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Words Their Way Chapter 1: Developmental Word Knowledge Braid of Literacy: Oral language/stories, writing, spelling/correct sequences of letters

in words Word Study: Teaches students how to look at words so that they can construct an ever-deepening understanding of how spelling works to represent sound and meaning Purpose of Word Study Students develop general knowledge of English spelling Increases specific knowledge of words

Spelling Error Clusters 1. Alphabet match of letters/sounds a. Alphabet represents relationship between letters and sounds 2. Letter patterns/syllable patters a. Guide the grouping of letters 3. Words related in meaning a. Morphemes are smallest unit of meaning in language **NO ONE SIZE FITS ALL PROGRAM** rather we should teach within childs zone of understanding (instructional level) ZPD: build on what they already know, to learn what they need to know next, in order to move forward 1. 2. 3. Emergent Spelling (2-5) Not reading conventionally/not been exposed to formal reading instruction Pre-phonic or little to no direct relationship between character and sound Letter Name Alphabetic spelling Students formally taught to read Within Word Pattern Spelling Can read/spell correctly because of automatic knowledge of letter sounds/short vowel patterns 4. Syllables and Affixes Consider spelling patterns where syllables meet and meaning units such as affixes 5. Derivational Relations Examine how many words derived from base words/word roots Emergent Readers: Pretend, write scribbles, lack alphabetic principle

Beginning Readers: Partial alphabetic phase, letter sounds, confuse vowels, initial reading/decoding Transitional Readers: Consolidated alphabetic phase, students reading supported by familiarity with frequently occurring letter pattern units, independent level, confirmation/fluency Intermediate/Advanced: Syllables, affixes, derivational relations, fluent writers, good accuracy/speed. Intermediate obsess over one type of book whereas advanced readers are fine with reading any book Words Their Way 1. Learning of phonics, spelling, vocabulary is based on developmental/learning level 2. Learning is based on way naturally inclined to learn through comparing/contrasting word features/consistencies 3. ACTIVE Chapter 2: The Assessment of Orthographic Development Daily opportunities to observe writing To observe reading as well Qualitative spelling inventories o Know when to stop o Helps to determine developmental stage We should group students for instruction o To meet diverse needs Other assessments o Qualitative spelling checklist-looking at students writings in journals o Emergent class record o Kindergarten spelling inventory Set Goals and Monitor Student Growth Over Time o Use variety of assessments not just one o Spelling inventories Change groups based off of progress

Chapter 3: Organizing for Word Study Once you know developmental stage talked about in chapter 2 you can organize classroom for word study WORD SORTING IS KEY o Can be teacher or student centered o All different kinds based off of needs of children Implementation of word study instruction

o Develop routine o Schedule time for working with teacher o Keep it short, stations, rotations o Independent and partner time o Need word study time Integrating word study into reading writing and language arts curriculum o Word displays o Cover and connect o Relations o Silly sentences 10 principles of word study instruction o Look for what students use but confuse o Step backward is step forward o Use words students can read o Compare do and dont words o Sort by sound and sight o Begin with obvious contrasts o Dont hide exceptions o Avoid rules o Work for automaticity o Return to meaningful texts

Chapter 4: Word Study for Learners in the Emergent Stage Emergent- young people imitate and experiment with the forms and functions of print o Emergent reading-pretend, memory, directionality, concept of word Support with interactive read alouds and shared reading Print referencing/concepts of print o Writing-mock linear o Begins to match sound with letters Literary Diet for Emergent o Oral lang concepts and vocab o Phonological awareness Rhymes, jingles, songs Syllables alliteration o Alphabet knowledge Teaching alphabet o Letter sound Sound picture sorts o Concepts of print

Print referencing o Concepts of word in text COW Tracking with fingers Dictations Rhymes for reading Facilitate many experiences and communication

Chapter 6: Word Study for Transitional Learners Reading within word pattern stage o Most single syllabic accurately and even some 2 and 3 o Full to consolidated alphabet phase in which they begin to recognize patterns and chunks to analyze unfamiliar words Writing within word pattern o Automatically recognize more words o Beginning on journey to fluency o Beginning and end sounds Vocabulary learning o Word sorts o Read alouds o Concept sorts o Word work o Dictionaries o Prefix/suffix Pattern layer- students in this stage explore pattern layer o Isolate phonemes to determine sounds and also choose from variety of patterns with same phoneme English vowels complex o Introduce one at time Just like with emergent, need to assess and monitor o Weekly spelling tests o Unit assessments o Goals

Chapter 7: Word Study for Intermediate Readers/Writers Syllables and affix stage of word knowledge Become confident in reading and writing Compound words Open and closed syllables

Accent and stress Consonants further Just like other stages need to assess and monitor

Chapter 8: Word Study for Advanced Readers and Writers Derivational relations o Spelling/vocab knowledge grow from one single base word or root and a number of related words are derived through addition of prefixes and suffixes Classrooms That Work Chapter 2: Creating Enthusiastic Independent Readers Model, demonstrate, encourage Assess and document students independent reading o Conferences o Formative assessments after finished book o Levels Teacher should read aloud everyday o All types Steal Minutes Book talks to share what reading

Chapter 4: Fostering Fluency Fluency- ability to read most words in context quickly and accurately with appropriate expression Accuracy/speed/prosody Critical to reading comprehension because of attention factor Now fluent is directly related to complexity of text your reading Identify almost all words quickly/accurately/voices rise and fall/ pause at appropriate points

3 Reasons to Struggle 1. Text too difficult 2. Read less 3. Teachers interrupt to make connections and dont develop self monitoring strategies Reading level: determined to be level at which they can read 90-95 percent of the words and can comprehend 75 percent of ideas

Everyone Book: everyone can read and it is easy even for struggling readers. Buddy reading with Kindergarten. Magazines such as zoo books Independent reading is critical. Conference. Model Fluent Reading When Reading Aloud Echo reading: students mock your voice o Plays Choral reading: assign different roles o Poetry

Diebals claim to test fluency but only measure how quickly/accurately the students read Fluency Developing Lesson: teacher chooses passage > read chorally several times > paired/take turns reading > children volunteer to read for class > choose 2/3 words to add to word bank > read passage at home to someone Display high frequency words in visible spot and provide daily practice DO WORD WALLS Add words gradually Practice by chanting/writing Review activities

**REMEMBER: letting children choose what they want to read creates fluency/confidence Chapter 5: Teaching Phonics and Spelling Patterns When children are starting to first read and write their spelling will not be automatic. Teaching them how to read and spell high frequency words and providing a lot of varied practice reading will help the children to develop fluency. Different types of instruction are listed below Strategies o Guess covered word o Recognize that its unfamiliar o Search mental word bank for similar patterns and sounds o Produce pronunciation that matches that of a real word u know o Reread sentence to cross check o Use words you know, to figure out words you dont know o Modeling how to decode big words Beginning the Lesson o Making words o Sorting words in patterns o Transfer

Chapter 6: Building Vocab When you see and hear words your brain makes connections to them Provide as much real experience as possible o Children learn better this way Bring real things into classroom and anchor words that way o Direct memory with word Seize unexpected opportunities to learn new vocab o Could be other subjects Make connections to something relatable to children or what they already know Take advantage of media/tech Simulations Vocabularies can be increased via reading o Teach words for read aloud o Use picture walks o Alert children of words they will meet Teach morphemes, context, dictionary to learn new words o Morph-prefixes, roots, suffixes o Context- what do you know about this looking at sentence o Dictionary- looking up Children can monitor with hands Display words around room

Chapter 7: Developing Thoughtful Comprehenders Comprehension Strategies Calling up and connecting relevant prior knowledge Predicting, questioning, wondering, what will happen next Visualizing/imagining what the experience would be like Asking for help when you cant make sense of reading Determining most important ideas/events and summarizing what you have read Evaluating and making judgments about what you read Think: did you like it? Was it funny? Could it really happen? Question author KWL charts/graphic organizers/story maps Doing a book: readers theater

Literature conversation: asking students questions after reading may provide you with a quick assessment of student understanding Think Aloud

I wonder ifI think I know what is coming next Im going to reread that because it didnt make sense
CTW Chapter 9: Reading/Writing Across Curriculum How many minutes are students actually reading and writing Do your good readers read and write more than struggling o Bc they like it View every subject you teach as opportunity to read and write Use shared reading to teach your students how to read informational text o Read very differently than stores o Must mine the graphics o Maps, diagrams, charts, etc. o Ell get help from visuals o Guide to think about special features o Start by modeling with one piece and let everyone see Help your student transfer the comprehension strategies when reading skills o Use same formats you use in read-KWL, think alouds, webs, timelines o I do, you watch o I do, you help o You do, I watch o You do, I help Spotlight vocabulary in sci/ss/math 3 lessons that build on vocab/promote comprehension o Anticipation guides o Preview-predict-confirm o Ten important words Writing to learn o Connect, imagine, predict, summarize o Engage in part of all content areas o Think writes o 2 min writing o Activate prior knowledge o Prediction think writes o Think writes for summarizing, concluding, evaluating, imagining

Chapter 10: Assessment Assessment is: Not grading Not standardized test scores Collecting/analyzing data

4 Steps of Assessment: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify what you want to assess Collect evidence Analyze evidence Make decision

There are 3 main purposes of reading assessment 1. Determine student reading level 2. Identify good reading/writing behaviors 3. Document student progress Why? Are self selected books too hard or too easy? Need general idea of students reading level so you can choose support level. Many schools and parents expect you to know How? Use of passages (read aloud, errors counted/analyzed, ask student to retell for comprehension) Instructional Level: Highest level of text for which child can pass both word/comprehension criteria (think QRI) Assessing Emergent Literacy Keep checklists Assessing word strategies/comprehension/writing/attitudes Beginning of school Periodically through year and COMPARE Formal observation/analyze student work samples

Chapter 11: Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners The children in your elementary classroom are all individuals and they differ on any dimension that you name. Use a variety of Collaborative Grouping o Partners Talking partners Reading partners Ask questions Say something Echo reading Choral whispering Writing partners Literature Circles help you to differentiate in many ways (reading levels/interests/etc.)

o How literature circles read the books Discussion director Passage master Vocab enricher Connector Illustrator Individual couching groups can help you meet the needs of each child o How to figure out a hard word Put finger on word and say all letters Use the letters and pic clues Look for rhyme you know Keep finger on word and finish sentence; then pretend its covered word You can train someone to gear towards needs of needy child to work one on one Use the latest technology Increase Support of ELLs Running Class Notes

The most important thing= students attitudes/interests towards reading/writing Everything you need to know to teach a child to read. Know how to read Know levels of readers How to assess reading level How to pick appropriate books How to make reading fun Differentiate lessons based on levels Prior knowledge Characteristics of reading/writing Childs interests Variety of engaging learning activities Spelling patterns

WRC- Words Recognized in Context-Running Record You can do running record on any book. Running records are to figure out if youre at right level with them Independent 98% Instructional 95-97% Marginal 90-94% Frustrations < 90%

WRI- Words Recognized in Isolation Flash a quarter of second

FOCUS ON INSTRUCTION NOT ASSESSMENT 4th grade slump- illiteracy: kids stopped reading because they feel they werent successful but they can read Graphemes: in English language are LETTERS Phonemes: sounds the letters make Digraphs= ch, sh Automaticity: getting faster/recognize words faster leads to fluency which leads to comprehension Narrative Vs. Expository because children usually do better with these WWP- Within Word Patter= getting beginning/end/not middle) WORD STUDY=WORD SORTS (even picture sorts in some cases) Daily 5 -Read to self, read to someone, listen to reading, work on writing, word work Caf (Comprehension, accuracy, fluency, expanding vocabulary)