p p
r r r r r t r t
r r
r
p p
r t r t
p r
t
o
o
o
o
+
= =

= +
=
( + +
+

= =
+ + +
<<
( +

= =
=
r
o
r
i

t
p
i
Continued
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 8
2
2 2
2 2
i
2
2
@
( )
2 2
( )( ) ( )
for t r (thin walled)
2
(2 )
(outside)
same on inside and outside
i i
t o
o i
o i
o i
i i i i
t
o i o i i i
i i
t
i
i i
t
t
p r
r r
r r
r r t
t r r
p r p r
r r r r r t r t
p r
r t
p r
t
o
o
o
o
o
= =

= +
=
= =
+ + +
<<
=
=

r
o
r
i

t
p
i
Special case: External pressure only (p
i
= 0)
Thick-Walled Cylinders
Thick-Wall Cylinders 9
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 & 1
o o
o i o i
r t
o i o i
r p r r p r
r r r r r r
o o
| | | |
= = +
| |

\ . \ .
max
2
max
2 2
( ) @
2
( ) @
( )
r o o
o o
t i
o i
p r r
p r
r r
r r
o
o
= =
= =

+ +

=
2
2
2 2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
r
r
r r E
r r p
u
i
i o
o
o
r
v v
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

=
=
=
v
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
) (
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
i o
i o o o
r r r
i o
i o o
r r r
r r
r r
E
r p
u
r r E
r r p
u
o
i
r
o
r
i

t
p
o
Find the tangential, radial, and longitudinal stress for a pipe with
an outer diameter of 5 inches, wall thickness of 0.5 inches, and
internal pressure of 4000 psi.
Example 1
Thick-Wall Cylinders 10
Find the maximum allowable internal pressure for a pipe with
outer radius of 3 inches and wall thickness of 0.25 inches if the
maximum allowable shear stress is 4000 psi.
Example 2
Thick-Wall Cylinders 11
Press and Shrink Fits
(3.16)
MAE 316 Strength of Mechanical Components
Y. Zhu
Press and Shrink Fits 12
Assume inner member has slightly larger outer radius than
R is the shared radius between the two pieces before they are
pressed together.
Interference pressure will develop upon assembly.
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 13
R
r
i
p
u
ri
r
o
R
p
u
ro
Inner member (external
pressure only)
Outer member (internal
pressure only)
Press together or
shrink inner
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 14
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
(inner)
(outer)
For compatibility
1 1
i
ri i
i i
o
ro o
o o
ro ri
o i
o i
o o i i
R r pR
u
E R r
r R pR
u
E r R
u u
r R R r
pR
E r R E R r
v
v
o
o v v
(
+
=
(

(
+
= +
(

+ =
(
| | | |
+ +
= + +
( | |

\ . \ .

Once is known we can calculate p, or vice versa.
Typically, is very small, approximately 0.001 in. or less.
If the materials are the same:
E = E
i
= E
o
=
i
=
o
If the inner member is not hollow, r
i
= 0.
Press and Shrink Fits (3.16)
Press and Shrink Fits 15
2 2 3
2 2 2 2
( ) 2
( )( )
o i
o i
r r pR
E r R R r
o
(

=
(

2
2 2
2
( )
o
o
r pR
E r R
o
(
=
(

A solid shaft is to be press fit into a gear hub. Find the maximum
stresses in the shaft and the hub. Both are made of carbon steel
(E = 30x10
6
psi, = 0.3).
Solid shaft
r
i
= 0 in, R = 0.5 in. (nominal)
Tolerances: +2.3x10
-3
/+1.8x10
-3
in.
Gear hub
R = 0.5 in. (nominal), r
o
= 1 in
Tolerances: +0.8x10
-3
/0 in.
Example 3
Press and Shrink Fits 16
A bronze bushing 50 mm in outer diameter and 30 mm in inner
diameter is to be pressed into a hollow steel cylinder of 100 mm
outer diameter. Determine the tangential stresses for the steel
and bronze at the boundary between the two parts.
E
b
= 105 Gpa
E
s
= 210 Gpa
= 0.5