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CHAPTER 1

1. Define research and explain the different between applied and basic research. Answer : business research as an organized,systematic,database,critical,objective,scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it.and the different between applied and basic research is, applied research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specivic problems currently being experience in the organizations,and basic research done chiefly to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organization settings,and seek methods of solving them. 2. Why is it important for managers to know about research ? Answer : the important for managers to know about research because they will become more discriminating when sifting through information in business journals,take calculate risk in the decision making, knowing full well the probabilities attached to the different possible outcomes. 3. Exlain why handling the manager researcher relationship effectively is important . Answer : it is very important because managers should know about research for good decision making. 4. Describe a situation where it would be more beneficial to engage an external research team rather than an internal one ! Answer : if a problems is a complex one, or if there are likely to be vested interest, or if the very existence of the organization is at stake because of one or more serious problems, it would be advisable to engage external researcher despite the increase cost involve. 5. because basic research is not applied immediately to a problem, it is less valuable and Answer : my comment is that some applied research could have a shorter time frame that some basic research. 6. if managers learn how to conduct good research by taking a course such as this book offers , there would be no need to here anyone to solve problems in organizations . What is your response to this statement ? Answer : my response in this statement is yes I agree with this statement because such knowledge sharpens, manager sensitivity to the mw riad variables operating in a situation & reminds of them of the multicausality and multifinality of phenomena, thus avoiding inappropriate, simplis is notions of one variable causing another. 7. Described a situation where research will help you as a manager to make a good decision ? Answer : Xerox is unsular and isnt ready for the increasingly competitive, high-tech world. Xerox Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 1

still relies on old fashioned and slow selling analog copiers for more than half its revenue, and despite its double digit growth in digital products and services, the companys sales rose just a persent. 8. Given the following situation : a. Discuss with reasons , whether it will fall in to the category of applied or basic research , and b. Who will conduct the research a. Applied research b. part of corporate management, corporate finance section Answer : According to this text box is used basic research to know about this problem will conduct the research is manager and external researcher.

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Chapter 2
1. Describe the hallmarks of scientific research. a. Purposivenees b. Rigor c. Testability d. Replicability e. Precision and confidence f. Objectivity g. Generalizalibility h. Parsimony 2. What are the step in hypothetico-deductive research? Explain them, using an example not in the book. a. Observation : first step , in which one senses that certain changes are occurring, or that samo new behavios, attitudes, and feelings are sufacing in ones environment. b. Preliminary information gathering : this could bo done by talking informally to several people in the work setting or to clients, or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is happening and why. c. Theory formulation : the next step, is an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manner, so that the reason for the problem can be conceptualized and teted. d. Hypothesizing : at this point, one might hypothesize that if a sufficient number of items are stocked on solves, customer dissatisfaction will be considerably reduced. e. Further scientific data collection : in onther words, further scientific data collection is needed to test the hypotheses that are generated in the study. f. Data analysis : tha data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported. g. Deducation : if it was found from the data analysis that increasing the stocks was positively correlated to customer satisfacation then one can deduce that if customer satisfaction is to be increasd, the shelves have to be better stocked.

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Example : Abstract: This article offers a pedagogical sequence for teaching the development of a thesis for the research report. The unit presented introduces students to a heuristic of research and shows students how to apply research techniques. The sequence elucidates the steps and loops through which a researcher passes in moving from initial topic to completed thesis. The article argues that neither research nor written report can work without a (hypo)thesis. Arguing against the currently taught inductionist models of research, it adopts Karl Popper's model of research by conjecture and refutation. The process of conjecture and refutation is just as valid for librarybased research as it is for original scientific research. The pedagogical sequence, then, shows students how to develop conjectures and how to use literature to refute or modify them in the development of a final thesis for the research report. 3. because research is very useful for every organization. 4. Hypothesis testing is called deduction research. Sometimes, hypotheses that were not originally do get generated thourgh the process. 5. because it would interfere in the management process 6. not in accordance with the existing order.

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Chapter 3
1. As manager, what kinds of information do you think you will be exploring through the Internet for research ? Answer : The information from the internet is electronic mail ( e mail ), conduct research, look at and obtain data and text information, graphics, sound and video and also promote and sell the products on the internet. 2. In what ways are personal computers useful to the organization ? Answer: In addition , the PC can be used for data collection and analysis for making business decisions or developing strategies on a daily basis . For example , for forecasting production needs , performing credit analysis , financial analysis and such . 3. How do you think you will aply the concepts of data warehousing and data mining in a company doing retail Business ? Answer : It is easy to helps research to see how the information technology function through data warehousing and data mining. 4. How does the PC help in information gathering and information dissemination ? Answer : A file server a CPU that provides PC connected to it with the hardware and software resources needed to process data effectively. 5. How can the PC technology be missued ? give some hypothetical instances where this could accur

PC will increasingly included even more sophisticated configurations of voice , data and video technologies . PC can handle enormous amounts of data quickly and can be operated by individuals with minimal training. They have created a revolution in the production , processing and transformation of information ( stern and stern , 1996 )

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Chapter 4
1. How would you like describe the Research Process? Answer : Identification of the broad problem area to be researched, preliminary data gathering trough interviews and literature survey, and problem definition. 2. Explain the preliminary data collection Method Answer : Unstructured interviews, structured interviews, and library research would help the researcher to define the problem more specifically and envolve atheory, delineating possible variable the problem. 3. Why is it important to gather information on the background of the organization? Answer : It is important for the researcher or the research team especially if on outside sgency conducts the research to be well acquainted with the background of the company or organization studied. 4. Should a researcher always obtain information on the structural aspects and job characteristic from those interviewed? Give reasons for your answer with examples? Answer : So that a researcher can easily obtain accurate data and reliable then those of the interviews. 5. How would you go about doing literature survey in the area of bisiness ethics? Answer : Awarenesess of information sources and ability to acces the requisite information at will, through the internet, are great assets to the manager. 6. What is the purpose of literature survey? Answer : to find out the various problems that occur in an organization and provide an assessment of the organization and provide good advice. 7. Why is appropriate chation important? What are the consequences of not giving credit to the source from which material are extracted? Answer : consequences is we can in demand by local authorities or persons having such information 8. The problem definition stage is perhaps more critical in the research process than the problem solution stage. Discuss this statement!

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Answer : Because the problem definition stage is oritied that the focus for further research, or, in other word, the problem, be unambiguously identified and defined. 9. Why should one get hung up on the problem definition if one already knows the broad problem are to be studied ? Answer : Because a problem could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding the right answers might help to improve an existing situation. In either case, ne should know what exactly the issue is for whish one seeks answers. 10. Acces the one line system in your library and (a) generate a list of the references that relate to the performance of general motors, and (b) obtain the abstracts of these studies? Answer : a. accessing data in the library are very important, because we can get a reference from the book according to what we are going thorough. b. otherwise we will have the insight and vast knowledge when we will make a research abstract. 11. Access the on line system and obtain a list of references that deal with product image? Answer : With the access on line, we become easy in finding a variety of reference sources list that will support our research. and also we can get various types of image products from the company. 12. Offer a cleary focused problem statement in the broad area of corporate culture? Anwer : every company must certainly have many problems, but with the research that there is a problem in the company can overcome and be given a proper solution 13. After studying and extracting information from all the relevant work done previously, how does the researcher know which particular references, articles, and information should be given promirence in the literature survey? Answer : after successfully doing research, it must be submitted with the correct data, but it must be clear information, from which the reference and the data obtained.

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Chapter 5
1. Because literature survey is a time consuming exercise, a good ai depth interview should suffice to develop a theoretical framework. Discuss this statement Answer : The purpose of the literature survey is to ensure that ni important variable is ignored that has in the past been found to have had an impact on the problem.Interview and literature survey are included in the preliminary Dta Gathering. 2. These is an adventages in stating the hypothesis botch in the null and in the alternate, it adds clarity to our thinking about what we are testing, explain Answer : The alternate hypothesis, which is the opposite of the null, is a statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indiciting differences between groups to explain in future, in setting up the null hypothesis, we are stating that there is no difference between what we might find in the population characteristics and the sample we are studying 3. It is advantageous to develop a directional hypothesis whenevwr we are sure of the predicted direction. How will you justify this statement ? Answer : Whenever direction of the relationship is know,it is better to develop directional for reasons that will become clear in our distinction. 4. For the following case problems at roadway Hospitality Answer : a. Identifity the main problem Keen on developing a viable strategy to eliminate the brand confusion and make clear the distinction. b. Develop a Theoretical Framework - Differentiate among the different types of facilities offered - Keen on developing a viable strategy to eliminate the brand confusion and make clear the distinction

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- Many complained about how old the buildings were and how poorly the facilities were maintained - Different classification would be important c. Develop at teast four hypotheses - The roadway deluxe was meant for business travels, the roadway express was meant for looking for the least accommodation, and the roadway royal - Many complained about how old the buildings were and how poorly the facilities were maintened - The quality of services was also rated poor - Thought that he fisrt needed to understand how the different classifications would be important to the several classes and then he could develop a marketing strategy

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Chapter 6
Discussion questions and points to ponder : 1. What are the basic research design issues ? describe them in some detail 2. Why are the basic design issues important to consider before conducting the study and even early as at the time of formulating the research question ? 3. Is a field study totally out of the question if one is trying to establish cause and effect relationship ? 4. An exploratory study is just as useful as a predictive study . Discussion this statement. 5. Why is the unit of analysis an integral part of the research design ? 6. Discussion the interrelationships among noncontrived setting . the purpose of the study type of investigation , research interference and time horizon of study 7. Below are now scenarios . indicate how researcher should proceed in each case that is , determine the following , giving reasons : a. The purpose of the study b. The type of investigation c. The exterm of researcher interference d. The study setting e. The time horizon for the study f. The unit of analysis Answer 1. Basic research designs can be seen from the issues associated with the decision about the purpose of the study (exploratory, descriptive, hypothesis testing), where the research will conducted (i. e, study setting), the type of research that should be (kind of investigation), the extent to which researchers manipulated and control research (researcher interference level), the temporal aspects research (time horizon), and the rate at which data will be analyzed (if the unit of analysis), is an integral part of the research design. 2. Because it is important to note that the more sophisticated and rigorous the research design, the greater the time, cost and other resources expended on the study.

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3. Yes, because relational studies conducted in the organization and called a field study. field studies conducted to establish cause and effect relationships associated with the natural environment and with our immediate field of study will be able to make the question of cause and effect because we know directly from an incident or problem that occurred in the field 4. An exploratory study is undertaken when not much is know about the situation at hand , or when no information is available on how similar problems or research issue have been solved in the past . In such cases , extensive preliminary work needs to be done to gain familiarity with the phenomena in the situation and understand what is occurring , before we develop a model and set up a rigorous design for comprehensive investigation. 5. Because , the unit of analysis is the part that must exist in designing the research because we formulate research questions in the form of data collection, sample size, and even the variables included in the research framework. 6. The relationship between the background of thought, learning objectives, type of investigation, researchers intervened, and the learning time is if we already know the background of thinking, then we can determine the purpose of research that we lakukan.Setelah issues above will be formulated so we can act appropriately in the research process and be able to use the time needed for this research. 7. Among the two scenarios. Indicate how the researcher should begin in each case, determine the matter - the following and give reasons. Scenario A a) Learning Objectives : description b) Type of investigation : correlation c) The interference of the researcher : the maximum d) Background study : lab experiments e) Time of study : Longitudinal f) Unit of analysis : group Scenario B a) Learning Objective : Test the hypothesis b) Type of investigation : correlation c) The interference of the researcher : approaching maximum d) The Background of learning : a field study e) Time of study : cross sectional f) Unit of analysis : industry

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Chapter 7
1. what are the differences between causal and co relational studies? the differences between causal and co relational studies is relationships between two variables in an organizational setting, several variables that might co vary with the dependent variable have to be controlled. And correlational. 2. in what ways do lab experiments differ from field experiments? The controls and manipulations are best done in an artificial setting-the laboratory-where the causal effect can be tested. When controls and manipulation are introduced to establish cause and effect relationships in an artificial setting. We have laboratory experimental designs also known as lab experiments. The experimental and control groups in the field experiment could be made up of the people working at several plants within in certain radius, or from the different shift in a production plant. For instance and the effects of the piece-rate system are to be studied. 3. Define the terms control and manipulation. Describe a possible lab experiment where you would need to control a variable. Further, include a possible variable over which you would have no control buy which could affect you experiment. variable control is affecting the independent variable, manipulation s means that we created different levels of the dependent variable to asses the impact on the dependent variable. 4. Explain the possible ways in which you can control nuisance variables. One way of controlling the contaminating or nuisance variables is to match the various groups by taking the confounding characteristics and deliberately spreading them across groups. 5. What is internal validity and what are the threats to internal validity? Even the best designed lab studies could be influenced by factors that might affect the internal validity of the lab experiment. That is some confounding factors might still be present that could offer rival explanations to what is causing the dependent variable. These possible confounding factors pose a threat to internal validity. The seven major threats to internal validity are the effects of history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, selection, statistical, regression, and mortality.

6. explain the concept of trade off between internal validity and external validity If we want high internal validity, we should be willing to settle for lower external validity and vice versa. To ensure both types of validity, researches usually try first to test the causal relationships in a tightly controlled artificial or lab setting, and once the relationship has been Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 12

established, they try to test the causal relationship in filed experiment. 7. Explain full how you would demonstrate to machine operators and convince them that through knowledge of the operating policies and procedures reading the manual) will eliminate almost all on-the-job accidents. Show machine operators and assured them that knowledge through operational policies and procedures, read the manual) will eliminate almost all accidents on-the-job. tell or remind the machine operators to read instruction , instructions, and also follow the existing procedures. worked well so that accidents can be reduced in the works

8. it a control group is a part of an experimental design, one need not worry about controlling other exogenous variables. Discus this statement. some experimental design are set up with an experimental and a control group the former alone being exposed to a treatment and not the latter. the effects of the treatment are studied by assessing the deference in the out comes-that is the posttest scores of the experimental and control groups.

9. a research wants to set up a lab experiment to test the effects of deferent kinds of leadership styles on followers attitudes. The three particular kinds of leadership styles she is interested in testing are autocratic, democratic, and participative. You are asked to enlist some students to play the part of followers. What cover story would you give the participants? Autocracy is a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. in this government the government in full control, society must join the government says should not be against. Democracy is a political government carried out either directly by the people (direct democracy) or by means of elected representatives of the people (Representative democracy). Participation the process of involving young people in projects, policy reviews or ideas to encourage decision-making and empowerment, ownership of opinion and influence in youth services and issues that affect them and promote inclusion (particularly used amongst marginalized groups in the government. 10. because the external validity of lab experiments is not usual high, they are useless for investigation cause and effect relationships in organization. Comment on this statement. External validity of lab experiments is not usual high, they are useless for investigation cause and effect relationships in organization if we do find a cause and effect relationship after conducting a lab experiment, can we then say with confidence that the same cause and effect relationship will also hold true in the organizational setting. 11. covariance (i.e. , two variable varying together either positively or negatively) and control are integral aspects of experimental design. Discuss. Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 13

because with positively and negatively we can try experimental design.

12. the Solomon four-group design is the answer to all our research questions pertaining to cause and effect relations because it guards against all the threats to internal validity. Comment on this statement. the Solomon four-group design is the answer to all our research questions pertaining to cause and effect relations because it guards against all the threats to internal validity. yes, i am agree. because of the number of subjects that need to be recruited, the care with which the study to be designed the time that needs to be devoted to the experiment, and other reasons the cost the conducting such as experiment is high. 13. bellow is a note on self-esteem. After reading it, apply what you have learned in this chapter and design a study after sketching the theoretical framework. The role of self-Esteem in efficacy One often wonders why some people earn more than others. Economists focused on the importance of education. Basic skills, and work experience what they power. Researches also found that self-esteem was instrumental in acquiring human capital. we can use causal and cor relational method. firstly, we specify the function such as function X1 as education and function X2 as Basic skills, and work experience. from that we can search connection and impact from this problem.

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Chapter 8
1. What is meant by operational definition and way is it necessary ? Answer : Operationalizing, or operationally defining a concept, to render it measurable, is done by looking at the behavioral demensions, facets or properties denoted by the concept,Because will help to illustrate how this is done. 2. Operationally define the following : Answer : a. Sexual harassment is both simple and complex, it is simple because it is defined as unwelcome sexual behavior by one person against another person againt another person. It is complex because it can involve behaviors that in other contexts are considered positive and reaffirming b. Diversity-positive environment is about a achievement motivation likely,driven by work,unable to relax, impatience with inerfectiveness,seeks moderate challenge,seeks feed back c. Career Success means different things to different people. For some, monetary reward is a measure of success. Yet others have multiple definition of success. 3. Describe the four types of scales. Answer : a. Nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign subjects to certain categories or groups b. Ordinal scale not only categorizes the variables in such a way as to denote differences among the various categories, it also rank-orders the categories in some meaningful way. c. Interval scale an inverval scale allows us to perform certain arithmentical operations on the data collected from the respondent d. Rasio scale overcomes the deficiency of the arbitrary orgin point of the intercal scale, in that it has an absolute (in contrast to an arbitrary) zero point which is a meaningful meansurement point. 4. How is the interval scale more soplisticated than the nominal and ordinal scales ? Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 15

Answer : An inverval scale allows us to perform certain arithmentical operations on the data collected from the respondent. Whereas the nominal scale allows us only to qualitatively distinguish groups by categorizing them into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive sets, and the ordinal scale to rank-order the preferences the scale 5. Why is the ratio scale considered to be the most powerful of the four scales ? Answer : Because it has a unique zero origin (not an arbitrary origin) and subsumes all the properties of the other three scales.

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Chapter 9
1. The following rating scale are often use in organizational research : - Dichotomous scale - Category scale - Likert scale - Numerical scales - Semantic differential scale - Itemized rating scale - Fixed or constant sum rating scale - Staple scale - Graphic rating scale - Consensus scale We will briefly describle each of the preceding attitudinal scale. Rangking scale are used to tap preferences between two or more objects or item (ordinal in nature). However, such ranking may not give devinitive clues to some of the answers ought. 2. Because we need to be reasonably sure that the instruments we use in our research do indeed measure the variables they are supposed to, and that they measeure them accurately. First an item analysis of the responses to the questions tapping the variable is done and then the reliability and validity of the measures are established as described below. 3. Cheap - - - - - - - - - expensive Strategic- - - - - - - unstrategic Confortable - - - - -unconfortable 4. according to our group agreed because the instrument has been developed recurrent already known and will produce a good answer. 5. as a valid instrument can be proved compared with a reliable instrument that has not been valid,

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Chapter 10
1. As a manager you have been invited to come learn the research team and frequent advice on how to improve the performance of your staff. What steps would you take to assuage their concerns even before the team sets foot in your department? Answer : How to improve a performance at the staff / employees is by means of holding a program such as: a. Improving Performance Performance is the desired outcome of behavior. Individual performance is the basis of organizational performance. Perananpenting in performance appraisal has increased workplace motivation. This performance appraisal (performance appraisal) is basically a key factor in order to develop an effective and efficient organization. Employees want and need feedback regarding their performance and assessment provides the opportunity to provide feedback to them if performance is not in accordance with the standards, the assessment provides an opportunity to review the progress of employees and to develop performance improvement plans. there are 5 (five) factors in performance assessment, namely: a. Quality of work include: acquisition, accuracy, performance and acceptance of output b. Quantity of Work include: Volume of output and contribution c. Supervision required, include: need advice, direction or repairs d. Attendance include: regularity, dapatdipercaya / reliable and timely b. Provide motivation Motivation is a state in the person that drives a desire individumelakukankegiatan-specific activities to achieve Motivation goal basically is the process that determines how much effort will be devoted to carrying out the work. Motivation or incentive to work is crucial to the achievement of something objective, then the man must be able to grow as high work motivation for employees within the company c. Improve discipline Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 18

Discipline itself interpreted as a willingness to someone that may arise with their own consciousness to follow the rules and regulations prevailing in the organization. 2. What is bias, and how can be reduced during interview ? Answer : Irregularities in the interview usually refers to a mistake or inaccuracy of the data collected. Deviations can be reduced during the interview by repeating and clarifying questions we ask so that they understand the questions that we provide, and cites some of the answers to ensure a deep understanding of the response person being interviewed so that we do not deviate from the answers they give. 3. Explain the principles of wording, stating how these are important in questionnaire design, siting examples not in the book. Answer : Principle of the words usually refer to factors such as conformance content questions, how questions and level of language used, the type and form of questions asked, order of questions, personal data sought from respondents. Content and purpose Questions Variable facts will determine the types of questions will be asked. If these variables are subjective variables such as satisfaction, and engagement in which the respondents believe measuring perceptions and attitudes of the dimensions and the elements. The purpose of each question should be carefully considered so that the variable is in the measure. Language and Words on Questionnaire Language questionnaire to be seen from the respondents level of understanding. The choice of words will depend on the level of education, the use of terms and idioms in the culture and framework of the respondents. For example, when English is the official language spoken by the two cultures, particular words may be foreign to a culture. 4. What are projective techniques and how can they be profitably used ? Answer : This technique is useful in providing an opportunity to express their attitudes of respondents without a personal embarrassment. These techniques help the respondent to project their own attitudes and feelings on the subject aware of being studied. So projective technique plays an important role in motivation research or attitude surveys. 5. Describe the different data sources, explaining and from multiple sources related to the reliability and validity of the measures ? Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 19

Answer : Direct Interview Advantages: the interview used to obtain data directly from the company. which is a communication from one worker to obtain information in accordance with the desired and by conducting interviews obtained more complete data. Disadvantage: time consuming interview techniques and a very large cost for the sample is big enough and spread. Interviewing means of communication between the interviewer and the interviewee, this tends to generate a difference in interpretation between the two. Questionnaires Advantages: the questionnaire is a research method that must be answered respondents to express his views on an issue. The use of questionnaires as data collection methods have several advantages, among them are questions that will be presented to respondents can be standardized, the respondent can answer a questionnaire on their leisure time, the question can be thought of in advance so that answers can be trusted compared with a verbal answer, and questions raised would be more accurate and uniform. Disadvantage: the respondent can not give more details because the answer is limited to matters in question. Observation Advantages: With the observation that many symptoms can be investigated, the results are more accurate and difficult to argue with. Many objects are only willing to taken only with the observation data, such as too busy and less time to be interviewed or to complete a questionnaire. Losses: Observations depends on observation and memory skills. Many events and circumstances that are difficult objects observed, especially concerning the life of a highly confidential approach for cloning. 6. How are multiple methods of data collection and from mulyiple sources related to thereliability and validity of the measures ? Answer : For example, if the responses were collected through questionnaires. Before the instrument, or measuring devices used to collect research data, it is necessary to test the questionnaire for validity and reliability of measurement validity tersebut.Uji useful to know whether the measure is valid, the valid means of measuring the accuracy of measuring or the proper tools to measure a variable to be measured. Validity and reliability tests used to examine Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 20

the data derived from a list of questions or questionnaire respondents, the validity and reliability can be proved that the list of questions in the questionnaire filled out by the respondents are representative of the population or not. There are two important conditions which apply to a questionnaire that is necessary for a valid and reliable questionnaire. A questionnaire is said to be valid if the question on a questionnaire able to express something that will be measured by the questionnaire. While a questionnaire said reliable (reliably) if a person answers to the questions are consistent or stable over time. 7. Every data collection method has its own built-in biases. Therefore, resorting to multimethods of data collection is only going to compound the biases. How would you critique this statement? Answer : I think that good research requires data from multiple source data collection method. In a study of accounting rriset basically can be done through several methodologies, through a quantitative methodology, qualitative, or triangulation. To avoid confusion between the research methodology with the research methods necessary to distinguish prior understanding between the two. The research methodology is part of science that studies how the procedures for seeking truth. 8. One way to deal with discrepancies found in the data obtained from multiple sources is to average the figures and take the mean as the value of the variable. What is your reaction to this ? Answer : In the data collection is sometimes we find a mismatch. Therefore we must look carefully and closely to the data, so we know whether the data is feasible or not to be used as data in a study. 9. How has the advancement in technology helped data gathering ? Answer : Advances in technology can help us to collect data by providing easy to collect the data we need in the research, such as collecting detailed data products have been sold through the tracking of optical scanners and bar code, data searches on the Internet that provide convenience, data recording using tools such as video camera recorders and others. In some processing using electronic data processing which also provides error-free. 10. How will you use the data from observational study to reach scientific conclusions ? Answer : Data from the information we were with a variety of processing tools such as statistical analysis with SPSS and other analysis tools for testing and our test results we will use it to take a scientific conclusion. 11. The fewer the biases in measurement and in the data collection procedures, the more Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 21

scientific the research. Comment on this statement. Answer : We agree with that view because if the smaller size of the bias in our research, it means that our research will be increasingly closer to the truth and the more scientific and we can use as a reference for similar examination or subsequent research.

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Chapter 11
Discussion question and points to ponder Identify the relevant population for the following research foci and ruggest the appropriate sampling design to investigate the issues, explaining why the are appropriate. Wherever necessary, identify the population frame as well. A gun manufacturing firm would like to know the types of guns possessed by various age groups in Washington, D.C. A hospital administrator wants to find out if the single parents working in the hospital have a higher rate of abseneism than parents who are not single. A researcher would like to assess the extent of pilferage in the materials storage warehouses of manufacturing firms in the east coast. The director of human resources wants to investigate the relationship between drug abuse and dysfunctional behavior of blue coliar workers in a particular plant. a. explain why cluster sampling is a probability sampling design. b. what are the advantages and disadvantages of cluster sampling. c. describe a situation where you would consider the use of cluster sampling. a. explain what precision and confidence are and how they influence sample size. b. discuss what is meant by the statement there is a trade of between precision and confidence under certain condition. The use of a convenience sample in organizational research is correct because all members share the same organizational stimuli and go through almost the same kinds of experiences in their organizational lives. Comment. Use of a sample of 5.000 is not necessarily better than using one of 500. How would you react to this statement. Nonprobability sampling design ought to be preferred to probability sampling designs in some cases. Explain with examples. Because there seems to be trade of between accuracy and confidence for any given sample size, accuracy should be always considered more important than precision. Explain with reasons why you would or would not agree.

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Overgeneralizations give rise to much confusion and other problems for researchers who try to replicate the findings. Explain what is meant by this. Double sampling is probably the least used of all sampling designs in organizational research. Do you agree? Provide reasons for your answer. Answer 1. a. toy gun was possessed by most children under 10 years in washington DC, while the 1 0 years old most children have the kind of long-barreled weapons. b. yes, a single parent who works at the hospital have a higher level, probably because she lived alone. C. the results showed that the level of theft in the company's warehouse storage facilities, material is very high. this is possible because the place is less strict vigil. and may also exist in the party who did this. D. results of investigations of the human resources director indicated that the relationship between drug users with the blue-collar workers is very tight. it can known from direct interviews to the workers. 2. a. cluster sampling lends it self to greater biases and is the least generalizable of all the probability sampling designs because most naturally occurring cluster in the organizational contex do not contain heterogeneous elements. b. advantages cluster sampling is have intergroup heterogeneity and intergroup homogeneity are found. And disadvantages cluster sampling, the units costs of cluster sampling are much lower compared to the other probability sampling. c. I will use cluster sampling when I've worked in companies that have products that were homogeneous and heterogeneous. 3. a. precision and confidence are important issues in sampling because when we use sample data to draw inference about the population. b. in essence, confidence reflects the level of certainty with which we can state that our estimates of the population parameters. 4. yes probably almost all members of the organization has many similarities in past life experiences, so that all use of convenience samples in research organizations. 5. there is a point, because for what use the sample or samples when the truth is not much better than the sample lebiah little. better use of samples provided that some truth can be guaranteed.

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6. in nonprobability sampling designs, the elements in the population have no probabilities attached to their being chosen as sample subjects. 7. strongly agree that the accuracy and reliability are more important than precision. because if the samples were unreliable and inaccurate, then the study could not be accounted for properly. 8. yes maybe the new researchers who want to replicate the findings should be more wisely in copying them, do not claim to have problems due to imitate the findings of other researchers who have first found it. 9. probably due to double sampling easier and more convenient to use in research. This design provides added information at minimal additional expenditure.

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Chapter 12
1. What kinds of biases do you think could be minimized or avoided during the data analysis stage of research ? Answer : Out range / missing / responses Missing data / blank Inconsistency Precision and accuracy, data / answers 2. When we collected wonders if he should of treatment in experimental designs which statistical test would be most appropriate to test the treatment effects? Answer : The most appropriate statistical test to examine the effects of treatment, that is paired t-test test. 3. A tax consultant wonders if he should be more selective about the class of clients he was serves, so as to maximize his income. He usually deals with four categories clients, the very rich, rich, upper middle class and middle class. He has record of each client and each client served, the tax paid by them and how much he has charged them. Since many factors in respect to the clients (number of dependents, business deductibles, etc.) irrespective of the category they belong to, he would like an appropriate analysis to be done to see among the four categories of clientele he should choose to be served in the future. What kind of analysis should be done the preceding cas and why ? Answer : Namely multiple linear regression analysis, because we analyze the variation of the various factors which vary widely. With multiple linear regression test and look at the coefficient table 4 we can see among the most influential variables on corporate income by looking at the largest beta value. The largest beta value is the most important and influential on corporate earnings, so should the tax consultant must choose the variable with the largest beta. 4. Below are tables 12A to 12D, summarize the results of data analyses of research conducted in a sales organization that operets 50 different cities of country, with a total sales force of about 500. the number of sales sample for the study was 150: Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 26

You are to : 1. Interpret much of the information contained in each table as detailed as possible. 2. Can summarize the results for the CEO of the company. 3. Make recommendations based on the results of your interpretation. Answer : 1. a. From table 12A can result in that: Sales have averaged 75.1 with a standard deviation of 8.6, minimum 45.2 and maximum sales sales amounted to 97.3 There are many sellers sebesr average standard deviation of 25 with 6, a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 50 Population had an average of 5.1 with a standard deviation of 0.8, minimum 2.78 and maximum of 7.12 Campaigns have an average of 10.3 with a standard deviation of 5.2, a minimum of 6.1 and a maximum of 15.7 b. From table 12B: states that there is a relationship between the variables concerned. Correlation coefficient with the seller's sales amounted to 0.76 means that closeness is strong correlation The population correlation coefficient with sales of 0.62 means that closeness is strong correlation Correlation coefficient with a sales revenue of 0.56 means keeretan is strong correlation Advertising with a correlation coefficient of 0.68 means the closeness of the sales are strong correlation With a total population correlation coefficient of 0.06 means that the seller is weak closeness correlation Correlation coefficient with the number of ads of 0.16 means that the seller is weak closeness correlation Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 27

Correlation coefficient of income with a population of 0.11 means the closeness of the coefficient of weak An ad with a population correlation coefficient of 0.36 means the closeness of the coefficient of weak Correlation coefficient with the advertising revenue of 0.23 means the closeness of the correlation is weak. c. Table 12C So from the ANOVA table F value of 3.6 & significant F of 0.01. so can we conclude that there was no significant difference between the variance variabel2 who are. d. 12D table On the table there are 0.6594, who showed the correlation relationship of the 4 independent variables on the dependent variable (sales) & hubunganny is strong unidirectional nature. Valueme-adjusted coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) of 0.35225 means that 35.225% of sales variable is explained by the independent variable number of sellers, population, income & advertising. 64.775 and the rest is explained by other variables. Standard errors indicate possible errors that may occur if we see dikolom data, we will see that beta is the largest advertising amounted to 0.47 with a significant level of 0.00001 who showed that advertising is the most significant variable affecting. 2. From the table it was concluded that of the variables that most influence the advertising compared with the number of sellers, population, and income, because advertising has the largest beta value. 3. The recommendation that our group is the company must give more attention to advertising by increasing advertising, that could increase sales and corporate earnings.

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Chapter 13
1. Because a copy of the letter of authorizationfrom the spomsor of the study, approving the investigation and detailing its scope, will be attached at the beginning of the report. 2. The exwcutive summary is a brief account of the research study that provides an overview, and highlights the following important information related to the study : the problem statement, the sampling design, the data collection methods used, results of data analysis, the findings, and the recommandations, with suggestions for their implementation. 3. The similarities and the difference of basic and applied research reports is an axecutive summary in the case of applied original research and a synopsis in the case of basic research. 4. The written report and its purpose,The written report and its audience. 5. Necessary to specify the limitations of the study in the research report is very important because make use for the results of data analysis and the written report. 6. Speaking audibly, clearly, and without distracting mannerisms.

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Chapter 14
1. Briefly describe a situation where , give the result of a hypothesis testing study , the manager has to extensively apply experience and common sense in making the final decision. Answer : Manager wrestly with a multitode of problems big and small in their every day work life. The differences between a succesfull and not so successful organization lies in the quality of decisions mode by the managers in the system to sum up, research is scientific path that leads the managers to decision making and experience and common sesnse are the beacons that guide managers to solve problems sensibly. 2. Which involves a more difficult decision-making situation for a manager-applying the results of qualitative study or a hypothesis testing study?why? Answer : A qualitative studies, because there is always an undecer mined element of risk that manager takes in making the proposed changes. 3. Describe and depict through a diagram the cycle of the research process , from the time when the area in investigated for the first time , to finding definitive answer to the problems encountered in that area . Answer : - Observation - Preparation of data collection - Definition problems - Theoretical Framework - Hypothesis Development - Design Scientific research - Data collection, analysis, and intrepertasi - Deduction - Making Presentations Writing Decision Report Report Collected by :: Osama A.Shawky 30