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Jon Lee - 1

PIRATES Charts
Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Politics
Believed queens and kings came from the City of Gods. Each province had its own governor. One of the first places to create law codes that came from the king and queen. First war recorded happened around 3200 BC, but wars did not happen often until 2500BC From about 2350 BC, the political system was based off of honor and warfare. The rivers were fed water by many tributaries and drained large amounts of water from mountainous regions. There was never a regular supply of water, but the soil was enriched over the years by layers of silt which is material deposited by two rivers. Overland routes will typically follow the Euphrates river banks because the Tigris river banks are steep and difficult. By 5800 BC people were living in southern plains. Covered in a large amount of silt, which caused problems to a lot of man-made irrigation systems. Polytheism; they believed in multiple gods. Believed the world was a flat disc, above it a heaven, there was water on the top side and the bottom side, universe was born from an enormous sea. There was regional variations of their religion. Believed that Elil was the most powerful God. Asked questions about who they were and where they came from, turned to their Gods for answers.

Mesopotamia

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Arts & Literature

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Earliest language written was Sumerian Semitic was an early language spoken. Libraries were extant in towns and temples. Mathematics and science were based on a sextagesimal number system. Songs were written for Gods, but many were to explain important events. Arrowheads, axes, knives, lance points, swords, daggers, clubs, and armor advancements were made. Metal-Copper working tools. Tools for creating glass, and lamps. Tools for water storage. Flood control tools. Known for metal work, woolen textiles, and pottery. Copper, tin, and timber were imported goods traded with dried fish, wool, wheat, and metal goods. Irrigation spread south from Zagros foothills with the Samara and Hadji Mohammad culture from about 5000 BC Sumerian temples functioned as banks. Between the early period and Ur III temples owned up to 1/3 the available land. Patriarchal system. Society was ruled by a council of elders, but over time had fell. Only royal offspring and sons of rich families had received schooling. Sons were taught how to trade and daughters were taught how to do housekeeping and cooking. Had ceremonies each month, theme was decided by at least 6 important factors.

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Ancient Egypt
Old and New Kingdoms (Nile River Valley) Politics
Ancient Egypt had a Absolutismbased government where the pharaoh ruled with despotism. The Pharaoh had the highest commanding range, followed by the king who headed the military and government, and lastly the vizier who acted as the kings representative and was in charge of civil projects. The country was split into 42 regions called nomes which were governed by nomarchs. There was an Egyptian court ruling house in Thebes Ancient Egypt went to war with the Asiatic Hyksos to push them back to Asia. Wrote the earliest known peace treaty with the Hittites. Ancient Egypt was settled in Northeastern Africa along the lower bed of the Nile River. [Geography] The Ancient Egyptian Civilization was surrounded by rocks, dirt, and sand, specifically in a desert known as the Sahara. The Ancient Egyptian Civilization lived along the Nile River Valley and expanded up and around the river Irrigation was used to expand alongside the Nile River. Animals were used on and to assist the rural life of Ancient Egypt. Egyptians believed in the Afterlife. The Pharaonic rule of Egypt was based on the divine right of kings. The Egyptian Civilization was polytheistic and its pantheon consisted of gods with supernatural powers. Gods were worshipped in cult temples and were called upon for help or protection. If a deceased was judged to be worthy of an afterlife in trial, they would live

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Religion

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on in the afterlife in a spiritual form. There was several Ancient Egyptian religious books such as the Book of the Dead, Book of the Earth, Book of Gates, and Amduat. They developed the writing system called hieroglyphs was the base for their language. The Ancient Egyptians are infamous for their Pyramids and they are notorious for their World Wonder the Great Pyramid and Pyramids of Giza. Egyptian Art not only served as eyecandy, but had its purpose for religious and political affairs. Ancient Egyptians created the wondrous Rosetta Stone which was used to decipher their language. The Egyptians made many Temples, Burial Grounds, and Sacred Halls. Egyptian Scribes labeled items found in their tombs The Story of Sinuhe is known as a classic of Egyptian Literature. One of the earliest civilizations to domesticate animals and developed the concept of animal husbandry. They made a ceramic glaze called faience which was used to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system. The Ancient Egyptians golden ratio was used in many Egyptian constructions. The Ancient Egyptians could perform basic math operations and developed and understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry. The Ancient Egyptians traded with other civilizations to obtain goods not found in their own empire. The Ancient Egyptian Economy was based on redistribution and reciprocity. Civilians were often paid in units of bread and beer. A standard payment consisted of ten loaves of bread and up to two jugs of beer. Foreign exchanges were often weighted and measured as there was no globalized currency.

Arts & Literature

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Society

Farmers were the lowest of the social class, followed by Artists/Craftsmen, then Scribes and Officials. Egyptians viewed all people and genders, aside slaves, equally and everyone was anointed basic rights. Egyptian Women had full potential and could achieve anything they worked for. The majority of Egyptians were farmers. Egyptian houses were often made of mud and bricks, but designed specially to remain cool.

Indus River Valley


Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

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Politics

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Religion

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro shared the same government and were considered a single state. There was multiple rulers, not just one and Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa had separate rulers. There was no recorded wars, however there is speculation that a war could have been what ended the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The State Structure was based on what modernly is known as being a City State. The weak government structure of the state contributed to the fall of the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro people. They settled around the Indus River where the climate was moderate and soil was rich. The groups had no means of drastic expansion. The Geography of the land matched that of Egypts and Perus, with rich farming land, highlands, desert, and ocean. The minor migrations done by the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were only to sport the need of trade, their biggest market. The Harappa expanded alongside the river bed of the Indus, with over 500 small sites. They believed in a God known as Pashupati, which was the Lord of Cattle. They have developed seals and swastikas for their religion. Harappa people worshipped a goddess that symbolized fertility. There was no religious buildings or structures aside from one possible temple in Mohenjo-Daro. The Harappa buried their dead and in the later period of their time, also cremated their dead and buried the ashes in urns. Many of the Indian Religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism are believed to have derived from the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daros prehistoric religion. They created many statues,

Arts & Literature

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sculptures, and seals with extraordinary skill using terracotta, bronze and steatite. Clay tablets were used for literature and wrote on by scribes. They had made musical instruments, toys, and designed many games and pottery. They made figurines of women dancers, cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. They used many different crafts like shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed steatite bead making to create necklaces, bangles, and other accessories. They created a brick-lined sewer system, one of the worlds first ever made. They invented the worlds first toilets and bathroom fixtures that had working plumbing. They developed combs, soaps, and medicines. Their main scientific study was dentistry. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. They innovated new ways to create metals and discovered many techniques in metallurgy. They produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin with ease. Trade was ran commercially down the Indus River. They traded with cities as far away as Mesopotamia. Jewelry, Cotton, and Wood was often traded and may have been used as currency. The Indus civilization's economy depended significantly on trade. The Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations shared their economy with each other. Many people lived in sturdy brick houses that had as many as three floors. Dancing was thought to be the societys way of expressing themselves. Society was diverse in ethnicity/race. Society was urbanized and was much

Technology

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Society

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like modern day cities today. Peoples homes were open and often roofless with only small covered lanes and rooms. The majority of these groups of people worked on civil projects as occupations.

Huang He River Valley


Shang and Zhou Dynasties Politics
Rulers/Kings were titled Wang in which translates to King in English. Government was chosen based on religion and military power.

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The king had power over everything. The king was both the political and religious leader The king directed life and work to peasants. The Huang He River stretches more than 2,900 miles across China. There was flooding around Yellow River. Shang and Zhou Dynasties may have migrated from Yin-Shang before the 19th century. By 5000BCE communities had spread through all of China Migrated towards agricultural villages. Believed in supernatural forces: To talk to Gods and receive help. Shang Ti was the head of the Gods. Worship of ancestors was very important. Sacrifices were made to the Gods and ancestors. Religion was a major part in China. Zhon literature was very important. There were a few books on the history of Zhou but the Book of History was the actual history book. Most writings have been destroyed by the first empire. Lacked written language for a long period of time. They used Woodblock printing during Tang Dynasty and later a different type of printing invented during the Song Dynasty. Iron metallurgy was used for farming tools, utensils, and weapons because of its strength. Advances in the invention of paper. Created waterwheel First to gather silk from silkworms. Iron tools which were cheaper than bronze but better for war. Civilization mainly focused on day to day agriculture rather than spontaneous growth. The Silk Road was a major part of what helped the agriculture growth. People would travel on The Silk Road for trade. Agriculture gained immediate profits due to fertile soil. They used natural water to water

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plants until about the sixth century B.C. Fathers always arranges marriages for their daughters. Fathers control the amount of education their children get. Fathers choose carriers for their sons. Mothers/Females are unable to own property. All rituals are performed by males.

Society

Mesoamerica and South America


Olmecs and Chavin Politics
Known as the first major civilization in Mexico Located in tropical lowlands of southern Mexico Olmec cities were primarily religious. The cities had specialized monuments/buildings/palaces/plazas

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The three main civilizations developed independently. First Olmec location San Lorenzo was abandoned around 900BCE around the same time La Venta rose. Destruction of monuments in San Lorenzo happened around 950BCE which could indicate an uprising or invasion, but it could also be environmental changes. La Venta became the busiest Olmec center lasting from 900BCE to about 400BCE. La Venta kept regular Olmec traditions but along with displays of power and wealth. Olmec people were found extended from Tuxtlas Mountains to Chontalpa in the east. There was a combination of religious rulers from full-time priests to shamans The Olmec Dragon was the first God. There is no documentation to show mythology so they may have based their mythology on interpretations of surviving monumental and portable arts. Small ceremony figurines, stone carvings, and pots were associated with religious beliefs. People got close to their Gods for bloodletting and human sacrifices. Most recognized art was the enormous helmeted head One of the first western civilizations to develop a writing system Language written in Zapotec Olmec culture was first known as an art style and this continues to be the hallmark of the culture. A lot of the art is naturalistic. Domestication of corn, beans, and squash. Irrigation and drainage canals were used for farms. Writing system which contained hieroglyphics, and good mathematical understandings. Invention of zero concept. Large ceremonial arts. Did long distance trading. Traded high value items like

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greenstone or marine shell. Even though Olmec was not the largest trading organization in Mesoamerica, the Olmec period had a significant expansion in trade routes. Olmec money focused on agriculture. San Lorenzo is the center domain. Most of the Olmec people lived in villages similar to what is seen today in Tabasco and Veracruz. Villages were located on higher grounds and considered several scattered homes. Modest temples would be found in larger villages. Dwellings would consist of a home, a lean-to, and one or more storage pits. A nearby garden would be for medicines and cooking purposes.

Society